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We Will Learn Many New Terms in this Session

• Bow, stern, port, starboard, aft, fore


• Mast, boom, main, jib, centerboard, rudder, tiller
• Tack*, head, clew
• Luff*, leech, foot
• Halyard, sheet
• Upwind, downwind, reaching
• Tacking*

*Many sailing terms have multiple meanings. In this session, we learn two
meanings for the term tack, and two meanings for the term luff
5
A Boat Has Four Sides and Two Relative Directions
Bow

Fore

Port Starboard
(Top View)
Port and starboard denote
the sides of the boat withthe
bow forward. If looking at a
boat coming towards you,
Aft the side that appears on
your right is the other boat's
port side.

Stern 6
The Capri 14.2 You’ll Be Sailing Has Two Sails, Mast,
Boom, Centerboard, Rudder and Tiller

Mast
(vertical spar)

We dont have Jib sails on


Main our boats but it is a good
thing to know about as we
may get some in the future.
Boom Likewise goes for
(horizontal spar) centerboards.
Jib

Tiller

Rudder

Centerboard
7
Aft Fore
Sails Have Three Edges and Three Corners
Head

Leech Luff

The same goes for a main


Jib* sail

*Similarly for the main sail

Clew
Foot
Tack
8
Aft Fore
Halyards are Lines that Raise and Lower Sails,
Sheets are Lines that Trim Sails In and Out
Halyard Head
(attaches to top of mast)

Leech Luff
We just have a single main
"sheet" (rope) on the main
sail, used for pulling the
Port and Starboard Sheets Jib* sail in (tightening up) or
(controlled by crew) letting it out (easing the
sheet). We for
*Similarly do the
have a sail
main
halyard for the main sail.
Clew
Foot
Tack
9
Aft Fore
The Skipper Sits Aft, Crew Sits Fore, and Both Sit
Opposite the Boom and Face Forward
Bow We want to sit as far to the stern as
possible as this raises the bow up
and prevents diving down and
Fore into/through the waves as much.

With 1 or 2 sailors- sit as pictured.


with 3 or 4 sailors- place 2 on the side
facing the sail and the 1 or 2 others on
the opposite side to balance out the
weight.

Wind
Crew

Skipper
Aft

Stern 10
The Skipper Steers With the Tiller and Trims the Main
Sheet, Crew Trims the Jib Sheet and Watches for Traffic
Bow

Fore
Jib Sheet

Main Sheet
Wind

Aft

Tiller
If you push the tiller one direction, the On our boats, the tiller controls both
boat will turn the opposite. Therefore, Stern 11
rudders (the blades that go into the
if you want to turn to the left (or to water and steer the boat)
port), you will pull the tiller towards
yourself.
There are Many Cues for the Direction and
Strength of the Wind
Trees

Flags
Ripples
and Birds
Wind
dark Sails
patches

UCLA

C
MA
Traditionally, the wind in Dominica comes out of the North, or from the right when facing
12 a split
the water at Coconuts. However, it is very shifty and can change back and forth at
second and you must be ready for these rapid wind direction changes.
We Can’t Sail Closer Than About 45° to the
Wind
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

13
We Will Learn To Sail Upwind, Sail a Reach, and Sail
Downwind*
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone wind
Up

*We Will Avoid Reach


ing
Sailing Directly
Downwind Until
Later in the Course

Do
wn
14
wi
nd
We Use Sheets to Trim the Sails All the Way In When
Sailing Upwind
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone wind
Up

Remember- Sheet is
the sailing term for
the rope that controls We Pull the
the sail's movement Sheets Tight to
towards and away the Trim the Sails In
midline of the boat.

15
We Use Sheets to Ease the Sails Mid-Way Out When
Reaching
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

We Ease the
Sheets to Let the
Sails Mid-way
Reach
Out ing

16
We Use Sheets to Ease the Sails All the Way Out When We
Sail Downwind
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

We Ease the
Sheets to Let the
Sails All the Way
Out

Do

17
wn
wi
nd
We Don’t Have Brakes So We Use Safety Position to Stop
the Boat
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone wind
Up

Safety Position Turning directly


Step 1: Point into the wind will
also stop the
Upwind sailboat, but this is
prefered.
Step 2: Luff
(Ease) the Sails

18
When Rigging We Will Use a Cleat Hitch to
Secure Halyards After Raising the Sails

A general term This is a cleat


for a rope on a
boat is a "line".
(it becomes a
sheet when
controling a
sail, and a
halyard when it
is used to raise
a sail)

1. Wrap the rope around the cleat one time.


2. Make an 8 over the cleet
3. Right before finishing the 8, twist the rope under itself so the
the underside of the rope will line up in the same direction as the
previously made 8, place over the clear and pull tight. It is seen 20
that the 2 lines line up as in the 4th picture and go under a single
line that holds them down together. wrap up the extra line (rope)
and tuck it away neatly.
We Will Use a Figure 8 as a Stopper Knot to
Prevent Jib Sheets from Running Free
We also tie the end of the main sheet like this

21
We Will Change Direction By Tacking
Wind

4 Skipper: straightens tiller,


Tacking is also called trims main sheet
"coming about", and Power
denotes turning when
Crew: trims port jib sheet Channel
you turn by moving the
front of the boat (bow) 3 Skipper: eases main, moves
through the wind to starboard side as sails luff,
direction and finish the changes hands for sheet and
manouver on the other tiller
side.
Other commands often Crew: releases starboard jib
used are: sheet as jib luffs, moves to
1. Skipper: "Prepare to starboard side
come about". allowing
the crew to get in 2 Skipper: “Helms
alee,” pushes tiller Power
position.
2. Then the skipper away, boat turns Channel
asks "Ready to come towards wind
about?"
3. The crew then 1 Skipper: “Ready
responds: "ready". about?”
4. The Skipper then Crew: “Ready” 26
calls "coming about"
and pushes the tiller as
in the example.
We Will Sail A Figure-8 Course To Practice Tacking

Wind

27
Avoid Collisions By Remembering “Tiller
Towards Trouble”
Wind

Boat A avoids collision by


pushing tiller towards
kayak and tacking away

Remember push/pull the tiller


direction opposite to the way you
want to get. This will become
second nature to you in time.

28
When Docking, Point Directly At Dock, Ease Sails All
The Way Out When a Few Boat Lengths Away

Wind

We dont have a dock as of now,


but the beach is to be seen as a
dock, and a similar manouver
performed. remember the
direction of the wind in relation to
how you will turn the boat against UCLA

the land.
C
MA

29
Push Tiller To Turn Towards Wind When ! Boat
Length From Dock

Wind

UCLA

C
MA

30
Let The Boat Glide To A Halt Along Side The Dock*

Wind

UCLA

C
MA

*Tip: pull the tiller towards you once head-to-wind to pull 31


boat closer to the dock.
We Coil Lines And Stow Them Neatly

1. make nice coils


without twists. leave
some line at the end
( a few feet)
2. wrap the
remaining line
around the coiled
bunch a few times.
3. make a small loop
and pass it though
the top circle of rope
formed by the wraps
4. flip it down over
the top circle as
shown.
5. You should have
a nice coiled line
that will stay
untangled and in
good condition.

33
We Will Learn Many New Terms in this Session

• Windward*, leeward*
• Head up, fall off
• Heel in, hike out
• Close hauled, close reach, beam reach, broad reach, run
• Gybe

*Many sailing terms have multiple meanings. In this session, we learn two
meanings for the term windward, and two meanings for the word leeward
2
We Sometimes Refer to the Windward And Leeward Sides
of a Boat

Leeward Windward
(same side as (side Wind

boom) opposite the


boom)

3
We Sometimes Refer to the Windward Boat And Leeward
Boat

second boat to be hit first boat hit in the


Leeward Boat by the wind...blocked Windward Boat path of wind
by the windward boat

Wind

4
The Boom Always Points Toward The Leeward Boat

Leeward Boat Windward Boat

Wind

5
Heading Up is Turning Towards the Wind, Falling Off is
Turning Away from the Wind

Wind

Heading Up Falling Off

Towards the wind Away from the


direction. Also termed direction of the
"pointing up" wind

6
A Gybe is a Change in Direction by Turning Away from
the Wind (A Tack is Toward the Wind)
Wind The wind direction changes
across the stern of the boat.
Skipper: “Ready to gybe?” The boat will chage tacks (to
1 be discussed later but mean
Crew: “Ready” changing from
Powerport tack to
starboard tack, and vice versa)
Channel
Just as in tacking/ 2 Skipper: “Gybe ho!” Centers
coming about, it is main to control boom, pulls
often customary to tiller to fall off
have the Skipper to
state: "prepare to Crew: prepares to release jib
gybe" before asking and to change sides as boom
"ready to gybe," crosses over
allowing the crew to
get ready and 3 Skipper: crosses over
prepaired. just as boom nears
center, changes tiller and
sheet hands Power
Channel
Crew: crosses over and
releases starboard jib
sheet
4 Skipper: quickly eases
main sheet
7
Crew: trims port jib sheet
A Gybe Results in a Large Change in Angle
of Sails for a Small Change in Heading
Gybe Tack
Change in Angle of Sails 180° 15°
Required Change in <1° 90°
Heading
A Gybe is a lot harder on a Wind A tack/coming about is
boat as the sail will swing
Gybe Tack often slow but effective
very fast from one side to unless very high winds,
the other. It is usually as one must turn
done when sailing withthe through the wind and go
wind behind you "running/ into the no sail zone
surfing". When gybing, it known as irons before
is often recomended that coming out on the
the main sheet be pulled is otherside and regaining
as the gybe is being control of the wind. it is
performed to restrict the better for the boat and
sail's range of swinging, less rushed, therefore
therefore protecting the prefered under all
crew from a fast moving directions or "points of
sail across the entire boat sail" unless going away
as well as maintaining the from the wind
8 known as
boat's condition. "running/surfing".
Try Pushing the Boom Out and Pumping the
Tiller When Stuck “In Irons” (in No Sail Zone)
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

9
Hauling as Close to the Wind as Possible is Called Sailing A
Close Hauled Point of Sail Point of sail= direction of
travel in realtion to the wind
Wind
l ed
au
45° e H
os
No Sail Zone Cl

Trim Sails in All


the way

10
Reaching Close to the Wind is Called Sailing A Close
Reach Point of Sail
Wind
l ed
au
45° e H
os
No Sail Zone Cl

Re ach
Cl ose

Sails Slightly
Eased

11
Reaching with the Wind on the Beam is Called Sailing A
Beam Reach Point of Sail
Wind
l ed
au
45° e H
os
No Sail Zone Cl

Re ach
Cl ose

Sails Eased !
Way Out Beam Reach

12
Sailing a Broad Angle to the Wind is Called Sailing
a Broad Reach Point of Sail
Wind
uled
Ha
45° e
l os
No Sail Zone C

e R each
Clos

Sails Eased "


Way Out Beam Reach

Br
o ad
Re
ac
h 13
Running Away From the Wind is Called a Run
Wind
uled
Ha
45° e
l os
No Sail Zone C

e R each
Clos

Sails Eased All


the Way Out and Beam Reach
on Opposite Sides
(Wing and Wing)

Br
o ad
Re
ac
h
Run

14
In a Gust We Can Ease the Sheets, Hike Out, And Head
Up to Avoid a Capsize

Sit Further
(Hike) Out

Wind

Ease the
Sheets
Push Tiller to
Head Up 15
***NEVER LAND ON THE SAIL NO MATTER WHAT HAPPENS IN A CAPSIZING!!!***

We Will Use a Four-Step Process to Right a


Turtled Boat Our boats shouldn't turtle (totally flip)
with the white float atop the masts

Step 2: skipper
Step 1: skipper and climbs center-board;
crew hold center- crew releases sheets
board and lean back
to bring boat into
capsize position
Never leave the boat if
you capsize. In case of
need for rescue, it is
much easier to find you if
you are with a large
visable object (the boat)

Step 4: Crew is pulled


aboard boat by hiking
strap, then helps
Step 3: skipper skipper aboard over
leans back to right stern
boat; crew holds
hiking strap

Our boats dont have centerboards, but do have 2 pontoons (the white floats on each side). First,16 turn the boat
to point into the wind and release the main sheet from the cleat (locking mechanism for the main sheet). Stand
on the pontoon floating on the water and pull the "pull line" (tied at the front of the trampoline) over the top.
Hold it and lean back to turn the boat upright again. Climb aboard and maintain control of the boat.
We Will Sail A Loop and Alternate Tacking and
Gybing

Tack

Wind

Gybe

17
We Will Learn Many New Terms in this Session

• Starboard tack, port tack*


• Stand-on vessel, give-way vessel
• Battens, outhaul, cunningham, boom vang
• True wind, wind of motion, apparent wind
• Tell tales

*Many sailing terms have multiple meanings. In this session, we learn a third
meaning for the term tack.
2
A Boat is on Starboard Tack if the Boom is on the
Port Side, Otherwise it is on Port Tack

Wind

Port Tack Starboard Tack

Wind hits the port side of the Wind hits the starboard side of
sail the sail

3
Rules of the Road Aid in Preventing
Collisions Between Two Vessels

• Rules categorize vessel responsibilities


– Stand-on vessel: responsibility is to maintain course
and speed. Typically this is the less maneuverable
vessel
– Give-way vessel: responsibility is to maneuver to
avoid collision with stand-on vessel. Typically this is
the more maneuverable vessel
• Both vessels have a responsibility to avoid
collisions

4
A Sailboat is Usually the Stand-on Vessel
When a Power and Sail Boat Meet

Exceptions:
• Large vessels in narrow channels (law of gross
tonnage)
• Towing vessels
• Vessel not under command

5
Remember OTW When Two Sailboats Meet
(On The Water)

O No No W
Is one boat
T
Are boats on Give-way: Windward
Overtaking
opposite Tacks? Stand-on: leeward
the other?

Yes Yes

Give-way: overtaking Give-way: port tack


Stand-on: overtaken Stand-on: starboard tack

6
Can You Apply OTW To Determine the Stand-on
and Give-way Vessel for Each Example?
Wind

Example 1 Example 2
Give-way Stand-on Give-way Stand-on

Example 3 Example 4
Stand-on

Stand-on Give-way 4 knots

Give-way

6 knots
7
Sailboats Should Almost Always Give-way
To People Powered Boats
People powered boats include
– Kayaks
– Sculls
– Rowboats
Exception: overtaking boats should always give-
way to overtaken boats

8
The Main Sail Has Battens to Hold Shape in the
Leech

on our boats, the boom is


Battens also a batten. Be careful with
them as they are thin
fiberglass and can be easily
broken if mishandled.

Leech
Luff

Foot
9
Aft Fore
The Cunningham (or downhaul) Tensions the Luff

Leech
Luff

Cunningham

Foot
10
Aft Fore
The Outhaul Tensions the Foot

Leech
Luff

(our boats don't Outhaul


have outhauls)
Foot
11
Aft Fore
The Mainsheet and Boom Vang Tension the Leech
All of the pulleys on a boat are
known as "blocks". the last one
that the main sheet passes
through at the stern of our
boats has a "cam-cleat" which
is a set of 2 gripping spring
loaded wheels which clanp
down and hold the sheet from
being let out. to let the sail
out, just pull downward, which
will manouver the sheet out of
the cam-cleet and be free to let Leech
out "easing the sheet". (one
can pull in the sail while it is
still engaged in the cam-cleat)

Main Sheet
(we don't have
Boom Vang boom vangs on
our boats)

12
Aft Fore
Rule of Thumb: the Heavier the Wind, the
Tighter the Rig

• In heavy wind, let the larger crew member


tighten the rigging:
– Halyards
– Cunningham (downhaul)
– Outhaul
• This de-powers the sails by flattening their
shape, allowing more wind to spill out

13
The Apparent Wind is the Sum of the True Wind
and Wind of Motion
Apparent wind: Apparent wind:
0 + 12 = 12 knots 10 + 12 = 22 knots

True wind:
12 knots

Speed of Motion: Speed of Motion:

0 knots 10 knots
14
Sailboats Are Propelled by Apparent Wind

Apparent Motion

True

15
Strings Called Tell Tales On Each Side of Sail
Aid in Sail Trim For Upwind Points of Sail

Luff

Leech Outside tell tale (dashed


line indicates tell tale is
on opposite side of sail)

Jib
Inside tell tale

Foot

16
Aft Fore
Both Tell Tales Will Stream Straight Back
When Sails Are Properly Trimmed*

This goes for our


main sail as well

Luff

Leech

Jib

*It’s okay if inside luffs


Foot up on occasion

17
Aft Fore
For Close-Hauled Sailing, Fall Off if Inside
Luffs or Head Up if Outside Luffs
This goes for our main
sail as well

Head up since
Luff
outside tell
tale is luffing
Leech Leech

Jib Jib
Fall off since
inside tell tale
is luffing
Foot Foot

18
Aft Fore Aft Fore
For Other Upwind Points of Sail, Sheet in
Direction of Luffing Tell Tale
This goes for our main
sail as well

Sheet-out
Luff since outside
tell tale is
Leech Leech luffing

Jib Jib
Sheet-in since
inside tell tale
is luffing
Foot Foot

19
Aft Fore Aft Fore
Remember “When in Doubt, Let it Out” To Trim
When Sailing Off the Wind
Wind

1 Ease jib until it


begins to luff
(Let It Out)

2 Sheet-in jib until


it just stops This goes for our
luffing main sail as well

3 Trim main until


parallel to jib
20
We Can Use the Tiller, Sails and Body
Weight to Steer the Boat

Tiller Sails Body


Weight
Head Up Push Ease jib, sheet Heel in
in main
Fall Off Pull Sheet in jib, Hike out
ease main

21
We Will Use The Figure-8 Method For Person-
Overboard Recovery
Wind

1 Yell “person- 2 Keep your eye


overboard,” on victim, sail
fall off onto a 5-7 boat
beam reach lengths away

3 Tack and
immediately
fall-off to get
down wind of
victim

5 Luff the sails 4 Watch victim and


to stop the carefully plan to
boat with approach on
victim to close reach,
leeward, help pointing directly
aboard over at victim
22
stern