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Fluid Properties (Density Viscosity)

Problem 1:

The °API curve as a function of specific gravity (or density) is not linear, but for a small range of density, it can be approximated as linear. For an oil with °API in the range of thirties, about what change in °API do you expect from a change in density of 0.01 g/cm 3 ?

SOLUTION

Given:

°API = 30

dSG = 0.01

no temperature was specified to convert from density to SG

Find: d°API

Procedure:

  API  141.5  131.5 SG SG  141.5  API  131.5  30 API   SG  0.876

d API

d API
dSG
141.5
2
SG



SG 0.876

dSG

SG

0.876

dSG



141.5

(.876)

2

(0.01)

1.84

As a rule of thumb, it is expected that for every 0.01g/cm3 increase in density there will be a decrease of about 2 °API

Problem 2:

The density of pure water is temperature dependent.

PETR2311 Homework

a) At what temperature does water have its maximum density?

b) What is the specific gravity of water at that temperature to four significant figures?

c) What is the °API of water at its maximum density to three significant figures?

SOLUTION:

a) 4 °C

b) From the lecture on Fluid Properties Slide 4 (From The Physics Factbook by Glenn Elert (http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2007/AllenMa.shtml) referencing Lide, D. R. (Ed.) (1990). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (70th Edn.). Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press.) Interpolating from their Table 4.

Given:

T = 4°C

Find:

Specific Gravity (SG) of water at 4°C

Procedure:

Specific Gravity of a Fluid ≡ (Density of Fluid)/(Density of water at 60°F) by definition

Density of water at 4°C = 1.000

Density of water at 60°F (~15.6°C) = 0.999

Specific Gravity of water at 4°C = 1.000/0.999 = 1.001

c)

  API  141.5  131.5 SG 141.5  131.5 API    9.859 1.001

Problem 3:

It is a rainy day in Houston. You are a poor student (or TA or professor) with an old car that has

bald tires. You are traveling at 60 miles/hour and you slam on the brakes (i.e., your wheels are no longer turning. Assume there is a layer of pure water 0.1 mm thick between your tires and the

road, i.e., the rubber is not meeting the road. Assume each of your tires contacts the water layer over a rectangle 10 cm wide and 15 cm long.

a) How much braking force (in lbs) can you expect?

PETR2311 Homework

b) You are always told to keep your tires well inflated. In fact, to get lower rolling friction and better mileage, many experts advise over-inflating your tire somewhat. Does over- inflating help or hurt your wet braking in this problem?

c) Would harder rain have helped or hurt?

d) Since safety is paramount, list two practical actions you could take to improve your chance of survival and how they relate to the study of viscosity.

SOLUTION

Given:

v = 60 mi/hr

Fluid = water

Fluid thickness = 0.1 mm

Area of tires = 4(10cm)(15cm)

a)

Find: Braking force in lbs

Procedure: Couette flow between parallel plates

Assume viscosity of pure water.

F

F

F

dv

dy

dv

dy

A

(1

cP

)

1.61

(60

mi

/

hr

)

(0.1

mm

10

6

dynes

)

(600

2

cm

)



 1 P  5280 ft   12 in   2.54 cm  1 hr  10 mm 100 cP   mi    ft    in   3600sec   cm

1.61

10

6

dynes

444823

dynes

/

lb

3.6

lbs

b)



Over-inflating leads to less area of tire on the water layer which in turn leads to less viscous force. Of course, you have so little force that you are probably going to die anyway.

 c) If the harder rain leads to a thicker water layer, then the viscous force will again be reduced, and

PETR2311 Homework

d)

From the equation for Couette flow, you could

ii. Make the water layer thinner. That is one purpose of tread on the tires, i.e., get new tires

Of course, even better is to remove yourself from the Couette flow regime by having rubber contact the road rather than rubber contacting a water layer. Again, tread on the tires attempts to break through the water layer. The frictional force of rubber on concrete is many orders of magnitude higher than these viscous forces.

Problem 4:

You are paddling a flat bottom boat at a constant speed on a still lake. The water is shallow near the shore and deeper in the middle of the lake.

a) Look at the Couette flow equation. What does the equation say about the effort of paddling as you go from shallow water to deep water?

b) What would you conclude about paddling in the ocean on a still day?

d) What is wrong? Or, said another way, when is the Couette flow equation applicable?

SOLUTION

a) Blindly applying the Couette flow equation would say that as you go from shallow to deep water at a constant velocity would reduce the velocity gradient and consequently reduce the shear that must be supplied by your paddling effort.

b) Blindly applying the Couette flow equation as you paddle in the ocean (great depth) would say that almost no effort is required to keep the boat moving, or alternately, with the same effort you could go very, very fast.

c) Of course, the conclusions of applying the Couette equation blindly are nonsense.

d) The Couette equation is applicable in the limit of very thin fluid layers and very slow velocities leading to laminar flow. Flow in thick fluid layers or at fast velocities is significantly more complicated.

Problem 5:

A simple viscometer can be constructed as in the drawing. A mass of 10 g pulls a block of mass 1 kg on a thin layer of oil of thickness 0.1 mm. The dimensions of the block are height 10 cm, length in the plane of the picture 20 cm and width into the picture 10 cm.

PETR2311 Homework

L
H
M
Oil thickness = h
m

a. If the block moves to the left with a velocity of 10 cm/sec, what is the viscosity of the oil in cP?

b. If the mass on the pulley were increased to 100kg, would this method of measuring viscosity still be appropriate? Why or why not?

The actual measurements of the velocity (in cm/sec) were 10, 10.1, 9.8, 9.9 and 10.1.

c. What is the best estimate of the viscosity in cP?

d. What is the uncertainty in the estimate of the viscosity in cP?

SOLUTION:

 Givens: shown in drawing Find:  Procedure: F dv A   dy F   A dv dy F  mg dv v  dy h A  LW    mgh LWv

b)

2

(10 g)(980cm/sec )(0.1 mm)

(20 cm)(10 cm)(10 cm/sec)

 

0.049Poise

4.9cP

1cm

10mm

PETR2311 Homework

If the mass of the pulley is very large (100 kg) then the masses will accelerate violating the constant velocity assumption of the Couette flow in the definition of the viscosity. Consequently, this calculation method would be inappropriate.

c)

Given: v

Find:

best

10, 10.1, 9.8, 9.9,10.1 cm/sec

Procedure:

best

v

best

best

best

(

v

best

)

n

 { mean v i }   v i n i  1 10  10.1  9.8  9.9  10.1 5

1

cm / sec

 9.98 cm / sec (10 g )(980 cm 2 / sec )(0.1 mm )  (20 cm )(10 cm )(9.98 cm / sec)  

1 cm

10

mm

4.91 cP

d)

Given: v Find: 

Procedure:

10, 10.1, 9.8, 9.9,10.1cm/sec


v
v
v
best
n
1
2
v
standard deviation{ }
v
v
v
)
 (
i
i
best
n  1
i  1
best
mgh
mgh
 
best
 

2
 v
LWv
LWv
v
best
v
best
v
best
2
2
2
2
2
(10 -9.98)
(10.1-9.98)
(9.8-9.98)
(9.9 -9.98)
(10.1-9.98)
 v 
cm
4
best
(4.91
cP
)

9.98
cm / sec
(4.91
cP
)

(0.13
cm / sec)
9.98
cm / sec

0.064 cP

/ sec

0.13

cm

/ sec

PETR2311 Homework

Problem 6:

A fluid of viscosity µ is flowing between parallel plates (see figure) where the distance between the upper plate and the bottom plate is b. The bottom plate is moving with a velocity of U 1 and upper plate is moving with a velocity U 2 . The dimensions of each of the plate are L and W and the pressure drop across ΔP.

a) Derive the symbolic relationship for the velocity profile. Use the above symbols.

b) Derive the symbolic relationship for the volumetric flow rate between the two plates.

c) Derive the symbolic relationship for the average velocity of the fluid through the two plates.

d) Derive the position as well as the value of the maximum velocity.

e) Sketch on a graph, the velocity profile with velocity on the x-axis and y on the y-axis. The sketch curve should show important points with the symbolic values. Such as the velocities at the boundaries and the position of the maximum velocity.

SOLUTION:

a)

PETR2311 Homework

A
 WL
F
dv
y
0

y
0
WL
dy
y
0
dv
F

dy
WL
y
0
y
0
F
dv
y
dy
0

y
0
dy
WL
dy
y
dy
0
dv
F

y
 dy
0
dy
WL
y
dy
0
F

PW
dy
ext
Sum the forces on a slab:
0
F
F
F
 F
ext
y
y
 dy
0
0
dv
0

PW
dy
WL
 WL
dy
y
dy
y
0
0
Sum the forces on a slab:
dv
0 
PW
dy
 WL
 WL
dy
y
dy
y
0
0
2
dv
dv
(
y
)
d
v
(
y
)
0 
PW
dy
WL
2
dy
dy
dy
y
y
0
0

y

0

dy

2
dv
dv
d
v
(
y
)
0 
PW
dy

WL
WL
2
dy
dy
dy
y
y
0
0
2
dv
dv
d
v
(
y
)
0 
Pdy

L
L
Ld y
2
dy
dy
dy
y
y
y
0
0
0
2
d
v
(
y
)
0
 
P
L
2
dy
y
0

y

0

Since this balance is true

y

between the plates ,
0

the differential equation for v y

(

0

P

d

2

v

(

y

)

L

dy

2

) is

with B C v

.

.

(0)

U

1

and v b

(

)

U

2

    WL   dy  WL

PETR2311 Homework

Solve

0

P

d

2

v

(

y

)

L

dy

2

with B C v

.

.

(0)

d

2

v

(

y

)

dy

2



P

L

U

1

Integrate once:

dv

(

y

)

dy



P

L

y

C

1

and v b

(

)

Integrate once more:

v

(

b)

y

) 

P

2

L

2

y

C y

1

C

2

U

2

The velocity profile is given by:

v

P

2

   U

2

U

1

Pb  

L

2

(

y

) 

2

L

y

b

y

U

1

Flow through a thin layer

dQ

v

(

y

)

dA

Q

c)

v

b

0

(

y Wdy

)

P

2

L

y

P

2

L

2

y

2

U

2

U

1

Pb

b

2

L

y

U

2

U

1

Pb

b

2

L

y

U

1

U

1

Wdy

Wdy

P

6

L

3

y

U

2

U

1

Pb

y

2

b

2

L

2

U y

1

Pb

3

6

L

U

2

U

1

Pb b

2

b

2

L

2

U

1

Pb

3

Pb

3

U

2

U

1

b

6

L

4

L

2

Pb

3

U

2

U

1

b

12

L

2

W

U b

1

b

W

W

W

b

0

Apply first BC:

v

v

(0)

(0)

U

U

1

1



P

0

2

2

L

C

2

C

1

0

C

2

Apply second BC:

v b

(

)

U

2



P

2

L

b

C

1

U

2

U

1

Pb

b

2

L

2

C b

1

U

1

Therefore, thefullequation:

v

(

y

) 

P

2

L

2

y

U

2

U

1

Pb

b

2

L

y

U

1

PETR2311 Homework

Q
Q
v 
A
Wb
 Pb
3 
 U
b 
W
U 2
1
12
 L
2
Wb
 Pb
2 
U
 U
2
1
12
L
2

d)

The velocity profile is given by:

v

P

2

   U

2

U

1

Pb  

2

L

(

y

) 

2

L

y

b

y

U

1

And the maximum is when

dv

(

y

)

dy

dv

(

y

)

dy

0



P

L

y

U

2

U

1

Pb

b

2

L

y

y

extreme

extreme

Pb

U

2

U

1

b

2

L

P

L

U

2

U

1

L

b

b

P

2

Check for maxima

d

2

v

(

y

)

d

2

dy

v

2

(

y

)

dy

2

0



P

L

0

0

Hence the maximum value is:

PETR2311 Homework

v

(

y

) 

P

y

2

U

2

U

1

Pb

y

U



2

L

P

U

2

U

1

b

L

2

L

b

2

U

2

1

U

1

Pb

U

2

U

1

L

b



2

L

P

U

b

2

U

P

1

L

2

2

b

2

b

b

U

2

2

U

1

L



L

b

P

2

2

L

U

2

U

1

b

P

2

U

2

4

U

1

b

b

Pb

P

L

Pb b

U



 

U

b

2

U

1

L

P

2

 

L

b

2

P

2

b

2

2

P

L

P

b

U

2

2

L

2

U

1

L

P

1

U

2

b

U

1

 

P

2

L

U

2

2

U

1

4

b

2

L

Pb

L

b

P

Pb b

2

U

 



b

U

2

b

U

1

 

U

2

1

P

2

 

 

L

2

P

b



2

b

2

P

8

L

b

2

L U

U

2

1



b

2

L

U

2

2

b

b

P

U

1

Pb

2

2

L

U

2

1



U

b

U

2

U

1

2

P

L

b

Pb

2





U

2

2

2

U

1

4

L

U

2

U

1

2

1

L

U

U

U

2

b

U

1

2

2

L

P

8

Pb

2

L

U

1

2

U

2

b

P

2

1

b

2

P

8

L

2

U

1

Pb

2

4

L

U

1