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Biological control practices involves the three major techniques such as


CONSERVATION: It refers to the use of all those activities or pest control measures that destroy the natural enemies use of those practices that enhance the growth and populations of biocontrol agents. Such activities include the Use of selective chemicals Avoidance of cultural practices that are harmful to biocontrol agent Use of cultural practices that favour the survival and multiplication of BC agents Cultivation of varieties which are favoure the colonization of bio-control agents Providing alternate hosts Provision of food Preservation of resting stages

This generally refers to importation, introduction and establishment of a non-native

natural enemy population for suppression of non-native or native organisms. It is also called classical biological control theory. The theory of classical biological control nowhere different from ecology and population dynamics. Many
environmental factors influence the population density.

Many of the biological control programmes is to establish a self sustaining system For example natural enemy is established in a area with hopes that it will become established, cause the pest to fluctuate below the economic injury level. Any suitable host of the BCs may be obtained from the different parts of the world When introducing a high biological control to a new area, a primary concern is the of the control agent should be host specific Generalist feeders (control agents that are not restricted to a single species or a small range of species) often act as poor biological control agents

Potential biological control agents should be subject to extensive testing and

quarantine before release into any new environment. The reasons for failure are: Climatic conditions Lack of alternate hosts Non-acceptibility of the particular strain of BCs in introduced areas Physical inaccessibility of the host by BCs Low reproductive rate in introduced areas Classical biological control is researched and implemented by the many of the scientists and it usually takes 5-10 years to complete.

It includes all activities designed to increase numbers or effect of existing natural enemies. These objectives may be achieved by releasing additional number of natural enemies into a system or modifying the environment in such a way as to promote greater number or effectiveness. These releases differs from the introduction in that these have to be repeated periodically. They result in temporary suppression of pest rather than permanent lowering of general equilibrium position as in introduction. All the activities designed to increase the number and effect of existing bio-control agents This objective is achieved by By releasing additional number of natural enemies Modifying the environment in such way as to promote the greater density of the BCs The periodic release may be inoculative or innundative.



Inoculative releases: It may be made as infrequently as once in a year to re-establish a species of natural enemies which peruiodically killed out in an area by unfavourable conditions durind the part of the year but operate very effectively the rest of the year. Here, control is expected from the progeny and the subsequent generation and not from the release itself. Innundative release: Involves the mass culture and release of natural enemies to suppress the pest population directly as in the case of conventional insecticides. These are most economical against pest that only one or at the most few discrete generations every year.

Approaches to Implement Biological Control of Plant Pathogens The major concepts involved are: Introduction of microbes in the phylloplane, rhizosphere or soil

Stimulating indigenous antagonists Induced resistance Bio rational approaches. Introduction of microbes in the phylloplane, rhizosphere or soil : Biological protection against infection is accomplished by destroying the existing inocula, by preventing the formation of additional inocula, or by weakening and displacing the existing virulent pathogen population. This is achieved through protection of plant material and roots with biological seed treatments, or suppression of pathogens by the introduction of plant associated antagonists into the rhizosphere.
Stimulating indigenous antagonists

Agents that are closely related to pathogens, These includes epiphytes and endophytes may contribute to making soils naturally disease suppressive. Such microbial agents may be stimulated by the addition of organic amendments such as suppressive compost. For enrichment and conservation of NA following strategies may adopted following strategies can be used: Selective elimination of soil borne plant pathogens and enhancement of antagonists by steaming, sub lethal fumigation, and soil solarisation. Management that leads to natural suppression of soil borne pathogens. Management that leads to natural suppression of soil borne pathogens. Induced resistance: Some non-pathogenic microbial agents induce a sustainable change in the plant, resulting in an increased tolerance to subsequent infection by a pathogen. This phenomenon is known as induced systemic resistance.

This is different from systemic acquired resistance, which refers to the host reaction in response to localized infection by pathogens, manifested as broad range of protection against other pathogens. Biorational approaches This is a recent approach that combines two major strategies viz. host resistance and biological control agents to reduce or suppress disease incidence. Host resistance and bio-control agents should complement each other in their activity against pathogens. Approaches to Biological Control Biological Control of Inoculum Biological Destruction of Dormant Propagules Prevention of Inoculum Formation Displacement of the Pathogen in Crop Residue Manipulation of Factors Inherent in the Pathogen Biological Protection Against Infection Protection of Roots with Biological Seed Treatments Biological Protection of Foliage and Flowers Inoculation of Pruning Wounds with Antagonists Cross Protection and Induced Resistance Virus Control by Cross Protection Control of Fungus Pathogens by Cross Protection Use of Multilines and Variety Mixtures Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi