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Changes in language teaching methods throughout history have reflected recognition of changes
in the kind of proficiency learners need.



o Overall [lan for the o Set of correlative o Implementational
prderly presentation assumptions dealing (actually takes place
CHARACTERIST of language material with the nature of in the classroom)
ICS (all of which is based language teaching o Stratagem used to
upon the selected and learning accomplish an
approach) o Axiomatic immediate objective
o Procedural o Describes the nature o Must be consistent
o Within one approach of the subject matter with method and
there can be several to be taught therefore in
methods (Anthony, (Anthony, 1963) harmony with an
1963) approach as well
(Anthony, 1963)
Level at which theory
o o Level at which o Level at which
is put into practice assumption and classroom procedure
LEVELS and at which choices beliefs about is described
are made about the language and (Anthony, 1963)
particular skills and language learning are
content to be taught, specified (Anthony,
order in which content 1963)
will be presented
(Anthony, 1963)


THEORY OF o Structural view (language is a system of structurally related elements for the
LANGUAGE coding of meaning)
• Audiolingual Method
• Silent Way
o Functional view (language is a vehicle for the expression of functional
meaning; emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension rather
than the merely grammatical characteristics of language)
o Interactional view(language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal
relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals)
• “Students achieve facility in using a language when their attention is
focused on conveying and receiving authentic messages” (Rivers, 1987)
• Task-Based Language Teaching
• Content-Based Instruction
• Cooperative Language Learning
THEORY OF • Responds to 2 questions:
LANGUAGE o What are the psychologlinguistic & cognitive processes involved in
LEARNING language learning?
o What are the conditions that need to be met in order for these learning
process to be activated?
• Process Oriented Theories (built on learning processes such as habit
formation, induction, inference, hypothesis testing & generalization)
• Condition Oriented Theories (emphasize the nature of human & physical
context in which language learning takes place)
• Monitor Model (Dr. Krashen)
o Addresses both the process and the condition dimension of learning
o “Monitor is the repository of conscious grammatical knowledge about a
language that is learned through formal instruction & that is called upon
in the editing of utterances produced through the acquired system”
o Acquisition- natural assimilation of language rules through using
language for communication
o Learning- formal study of language rules and is a conscious process
• Natural Approach (Tracy D. Terrell)
o method derived primarily from a learning theory rather than a particular
view of language
• Counseling Learning ( Charles A. Curran)
o Focuses primarily on the conditions necessary for successful learning
o believes the atmosphere of the classroom is crucial factor
o seeks to ameliorate the feelings of intimidation and in securing the many
learners experience
• Total Physical Response (James Asher)
o derives primarily form a learning theory rather than from a theory of the
nature of language
o addresses both the process and condition aspects of learning
o based on the belief that child language learning is based on motor
activity, on coordinating language with action, and that this should form
the basis of adult foreign language teaching
• Silent Way (Caleb Gattegno)
o built around a theory of the conditions necessary for successful learning
to be realized
DESIGN • Level of method analysis in which we consider:
o Objectives of the method
o Selection and organization of language content
o Types of learning tasks and teaching activities advocated
o Roles of learners
o Roles of teachers
o Role of instructional materials
OBJECTIVES • Product of design, not of approach
CONTENT • Involves the use of the target language
CHOICE & • Involves overt or covert decisions concerning the selection of language items
ORGANIZATI that are to be used within a course or method
ON • Decisions about the choice of language content relate to both subject matter
and linguistic matter
TYPES OF • Differences among methods at the level of approach manifest themselves on
LEARNING & the choice of different kinds of learning and teaching activities in the
TEACHING classroom
LEARNER • Instructional system will be considerably influenced by how learners are
ROLES regarded
TEACHER • Similarly related ultimately both to assumptions about language and
ROLES language learning at the level of approach
ROLE OF • Specified with respect to objectives, content, learning activities, and learner
INST. and teacher roles for materials within the system
MATERIALS • Reflect decisions concerning the primary goal of materials, the form of
materials, the relation of materials to other sources of input, and the abilities
of teachers
BACKGROUN o Harold Palmer and A.S. Hornby- o Leonard Bloomfield
D leaders in this movement o “Informant Method” or “Army
o Systematic study of the principles & Method”
procedures that could be applied to o Innovative mainly in terms of the
the selection & organization of the procedures used & the intensity of
content of a language course teaching rather than in terms of its
(Palmer, 1917) underlying theory
o ASPECTS: o Language was taught by the
• Vocabulary control systematic attention to
 Vocabulary was seen as an pronunciation and by intensive oral
essential component of reading drilling of its basic sentence
proficiency patterns
 Frequency counts showed that a o A lesson began with work on
core of 2000 or so words pronunciation, morphology,
occurred frequently in written grammar; followed by drills and
text and that a knowledge of exercise
these words would greatly o Pattern Practice- basic classroom
assist in reading a foreign technique
language o Commonsense application of the
• Grammar Control idea: Practice makes perfect
 Palmer had emphasized the o Combination of structural linguistic
problems of grammar for the theory, contrastive analysis, aural-
foreign learner oral procedures and behaviorist
 Palmer viewed grammar as the psychology
underlying sentence patterns o Provided methodological foundation
of the spoken language for materials for the teaching of
foreign languages at the college
and university level in the US and
o DISTINCT FEATURES: (Finnochiaro,
• Attends to structure & form more
than meaning
• Demand memorization of
structure-based dialogue
• Language items are not
necessarily contextualized
• Language learning is learning
structures, sounds or words
• Mastery is sought
• Drilling is central technique
• Native-like pronunciation is
• Grammatical explanation is
• Communicative activities only
come after a long process of
rigid drills and exercises
• Translation & use of student’s
native language is forbidden
• Reading & writing are deferred
till speech is mastered
• Target linguistic system will be
learned through the overt
teaching of the patterns of the
• Linguistic competence is the
desired goal
• Varieties of language are
recognized but not emphasized
• Sequence of units is solely by
principles of linguistic complexity
• Teacher controls the learners &
prevent them from doing
anything that conflicts with the
• “Language is habit” , errors must
be prevented
BACKGROU o James Asher- sees successful adult o Caleb Gattegno
ND second language learning as a o Base on the premise that the
parallel process to child first teacher should be silent as much as
language acquisition possible & the classroom but the
• Claims that speech directed to learner should be encouraged to
young children consists primarily of produce as much language as
command, w/c children respond to possible
physically before they begin to
produce verbal responses
o Built around the coordination of
speech & action
o Attempts to teach language through
physical (motor) activity
o Method that is undemanding in terms
of linguistic production & involves
gamelike movements reduces learner
stress & creates a positive mood in
the learner w/c facilitates learning
APPROACH o Grammar-based view of language • LEARNING HYPOTHESES
o Asher views the verb, particularly o Learning is facilitated of the
imperative verb, as the central learner discovers or creates
linguistic motif around w/c language rather than remembers & repeats
use & learning are organized what is to be learned
o Stimulus Response View- provides  Benefits derived from
the learning theory “Discovery Learning”
o “Trace Theory”-linked to TPR, of (Bruner, 1966)
memory in psychology; the more  Increase intellectual potency
often or intensively a memory  Shift from extrinsic to intrinsic
connection is traced, the stronger the rewards
memory association will be & the  Learning of heuristic
more likely will be recalled discovering
o (INFLUENTIAL) LEARNING  Aid to conserving memory
HYPOTHESES- o Learning is facilitated by
• There exist a specific bio-program accompanying (mediating)
for language learning physical objects
 3 Bio-Program Process:  Rods & Fidel Charts- provide
 Children develop listening physical foci for learners
competence before they develop o Learning is facilitated by problem
the ability to speak solving involving the material to
 Because children are required to be learned
respond physically, their  Related to a set of premise
listening comprehension ability that we have called “problem-
is acquired solving approaches to
 Speech evolves naturally & learning”
effortlessly once listening
comprehension foundation is
• Brain lateralization defines
different learning functions in the
left & right brain hemisphere
 Directed to right brain learning;
language through motor
 Similarly, adult should proceed
to language mastery through
right-hemisphere motor
activities, while the left-
hemisphere watches & learns
• Stress intervenes between the act
of learning & what is to be learned
 Stress Reduction- absence of
 Language acquisition takes
place in a stress-free
THEORY OF • Requires initial attention to meaning • Successful learning involves
LANGUAGE rather than to the form of items commitment of the self to language
acquisition through the use of silent
awareness & then active trial
• Focus on the self of the learner,
BACKGROU o Charles A. Curan o Georgi Lasonov-
ND • His application of psychological o Specific set of learning
counseling techniques to learning is recommendations derived from
known as Counseling-Learning Suggestology
o Derives its primary insights, & indeed o “science…concerned with as
its organizing rationale from Rogerian systematic study of the motivational
Counseling (Rogers 1951) and/or nonconscious influence”
o Draws on the counseling metaphor to (Stevick, 1976)
redefinine the roles of the teacher & o most conspicuous characteristics:
learners in language classroom decoration, furniture, and
o Humanistic technique arrangement of classroom
o “Blend what the students feels, o uses Music Therapy
thinks & knows w/ what he is o 3 Functions of Music Therapy:
learning in the target language.” • facilitate the establishment &
(Moskowitz, 1978) maintenance of personal relations
o engage the whole person including • bring about increased self-esteem
the emotions & feelings as well as • use unique potential of rhythm to
linguistic knowledge & behavior skills energize & bring order
APPROACH o La Forge goes beyond the • Emphasis on memorization of
structuralist view of language and vocabulary pairs
elaborates an alternative theory of
language which is referred to as • Refers to language to be learned as
“Language as Social Process” “material”
o “Language is people; language is • Suggestion is at the heart of this
persons in contact; language is theory
persons in response” (La Forge, • PRINCIPAL THEORITICAL
o 2 FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS: o Authority- people remember & are
• Interaction between Learners- most influence by information
unpredictable in content but coming from an authoritative
typically are said to involve source
exchange of affect; the desire to be o Infantilization- suggest a teacher-
part of the growing intimacy pushes student relation like parent to a
learners to keep pace with the child
learning of their peers o Double-Planedness- learners also
• Interaction between Learns and learns from the environment
Knowers- initially are dependent where learning takes place
o Intonation, Rhythm & Concert
Pseudo-Passiveness- varying tone
& rhythm of presented material
helps both to avoid boredom ;
intonation & rhythm are
coordinated w/the musical
background; induce a relax
THEORY OF • Consensual Validation or Covalidation •
LANGUAGE is considered essential in to the
learning process & key element of
CLL classroom procedures
THEORY OF • View learning as a holistic one, since •
LEARNING “true” human learning is both
cognitive & affective; “whole-person
• Five Stages:
o “Birth” Stage- feelings of security
& belonging are established
o learner as a child- begins to
achieve a measure of
independence from the parent
o learner “speaks independently” &
may need to assert his or her own
o learner is secure enough to take
o learner merely works on
improving style & knowledge of
linguistic appropriateness
• Requirements for Successful Learning
o Security
BACKGROU o Howard Gardner-argues that all o Competency Based Education-
ND humans have these intelligences, but education movement that focuses
people differ in strengths & on the outcomes or outputs of
combinations of intelligences learning
o Learner-based philosophy that o Competency-Based Language
characterizes human intelligence as Teaching
having multiple dimensions that must • Designed not around the notions
be acknowledged and developed in of subject knowledge but around
education the notion of
o Learners are viewed as possessing competency(Docking, 1994)
individual styles, preferences or • A syllabus & course content are
intelligences developed around the subject
o Gardner claims that his view of • Objectives may be specified but
intelligences is culture-free & avoid usually have little role in teaching
conceptual narrowness usually or referencing
associated with traditional models of • Student assessment is usually
intelligences based on norm referencing
o 8 Native Intelligences:
• Competency- description of the
• Linguistic essential skills, knowledge,
• Logical/Mathematical attitudes & behaviors required for
• Spatial effective performance of the real-
• Musical world task or activity
• Bodily/Kinesthetic o
• Interpersonal
• Intrapersonal
• Naturalistic
APPROACH o Looks at the language of the o EIGHT KEY FEATUIRES OF CBE:
individual, including one or more • Focus on Successful Functioning
second languages, not as an “added in society- enable students to
on” & somewhat peripheral skill but become autonomous individuals
as central to the whole life of the capable of coping w/ the
language learner & user demands of the world
• Focus on life skills- teaches
language as a function of
• Task or Performance-Centered
Orientation- what counts is what
students can do as a result of
• Modularized Instruction-
“Language learning is broken
down into manageable &
immediately meaningful chunks
(Center for Applied Linguistics,
• Explicit Outcomes are Priority-
specified in terms of behavioral
• Continuous & Ongoing
Assessment- program evaluation
is based tests results
• Demonstrated Mastery of
Performance Objectives-
assessment is based on the
ability to demonstrate
prespecified behaviors
• Individualized, Student-Centered
THEORY OF • MI proponents believe that there is •
LANGUAGE more to language than what is
usually subsumed under rubric
• Language has its ties to life through
• Senses provide accompaniment &
context for linguistic message that
give it meaning & purpose
THEORY OF • there exist a cluster of mental •
BACKGROU o Partly a response to the sorts of • Tracy Terell(1977)- attempt to
ND criticism the prominent American develop a language teaching
linguist Noam Chomsky had leveled proposal that incorporated the
at structural linguistic theory “naturalistic” principles researchers
o Proponents saw the need to focus in had identified in studies of second
language teaching on communicative language acquisition
proficiency rather than on mere • Stephen Krasehen- elaborated the
mastery of structures theoretical rationale of Natural
o D.A. Wilkins (1972)- proposed a Approach
functional or communicative • Place less emphasis on teacher
definition of langue that could serve monologues, direct repetition and
as basis for developing formal question and answers
communicative syllabuses for • Less focus on accurate production
language teaching of target language sentences
• Described 2 types of meaning: • Emphasis on input rather than
 Notional Categories- time, practice
sequence, quantity, location,
 Categories of Communicative
• Make communicative competence
the goal of language teaching
• Develop procedures for the
teaching of the four language skills
that acknowledge the
interdependence of language &
o “One of the most characteristic of
communicative language teaching is
that it pays systematic attention to
functional as well as structural
aspects of language.” (littlewood,
o Strong Version of CLT (advances the
claim that language is acquired
through communication, so that it is
not merely a question of activating
an existing but inert knowledge of
the language but of stimulating
development of the language
system) and Weak Version of CLT
(stresses the importance of providing
learners w. opportunities to use their
English for communicative purposes
& characteristically attempts to
integrate such activities into a wider
program of language teaching),
o Firth stressed that language needed
to be studied in the broader
sociocultural context of its use, which
include participants, their behavior,
their beliefs, the objects of linguistic
discussion & word choice
o Learner-centered & experience-based
view of the second language
o Teachers are encouraged to develop
materials “on the basis of the
particular needs manifested by the
class” (Applebee, 1974)
o DISTINCT FEATURES: (Finnochiaro,
• Meaning is paramount
• Dialogues, if sued, center around
communicative functions, not
normally memorized
• Contextualization is basic premise
• Effective communication is sought
BACKGROU o makes maximum use of cooperative • Teaching is organized around the
ND activities involving pairs and small content or information that students
groups of learners in classroom will acquire, rather than around a
o group learning activity organizes so linguistic or other type of syllabus
that learning is dependent on the • “If any word in English language is
socially structured exchange of hot, buzzworthy and finger-
information (Olsen & Kagan, 1992) snappingly with it, surpassing even
o provide opportunities for naturalistic millennium in both general
2nd language acquisition through the discourse and insideres that word is
use of interactive pair/ group content” (William Safire, New York
activities Times, 1998)
o provide teachers with a methodology • Content-Refers to the substance or
to enable them to achieve goal & one subject matter that we learn or
that can be applied to a variety of communicate through language
curriculum rather than the language used to
o enable focused attention to particular convey it
lexical items, language structures • St. Augustine- early proponent of
and communicative functions thru Content-Based Language Teaching
interactive tasks as proposed by Brinton, Snow and
o enhance learner motivation & reduce Wesche (1989)
learner stress • “Language that is being taught
could be used to present subject
matter and students would learn
the language as a by-product of
learning about the real-world
content “ (Widdowson, 1978)
o Immersion Education- type of
foreign language instruction in
which the regular school
curriculum is taught through the
medium of foreign language
o Immigrant On-Arrival Programs-
focus on the language newly
arrived immigrant in a country
need for survival
o Program for Students with
Limited English Proficiency
(SLEP)- governmentally
mandated programs to serve
especially those children whose
parents might be served by the
on-arrival programs, more
generally designed to provide in-
class or pullout instruction for
any school-age children whose
language competence is
insufficient to participate fully in
normal school instruction
o Language for Specific Purposes
(LSP)- movement that seeks to
serve the language needs of
learners who need language in
order to carry out specific roles
APPROACH • • Two Central Principle:
o People learn a second language
more successfully when they use
the language as a means of
acquiring information, rather
than as an end in itself
o Content-based instruction better
reflects needs for learning
second language
THEORY OF • Premise 1: “all normal children • Language is text and discourse-
LANGUAGE growing up in a normal environment based- vehicle for learning content;
learn to talk. We are born to talk…we focus on teaching is how meaning &
may think of ourselves as having information are communicated and
been programmed to talk… constructed through text &
communication is generally discourse
BACKGROU • refers to an approach based on the • “Prussian Method”
ND use of tasks as the core unit of • PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS
planning and instruction of language o To learn language in order to
• proposes the notion of “task” as a read its literature or in order to
central unit of planning and teaching benefit from the mental
• aimed to provide learners with a discipline & intellectual
natural content of language use development that result from
• “The central purpose we are foreign language study
concerned with this language o Reading & writing are major
learning, and task present this in the focus
form of problem-solving negotiation o Vocabulary selection is based
between knowledge that the learners solely on the reading texts used,
old and new knowledge.” ( Candlin and words are taught through
and Murphy, 1987) bilingual word lists, dictionary
• THEORITICAL BACKGROUND: study and memorization
o Psycholinguistic Perspective- task o Sentence is the basic unit of
is a device that guides learners to teaching and language practice
engage in certain types of o Accuracy is emphasized
information processing that are o Grammar is taught deductively
believed too important for effective o Student’s native language is
language use for language medium of instruction
acquisition and using mental
processing that is beneficial to
o Interaction Hypothesis - meaning
negotiation can contribute to
o Cognitive Approach- constructs
both exemplar-based system and
rule-based system wherein lexical
items and formulaic chunks of
language contribute to fluency,
accuracy and complexity.
o Constructivism- learners learn in
ways that are meaningful to them,
they learn better if they feel in
control of what they are learning,
learning is closely linked to how
people feel about themselves, and
learning takes place in a social
context through interaction with
other people.
o orientation function (processes for
generating and distributing
information necessary to task
accomplishment to team
o organizational functions
(processes necessary for
members to coordinate actions
necessary for task performance)
o adaptation functions (processes
occurring as team members adapt
their performance to each other to
complete the task)
o motivational functions (defining
team objectives and “energizing
the group” to complete the task)

APPROACH • • Laid foundations for the
development of new ways of
teaching languages and raise
controversies that have continued
to the present day
• General Reformers Believed That:
o Spoken language is primary and
that this should be reflected in
an oral-based methodology
EDL 201 – Applied Linguistics for Communication Arts

University of the Philippines – Visayas

Iloilo City