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Math Gems

12345679 142857 ´ 2 = 285714

´9 16 3 2 13 p
142857 ´ 3 = 428571 = 1 - 13 + 15 - 17 + 19 - L
111111111 142857 ´ 4 = 571428 5 10 11 8 s 2 1 bh pr 2 4
2
´ 111111111 142857 ´ 5 = 714285 9 6 7 12 p 2 2 4 4 6
12345678987654321 142857 ´ 6 = 857142 = ´ ´ ´ ´ ´L
4 15 14 1 p = 3.14159... 2 1 3 3 5 5
1 1
9
= .111111K 7
= .142857K s3 pr 2h p 2
r h 4 pr 3
The ratio of the circumference 3 3
A magic square. of a circle to its diameter is pi. Pi, expressed as
Fun arithmetic with the Fun arithmetic with the All rows, columns, and Pi is transcendental, i.e., Area and volume formulas. an infinite series and
number nine. number seven. diagonals have the same sum. irrational and non-algebraic. Archimedes solved the sphere. an infinite product.

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, ...

n! » ( ne )nÖ 2pn
2 4 6 8 10 12 ¥
n n 1 1
åi = 1 + 2 + 3 + L + n Õi = 1´ 2 ´ 3 ´ L´ n G(n + 1) = n! 3 9 p( x ) »
x z ( s) = å ns = Õ 1
log x n =1 p 1-
i =1 i =1 5 ps
n (n + 1) G( 12 ) = Ö p
= = n! 7
2
11
Stirling's approximation
of n factorial. A prime number is divisible The prime number theorem The zeta function of Euler and
Euler's gamma function gives only by one and itself. of Gauss and Legendre Riemann, expressed as an
The sum of the numbers The product of the numbers factorials for integers but has The sieve of Eratosthenes approximates the number infinite series and a curious
from 1 to n. from 1 to n is n factorial. surprising values for fractions. finds primes. of primes less than x. product over all primes.

n Suppose Ö 2 were rational

a
n c c sin q =
( x + y) n = å ( k ) x n - k y k 1 ® Ö 2 = mn , reduced a 2
a +b =c 2 2 a c
k =0 q b
1 1 ® ( mn ) 2 = 2 ® n 2 = 2m 2 b b cos q =
1 2 1 c
n! ® n 2 is even ® n is even
( nk ) = k ! (n - k )! 1 3 3 1
® n 2 is divisible by 4 ax 2 + bx + c = 0 a2 y = sin x
tan q =
a
b
1 4 6 4 1
® m 2 is even ® m is even c2
1 5 10 10 5 1
- b ±Ö b - 4ac
2 b2 ( ac )2 + ( bc )2 = 1
The binomial theorem expands 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 ® mn is not reduced
powers of sums. x=
... ® Ö 2 is not rational 2a sin 2 q + cos 2 q = 1
The binomial coefficient is the
number of ways to choose The trigonometric functions.
k objects from a set of Pascal's triangle shows the Proof that the square root The quadratic equation The Pythagorean theorem. Another form of
n objects, regardless of order. binomial coefficients. of two is irrational. defines a parabola. A proof by rearrangement. the Pythagorean theorem.

a+b a 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ...

j= = Fn +1
a b lim =j
n ®¥ Fn
1
j =1+ 1
j j =1+ j n - ( -j1)n
1 Fn =
1 1+
j = 1.618K = 0.618K 1 + 1+1L Ö5
j
1 + Ö5
The golden rectangle, j=
The golden ratio, phi. a classical aesthetic ideal. 2 Each Fibonacci number is the The ratio of successive
The ratio of a whole to its Cutting off a square leaves sum of the previous two. Fibonacci numbers approaches
larger part equals the ratio of another golden rectangle. The pentagram contains many The number of spirals in a the golden ratio.
the larger part to the smaller. A logarithmic spiral is pairs of line segments that The golden ratio, expressed sunflower or a pinecone is a An exact formula for the
phi is irrational and algebraic. inscribed. have the golden ratio. as a continued fraction. Fibonacci number. nth Fibonacci number.
r r r
i j k
r r k
A ´B = Ax Ay Az i
n e x Ö -1 = cos(x ) + Ö -1 sin( x ) j
e = lim (1 + n1 ) Bx By Bz
n ®¥
d x
ò e dx = e
x x r¶ r¶ r¶
e = ex e pÖ -1 = -1 Ñ = i ¶x
+ j ¶y + k ¶z
y = ex
2
x = log y dx - (
1 x -m
)
e = 1 + 11! + 21! + 31! + 41! + L 1 r r
y= e 2 s
ÑU Ñ × V Ñ ´ V
e = 2.71828K sÖ 2p
Calculus, developed by
Newton and Leibniz, is based Euler's formula relating Ñ2U 2
U
Napier's constant, e, on derivatives (slopes) and exponentials to sine waves.
is the base of natural integrals (areas) of curves. A special case relating the The Gaussian or Gibbs's vector cross product.
logarithms and exponentials. The derivative of ex is ex. e, expressed as a limit numbers pi, e, and the normal probability distribution Del operates on scalar and
e is transcendental. The integral of ex is ex. and an infinite series. imaginary square root of -1. is a bell-shaped curve. vector fields in 3D, quad in 4D.
Imagine listing all real numbers
between 0 and 1 in any order.
1® .8 4 9 7 3 8 ... (\$y)(x) ~ Dem (x, y)
2® .1 7 9 3 8 0 ... É
3® .1 0 3 4 2 1 ... (x) ~ Dem (x, sub (n, 13, n))
4® .3 5 6 1 2 2 ...
You can always make an unlisted [from Nagel and Newman, Gödel's Proof]
real number by changing every
v -e+f =2 v -e+f -c=0 digit on the diagonal,
e.g., change .8731... to .9842... Gödel proved that
The five regular polyhedra. The hypercube. The Möbius strip has if arithmetic is consistent,
Euler's formula for the number Schläfli's formula for vertices, only one side. Fractals of Mandelbrot, Cantor's proof that the infinity it must be incomplete,
of vertices, edges, and faces edges, faces, and cells of The Klein bottle's inside Koch, and Sierpinski have of real numbers is greater than i.e., it has true propositions
of any polyhedron. any 4-dimensional polytope. is its outside. infinite levels of detail. the infinity of integers. that can never be proved.