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Advanced Bus Transfer and Load Shedding Applications with IEC61850

Tony Zhao Powell Electrical Systems, Inc.

Lubomir Sevov Craig Wester GE Digital Energy Multilin

Texas A&M 64th Relay Conference April 13, 2011, College Station, Texas, USA

IEC61850 What is GOOSE?


IEC61850: Substation Communication Standard: one technology, one standard, one world for substation communications. Ethernet network based communications between IEC61850 compatible devices No serial (RS232, RS485, RS422, etc.) communication, no RTU Every manufacturer follows the same rules, universal self-descriptive tag addressing

IEC61850 Why do we use GOOSE?


Replace the conventional hard wiring connections between IEDs Reducing wiring complexity Lower installation cost Cost saving by eliminating hard wiring, and sometimes even eliminating hardwire components.
Substation Controller(s) to EMS/DCS or SCADA system (if needed)

HMI Computer

Communications between IEDs are through Ethernet switches; always use Ethernet TCP/IP, not serial RTU. VLAN and priority need to be setup in the Ethernet switches
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IEC61850 GOOSE, How fast?


Example: Trip/Open a CB connected to Relay 2 from Relay 1 through GOOSE messaging
The time needed for tripping/opening 52 breaker with different technologies:

Station LAN GOOSE Message Trip/Open command

Hardwire control relay output: about 12ms Legacy device communications: about 500ms GOOSE with IEC61850 capable relays: LAN response time: 2-4ms Relay 1 response time: 2 ms Relay 2 response time: 2 ms Add input recognition time: 0-2ms Add output operation time: 2-4ms Total: 8-14ms
IEC61850 Capable Relay 1

IEC61850 Capable Relay 2


Output

Ethernet Switch

52 Breaker

GOOSE messaging Industrial applications


Bus transfer between incoming sources Trip zone interlocking Under frequency/Under voltage load shedding Load management in case of source capacity changes Arc flash signal initiate to a fast trip of incoming power source Publish a trip message to all feeder breakers Relay setting group change Breaker reclose initiation Transfer tripping Breaker failure initiate (BFI) to other breakers Fast bus trip scheme

GOOSE messaging
SOURCE 1 DOUBLE-ENDED MTM SUBSTATION PROTECTION, CONTROL AND METERING CURRENTLY TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT

Bus transfer in a double-ended sub


SOURCE 2 Tx 1 Tx 2

LINE 1

LINE 2
3PH

52M1
NC

52M2
NC

BUS 1 FEEDERS on Bus 1


NO Note: 1. 10-Switch is hardwired or wired to Relay 3, 4 and 5 input 2. Load shed, if needed, is hardwired. 3. Popular relay based scheme transfer scheme for Relay 3, 4 and 5: By SEL 3xSEL-351s, Relay communications are through mirror bit. By GE 3xSR750, no relay communication, everything is hardwired. 4. If not using relays for MTM transfer, a PLC is needed to be programmed do the MTM transfer logic. 5. For HRG system, need hard wire to block transfer or block closing if GF on both sides

BUS 2 FEEDERS on Bus 2

GOOSE messaging
SOURCE 1

New approach: Use 2 relays to do it all!

Bus transfer in a double-ended sub


SOURCE 2

Tx1

Tx 2

LINE 2

LINE 1
3PH D or Y

3PH CT INPUT

1PH 3PH PT CT INPUT INPUT

3PH D or Y

NC

NC

52M1

52M2

BUS 1 FEEDERS ON BUS 1


NO

BUS 2 FEEDERS ON BUS 2

Bus transfer in a double-ended sub Communications setup Method 1: Direct fiber connection
----Pros:
Simple No need for network switch, cost saving. Easy to add other relays/IEDs through fiber expansion for GOOSE to other relays/IEDs from the same manufacturer.

----Cons:
Less Flexibility. Fiber ports may take the place where other module can not be added, resulting in less I/Os. Difficult to add other relays through fiber expansion for GOOSE to other relays/IEDs from other manufacturers. Link: Fiber Direct Connection Example

Bus transfer in a double-ended sub Communications setup Method 2: Add Ethernet switches
SOURCE 1 SOURCE 2

Tx 1

Tx 2

LINE 1
PORT 2

LINE 2

52M1
NC

52M2
NC

BUS 1 FEEDERS ON BUS 1

52T
NO

BUS 2 FEEDERS ON BUS 2

GOOSE communication-assisted Bus transfer in a double-ended sub Requirements for the Relays

CT input

Three groups of three-phase CT inputs for 87T, 50/51 (50G/51G) for incomers, 50/51 (50G/51G) for tie protection One group of single-phase CT inputs for 51G at transformer Y secondary for transformer neutral protection if it is not HRG system 1 group of three-phase PT on the line 1 group of single-phase PT on the bus Main breaker closing 25 is done by line PT and bus PT sync check and voltage permissive Bus 1 PT in Relay 1 and Bus 2 PT in Relay 2 are used for tie breaker manual closing (with 10-Switch function) 25 sync check DIs must be hard wired in: 52A, TOC, HRG GF, transformer trip signals, etc. DIs may be hard wired in or may be from GOOSE, PB or VI (or RB): Auto/Manual selection, 94T, 10Switch, CS/C, CS/O, etc. DOs: Close and open/trip commands for each breaker. It is better to have trip circuit monitoring capability also Used for protection: 87T, 50/51 for lines, 50/51 for bus, 51G for TX Y secondary, 27, 59 Used for control: 27 line to initiate transfer, NOT27 line for source healthy (the other line), 25

PT input

Enough available terminals to handle needed digital inputs and digital outputs

Protection elements Comprehensive logic capability Communication capability for substation automation and integration, particularly GOOSE capability to get DI and AI data values from the remote relay Other features nice to have: Event, waveform, force contact input, virtual input (remote bit) and force contact output for easy testing propose 10

IEC61850 GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub

Use two relays to do everything

Metering Protection Control Other These relays are super relays!


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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: Metering and protection

Metering

Incoming line Voltage, magnitude and angle, each phase Current, magnitude and angle, each phase Frequency Power

Power, Active Power P Reactive Power Q Apparent Power S

Power factor 87T, main protection element 50/51 (50G/51G) for transformer primary 50/51 (50G/51G) for transformer secondary 51G for transformer Y sec neutral protection 27 line and bus (also for control purpose)

Protection

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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: Control


Manual breaker operations Auto transfer operations Auto retransfer operations (if needed) 25 function for breaker closing supervision LTC controls, if needed Maintenance switch (change settings, disable auto transfer function, etc.) Arc flash sensor to incoming source breaker Other controls (load shed, load management, etc.)

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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub:


Digital output arrangement

Relay 1 output to both 52M1 and 52T breaker control circuits Relay 2 output to 52M2 breaker control circuit only Logic for controlling 52M1 and 52T breakers is programmed in Relay 1, but control commands can go there from Relay 2 to Relay 1 through GOOSE. Logic for controlling 52M2 is programmed in Relay 2, but control command can go from Relay 1 to Relay 2 through GOOSE Relay 1 can control 52M2 through GOOSE. For example: using front pushbuttons located at Relay 1 to close or open 52M2 breaker Relay 2 can control 52M1 and 52T through GOOSE. For example: using front pushbuttons located at Relay 2 to close or open 52M1 breaker or 52T breaker By careful selection of relay part numbers and program the relay logic, trip circuit monitoring function for the output contacts used for breaker trip/open purpose can be obtained in these relays. No need for separate trip coil monitoring devices.

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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: Digital inputs needed for Relay 1


52A and TOC for 52M1 52A and TOC for 52T HRG GF from Transformer 1 (if using HRG system) 94T1, upstream scheme/breaker trip (94T1 may come from GOOSE, instead) Transformer 1 common trip or individual trip signal, 63X, 26HH, 71LL, etc. Bell alarm for 52M1 and 52T (for LVCB applications, if needed) Local control switch C/O commands for 52M1 and 52T Physical 10-Switch used to select 52M1 or 52T as the breaker to trip [instead, they may come from VIs (or RBs) or local PBs] Optional: Remote close/open commands for 52M1 and 52T from remote (SCADA, DCS, HMI, etc.) through communication path
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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: Digital input needed for Relay 2


52A and TOC for 52M2 HRG GF from Transformer 2 (if HRG system) 94T2, upstream scheme trip (94T2 may come from GOOSE, instead) Transformer 2 common trip or individual trip signal, 63X, 26HH, 71LL, etc. Bell alarm for 52M2 (for LVCB applications, if needed) Local control switch C/O commands for 52M2 Physical 10-Switch used to select 52M2 as the breaker to trip [instead, they may come from a VI (or RB) or a local PB] Optional: Remote close/open commands for 52M2 from remote (SCADA, DCS, HMI, etc.) through communication path
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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: Auto transfer process


Example: Transfer power from two sources to only Source 2 Open-transition (Break-Before-Make) transfer Line 1 voltage drops for some time (1-3s) 52M1 opens automatically Before closing 52T, need to ensure:

Bus 1 voltage (residual voltage) decays to a safe level And, 52M1 is already open And, 52M2 is already closed And, Line 2 voltage is healthy And, Line 2 / Tx 2 has no fault

Then, 52T closes


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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: Auto transfer process


Transfer power from two sources to only Source 2 Open-transition (Break-Before-Make) transfer Line 1 voltage drops for some time (1-3s) 52M1 opens automatically Before close 52T, need

Bus 1 voltage (residual voltage) decays to a safety level And, 52M1 is already open And, 52M2 is already closed And, Line 2 voltage is healthy And, Line 2/Tx 2 has no fault
Where do I get these signals? (Note 52T control logic is in Relay 1) These signals are in Relay 2. Use GOOSE MESSAGE (DIGITAL)!
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Then, 52T closes

Link: IEC61850 GOOSE message setup for Relay 1 and 2 in relay setup programs

GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: Auto transfer process

Transfer from two sources to only Source 1


Open-transition (Break-Before-Make) transfer

Line 2 voltage drops for some time (1-3s) 52M2 opens automatically Where do I get these signals? (Note 52T control logic is in Relay 1) Before close 52T, need:
52M1 is already closed Use GOOSE MESSAGE (DIGITAL)! And, Line 1 voltage is healthy And, Line 1 / Tx 1 has no fault And, 52M2 is already open And, Bus 2 voltage (residual voltage) decays to a safety level Then, 52T closes
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These signals are in Relay 2.

Link: IEC61850 GOOSE message setup for Relay 1 and 2 in relay setup programs

GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: Logic with remote points

Example: Partial logic for 52T closing command in Relay 1 with remote points (or virtual bits) through GOOSE

These are remote points from a remote device (Relay 2) through GOOSE messaging.

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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub:

How many 25 sync check needed?


For a comprehensive transfer scheme, three 25 sync check elements are needed
SOURCE 1 SOURCE 2

52M1

52M2

25-M1 for closing 52M1 breaker 25-M2 for closing 52M2 breaker

25-M1

25-M2

52T For 25-M1 and 25-M2 Manual mode: LL & LB or LL & DB 25-T Auto RETRF mode (Closed-Transition): LL &LB Sync check needs to get done between line source and bus. It has no problem for each relay since a three-phase line PT and a sing-phase bus PT are wired to each relay.

BUS 1

BUS 2

25-T for closing tie breaker



No strong need for auto TRF and auto RETRF mode It is needed for manual mode in order to close tie breaker manually Sync check needs to get done between Bus 1 and Bus 2. THIS IS THE CONCERN!

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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: 25-T function for tie breaker closing


Where can I get 25-T for closing tie breaker? Need voltage from Bus 1 and also voltage from Bus 2 Bus 1 voltage is on Relay 1 Bus 2 voltage is on Relay 2 Comparison must be made in Relay 1 since 52T control logic is in Relay 1 Solution: use GOOSE. This time they are analog GOOSE messages. Get Bus 2s voltage magnitude, frequency and angle from Relay 2, GOOSE them to Relay 1, compare them in Relay 1 with local (in Relay 1) parameters to make a 25 function for the tie breaker closing The GOOSE analog messages from Relay 2 are the remote analog inputs (or virtual analog Inputs) for Relay 1
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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub:

Make 25-T for tie breaker closing


Step 1: Compare remote analogs to local ones in order to convert them to digital tags

Remote device = Relay 2 Local device = Relay 1 GOOSE Analog 1 in Relay 1 = Bus 2s voltage magnitude from remote Relay 2 GOOSE Analog 2 in Relay 1 = Bus 2s frequency from remote Relay 2 GOOSE Analog 3 in Relay 1 = Bus 2s voltage angle from remote Relay 2 In Relay 1 Setup a maximum voltage difference threshold, compare GOOSE Analog 1 to the local relays bus 1 voltage magnitude. Setup a maximum frequency difference threshold, compare GOOSE Analog 2 to the local relays bus 1 frequency magnitude. Setup a maximum angle difference threshold, compare GOOSE Analog 3 to the local relays bus 1 voltage angle. In Relay 1 Setup a digital tag to indicate Bus 2 voltage is healthy or not. This tag is created by comparing GOOSE Analog 1 to a fix value (threshold). Setup a digital tag to indicate Bus 1 voltage is healthy or not. This tag is created by comparing Bus 1 voltage to a fix value (threshold). These two digital tags are used for live Bus 1 & dead Bus 2 as well as dead Bus 1 and Live Bus 2 situations

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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub:

Make 25-T for tie breaker closing


Step 2: Program relay 25-T logic in Relay 1

Closing tie breaker is only allowed when 25-T is passed at the following situations

Both buses are alive with their voltage magnitude, frequency and angle differences are within the preset limit Live Bus 1 and dead Bus 2 Dead Bus 1 and live Bus 2 This means closing tie breaker is not allowed if both buses are dead

25-T is blocked when both buses are dead

Step 3: Apply the newly created 25-T function to tie breaker closing logic

Link: GOOSE analog message and 25-T logic setup in setup program.

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Double-Ended Sub: GOOSE: Cost Comparison

Hard wiring connections savings

Cost for each hard wiring: about $34 (data from last year)

Link: By using three SEL 351S relays (This does not even include 87T and LTC) Link: By using three GE SR750 relays (This does not even include 87T and LTC) Link: By using two substation super relays (With even more features than the above two)

See how much cost saving there!

Hard wire components savings

No need for:

Physical 10-switch Physical breaker control switches Physical lockout relays

Device cost comparison

By using traditional seven devices

Three feeder relays (typical), $3k x 3 = $9k Plus Two transformer relays (typical), $4.5k x 2 = $9k Plus 2 LTC (typical), $1.5k x 2= $3k Total: $21k

By using two super devices, about $9k x 2 = $18k

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Double-Ended Sub: GOOSE to feeders

LINE 1
3PH D or Y

LINE 2

3PH CT INPUT

1PH 3PH PT CT INPUT INPUT

3PH D or Y

NC

NC

52M1

52M2

BUS 1
NO

BUS 2

FEEDERS ON BUS 1

FEEDERS ON BUS 2

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Double-Ended Sub:

Expand to feeders though GOOSE

Trip zone interlocking Feeder load shedding Load management for uneven incoming sources Fast bus trip scheme
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GOOSE Trip zone interlocking


Principle of reverse interlock
(ANSI# numbers)
Main Incoming

1
Overcurrent protection of outgoing feeders blocks the 50-2 stage (I>>) of the overcurrent protection of the incoming feeder (OCFeed4) with the pick-up signal of OCfunctions 50-1 (I>).

OC-Feed4
2

>Block #50-2

Power flow

T = 50 - 100ms

Blockingsignal

2
OC-Feed1
#50-1 picked up - F1

OC-Feed2

OC-Feed3
#50-1 picked up #50 F3

#50-1+picked up #50 F2

50-2 (I>>) stage of the overcurrent protection of the incoming feeder sends a trip signal after 50-100 ms, when no blocking signal is received from one or more overcurrent protection of the outgoing feeders. 50ms for < 3 cycle berakers 100ms for 5 cycle breakers 28

Exchange of digital GOOSE message between main and feeder relays

GOOSE Trip zone interlocking


TRADITIONAL WAY TO COORDINATE FEEDER AND MAIN RELAYS

Review of Buff Book for relay coordination summary of CTI (Coordination Time Interval) requirement Coordination Time Interval (CTI) between upstream static relay and down stream static relay: >=200ms Main breaker should not use 50 function in order to coordinate with feeder breaker overcurrent protection

Bus Relays (Main Breaker or Partial Differential): Pickup set between 100% and 125% FLA (150% FLA maximum) Set to coordinate with transformer primary protective relaying Do not enable the instantaneous overcurrent element on main breaker relays! Link: CTI table by Buff Book

(From presentation by Dominik Pieniazek and Doug Durand on overcurrent protection coordination on 02/1602/17/2010)

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GOOSE Trip zone interlocking

Compare to GOOSE trip zone interlocking CTI: 50-100ms


For 5 cycle breaker, breaker operation time: 83ms LAN, relay response and input recognition and output time 8-14ms Total <100ms

And, main breaker protection can use 50 function instead of 51. Benefit for using GOOSE trip zone interlocking:

Reduction of arc flash hazard Ease of relay coordination work No hard wiring between relays Easy setup and configuration through software Peer to peer and multicast communication

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Double-Ended Sub: GOOSE: Feeder load shed

Feeder load shed by under frequency (81U) or under voltage (27), or combination of UF and UV, from the source relay (not from the local feeder relay) Load shed priority depends on how low 81U or 27 goes Flexible load shed level (LSL) is setup at feeder relays Shed entire load when the source is lost.

Voltage and frequency measurement

Source Relay
GOOSE MESSAGING UF AND/OR UV

Main

Example under frequency elements setup in the source relay Element UF1 UF2 UF3 UF4 UF5 UF6 Freq (Hz) 59.70 59.50 59.00 58.50 58.00 Time (s) 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 Purpose UF alarm, local or GOOSE out GOOSE out for UF level 1, LSL1
Fdr Fdr
Each fdr relay also sets its load shed level

Fdr Relay

Fdr Relay

GOOSE out for UF level 2, LSL2 Trip main CB, shed entire load Start a generator, if needed Not used. Use it if necessary

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Double-Ended Sub: GOOSE: Feeder load shed logic

Pushbutton assignments:

PB5=local close command PB6=local open command PB7=Set this load to load shed level 1 with UF2 from remote device through GOOSE PB8=Set this load to load shed level 2 with UF3 from remote device through GOOSE PB7 and PB8 are interlocked each other (not shown here). Each feeder can be set to either LSL1 or LSL2, but not both

VO1 is used to drive a relay output to control breaker coils or a motor contactor (setup not shown here) Virtual Inputs (or Virtual Bits) may also be added in order to control the feeders in remote mode One relay may control one load feeder or may even control up to three load feeders

These are remote points of under frequency signals from the source relay through GOOSE

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Double-Ended Sub:

GOOSE: Uneven incoming sources

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Double-Ended Sub:

GOOSE: Fast bus trip scheme


GOOSE communications between feeder relays and main/tie relays through Ethernet network Feeder relays tell main/tie relays that if a fault is on feeder If the fault is on feeder, associate feeder relay operates to clear the fault If main/tie relay sees the fault but feeder relays do not, the fault is not on feeder, it must be on the bus. Then main/tie relay takes responsibility Time delay in main/tie relay to coordinate and maintain selective Every relay can just use 50 function, reduce arc flash hazard. Main/tie relay can also use 50 instead of 51. Fast bus trip. Set it well below maximum fault current but far above maximum load current. Directional element for tie protection makes the scheme better Replace bus differential scheme
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Double-Ended Sub:

GOOSE: Fast bus trip scheme

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IEC61850: Double-Ended Sub Other type of incoming sources

What do we call these two super IEC61850 capable relays?

Substation IED => SubIED

How to select SubIED depends on the needed main protection features:

For two power transformers as incoming sources, the needed main relay protection function is 87T So SubIED = Transformer Management Relay Other types of incoming source, can we do the same thing? Yes, we can, same principle and same concept apply. SubIED selected needs to meet the following basic requirements: Required protection features are available Enough PT/CT inputs Enough DIs/DOs Communication capability GOOSE capable Comprehensive logic capability

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Double-Ended Sub
SOURCE 1

One generator and one transformer


SOURCE 2

Gen 1

Tx 2

SubIED 1 = Generator Management Relay

LINE 1
3PH D or Y

LINE 2

3PH CT INPUT

1PH 3PH PT CT INPUT INPUT

3PH D or Y

NO

NC

52M1

52M2

BUS 1 FEEDERS ON BUS 1


NC

BUS 2 FEEDERS ON BUS 2

SubIED 2 = Transformer Management Relay

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Double-Ended Sub Two generators


SOURCE 1 SOURCE 2 Gen 1 Gen 2

SubIED 1 = Generator Management Relay

LINE 1
3PH D or Y

LINE 2

3PH CT INPUT

1PH 3PH PT CT INPUT INPUT

3PH D or Y

NC

NC

52M1

52M2

BUS 1 FEEDERS ON BUS 1


NO

BUS 2 FEEDERS ON BUS 2

SubIED 2 = Generator Management Relay

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Double-Ended Sub

One transformer and n generators


SOURCE 2

Gen 1

Tx 2

LINE 2

SOURCE 1

LINE 1
NO

3PH D or Y

1PH 3PH PT CT INPUT INPUT

3PH D or Y

NC

52M1

52M2

BUS 1 FEEDERS ON BUS 1


NC

BUS 2 FEEDERS ON BUS 2

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Double-Ended Sub Generators on both sides: 2 SubIEDs

Gen 1

SOURCE 1

SOURCE 2

LINE 2

LINE 1
3PH D or Y

NC

NC

52M1

52M2

BUS 1 FEEDERS ON BUS 1


NO

BUS 2 FEEDERS ON BUS 2

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Double-Ended Sub Generators on both sides: 1 SubIED

Gen 1

SOURCE 1

SOURCE 2

LINE 2

LINE 1
3PH D or Y

NC

NC

52M1

52M2

BUS 1 FEEDERS ON BUS 1


NO

BUS 2 FEEDERS ON BUS 2

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Double-Ended Sub Two mains only, no tie


No tie breaker? No problem.

Principle and concept are the same No need for third 25 element for the tie closing No need for 10-Switch, either physical or soft No need to use SubIED 1 to control tie breaker. SubIED 1 and SubIED 2 are now equal Apply load shed to feeders from SubIEDs UF/UV through GOOSE. Apply load management logic to feeder breakers through GOOSE before closing the low capacity source when loss of the high-capacity source, unlock the feeders when highcapacity main returns No need for GOOSE analog messaging, digital only. Depending on what type the sources are, SubIEDs could be transformer, generator or feeder management relays.

SOURCE 1 Tx or Gen

LINE 1
3PH D or Y

LINE 2

3PH CT INPUT

1PH 3PH PT CT INPUT INPUT

3PH D or Y

NC

NO

52M1

52M2

BUS FEEDERS ON BUS

BUS FEEDERS ON BUS

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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: Other benefit with SubIEDs


Built-in event recorder to track back what have been happening in the system Built-in Waveform captures to help analysis of system faults Use the relay built-in network channel failure tags to get notifications for the status of relay communications Use user programmable pushbuttons locally with a time delay or use virtual inputs (remote bits) remotely to close or open breakers. No need for PPE. Use user programmable pushbuttons locally or use virtual inputs (remote bits) remotely to setup virtual 10-Switch. No physical 10-switch is needed. Reduce production cost. Use user programmable pushbuttons locally or use virtual inputs (remote bits) remotely to setup auto transfer enable/disable and auto retransfer enable/disable switches. No physical switches are needed. Reduce production cost. Use relay internal logic to trip and block closing breaker, no physical 86 switch is needed. Reduce production cost (subject to customers choice). Assign custom LEDs to help operators to check operation status Use force contact inputs, force virtual inputs (remote bits) and force contact output, etc. features (these are normally PLC features but now they are merged in to protection relays) to ease factory test procedures. Make your own digital tags by using analog comparison feature (This is usually a PLC feature, now it is in the relay too). Some relays offer online logic monitoring. This would be a great tool for programming development and trouble shooting.

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GOOSE: Double-Ended Sub: SubIEDs redundancy

Communication redundancy

Use two fiber cables (for Communication Method 1) Or Use two Ethernet switches (for Communication Method 2) Use total 4 SubIEDs instead of 2

Relay redundancy

Two for primary service, and the other two for backup service Either relay in primary service is failed (through hardwire contact) Or Both communication ports failed indicated by: Both Operand PRI ETHERNET FAIL and operand SEC ETHERNET FAIL are turned on at the same time for a preset period of time

Backup service is triggered by

Result: System reliability increases with the price of added cost and system complexity
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Facility for Development and Simulation Testing

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND ATTENTION!

Acknowledgements:

Powell Electrical Systems, Inc. GE Digital Energy Multilin

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