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Shui

R

110

Chenzhou

Ganzhou
Tao J iang

Fuqing Putian Longyan Licheng
Qinglanshan Xiuyu

Xi ao

an g

Chuxiong

Daojiang Guilin

120 Haitan Dao
21 T6

T4-Y5 T2T3

ong Jiang

Chinese claim

South China Sea
Claimed Straight Baselines
CHINA
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Kunming

Ji an np Na

Xingyi
N

Chang’an

Sha Lung

Chi-lungshih

an p

Lecheng
an
Jia ng

Quanzhou Shaoguan
ang

22

T'ao-yüan

T7 T8

Keelung

Taipei

T1

Zhongshu Yuxi

Hechi

Han Ji

Jian g

China
Claims in the Paracel and Spratly Islands
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 21° 27.7' 00" N 19° 58.5' 00" N 19° 53.0' 00" N 18° 39.7' 00" N 18° 39.4' 00" N 18° 26.1' 00" N 18° 23.0' 00" N 18° 11.0' 00" N 18° 11.0' 00" N 18° 09.5' 00" N 112° 21.5' 00" E 111° 16.4' 00" E 111° 12.8' 00" E 110° 29.6' 00" E 110° 29.1' 00" E 110° 08.4' 00" E 110° 03.0' 00" E 109° 42.1' 00" E 109° 41.8' 00" E 109° 34.4' 00" E 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 18° 14.6' 00" N 18° 19.3' 00" N 18° 30.2' 00" N 18° 30.4' 00" N 18° 31.0' 00" N 18° 31.1' 00" N 18° 50.5' 00" N 19° 11.6' 00" N 19° 21.1' 00" N 109° 07.6' 00" E 108° 57.1' 00" E 108° 41.3' 00" E 108° 41.1' 00" E 108° 40.6' 00" E 108° 40.5' 00" E 108° 37.3' 00" E 108° 36.0' 00" E 108° 38.6' 00" E

Liuzhou
Liu Jiang

Babu Yingcheng
ng

Zhangzhou Meizhou
ia gJ

Xiamen
Quemoy Taichung
23

Hsin-chushih Suao

Lo-tung
T21 T20

T22

Yonagunijima

SA

KI

SH

IM

A-

SH

O

TO

MIYAKO-RETTO

I

S

*

L
n)

A

N

D

S

Bei

Maritime Lines
Established maritime boundary Claim line Bruneian continental shelf claim Chinese
(series of 9 dashes; the 10th dash shown on map is outside of the South China Sea)

Kaiyuan Xicheng Kaihua Simao
Ha Giang
n So
g
B

Bose
Tropic of Cancer

Declaration of the People’s Republic of China on the Baseline of the Territorial Sea, May 15, 1996
25° 25.8' 00" N 24° 58.6' 00" N 24° 09.7' 00" N 23° 31.9' 00" N 23° 12.9' 00" N 23° 12.3' 00" N 22° 56.1' 00" N 22° 18.9' 00" N 21° 48.5' 00" N 21° 34.1' 00" N 119° 56.3' 00" E 119° 28.7' 00" E 118° 14.2' 00" E 117° 41.3' 00" E 117° 14.9' 00" E 117° 13.9' 00" E 116° 29.7' 00" E 115° 07.5' 00" E 113° 58.0' 00" E 112° 47.9' 00" E

Yo uJ

iang

i hu gs Hon

H

e

Fuxing

Sui'an
Dongshan

Taiwan Strait
T9

YAEYAMA-RETTO

BRUNEI

While Bandar Seri Begawan has not articulated claims to reefs in the South China Sea (SCS), since 1985 the Sultanate has claimed a continental shelf that extends beyond these features to a hypothetical median with Vietnam. Malaysia contends Brunei’s maritime limit stops at the 100-fathom isobath from the coast based on 1958 UK Orders in Council. China’s and Taiwan’s claimed areas in the SCS include the seaward extension of Brunei’s maritime claim. China (including Taiwan), Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam do not accept Brunei’s claims.

ia ng

Pingnan
Xun

Qingyuan Wuzhou
Xi Jian g

n Do

Mai-Liao Makung

T'aichung-shih

Hua-lien

Heyuan

Chaozhou Jieyang Puning Shanwei Lufeng

PESCADORES

Ta i wa n
Chia-i T'ai-nan T'aiP'ing- tung tung
Lü Tao
T19

R Y
Tropic of Cancer

U

K

Y

a U ap (J
a

n

se

sh i-

o

to

T

r

e

n

c

h

Xinjing

Luxu

Guiping Guigang
n Jia Yu

an Qi
J

Jiang

Shantou Guangzhou Foshan
Zhongshan

Chaozhou

24

Dongguan
Huangpu Nansha

T10T11 T12

Hsi-yü-p’ing Yü
T13

N

Cao Bang
an gG

Nanning
Zuo

g

Zhaoqing Lingcheng Yulin Bobai Xinyi

Huizhou
Haicheng
Shanwei Guangdong Terminal

Huicheng
27

25-26

Liu-ch’iu Yü

Anping Yun-an Tsoying Ta-Lin-Pu

1979 Malaysian continental shelf limit Philippine (Kalayaan) Hypothethical equidistant line Malaysian-Vietnamese joint CLCS (Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf) southern submission 200-nautical-mile arc drawn from undisputed territory 12-nautical-mile line Spratly Islands12-nautical-mile line
(Under UNCLOS, states are entitled to claim 12-nm territorial seas from any and all of their sovereign and/or claimed territory.)

Sa Pa
R ed

ian

g

n Jia

g

Jiangmen Changsha Gaozhou Maoming Yangjiang

Shiqi Shenzhen
Shekou Yantian

Huizhou

T18

Kao-hsiung
T14

ng ko Me

MALAYSIA

Pingxiang

Zhuhai
Macau
Special Administrative Region
30 29

Malaysia has not formally claimed and specified a system of baselines in the Baselines Maritime Zones Act ratified in 2007 but baselines were apparently drawn to determine Malaysia’s territorial sea limits, which are shown on official maps.

Qinzhou
Phongsali

Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region

28

Liu-ch’iu Yü Lan Yü
Mao-pi T’ou T15 O-luan Pi T16T17

Bla c

PARACEL ISLANDS (claimed by CHINA and VIETNAM)
Declaration on Chinese-claimed straight baselines, May 15, 1996
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16° 40' 30" N 16° 40' 06" N 16° 39' 48" N 16° 04' 24" N 16° 01' 54" N 16° 01' 30" N 16° 01' 30" N 15° 46' 30" N 15° 46' 24" N 15° 46' 24" N 112° 44' 12" E 112° 44' 30" E 112° 44' 42" E 112° 35' 48" E 112° 32' 42" E 112° 31' 48" E 112° 24' 48" E 111° 12' 36" E 111° 12' 06" E 111° 11' 48" E 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 15° 46' 30" N 15° 46' 42" N 15° 46' 54" N 15° 47' 12" N 17° 04' 54" N 17° 05' 24" N 17° 05' 42" N 17° 06' 00" N 17° 06' 30" N 17° 07' 00" N 111° 11' 36" E 111° 11' 24" E 111° 11' 18" E 111° 11' 24" E 111° 26' 54" E 111° 26' 54" E 111° 27' 12" E 111° 27' 48" E 111° 29' 12" E 111° 31' 00" E 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 17° 07' 06" N 17° 06' 54" N 16° 59' 54" N 16° 59' 42" N 16° 59' 24" N 16° 58' 24" N 16° 57' 36" N 16° 56' 54" N 111° 31' 36" E 111° 32' 00" E 112° 14' 42" E 112° 15' 36" E 112° 16' 36" E 112° 18' 18" E 112° 19' 36" E 112° 20' 30" E

CHINA

TAIWAN
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9

Law on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone of the Republic of China, January 21, 1998
25° 00.60' 00" N 25° 28.80' 00" N 25° 29.00' 00" N 25° 37.50' 00" N 25° 37.80' 00" N 25° 17.70' 00" N 25° 04.20' 00" N 25° 00.55' 00" N 23° 47.20' 00" N 122° 00.00' 00" E 122° 05.80' 00" E 122° 05.80' 00" E 122° 04.50' 00" E 122° 03.90' 00" E 121° 30.40' 00" E 121° 05.40' 00" E 121° 00.65' 00" E 119° 32.00' 00" E T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17 T18 23° 24.80' 00" N 23° 24.00' 00" N 23° 19.50' 00" N 23° 12.00' 00" N 22° 19.10' 00" N 21° 45.45' 00" N 21° 56.70' 00" N 21° 57.00' 00" N 22° 41.00' 00" N 119° 18.70' 00" E 119° 18.20' 00" E 119° 18.80' 00" E 119° 24.40' 00" E 120° 20.90' 00" E 120° 48.90' 00" E 121° 36.10' 00" E 121° 37.10' 00" E 121° 31.00' 00" E T19 T20 T21 T22 D1 D2 D3 D4 23° 29.20' 00" N 24° 28.70' 00" N 24° 35.90' 00" N 24° 49.90' 00" N 20° 46.16' 00" N 20° 44.16' 00" N 20° 41.92' 00" N 20° 35.78' 00" N 121° 30.53' 00" E 121° 51.10' 00" E 121° 53.70' 00" E 121° 57.30' 00" E 116° 45.45' 00" E 116° 42.13' 00" E 116° 41.30' 00" E 116° 44.80' 00" E

ek on g

Beijing refers to the Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands, Pratas Island, and Scarborough Reef as Nansha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Dongsha Qundao, and Huangyan Dao, respectively, claiming these as well as all surfacing and undersea features within nine dashes drawn on Chinese SCS maps. China treats Scarborough Reef, also claimed by the Philippines, as part of partially drying Macclesfield Bank (Zhongsha Qundao). China adopted the nine dashes from Kuomintang maps drawn in 1947, resulting in Taiwan’s claims coinciding largely with China’s. China considers the area within the dashes to be part of Hainan Province and has referred to the maritime space therein as Chinese “territorial waters,” an undefined term that does not appear to conform to standard maritime regimes permitted under international law. Chinese archeologists assert the islands in the SCS were the ancient site of fishing and merchant activities and Chinese records note naval expeditions into the South China Sea during the Han Dynasty in A.D. 110 and the Ming Dynasty from 1403-1433. China contends the 1887 Sino-French Convention allocated all features to China east of 108°03’E. China occupies several of the Spratly Islands and completed seizure of all the Paracel Islands from Vietnam in 1974. Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam dispute China’s claims.

Yen Bai

Thai Nguyen

So

ng Ky Cun g

Fangcheng

Lianzhou Beihai Wuchuan Zhanjiang Leizhou
Leizhou Bandao

Son La

Ch

Haiphong
Doan Xa

Ha Long

QUAN DAO CO TO
Weizhou 10-3

Donghai Dao
Naozhou Dao Panyu 4-2/5-1

Xijiang 30-2
D1

in es e

Louang Namtha

HANOI

Hon Gai

Cam Pha

Dao Vình Thuc

Shuidong

31

Munin

cla im

k

Hailing Dao

Shangchuan Dao Xijiang 23-1

Lufeng Terminal Huizhou Terminal

Bashi Channel
99101 1

Weizhou Dao

Y’Ami Island

Itbayat Island
98

20

23

Straight baseline turning point
Note: The United States Government does not accept the validity of most of these straight and archipelagic baseline segments. China includes Pratas Island and Paracel Islands in its straight baseline claims; rendering of these baseline points does not denote acceptance or substantiation of these claims.

Dao Bach Long Vi

nd ar y

Straight baseline

Xam Nua Louangphrabang

QUAN DAO LONG CHAU

Liuhua Terminal

D2 D3

M

D4

a

Nam Dinh

Xucheng
Hainan Strait
Macun

Pratas Island

Luzon Strait

BATAN ISLANDS
Batan Island

Son

Basco
Sabtang Island 20
2

g

Laos
M
Muang Phôn-Hông Muang Pakxan Ban Nape

Thanh Hoa
na

m

e es

m iti ar m

e

u bo

Haikou
32 33

Balintang Channel
Saint Esprit Shoal Helen Shoal
Babuyan Island Calayan Island

Yangpu

Wenchang
49 48

Vi et

ine se -

Hon Me

Ch

Qionghai Dongfang Hainan
Basuo

Danzhou

Qinglan

Wenchang

97

m

Populated Places
More than 1 mi lli on 100,000 to 1,000,000 25,000 to 100,000 Fewer than 25,000 National capital

Vinh
Nghe Tinh

cla i

Hon Mat

VIETNAM
A1 A2 A3 A4

Declaration of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, November 12, 1982
09° 15.0' 00" N 08° 22.8' 00" N 08° 37.8' 00" N 08° 38.9' 00" N 103° 27.0' 00" E 104° 52.4' 00" E 106° 37.5' 00" E 106° 40.3' 00" E A5 A6 A7 A8 08° 39.7' 00" N 09° 58.0' 00" N 12° 39.0' 00" N 12° 53.8' 00" N 106° 42.1' 00" E 109° 05.0' 00" E 109° 28.0' 00" E 109° 27.2' 00" E A9 A10 A11 13° 54.0' 00" N 15° 23.1' 00" N 17° 10.0' 00" N 109° 21.0' 00" E 109° 09.0' 00" E 107° 20.6' 00" E

MALAYSIA

Claimed Archipelagic Straight Baselines
INDONESIA
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 01° 14' 27" N 01° 02' 52" N 02° 18' 00" N 02° 44' 29" N 03° 05' 32" N 03° 19' 52" N 03° 27' 04" N 04° 04' 01" N 04° 31' 09" N 04° 42' 25" N 04° 47' 38" N 04° 47' 45" N 04° 00' 48" N 03° 01' 51" N 02° 38' 43" N

Regulation No. 38, June 28, 2002
104° 34' 32" E 104° 49' 50" E 105° 35' 47" E 105° 22' 46" E 105° 35' 00" E 105° 57' 04" E 106° 16' 08" E 107° 26' 09" E 107° 43' 17" E 107° 54' 20" E 108° 00' 39" E 108° 01' 19" E 108° 25' 04" E 108° 54' 52" E 109° 10' 04" E 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 02° 05' 10" N 04° 10' 00" N 04° 08' 03" N 04° 06' 12" N 03° 27' 57" N 02° 15' 12" N 01° 46' 53" N 00° 59' 55" N 01° 20' 16" N 01° 22' 40" N 01° 22' 41" N 01° 18' 48" N 01° 08' 17" N 01° 02' 52" N 01° 09' 29" N 109° 38' 43" E 118° 53' 50" E 118° 53' 01" E 118° 38' 02" E 117° 52' 41" E 118° 38' 41" E 119° 02' 26" E 120° 12' 50" E 120° 47' 31" E 120° 53' 04" E 120° 53' 07" E 121° 26' 36" E 122° 25' 47" E 123° 06' 45" E 124° 20' 38" E 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 01° 45' 47" N 02° 44' 15" N 04° 14' 06" N 04° 40' 16" N 04° 44' 14" N 04° 44' 25" N 04° 44' 46" N 05° 34' 02" N 05° 33' 57" N 04° 46' 18" N 04° 45' 39" N 04° 38' 38" N 04° 37' 36" N 03° 45' 13" N 124° 43' 51" E 125° 09' 28" E 125° 18' 59" E 125° 25' 41" E 125° 28' 42" E 125° 28' 56" E 125° 29' 24" E 126° 34' 54" E 126° 35' 29" E 127° 08' 32" E 127° 08' 44" E 127° 09' 49" E 127° 09' 53" E 126° 51' 06" E

Approximate shipping lane Naval base Port facility
A port is named after its attributable city unless otherwise labeled

23-28

Cag ayan

Kuala Lumpur drew its continental shelf claim in the Spratly Islands in 1979 to include five islands which Malaysia occupies plus others occupied or controlled by the Philippines and Vietnam. It constructed Layang Layang Resort on Swallow (Layang) Reef. As part of their joint submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) in May 2009, Malaysia and Vietnam defined 200-nm EEZ limits extending from mainland baseline claims, with both states ignoring, but not renouncing, any overlapping jurisdictional effects of the Spratly Islands. Brunei, China (including Taiwan), the Philippines, and Vietnam do not accept Malaysia’s claims.

VIENTIANE
Udon Thani
Sakon Nakhon
Nakhon Phanom

4346 42 41

Chin ese

Gulf of Tonkin
Mui Ron

Dao
3435

Dalapuri Island Fuga Island

BABUYAN ISLANDS
Camiguin Island
San Vicente

47

Babuyan Channel Camilo Osias/ Aparri
Port Irene
3 Iligan Point

96 Claveria 95 Cape Bojeador

Philippine Sea

Yulin

Sanya
40 38-39

37

36

Laoag
94 93

Vung Ang Dong Nai Hon Gio

Currimao

Thakhèk

Dong Hoi
Dao 112 Con Co A11

92

Vigan

Tuguegarao City

Shipping-Related Features
Khon Kean
Lam Nam Chi

113
Chinese-Vietnamese hypothethical equidistant line

15-22

Palanan Point 8 9 10

4-6 7

V i e t n a m c l a i m s t h e Pa r a c e l

Savannakhet

Woody Island

Hue
Chan May

PA R ACE L ISL A N DS

1-3

Ernesto R.Ogbinar/ Poro Point Cape Bolinao

San Fernando

M
g on ek

Baguio

PHILIPPINES

Pa S a

Oil concession block
112

Nam

Concession block number Oil and gas field Oilfield

Nakhon Ratchasima

Mae

Nam Mun

Ubon Ratchathani
Pakxe
ong
lé K
Dung Quat

8-14

Chinese claim

Manila claimed Scarborough Reef as well as a large portion of the Spratly Islands as terra nullius during explorations in the SCS commencing in May 1956. It named the Spratly claim the Kalayaan (Freedom) Island Group and occupies several of the islands. It defines the Spratlys and Scarborough Reef as a special “regime of islands” distinct from the rest of the Philippine archipelago. China (including Taiwan), Malaysia, and Vietnam object to the Philippines’ claims.

8791 8586 84 83

Chaiyaphum

Lingayen Gulf

Lu z o n
Dagupan

Tarigit Point

11

Da Nang
Salavan

Energy-Related Features
k

Thailand
Surin

Hon La Cu Lao Cham

4

Ch
se ine
cla
im

7

5-6

Macclesfield Bank

Santa Cruz

Tarlac
Masinloc

Phi l i ppi n e s
Cabanatuan San Fernando
Bay

lan ly Is p rat and S

A10

Cu Lao Re

Angeles
Leovigildo Gantioqui/ San Miguel

Mae

PHILIPPINES
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Republic Act P522 to define the archipelagic baselines of the Philippines, July 28, 2008
21° 06' 57.73" N 19° 57' 38.19" N 18° 18' 35.30" N 17° 07' 16.30" N 17° 06' 14.79" N 17° 05' 51.31" N 17° 02' 36.91" N 16° 53' 18.03" N 16° 49' 56.11" N 16° 47' 38.86" N 16° 18' 44.33" N 14° 29' 54.43" N 14° 06' 29.91" N 14° 06' 10.40" N 12° 41' 06.37" N 12° 36' 18.41" N 12° 32' 33.62" N 12° 31' 57.45" N 12° 28' 36.42" N 12° 27' 37.51" N 12° 21' 41.64" N 12° 17' 27.17" N 12° 13' 21.95" N 12° 11' 48.16" N 12° 11' 20.67" N 12° 06' 07.00" N 10° 45' 16.70" N 09° 49' 59.58" N 08° 53' 16.62" N 08° 13' 11.53" N 07° 42' 45.02" N 07° 29' 49.47" N 07° 29' 16.93" N 07° 28' 30.97" N 121° 57' 27.71" E 122° 09' 46.32" E 122° 20' 19.07" E 122° 31' 28.34" E 122° 31' 43.84" E 122° 31' 42.66" E 122° 31' 03.28" E 122° 27' 56.61" E 122° 26' 50.78" E 122° 26' 04.40" E 122° 14' 16.69" E 122° 57' 51.15" E 124° 16' 59.21" E 124° 17' 26.28" E 125° 03' 53.71" E 125° 08' 50.19" E 125° 12' 59.70" E 125° 13' 32.37" E 125° 17' 12.32" E 125° 18' 05.23" E 125° 23' 07.41" E 125° 27' 00.12" E 125° 30' 19.47" E 125° 31' 30.88" E 125° 31' 48.29" E 125° 34' 11.94" E 125° 58' 08.78" E 126° 10' 06.39" E 126° 20' 48.81" E 126° 28' 53.25" E 126° 34' 29.03" E 126° 35' 59.24" E 126° 35' 59.50" E 126° 35' 57.30" E 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 07° 27' 29.42" N 07° 17' 19.80" N 07° 16' 14.43" N 06° 17' 14.73" N 06° 16' 08.35" N 05° 23' 34.20" N 05° 23' 21.80" N 05° 21' 55.66" N 05° 21' 58.48" N 05° 22' 02.91" N 05° 23' 20.18" N 06° 09' 08.44" N 06° 26' 47.22" N 06° 02' 33.77" N 06° 01' 08.15" N 06° 00' 17.88" N 05° 12' 08.70" N 04° 47' 39.24" N 04° 24' 53.84" N 04° 25' 03.83" N 04° 36' 09.01" N 04° 42' 52.07" N 04° 45' 55.25" N 04° 47' 05.36" N 04° 55' 10.45" N 05° 02' 23.73" N 05° 46' 35.15" N 06° 05' 58.41" N 06° 04' 14.08" N 06° 11' 04.65" N 06° 13' 39.90" N 06° 17' 43.99" N 06° 52' 14.53" N 07° 30' 26.05" N 126° 35' 51.71" E 126° 36' 18.16" E 126° 35' 57.20" E 126° 12' 14.40" E 126° 11' 35.06" E 125° 28' 42.11" E 125° 28' 19.59" E 125° 25' 11.21" E 125° 21' 52.03" E 125° 20' 59.73" E 125° 19' 44.29" E 124° 15' 42.81" E 122° 13' 34.50" E 121° 56' 36.20" E 121° 54' 41.45" E 121° 53' 11.17" E 120° 41' 38.14" E 119° 51' 58.08" E 119° 14' 50.71" E 119° 14' 15.15" E 119° 03' 22.75" E 119° 01' 44.04" E 119° 03' 15.19" E 119° 05' 12.94" E 119° 22' 01.30" E 119° 44' 18.14" E 119° 39' 51.77" E 118° 26' 57.30" E 118° 18' 33.33" E 118° 06' 54.15" E 118° 03' 52.09" E 118° 00' 05.44" E 118° 23' 40.49" E 117° 18' 33.75" E 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 07° 48' 30.69" N 07° 51' 27.17" N 07° 52' 19.86" N 07° 54' 36.35" N 08° 02' 00.26" N 08° 11' 18.36" N 08° 37' 56.37" N 08° 44' 17.40" N 08° 53' 32.20" N 09° 02' 57.47" N 09° 59' 22.54" N 11° 13' 19.82" N 12° 19' 35.22" N 13° 53' 21.45" N 15° 48' 43.61" N 15° 57' 51.67" N 16° 09' 57.90" N 16° 10' 12.42" N 16° 16' 34.46" N 16° 17' 12.70" N 16° 18' 29.49" N 16° 19' 28.20" N 16° 20' 04.38" N 17° 34' 24.94" N 17° 41' 17.56" N 17° 55' 04.13" N 18° 29' 32.42" N 18° 30' 52.88" N 19° 10' 14.78" N 20° 43' 15.74" N 21° 07' 17.47" N 21° 07' 18.41" N 21° 07' 12.04" N 116° 59' 39.18" E 116° 54' 17.19" E 116° 53' 28.73" E 116° 53' 16.64" E 116° 54' 10.04" E 116° 59' 51.87" E 117° 15' 51.23" E 117° 20' 39.37" E 117° 28' 15.78" E 117° 37' 38.88" E 118° 36' 53.61" E 119° 15' 17.74" E 119° 50' 56.00" E 120° 01' 05.86" E 119° 46' 56.09" E 119° 44' 55.32" E 119° 45' 15.76" E 119° 45' 11.95" E 119° 46' 19.50" E 119° 46' 28.52" E 119° 46' 44.94" E 119° 47' 07.69" E 119° 47' 20.48" E 120° 20' 33.36" E 120° 21' 02.02" E 120° 24' 40.56" E 120° 33' 42.41" E 120° 34' 55.35" E 121° 12' 52.64" E 121° 46' 57.80" E 121° 56' 43.85" E 121° 56' 48.79" E 121° 57' 03.65" E

TAIWAN

Taipei, like Beijing, asserts “historic” sovereignty over all features drawn within the dashes originally shown on a map published by the Kuomintang government in 1947—including the Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands, Pratas Island, and Scarborough Reef. Taiwan occupies several of the Spratly Islands and administers Pratas Island. Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam object to Taiwan’s coincident claims with China.

Gasfield Offshore terminal Floating (Production) Storage and Offloading unit (FPSO and FSO)
Sriracha Habour

T

Vi e t n a m
Pleiku
Hon Trau

Scarborough Reef

ôn

Olongapo

Subic Bay Limay

nlé Tô

San

Sisophon
Stœng Trêng

Quy Nhon

Cu Lao Coni
A9

Fiber-Optic Submarine Cables VIETNAM
Hanoi claims all of the Spratly and Paracel Islands. However, the extent of Vietnam’s territorial and maritime claims in the SCS has not been delimited in text or on maps. Vietnam considers the Spratly Islands an offshore district of Khanh Hoa Province and occupies several of them. China seized all of the Paracels in 1974. Like the Chinese, Vietnamese archeologists provide their own evidence to support a long historic presence on various SCS features. Hanoi claims that since France controlled both island groups beginning in the 1930s, Vietnam succeeded to those rights after independence. Brunei, China (including Taiwan), Malaysia, and the Philippines dispute Vietnam’s claims.

Tônl é

Cu Lao Poulo Gambir

S

Batdâmbâng Rayong
Chanthaburi

APCN C2C China-US EAC FLAG Guam-Philippines SeaMeWe TIS (Thailand-Indonesia-Singapore)
Jasmine Venture Terminal

Cu Lao Ma Nha

Tonle Sap
Pouthisat

Cambodia
Krâchéh
T

Tuy Hoa

tra i

Buon Ma Thuot

Mui Nay

A8

Dam Mon Hon Khoi

Vung Ro
A7

Ko Chang

Ch ines e cla

Krong Kaôh Kong
Ko Kut Kaoh Kong

Kâmpóng Chhnang

Nha Trang
ong ek

Hon Cha La
Van Phong Bay Hon Tre

81

Mindoro Strait
Busuanga Island

San Jose

Tabl as S

So u t h China Se a
im
NORTH DANGER REEF

Balanga Manila
Mariveles

Quezon City MANILA
Jose Francisco/ Bonifacio

POLILLO ISLANDS

ds.
Ho
we

Heracleo Alano/ Cavite

Calamba

82

Lubang Island

LUBANG ISLANDS

San Pablo Lucena Atimonan Lipa Pagbilao Batangos Santa Cruz

Lamon Bay

12 Jose Pangbaniban

CALAGUA ISLANDS

ve

th r,

Tandoc

13 14

e

ex
te n

Daet
Tinambac Virac Lagonoy Gulf

Catanduanes Island

f to
the

Ragay Gulf

Naga Legaspi

lai ir c

Tabaco
Julhasan A. Arasain/ Legazpi

t

p rê
ôk

been s not m ha
d e l i m i te

Pinamalayan

Marinduque Burias Island

Mindoro

Sorsogon
15 16 17-18 19-20 21 22 23 24-25 26

Romblon Island

ne pi ip il Ph

Sibuyan
Masbate
Sibuyan Island

Ticao Island

im

We st Pa ss

ala ya a

uy o

Note: The South China Sea is defined by the International Hydrographic Bureau as the body of water stretching in a southwest to northeast direction, whose southern limit is 3° South latitude between southern Sumatra and Kalimantan (Karimata Strait), and whose northern limit is the Taiwan Strait from the northern tip of Taiwan to the Fujian coast of China.
0

Ch in

Scale 1: 5,100,000
0 50 100 150 200 Benchamas Terminal 150 200 Tantawan Terminal

PHNOM PENH
Kâmpóng Saôm Kâmpôt

cla

ese

Ea st Pa s

Cuy o

n) cl a

Kilometers
50 100

Kaoh Rung Kaoh Rung Samlœm Kaoh Pring

Statute Miles
0 50 100 150 200 10

on g

Ph

Gulf of Thailand

ilip

Kaoh Tang

Dao Phu Quoc
QUAN DAO AN THOI

ek

e

Paracel Islands
111°00’
North Reef

Nautical Miles
Platong Terminal 112°00’
North Island Middle Island South Island North Sand Middle Sand South Sand Rocky Island

QUAN DAO BA LUA

Long Xuyen Rach Gia

Long An

Can Tho
M

Vung Tau
Te Giac Trang

Su Tu Vang Ruby Rang Dong 1

pin e

My Tho

(K

Chau Doc

Ho Chi Minh City
My Thoi Phu My

Su Tu Den Terminal

C

Cu Lao Thu

LOAITA BANK Loaita Island

Subi Reef

West York Island Flat Island Nanshan Island

s

im

113°00’

QUAN DAO NAM DU Dao Tho Chu
A1

Hon Rai

ôn

Ca Mau
Hon Chuoi

a lé S b

Kâmpóng Cham

M

Da Lat

Tablas Island

Cam Ranh
Ba Ngoi

Masbate Island

Calbayog
Samar Sea

d.

Sea
Roxas City Panay
Alfonso Palencia/ Guimaras

Samar

Tay Ninh

Phan RangThap Cham Phan Thiet

REED NARES BANK TABLEMOUNT

Linap aca n

Str ai

CALAMIAN GROUP
t

Visayan Sea
Bantayan

Biliran Island

Tr

Malampaya Terminal
80

Tacloban
Ormoc Leyte
Isabel
Dioscoro Papa/ Tacloban

ch en

Thu Dau Mot

Thitu Island

THITU REEFS

Taytay

CUYO ISLANDS

Iloilo

Bacolod
San Carlos Pulupandan

Leyte Gulf

Suluan Island
27

Itu Aba Island Gaven Reefs Discovery Great Reef Sin Cowe Island

129
Julia Shoal
A6

S P R AT LY
TIZARD BANK
79

Roxas
Carlito Cunanan/ Ulugan Table Point

Dumaran Island

Guimaras Island

Cebu Toledo

Homonhon Island

Cebu City

Panay Gulf

Minglanilla
Carcar

Rafael Ramos/ Mactan

Dinagat Island
Siargao Island

10
28

Namyit Island Mischief Reef Bombay Shoal

Soc Trang Bac Lieu

Negros
Apolinario Jalandoon/ Puerto Princesa

Chi Linh Terminal Chi Lang Terminal Vinashin

17°00’

Tree Island West Sand

Mo

ft so uth

h

Ba Vi Terminal Vietsovpetro Terminal

130
Coronation Bank Fiery Cross Reef

UNION REEFS Johnson Reef South

Bohol Tagbilaran

Surigao

SIARGAO ISLANDS

Puerto Princesa

17°00’ Dido Bank Lincoln Island

Erawan Terminal

131

ISLANDS
Pigeon Reef Half Moon Shoal Commodore Reef INVESTIGATOR SHOAL

CAGAYAN ISLANDS

Bais

Dumaguete
Siquijor Island

Bohol Sea
Camiguin Island Masao

Palawan
78 77 76 75

South China Sea

AMPHITRITE GROUP
Iltis Bank

Woody Island

Mui Ca Mau

Con Son
A5 A3 A4

LONDON REEFS Cuarteron Reef

Pearson Reef

Tubbataha Reefs

Spratly Islands
110 12 16°30’

CRESCENT GROUP
Robert Island Money Island

132
Dai Hung Prince Consort Bank Prince of Wales Bank Spratly Island

16°30’

u

114

116

118 12

Bongkot Terminal

5-3 5-2
Malaysian-Thai Joint Development Area
Armada Perkasa

Barque Canada Reef Amboyna Cay RIFLEMAN BANK

g

Quanfu Dao Pattle Island

Vie tnam
Ch

clai

Discovery Reef 16°00’ Passu Keah

Bombay Reef 16°00’

Ko Losin

Song Doc

Triton Island

Herald Bank 0 20

NORTH DANGER REEF North Northeast Cay Reef Southwest Cay South Reef

se

Charlotte Bank

Swallow Reef Royal Charlotte Reef

ARDASIER REEFS

Ch in es e

Marie Louise Bank

m

Scawfell Shoal

Rong Doi (MV 12)

cl

T

ai m

Cam Ranh

Yagong Dao Shi Yu Pyramid Observation Rock NEPTUNA Bank Xianshe Yu BANKS 112 Drummond Island Duncan Island Bremen JEHANGIRE Antelope Bank REEFS Reef Vuladdore Reef

Hon Khoai A2

1979 Malaysian-claimed continental shelf limit

h

Cape Buliluyan 74 73 72 70-71 69

Sulu Sea
Sibuguey Bay
Romulo M. Espaldon/ Zamboanga

Butuan
Nasipit

29

ese ry am da tn oun Vie b ai- me Th riti a m

Dipolog Oroquieta
Iligan Bay

Ozamiz City
Pagadian
Margosatubio

Cagayan Iligan de Oro Marawi

Bislig

30

Mariveles Reef

r

o

Narciso Del Rosario/Balabac

Balabac Island

Mindanao
Illana Bay

31

ine

Trident Shoal Lys Shoal Menzies Reef

REED
NARES BANK

VANGUARD BANK

Scale 1:2,500,000
40 Kilometers

TABLEMOUNT
Templer Bank Leslie Bank

Narathiwat

a im

111°00’

112°00’

0

20

40 Nautical Miles 803427AI (G02457) 1-10

Thai.
Sandy Shoal

Kota Baharu
PULAU PERHENTIAN Pulau Redang

Malaysian-Vietnamese Joint Economic Development Zone

aa

THITU REEFS Tiezhi Sandy Cay Jiao Thitu Island Loaita Cay Loaita Nan Loaita Island Itu Aba Island Sand Cay Subi Reef

n)

West York Island

cl

Bunga Kertis/ Lukut

19 79 co Mal ntin ay en sian tal sh -claim elf lim ed it
Abu

Indon

esian-Vi

e maritime etnames

boundary

ed aim n-cl limit aysia elf Mal tal sh 1979ntinen co

Bru ne ia

P

a

l

a

w

a

n

Balabac Strait
68

Tagum
Polloc

32-35 36-37

Pulau Balambangan Pulau Banggi Pulau Malawali Pulau Jambongan

CAGAYAN SULU ISLANDS
67

Cotabato Zamboanga

Davao
Felix Apolinario/ Davao

Mati

Chinese

Kudat
Pulau Mantanani Besar Pulau Mengalum Sepangar Bay Terminal

n

Isabela
PANGUTARAN GROUP

Moro Gulf

Digos

co nti ne nta ls
NORTH LUCONIA SHOALS

Davao Gulf
Cape San Agustin 38-39

Basilan Island
47

claim

he lf

Louisa Reef

66

ou nd ary

Third Thomas Shoal Flat Island Nanshan Island

al

LOAITA BANK Lankiam Cay Petley Reef

(K

ar itim eb

p in

Baker Reef
Dickinson Reef Petch Reef

e

Bao Tan

Pennsylvania North Reef Wood Bank Lord Auckland Shoal

19 bo 58 un Bri da tis ry h

Irving Reef

Hopkins Reef

ay

Seahorse Shoal AMY DOUGLAS BANK Brown Reef

Dulang Terminal Cendor Terminal

Malaysian-Vietnamese joint CLCS southern submission

cla im

Kikeh Terminal

Teluk 64 Labuk

65

TURTLE ISLANDS
63 62

SAMALES GROUP
Magados Island
61

TAPIANTANA GROUP
48 49 50

Palimban Point 46

General Santos

Buck Reef Seahorse Breakers

WINCHESTER SHOALS

Pulau Tiga

Kota Kinabalu

Sandakan

Jolo Island
Ta pa

Jolo

Kuala Terengganu
Fairie Queen

Siasi
an

Anoa Terminal

Pulau Labuan

Cu LaoThu

nes

Sou t h Chi na
10

ian -M

Western Reef Discovery Great Reef

Eldad Reef Livock Reef

alay

Hoare Reef Deane Reef Hampson Reef

il ip

sia nm

Iroquois Reef Shinko Shoal

Ph

SOUTHERN REEFS Pennsylvania South Reef

Kuala Dungun

Pulau Tenggul Kerteh Terminal

Angsi

Kakap Natuna Marine Terminal
10 9

11-12

Gaven Reefs

TIZARD BANK Namyit Island

Hopps Reef

JACKSON ATOLL

M a l ay s i a
Carnatic Shoal

SOUTH LUCONIA SHOALS Stigant Reef

Victoria
Labuan

Kimanis Sabah Oil and Gas Terminal

Richmond Reef Comus Shoal Sierra Blanca

BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN
Tutong Seria
Lumut

Muara
Tanjong Salirong

SABAH

Tanjung Labian

Tawi Tawi Island
60

Pa ss

TAPUL GROUP
ag e
51

Lahad Datu
59

A
LU

R

C

H

IP

E

L

A

G

O

Tinaca Point

Pulau Miangas 38-39
40-41

SARANGANI ISLANDS
43-45 42

Indonesian-Malaysian maritime boundar y

tu bu Si

Pulau Laut

Kuala Belait

Teluk Lahad Datu Kunak

57 56

58 55

Juan Magluyan/ Batu-Batu

as s

Bangar

ag 52 e

SU

35-37 34

40-41

KEPULAUAN NANUSA

P

42-43

ice Al

Ind o

ÎLES CATWICK Julia Shoal

Discovery Cornwallis Small Reef Reef Kennan Reef

Holiday Whitsun Reef Reef Grierson Reef

SOUTHAMPTON REEFS Mischief Reef

Hardy Reef

Kampong Kemaman
Sungai Pahang
10

Belida Terminal

Belanak

Udang Natuna

8

Miri
James Shoal Madalene Shoal ELIZABETH SHOALS

Tawau

Semporna
Pulau Sebatik
19

Pulau Ligitan 17
18

l 53-54

SIBUTU GROUP

33

Pulau Karakelong

C

nn ha

e

KEPULAUAN TALAUD
44

Sea
Coronation Bank Fiery Cross Reef Maralie Reef Central Reef West Reef Spratly Island LONDON REEFS East Reef Cuarteron Reef Pearson Reef

UNION

Sin Cowe Island
Loveless Reef Collins Reef Johnson Reef

Lansdowne Reef Len Dao

Union Atoll / Sin Cowe East Island REEFS
Fancy Wreck Shoal

SABINA SHOAL

Lixin Jiao

Kuantan

Tanjung Gelang

13

KUALA LUMPUR
Port Klang

Pekan
6 5

7

Pulau Natuna Besar
Pulau Matak

Second Thomas Shoal

se Chine

m clai

Brunei
Tarakan

Pulau Sipadan

Pulau Bunyu

Acis Shoal

S P R AT LY I S LA N D S
Pigeon Reef Alison Reef Cornwallis South Reef

Boxall Reef

Pian Jiao Investigator Northeast Shoal Royal Captain Shoal

Bombay Shoal

Petaling Jaya Seremban
In d m one Sungai Udang ar si itim an e -M bo al un aysi dar an y

Pulau Siantan

Pulau Tioman

KEPULAUAN
Pulau Pemanggil
4

Pulau Midai

Mersing

Half Moon Shoal

Palawan

Melaka Muar

Keluang Batu Pahat Kulai Johor Bahru
Tanjung Pelepas

Pulau Aur Pulau Tinggi

Pulau Panjang

15

3

Pulau Serasan

Pulau Bruit

Dumai

Strait of Malacca
Bengkalis

Pulau Murih

t la Se

S

asa er

n
16 Tandjung Datu

Sibu
Sarikei

ang Bat

j an Ra

g

Su ng ai Ka y

Alicia Annie Reef

First Thomas Shoal

Port Dickson

Pulau Jemaja

Pulau ANAMBAS Airabu

Segamat

KEPULAUAN NATUNA SELATAN

Pulau Subi

14 Tanjung Sirik

Bintulu

Mal ay si a
S A R AWA K
an

20

Pulau Bunyu

ys ia n-cla

Celebes Sea
imed continental she limit lf
32

Pulau Sangihe Besar

Tanjungredep

Pulau Maratua

79 19
M

a al

KEPULAUAN
Pulau Siau

SANGIHE

Wanua Tagulandang
21

Wanua Biaro
31 22

Ladd Reef Jubilee Seamount

Sungaipakning

Tanjung Langsat
1 Strait ore ap Pulau Sambu ng Pulau Si Pulau Bintan

Singapore
2

Kuching
KEPULAUAN TAMBELAN
Pulau Lemukutan

ited .

1979 Malaysian-claimed continental shelf limit
Commodore Reef Glasgow Bank

Director

elim

Philippines
Pandanan Island Bancalan Island Ramos Island Bugsuk Island Mantangule Island
8

Lalang Terminal

SINGAPORE
Selat Panjang

B o r n e o
Simanggang
Tanjung Mangkalihat

Manado
24 25-26 Tanjung Binar 23 Tanjung Dondo

Bitung
27 Tunggilio Dako 28 30 29

M

Halmahera

Sambas

BatamTanjung Uban

Tanjungpinang
Kijang

Pulau Mapur

O

tb ee nd

as

Prince of Wales Bank
8

Alexandra Bank Prince Consort Bank Grainger Bank VANGUARD BANK RIFLEMAN BANK Johnson Patch

Owen Shoal Bombay Castle

Lizzie Webber

Barque Canada Reef Mariveles Reef

Erica Reef

INVESTIGATOR Erjiao Jiao SHOAL
Langkou Jiao

Buatan

Singkawang
Ka

Ternate

Pekanbaru

KEPULAUAN RIAU
KEPULAUAN BADAS
Pulau Pengiki Besar

Xiantou Jiao

pu

K

A

L

I

M

A T A

N
ai ng Su

Gorontalo
Tanjung bara Sangatta Terminal

Molucca
Equator

L

no

ha s

Ardasier Breakers Gloucester Breakers

Balabac Island

m

Amboyna Cay

cl

19 7 co 9 M nti a ne lay nta sia l s n-c he la lf im lim ed it

he i

ne

Orleana Shoal

rc

Balabac Strait

nt of t

Dallas Reef
Ardasier Reef

Kingston Shoal

hi

ARDASIER REEFS

Swallow Reef

Paracel and Spratly Islands Occupation Status
China Malaysia Philippines
Islands, reefs, and shoals that have portions above water at high tide are labeled in dark green.

tan g

Taiwan Vietnam

Royal Charlotte Reef

Br

un

ei

ela sa

an

Air M us

co

m cla Vietna

ims

l ace Par t he

an

Isla tly pra dS

s. nd

Hari

Jambi

Teluk Sukadana

Sungai Barito

t r, ve we Ho

he

te ex

Pulau Balambangan

Pulau Banggi

Kudat
Pulau Mantanani Besar

Malawali

19 co 79 nt Ma in la en y ta sia l s n-c he la lf im lim e it d Pulau

Sulu Sea

0

KEPULAUAN LINGGA
Pulau Lingga

Pulau Pejantan

Equator

Datu

Pontianak

Sanggau

Su

ng

ai

Bontang
ka m

Sintang

Teluk Tomini
KEPULAUAN TOGIAN
Pantoloan

0

U

a ah M

la im

C

S u m at ra
Ba

Terminal

Se Jabung lat

Pulau Singkep

Indonesia
Muaratewe
Panebangan Pulau Maya

Melak

Santan Terminal

Sea
Pulau Peling

se

ai

C

Samarinda

Berh ala
KEPULAUAN TUJUH

Ampana

Palu Balikpapan
Lawe-Lawe Terminal Senipah Terminal Bekapi Terminal

Luwuk

C
A

Poso

Pulau Banggai

Pulau Taliabu Pulau Mangole

Se

Pulau Jambongan

I n do n e si a
i

Pangkalpinang
Pangkalbalam

la

Pulau Karimata

t

Ketapang

Ka

Bangka
Pulau Liat

rim

iS

Palangkaraya
am p
it

at

Makassar Strait
KEPULAUAN BALABALAGAN
Tanjung Pemancingan

KEPULAUAN BANGGAI
Tiaka Pulau Bangkurung

S

KEPULAUAN SULA KEPULAUAN BAWOKA

a ng Su

Su lawes i
(Ce le b e s )
Palopo
Soroako
Mangkasa Oil Terminal

Pulau Sanana

a
Pangkalanbuun
Tanjung Sambar

Sampit

4,000 meters

2000 meters

1000 meters

200 meters

en

ta

Louisa Reef

l

Pulau Mengalum

Scale 1: 2,700,000
6 0 0 0 20 20 20 40 40 Nautical Miles 110 112 40 60 60 Statute Miles 60 80 100 80 100 80 100

sh

el

f

Saracen Bank

Pulau Gaya

M a l ay s i a
Kota Kinabalu

Teluk Labuk
6

Lubuklinggau

Palembang
Perabumulih

Sela tG

Water Depth

nt

Tanjungpandan Belitung

Ceram Sea
Namlea

in

Pulau Lepar

I n d o n e s ia
Kendari
Pulau Wawonii

Banjarmasin Banjarbaru
Pulau Laut

Friendship Shoal Hardie Reef NORTH LUCONIA SHOALS Moody Reef Tripp Reef

Kilometers

cl

Aitken Reef Buck Reef

ai

Pulau Sebuku

m
1958 British boundary

WINCHESTER SHOALS

Pulau Tiga

Sandakan

Pulau Baai

Bengkulu

Seahorse Breakers

114

116

118

Indian Ocean

Java Sea
Widuri Marine Terminal 110

Parepare

Teluk Bone

Banda Sea

Pulau Buru

Pulau Buton
120

Boundary representation is not necessarily authoritative. Names in Vietnam are shown without diacritical marks.

803426AI (G02284) 1-10

803425AI (G02257) 1-10