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Trng i hc s phm k thut Hng Yn Khoa in in T

Thuyt minh n mn hc

ti:

: Thit mch quang

o trn ma trn

Gio vin thc hin : Sinh vin thc hin:

Thnh Hiu 1. ng V n 2 3 nh

u Th n h ng Trang

gu n Th

Lp : TK5 1 Hng Yn, ngy 06 th ng 12 n m 2010


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MC LC Li ni u............................................................................................................ 4 CHNG I: GII THIU V VI IU KHIN........................ 5 I.1. Cc c im ca h Vi X L 89C51......................................................5 I.2. C bn v cu to ca AT89C51...........................6 I.3. T chc b nh ca 89C51.......................................................................10 I.4. Tm tt tp lnh..14

CHNG II: GII THIU V QUANG MCH BO.18 II.1. QUANG MCH BO ..18 II.1.1. Tng quan v mch quang bo .18 II.1.2. ng d ng ..20

II.2. GII THIU V LED MA TRN.. 21 II.2.1. S cu to ca LED ma trn 21 II.2.2. Nguyn tc qut bng ma trn...23 II.2.3. Nguyn tc lm sng n trn bng LED .23 II.2.4. Phng php to hiu ng ch chy t phi qua tri trn bng LED..26 II.3. TRANSISTOR..27 II.3.1. Gii thiu chung v Transistor27 II.3.2. Transistor C2383.....34 II.4. IC S ..37

II.4.1. IC 74HC59537 II.4.2. ULN 2803 ..41


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CHNG III: THIT K V THI CNG MCH .46 III.1. LU THUT GII ..46 III.2. CHNG TRNH ON M CODE .48 III.3. S MCH NGUYN L V NGUYN L HOT NG 53

III.3.1. S mch nguyn l ..53 III.3.2. Nguyn l hot ng 59

TNG KT.60 TI LIU THAM KHO...... 61

LI I U Ngy nay, trc s pht trin ca khoa hc mnh m ca khoa hc cng ngh th vic ng d ng cc thnh tu khoa hc cng ngh vo cuc sng ca con ngi ngy cng ph bin. a thng tin qung co sn phm ca mnh n vi khch hng l mt trong nhng chin lc cnh tranh ca cc nh kinh doanh. C th ni nhng bng thng tin in t hay cn gi l quang bo qung co n khch hng l mt chin lc hng u. V lm c nh vy c rt nhiu cch nh dng k thut s nhng vic x d ng cc vi iu khin ngy cng chim u th hn so vi cc b iu khin khc. Tnh u vit ca n th hin ch: - D dng s d ng trong cc thit b in t hoc h thng in t s. - Chi ph nng cp thp v cn rt t linh kin cho vic bo dng bo hnh. - Mang li hiu qu kinh t cao. Vi iu khin mang li nhiu li nhun li c sc cnh tranh cao do cht lng cao mang li c s d ng rng di, cng tng tnh hp dn v ngi dng ng thi cng mang li nhiu li nhun cho cc nh sn xut. l ng lc vi iu khin tng trng c v s lng v cht lng.Trong thi gian lm n, chng em nhn c s gip nhit tnh ca thy Thnh Hiu , cng vi s n lc ca c nhm chng em hon thnh c ti ca mnh v v c bn p ng c yu cu ca ti. l thit k ch to ra mch chy ch dng trong quang bo. Nhng vi s pht trin ca khoa hc v cng ln v vy tuy c gng song khng trnh khi thiu st chng em rt mong nhn c s gip ca cc thy c ti ca chng em thm hon thin hn. Chng em xin chn thnh cm n! Nhm sinh vin thc hin: ng Vn Bnh L Qu Thn Nguyn Th Phng Trang

CH G I GII THIU V VI IU KHIN 89C51

I.1

CC C IM CA H VI X 89C51 :

Vi iu khin (VK) l mt h vi x l c t chc trong mt chp. N bao gm: + B vi x l + C 40 chn + 4 kbyte ROM. 1, c th ghi xo c 1000 ln + 4 kbyte EPROM. + Di tn s hot ng t 0MHz n 24Mhz + C 4 port xut nhp (I/O) 8 bit + C 128 byte RAM + 2 b nh thi 16 bit + Mch giao tip ni tip + Khng gian nh chng trnh (m) ngoi 64k byte. + Khng gian nh Data ngoi 64k byte. + B x l bit thao tc trn cc bit ring. + 210 v tr nh nh a ch, mi v tr mt bit. + Cc thanh ghi chc nng, c ch iu khin ngt . + Cc b thi gian dng trong limh vc chia tn s v to thi gian thc. + C th lp trnh c qua cng ni tip + B vi iu khin c th lp chng trnh iu khin cc thit b thng tin, vin thng thit b o lng,thit b iu chnh cng nhuu cc ng d ng trong cng ngh thong tin v k thut iu khin t ng. c th xem b VK nh mt h VXL on-chp i vi AT89C51, n c y chc nng ca mt h VXL 8 bit, c iu khin bi mt h lnh, c s lnh mnh, cho php lp trnh bng hp ng (Assemply).
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I. 2

C N V CU TO CA AT89C51:

Hnh1.2.1 : S chn ca 89C51

Hnh 1.2.2 : S khi ca 89C51

+ GND(chn 20): Chn ni vi 0v + Port 0(chn 32 chn 29) + Port 0 l port xut nhp 8 bit hai chiu. Port 0 cn c cu hnh lm bus a ch( byte thp) v bus d liu a hp trong khi truy xut b nh d liu ngoi v b nh chng trnh ngoi. Port cng nhn cc byte m trong khi lp trnh cho. Flash v xut cc byte m trong khi kim tra chng trnh ( cc in tr ko ln bn ngoi c cn n trong khi kim tra chng trnh). + Port 1( chn 1- 8): port 1 l port xut nhp 8 bit hai chiu. Port1 cng nhn byte a ch thp trong thi gian lp trnh cho Flash. + Port 2 ( chn 21 28): Port 2 l port xut nhp 8 bit hai chiu. Port 2 to ra cc byte cao ca bus a ch trong thi gian tm np lnh t b nh chng trnh ngoi v trong thi gian truy xut b nh d liu ngoi, s d ng cc a ch 16 bit. Trong thi gian truy xut b nh d liu ngoi s d ng cc a ch 8 bit, port 2 pht cc ni dung ca cc thanh ghi c bit, port 2 cng nhn cc bits a ch cao v vi tn hiu iu khin trong thi gian lp trnh cho Flash v kim tra chng trnh. + Port 3 ( chn 10- 17): Port 3 cng nhn mt vi tn hiu iu khin cho vic lp trnh Flash v kim tra chng trnh. Port 3 l port xut nhp 8 bit hai chiu, port 3 cng cn lm cc chc nng khc ca AT89C51. cc chc nng ny c nu nh sau: Chn P3.0 P3.1 P3.2 P3.3 P3.4 P3.5 P3.6 P3.7 Tn RxD TxD INT0 INT1 T0 T1 WR RD Chc nng Ng vo port ni tip Ng ra port ni tip Ng vo ngt ngoi 0 Ng vo ngt ngoi 1 Ng vo bn ngoi ca b nh thi 1 Ng vo bn ngoi ca b nh thi 0 iu khin ghi b nh d liu ngoi iu khin c b nh d liu ngoi

+ RST ( chn 9) Ng vo reset. Mc cao trn chn ny trong hai chu k my trong khi b dao ng ang hot ng s reset AT89C51 + ALE/PROG( chn 30) ALE l mt xung ng ra cht byte thp ca a ch trong khi xut b nh ngoi. Chn ny cng lm ng vo chn lp trnh (PROG) trong thi gian lp trnh cho Flash. Khi hot ng bnh thng xung ng ra lun c tn s khng i l 1/6 tn s ca mch dao ng, c th c dng cho cc m c ch nh thi bn ngoi. Khi cn, hot ng chn ALE c th c v hiu ho bng cch set bit 0 ca thanh ghi chc nng c bit c a ch 8Eh. Khi bit ny c set, ALE ch tch cc trong thi gian thc hin lnh MOVX hoc MOVC. Ngc li chn ny s c ko ln cao. Vic set bit khng cho php hot ng cht byte thp ca a ch s khng c tc d ng nu b vi iu khin ang ch thc thi chng trnh ngoi. + PSEN(chn 29): PSEN (program Store Enable) l xung iu khin truy xut chng trnh ngoi. Khi AT89C51 ang thc thi chng trnh t b nh chng trnh ngoi, PSEN c kch hot hai ln mi chu k my, nhng hai hot ng PSEN s b b qua mi khi truy cp b nh d liu ngoi. + EA vpp(chn 31): L chn cho php truy xut b nh chng trnh ngoi ( a ch t 0000h ti ffffh). EA = 0 cho php truy xut b nh chng trnh ngoi, ngc li EA = 1 s thc thi chng trnh bn trong chip. Tuy nhin, lu rng nu bt kho 1 c lp trnh EA c cht bn trong khi reset + XTAL1& XTAL2: L hai ng vo ra ca hai b khuych i o ca mch dao ng, c cu hnh dng nh mt b to dao ng trn chip

Hnh1.2.3: B to dao ng

I.3. T CHC B NH CA 89C51: 7F RAM A DNG 30

2F 2E 2D 2C 2B 2A 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

7F 77 6F 67 5F 57 4F 47 3F 37 2F 27 1F 17 0F 07

7E 76 6E 66 5E 56 4E 46 3E 36 2E 26 1E 16 0E 06

7D 75 6D 65 5D 55 4D 45 3D 35 2D 25 1D 15 0D 05

7C 74 6C 64 5C 54 4C 44 3C 34 2C 24 1C 14 0C 04 1F

7B 73 6B 63 5B 53 4B 43 3B 33 2B 23 1B 13 0B 03

7A 72 6A 62 5A 52 4A 42 3A 32 2A 22 1A 12 0A 02

79 71 69 61 59 51 49 41 39 31 29 21 19 11 09 01

78 70 68 60 58 50 48 40 38 30 28 20 18 10 08 00

BANK 3 18
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17 BANK 2 10 0F BANK 1 08 07 Bank thanh ghi 0 ( mc nh cho R0-R7) 00

CU TRC RAM NI

B nh bn trong chip bao gm ROM, RAM va EPROM. RAM trn chip bao gm vng RAM a chc nng, vng RAM vi tng bit c nh a ch, cc dy thanh ghi (bank) v cc thanh ghi chc nng c bit. C 2 c tnh ng lu : + Cc thanh ghi v cc port I/O c nh a chtheo kiu nh x b nh v c truy xut nh mt v tr nh trong b nh. + Vng track thng tr trong RAM trn chip thay v trong RAM ngoi nh i vi cc b vi x l.

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a. Vng RAM a mc ch: C 80 byte, a ch t 30H n 7FH Bt c v tr no trong vng RAM ta u c th truy xutt do bng cch s d ng nh a ch trc tip hoc gin tip. V d : + Kiu nh a ch trc tip: MOV A,5FH ;c ni dung ti a ch 5FH ca RAM + Kiu nh a ch gin tip: (Qua cc thanh ghi R0,R1) MOV R0,#5FH ; Di chuyn gi tr5FH vo thanh ghi R0 MOV A,@R0 ; Di chuyn d liu tr ti R0 v thanh cha A b. Vng RAM nh a ch: Chip 8951 cha 210 vi tr nh a ch in c 128 byte cha trong cc byte a ch 20H n 2FH (16 byte x 8 = 128 bits), phn cn li cha trong cc thanh ghi chc nng c bit. Cng d ng: + Truy xut cc bit ring r thng qua cc phn mn. + Cc port c th ng a ch tng bit, lm n gin vic giao tip bng phn mn vi cc thit b xut nhp n bit. V d : + Set bit trc tip: SETB 67H; lnh lm nhim v set bit 67H bng 1 + Hoc ta c th s d ng lnh sau set bt 67H l bit ln nht ca byte 2CH: ORL A,#10000000B ;Tc dung set bit c. Cc thanh ghi chc n ng c bit (SFR) Khng phi tt c 128 a ch t 80H n FFH u c nh ngha m chit c 21 a ch c nh ngha. Cc thanh ghi chc nng c bit bao gm: + T trng thi chng trnh PSW: c a ch l D0H
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+ Thanh ghi B: C a ch F0Hc dng chung vi thanh cha A trong cc php ton nhn v chia. + Con tr Stack (SP) : l thanh ghi 8 bit a ch 81H, n cha a ch ca d liu hin ang nh ca stack. + Con tr d liu DPTR: Dng truy xut b nh chng trnh ngoi hoc b nh d liu ngoi. DPTR l thanh ghi 16 bit c a ch 82H (byte thp ) v 83H (byte cao). V d : MOV A,#55H ;Np hng d liu 55H v thanh cha A

MOV DPTR,%1000 ;Np hng a ch 16 bit 1000H cho ; con tr DPTR MOV @DPTR,A ; Chuyn d liu t A vao RAM ngoi ; tai a ch DPTR tr ti. + Cc thanh ghi port: - Port 0 : a ch 80H - Port 1 : a ch 90H - Port 2 : a ch A0H - Port 3 : a ch B0H + Cc thanh ghi nh thi: IC 8951 c 2 b nh thi/m dng nh khong thi gian hoc m cc s kin. - B nh thi 0: a ch 8AH (TL0 ) va 8CH (TH0) - B nh thi 1: a ch 8bH (TL1 ) va 8DH (TH1) Hot ng ca b nh thi c thit lpbi thanh ghi ch nh thi TMOD a ch 89H v thanh ghi ieu khin b nh thi TCON a ch 88H (ch c TCON c nh a ch tng bit)

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+ Cc thanh ghi ca port ni tip: Chip 8951 c 1 port ni tip truyn thng vi cc thit b nh cc thit b u cui hoc model... + Cc thanh ghi ngt: c mt cu trc ngt vi 2 mc u tin v 5 nguyn nhn ngt. Cc ngt b v hiu ho sau khi Reset h thng v c php bng cch vo thanh ghi IE a chA8H. Mc u tin ngt c thit lp bit thanh ghi IP a ch B8H. + Thanh ghi iu khin ngun: PCON c a ch 87H

I.4

TM TT TP LNH .

Thng qua vic kho st cc kiu nh a ch v cc v d trn cc tnh hung lp trnh in hnh chng ta tip cn tp lnh ca h MCS-51. a.Cc kiu nh a ch. C 8 kiu nh a ch : + Thanh ghi.: VD: MOV PSW,#00011000B + Trc tip : VD: MOV P1, A + Gin tip: VD: MOV A,@R0 + Tc thi: VD: MOV A, #54 + Tng i: VD: SJMP THREE :Nhy n nhn THREE + Tuyt i: VD: AJMP THREE + Di: + Ch s.
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VD: JMP @A+DPTR b. Cc loi lnh: C 5 nhm lnh: + Nhm lnh s hc. ADD A , ngun: Cng ton hng ngun vo A ADD A, #data : Cng d liu data vi A ADDC A,ngun: Cng ngun vi A v c nh. ADDC A,#data : Cng d liu data vi A v c nh. SUBB A, ngun: Tr A vi ngun SUBB A,#data : Tr A vi data INC A DEC A INC DPTR MUL AB DIV DA AB A : Tngni dung thanh ghi A ln 1 : Gim ni dung thanh ghi A ln 1 : Tng DPTR : Nhn ni dung thanh ghi A v B : Chia A cho B : Hiu chnh thp phn thanh ghi A

+ Nhm lnh Logic. ANL A, ngun ANL A, #data ANL direct,A ANL direct , #data ORL A, ngun ORL A, #data ORL direct,A ORL direct , #data
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AND

OR

XRL A, ngun XRL A, #data XRL direct,A XRL direct , #data CLR A CPL A RL A RLC A RR A RRC A SWAP A

OR

Xo A Ly b A Quay tri A K c c nh Quay phi A K c c nh Hon i 2 na 4 bit

+Nhm lnh di chuyn d liu MOV A, ngun MOV A, # data MOV dest , A MOV dest, #data MOV DPTR,#data16 MOVC A,@A+DPTR Di chuyn t b nh chng trnh MOVC A,#A+PC MOVX A,@Ri MOVX A,@DPTR MOVX @Ri,A MOVX @DPTR,A PUSH direct POP direct Ct vo Stack Ly ra t Stack
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Di chuyn ton hng ngung n ch

XCH A,source XCHD A,@Ri + Nhm lnh x l bit. CLR C xo bit CLR bit SETB C SETB bit CPL C CPL bit ANL C, bit AND

Trao i cc byte Trao i cc digit thp

ANL C ,/bit AND NOT bit vi C ORL C, bit ORL C, /bit MOV C,bit MOV bit, C JC rel Nhy n Rel nu C=1 JNC rel Nhy n Rel nu C=0 JB bit, rel Nhy nu bit bng 1 JNB bit, rel Nhy nu bit =0 JBC bit , rel Nhy nu bit =1 ri xo bit +Nhm lnh r nhnh. ACALL addr11 Gi chng trnh con LCALL addr16 RET RETI Quay v t chng trnh con Quay v t chng trnh ngt
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AJMP addr11 LJMP addr16 SJMP rel JMP @ A+DPTR JZ rel JNZ rel

Nhy

Nhy nu A=0 Nhy nu A <>0

CJNE A,direct, rel So snh v nhy CJNE #data, rel CJNE Rn,#data, rel CJNE @ Ri,# data, rel DJNZ Rn, rel DJNZ direct, rel NOP Khng lm g Gim v nhy nu khc 0

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CH G II GII THIU V MCH


II 1 MCH UA G O o

UA G O

II.1.1 Tng quan v mch quang

thit k mt mch quang bo th c nhiu phng n la chn nh: dng EEPROM, dng my tnh iu khin trc tip, dng vi x l, vi iu khin. Khi s d ng EEPROM lu tr thng tin hin th kt hp vi cc IC gii a hp (Demultiplexer) iu khin qua trnh hin th trn mn hnh. u im ca EEPROM l thng tin khng b mt khi khng c ngun cp v khi mun thay i ni dung bn tin ta ch vic lp trnh li cho EEPROM (thay i phn mm). Vic thay i nh vy xem ra c v n gin, nhng ta cn c mch np v phn mm iu khin. Vic tho lp nhiu s dn n hng hc khng ng c. Khi vi x l c s d ng trong mch th mch s c thm nhiu tnh nng hn nhng gi thnh cho mt sn phm cng v th m tng ln. Mt mch vi x l cn c thm EEPROM( lu chng trnh iu khin), RAM v cc IC giao tip ngoi vi khc(8255, 74373). Mt kt vi x l nh vy s em li cho bng thng tin nhng tnh nng nh: vic cp nht ni dung hin th s d dng hn(khng cn tho IC ra) bng cc nhp chng trnh mi vo RAM, cc hiu ng c bit v mu sc cng c thc hin d dng. Tuy nhin nh ni trn, do vn gi thnh cao nn phng n ny khng c chn. Dng my tnh iu khin bng tin cng l mt phng n. Nhng do kch thc my tnh ln chim nhiu din tch, li t tin nn ta khng s d ng. Phng n c la chn l dng Vi iu Khin. V sao li chn Vi iu Khin? Th nht: Ngy nay Vi iu Khin c s d ng rng ri trong cc ng d ng hng iu khin do kch thc gn, kh nng tch hp cao nhiu tnh nng trong mt con Vi iu Khin khin cho mch in t tr nn n gin hn nhiu. Th hai: Gi thnh ca Vi iu Khin khng qu t nh Vi x l. Trn th gii hin c rt nhiu nh sn xut Vi iu Khin (ATMEL, ZILOG, MicroChip, Motorola, Cypress). S cnh tranh ca cc nh sn xut v gi thnh v kh nng tch hp em li li ch cho ngi s d ng.
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Th a: Vi iu Khin c coi nh mt small computer hay System On Chip (SoC). Bn trong vi iu khin bao gm CPU, ROM , RAM, EEPOM, cc giao tip ngoi vi, cc khi s hc v tng t (ADC,DAC, op-amp, b so snh) tu theo tng loi. Ti Vit Nam, th trng Vi iu Khin kh si ng. Ch cn vo mt ca hng in t bt k ta u c th mua c mt con Vi iu Khin ng . V cng c pht trin cho Vi iu Khin ta c th tm thy rt nhiu trn mng Internet, trn cc din n v in t trong v ngoi nc, hu ht u l cc tin ch min ph dnh cho ngi s d ng Sau mt thi gian nghin cu v Vi iu Khin, m c th l dng Vi iu Khin, em quyt nh chn Vi iu Khin 89C51 thc hin ti thit k mch quang bo dng Vi iu Khin .

II.1.2 ng ng Hng ngy chng ta nhin thy nhng bin quang co hay nhng bng thng bo ...tt c nhng ci l ng d ng ca quang bo m to nn lm cho n chy ln chy xung, ngang dc...Nh vy quang bo ngy nay c s d ng nhiu vo cc lnh vc khc nhau nh : gii thiu sn phm thng bo tin tc ...vi ng d ng rng ri nh vy th chng ta hy i tm hiu n th no n hot ng th no, chy ra sao... tt c nhng ci hng qua ti " Thit k v thi cng mch quang bo dng EROM. Quang bo c th hin th c cc hnh nh c ng ch ko gi gn trong vic hin th ch> nhng trong ti ny ch c gi gn trong vic hin th ch chy. Cc bn c th ti ti liu v tham kho!

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II.2 GII THIU V ED MA TR II.2.1 S cu to ca ED ma trn Bng hin th ma trn LED (diot-matrix display) c rt nhiu loi v kch c to nh khc nhau, mi bng gm c rt nhiu LED n c ghp li vi nhau trong mt khi. Trong khi cc LED n c sp sp theo cc hng v cc ct, ti mi giao im ca hng vi ct l mt LED n, v ngi ta thng phn bit cc loi bng LED theo s hng v ct. Mt bng LED 5x7 tc l c 5 ct dc v 7 hng ngang, tng cng s c 5x7=35 LED n c ghp li. Cng nh vy mt bng 8x8 l c 8 hng v 8 ct, do 64 LED n ghp li. V nhiu loi c to hn nh 16x16 hay 32x32

Hnh2.1.1: Minh ha mt bng led matrix 8x8:

S cu to: mt ma trn led c 16 chn c sp xp theo th t 8 hng 8 ct c nh s t 1 n 8, s chn ca led c nh t 1 n 16 theo s hnh v.

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Hnh 2.1.2: S ghp ni ca bng led matrix 8x8:

Khi ng v, s phn b chn cc hng v ct l khng theo th t (do tnh phc tp trong ghp ni), do ta cn tm hiu k mc mch cho ng, nn theo th t ta c cc chn s ct gm: 13,3,4,10,6,11,15,16;cc chn s hang theo th t l: 9,14,8,12,1,7,2,5. Bng ma trn LED c hai loi, loi c cc ct l cc chn Anode, cn hng l cc chn Cathode v loi kia th ngc li cc ct l Cathode, hng l Anode. Khi s d ng LED ta cn ch iu ny iu khin cho ng.

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II.2.2. Nguyn tc lm sng n trn bng LED Khi mun lm sng LED n, ta cn a in p dng vo chn Anode v in p m vo chn Cathode vi gi tr thch hp, khi LED sng. Gi tr in p v dng in tu thuc vo mu sc tng loi LED. Dng chy qua cc LED m bo sng bnh thng l t 10mA cho n 25mA. Khi ta mun lm sng mt im trn bng ma trn LED ta cng lm tng t. II.2.3. gu n tc qut ng ma trn ED

Trong ti ny em s d ng 4 bng LED 8x8 ghp li thnh mt bng c 8x32 (8 hng v 32 ct). hin th k t ln bng LED, y ta dng phng php qut ct v xut d liu hng. Qu trnh qut ct l ta gi tn hiu cho php n tng ct trong tng thi im. Cng lc ta gi d liu hng n 7 hng. Trong ti ny tn hiu cho php ct l mc logic 0, v d liu hng tng ng l mc 1 hay 1 ca tng hng, mc 0 ng vi LED sng (on) v mc 1 l tt (off). u tin ta a d liu cn hin th n 7 hng, v d 11100110 Kch hot ct th nht v cc LED tng ng s sng. To mt thi gian tr, sau tt ct th nht. Gi tip gi tr d liu 7 hng ca ct th 2, kch hot ct th 2, to tr v li tt ct th 2. Qu trnh qut c tip din cho n khi qut ht 32 ct ca bng LED. Vic qut hin th ny din ra trong thi gian rt ngn, c vi ch c ms, ta s thy hnh nh hay ch hin th trn bng LED. Tuy rng trong mi thi im ch c mt ct c sng nhng do thi gian qut rt nhanh v do hin tng lu nh trong vng mc ca mt nn ta thy hnh nh xut hin lin t c. Tn s qut cn phi m bo sao cho hoc ln hn 24hnh/s. Thng ta chn tn s qut t 40Hz n 100Hz hoc c th ln hn. D liu hin th ca hng c ly t EEPROM hoc t Flash ROM ca Vi iu Khin hay t ROM ngoi. Trng thi ca mt LED s c quyt nh bi tn hiu in p i vo ng thi c 2 chn. V d LED sng th in p 5V phi a vo chn dng v chn m phi c ni mass, LED s tt khi chn m ni vi in p mc cao. Vi ti ny, chng em chn loi ma trn LED 8x8 hin th.Ta c s nguyn l ca Ma trn LED 8x8:
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Hnh 2.1.3: S guyn l led matric

ma trn c th sng nh hnh v (hin th mt phn ca ch ABCD):

Hnh 2.1.4: hin th ch trn Led matric n LED th nht n LED th hai n LED th ba

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Thc hin qut dng v ct: - Chn ct 1, a in p ct 1 v 0. Sau chn v qut ln lt cc hng 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 nh sau: + n 1 tt in p a vo hng 1 l 0V. + n 2 tt in p a vo hng 2 l 0V. + n 3 sng in p a vo hng 3 l 5V. + n 4 sng in p a vo hng 4 l 5V. + n 5 sng in p a vo hng 5 l 5V. + n 6 sng in p a vo hng 6 l 5V. + n 7 sng in p a vo hng 7 l 5V. + n 8 sng in p a vo hng 8 l 5V. - Chn ct 2 : a in p ct v 0. Sau qut ln lt cc hng 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. + n 1 tt in p a vo hng 1 l 0V. + n 2 sng in p a vo hng 2 l 5V + n 3 tt in p a vo hng 3 l 0V + n 4 sng in p a vo hng 4 l 5V + n 5 tt in p a vo hng 5 l 0V + n 6 tt in p a vo hng 6 l 0V + n 7 tt in p a vo hng 7 l 0V + n 8 tt in p a vo hng 8 l 0V - Tip t c qut vi cc ct t 3 n 8 bng cch nh trn, sau chuyn sang qut n LED th hai mt cch tng t.
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- mt ngi nhn bit c ton b hnh nh ca ma trn ta phi tin hnh qut nhiu ln. Do mt ngi khng phn bit c s thay i nh nu nh c qut vi tc 24 hnh/s nn nu ta qut nh vi tc ln hn hoc bng 24 hnh/s th nh s chy lin t c v khng b git.

II.2.4.

h ng ph p to hiu ng ch ch t phi qua tr i trn ng ED

Sau khi hin th c hnh nh ln bng LED. By gi ta s tm hiu cch to hiu ng ch chy trn bng LED. Th thut y l qut v hin th mt hnh nh trong mt thi gian nht nh, sau ta dch d liu ca cc ct sang tri mt v tr, khi ta s to c hiu ng ch chy trn bng LED. ti ny ta s d ng mch mu l bng LED 8x32, s d ng 32 byte RAM lm b m cho mn hnh, lu gi tr d liu hng ca 32 ct. B m c khai bo trong RAM ni ca chip 89C2051 l mt mng gm 32 phn t. Chng trnh hin th lm nhim v c d liu t cc v tr 0 n 32 ca b m v a ra mn hnh hin th. Hiu ng ch chy c to ra bng cch dch gi tr cc phn t i mt v tr (54, 43, 32,21,10 ) Sau mi ln dch ta li gi chng trnh hin th. Khi trn bng LED ta s quan st c hiu ng ch chy. VD:Di chuyn k t trn ma trn Led Di chuyn chui AB trn ma trn Led t tri sang phi: - Tnh ton d liu hin th Gi s cn hin th chui AB: Ch A: 7Eh, 09h, 09h, 09h, 7Eh Ch B: 7Fh, 49h,49h,49h, 36h Gia ch A v B c mt ct trng phn bit. Chui AB: 7Eh, 09h, 09h, 09h, 7Eh, 00h, 7Fh, 49h,49h,49h, 36h
26

C th thm khong trng trc v sau chui chui hin ra t t Chui AB : 00h, 00h, 00h, 00h, 00h, 7Eh, 09h, 09h, 09h, 7Eh, 00h, 7Fh, 49h,49h,49h, 36h,00h, 00h, 00h, 00h Khai bo bin: DB 00h, 00h, 00h, 00h, 00h DB 7Eh, 09h, 09h, 09h, 7Eh, 00h DB 7Fh, 49h, 49h, 49h, 36h, 00h DB 00h, 00h, 00h Nh vy, mt k t cn hin th trn ma trn Led cn 6 byte v 5 byte 00h u chui, 3 byte 00h cui chui mt chui di 50 k t s cn s byte lu tr cho m Led l: 50*6 + 5 + 3 = 308 byte. Dung lng ny c th thay i ty theo ngi lp trnh.

II.3. TRANSISTOR II.3.1. Gii thiu chung v Transistor. Nu trn cng mt bn dn ln lt to ra hai tip gip cng ngh P-N gn nhau th ta c mt d ng c bn dn 3 cc gi l Transistor bipolar, c kh nng khuch i tn hiu in. Nguyn l lm vic ca Transistor da trn c tnh in ca tip gip P-N v tc d ng tng h gia chng. * Cu to. Transistor lng cc c cu to gm cc min bn dn P-N xen k nhau tu theo trnh t sp xp cc min ta c 2 loi cu trc in hnh PNP v NPN.

27

- Min E c nng tp cht ln nht, in cc ni vi min ny gi l cc Emit (cc pht). - Min B c nng tp cht nh nht, in cc ni vi min ny gi l cc Baz (cc nn). - Min C c nng tp cht trung bnh, in cc ni vi min ny gi l cc Colect (cc thu). Cc E v C tuy c cng cht bn dn nhng c nng pha tp cht khc nhau nn khng th hon i cho nhau c. - Tip gip gia min E v B l tip gip E (JE). - Tip gip gia min C v B l tip gip C (JC).

28

- phn bit vi cc loi transistor khc, loi transistor PNP v NPN cn gi l transistor lng ni vit tt l BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor). * Nguyn l hot ng: BJT lm vic ngi ta a ngun in p mt chiu n cc cc ca BJT gi l phn cc cho BJT. ch khuch i th JE lun phn cc thun v JE phn cc ngc. 1
E Emiter
N

C p

pP

Colector

C Base IC + RC

IE

IE RE UEE +

UCC

Hnh 1. S phn cc cho Transistor . in th UEE phn cc thun mi ni B-E (PN) l nguyn nhn lm cho vng pht (E) phng in t vo vng P ( cc B). Hu ht cc in t (electron) sau khi qua vng B ri qua tip mi ni th hai phia bn phi hng ti vng N ( cc thu), Khong 1% electron dc gi li vngB. Cc l trng vng nn di chuyn vo vng pht. Mi ni B-E ch phn cc thun ging nh mt i t, c in khng nh v in p ri trn n nh th mi ni B-C c phn cc ngc bi in p UCC . Bn cht mi ni B-C ny ging nh mt it phn cc ngc v in khng mi ni B - C rt ln.

29

Dng in o c trong vng pht gi l dng pht IE. Dng in o c trong mch cc C ( s lng in tch qua ng bin CC trong mt n v thi gian l dng cc thu IC). Dng IC gm hai thnh phn : - Thnh phn th nht ( thnh phn chnh) l t l cc ht electron cc pht ticc thu. T l ny ph thuc vo cu trc ca transistor v hng s c tnh trc vi tng transistorrieeng bit. Hng s c nh ngha l . Vi thnh phn chnh ca dng IC l IE. Thng thng = 0,9 0,999. - Thnh phn th hai l dng qua mi ni B C ch phn cc ngc khi IE = 0. Dng ny gi l dng ICB0 n rt nh. - Vi dng cc thu : IC = IE + ICB0. * c tnh ca transistor: UCE = f ( IC). cho khi transistor dng in p s t bn trong c gi tr nh, ngi ta phi cho n lm vic ch bo ho, tc l IE phi ln IC cho in p s t UCE nh nht. ch bo ho, in p s t trong transistor cng sut bng 0,5V n 1V trong khi thyristor l khong 1,5V. .

UCE Vng tuyn tnh Vng gn bo ha Vng bo ha I C

c tnh ca Transistor UCE = f ( IC ).

* Xt nguyn l lm vic ca transistor PNP: Do JE phn cc thun nn cc ht a s (l trng) t min E phun qua JE to nn dng E (IE), chng ti vng B tr thnh ht thiu s v tip t c khuch tn sau vo vng B, hng ti JC. trn ng khch tn mt phn nh ti hp vi ht a s ca min B to nn dng in B (IB). Do cu to min B mng nn hu nh ton
30

b cc ht khuch tn ti c b ca JC v c trng gia tc (do JC phn cc ngc) cun qua ti c min C to nn dng C (IC). * Mt s h thc quan trng:
IE = IB + IC

+ H s truyn t dng in: ( c trng cho kh nng tiu hao ca dng IE trn min B).

IC 1 IE

+ H s khuch i dng in (tc d ng iu khin dng IB i vi dng IC).

IC 1 IB

T (1), (2) v (3) ta c:


IE = (1 + ) IB

31

* Cc dng mc mch c a. Mch EC:

n ca BJT .

Vcc 5 - 12 VDC

R1 Cv

Rc

Cr

C2383

Ur(t) Uv(t)
R2 Re Ce

b. Mch BC:
Vcc 5 - 12 VDC

R1 Cv C2383

Rc

Uv(t)
Re R2

Ur(t)

32

C. Mch colect chung (Cc):


Vcc 5 - 12 VDC

R1 Cv

Rc

C2383

Uv(t)
R2 Re Ce

Ur(t)

Cc thng s k thut ca BJT.

c tnh k thut ca BJT ngoi cc c tuyn cn c mt s thng s k thut c ngha gii hn cn phi bit khi s d ng. a. khuch i dng in : - khuch i dng in tht ra khng phi l mt hng s m c th thay i theo IC. - Khi dng in IC nh th thp, dng in IC tng th tng n gi tr cc i max, nu tip t c tng IC n mc bo ho th gim. b. in p gii hn: in p nh thng BV (Breakdown Voltage) l in p ngc ti a t vo gia cc cp cc, nu qu in p ny th BJT s b hng. C 3 loi in p gii hn: - BVCE0 : in p nh thng gia C v E khi cc B h. - BVCB0 : in p nh thng gia C v B khi cc E h. - BVCB0 : in p nh thng gia E v B khi cc C h.
33

c. Dng in gii hn: - Dng in qua BJT phi c gii hn mt mc cho php, nu qu tr s ny BJT s b hng. - Ta c : ICmax l dng in ti a cc C v IBmax l dng in ti a cc B. d. Cng sut gii hn: - Khi c dng in qua BJT s sinh ra mt cng sut nhit lm nng BJT, cng sut sinh ra c tnh theo cng thc : PT = IC . VCE. - Mi BJT u c mt cng sut gii hn gi l cng sut tiu tn ti a PDmax (Dissolution). Nu cng sut sinh ra trn BJT ln hn cng sut PDmax th BJT s b hng. e. Tn s ct (thit on): Tn s thit on (fcut-off) l tn s m BJT c khuch i cng sut l 1. VD: Transistor 2SC458 c cc thng s k thut nh sau: Beta = 230; BVCE0 = 30V; BVCB0 = 30V; BVEB0 = 6V; PDmax = 200mW; Fcut-off = 230MHz ; IC max = 100mA; loi NPN cht Si.

II.3.2. Transistor C2383 Transistor 2SC2383 hay gi l (C2383) ca hng TOSHIBA c s d ng nhiu trong ti vi mu thng s d ng u ra ca khi ting(m thanh). Transistor 2SC2383 cn c s d ng trong cc mach m dng nh cc mch n giao thng, iu khin ng c hay mch quang bo Sau y l hnh v v thng s c bn ca transistor C2383:

34

Hnh 2.1 n v (mm), khi lng 0,36g

Di lm vic nhit 250C.

35

Mt s c tuyn quan trng

Dng colector Ic (A)

in p collector Emitter VCE (V)

Dng colector Ic (A)

Dng colector Ic (mA)

36

II.4. IC S II.4.1. IC 74HC595 - IC 74HC595 l IC ghi dch 8bit, vo ni tip ra song song vi mt thanh ghi lu tr (storage register) v u ra 3 trng thi. - S kt ni

Chc n ng ca IC 74HC595 - Vo d liu 8bit. - u ra 8bit ni tip v 8bit vo song song. - Thanh ghi lu tr vi u vo 3 trng thi. - Tn s dch 1000MHz M t chn IC 74HC595 - VCC v GND : Chn cp ngun chi IC. in p ngun cp khong 2v 5.5v. - QA-QH : 8 u ra d liu song song , chn QH l chn d liu ni tip. - SCLR l chn Reset IC, tich cc mc thp (0), khi a mc 0 vo chn ny th IC s thc hin reset, tt c u a v 0.
37

- SCK l chn nhn xung ng h ca thanh ghi dch. - RCK l chn nhn xung ng h cho thanh ghi lu tr. - G :chn cho php xut d liu ra, tch cc mc thp. Khi hot ng chn ny mc 0 . khi a chn G ln mc 1 cc u ra s trng thi tr khng cao. - SER l chn nhn d liu ni tip. Hot ng ca IC D liu sau khi a vo chn Ds ca IC, bit d liu s c dch ng vi sn dng ca xung nhp, t mc thp n cao (LOW TO HIGH) a ti chn SHcp , d liu vo ti mi thanh ghi s c a sang thanh ghi lu tr khi c mt sn dng ca xung nhp i vo chn STcp. Xung ng h ti chn STcp phi xut hin trc xung nhp vo chn STcp . Mi xung clock a vo chn STcp tng ng vi mt bit d liu vo chn Ds, 8 xung ng vi 8bit d liu a vo, chng c lu trong thanh ghi lu tr. Khi mt tn hiu tch cc mc 0 a vo chn OE th 8bit d liu ny s c a ra 8 u ra song song. Khi c 8bit d liu tip theo c dch vo th 8bit d liu trc s ln lt c dch ra ni tip nhau qua chn Q7. Trong ch hot ng bnh thng ca IC, cc chn MR s c ni vi dng ngun, chn OE s ni vi t. - S chn ca IC 74HC595

38

- Gin thi gian qu trnh truyn d liu.

39

- c tnh in

40

II.4.2. IC- ULN2803 ULN 2803 l mt trong nhng vi mch m c dng kh ph bin . Vi mch ULN2803 l cc mng Darlington chu c dng in ln v in p cao, trong c cha 7 cp Darlington cc gp h vi cc cc pht chung. Tng knh trong s 7 knh u c th chu c lu di dng in n 500mA vi bin nh n 600mA. Mi knh c mt it chn (suppression), it ny c th s d ng trong trng hp ti c tnh cm ng, chng hn nh cc rle. Li vo ca ULN 2803 tng thch TTL. Nhng ng d ng in hnh ca vi mch m l iu khin cun dy solenoid , rle, mt mt chiu, cc b hin th led, ma trn Led, u my in nhit, v.v Vi mch lu hnh trn th trng di dng v theo kiu DIP vi 16 chn v mt s kiu ng v khc. Cc li ra ca b m c th c ni song song c th chu c dng in ln hn, khi c th dng n mt c cu dng chung ti thch hp . Hnh v di y ch ra s khi ca vi mch m mng Darlington loi ULN2803 . i vi mi mt trong s cc b m, c mt it vi ant ( cc dng) c kt ni vi li ra, cn ant ( cc m) c ni vi im chung cho ton b 7 it. Li ra ny l loi cc gp h, c ngha l ti bn ngoi c ni gia ngun nui v li ra ca b m. Ngun nui c th l ngun in p dng bt k nh hn +50V, nh c ch nh ra trong cc ti liu k thut ca cc nh cung cp. Gi tr ti phi c c tnh sao cho dng in chy qua lu di nh hn 500mA v dng nh nh hn 600mA tnh trn mi mch m .

Hnh dng thc t v s kt ni:

41

S c c b

42

Dng in vo v hm in p ra

c tnh in +250C:

Gii hn c tnh K hiu ICEX Dng in r u ra VCE(SAT) in p bo ho trn ColecterEmiter Kim tra iu kin VCE = 50V, TA = 250C VCE = 50V, TA = 700C IC = 100mA, IB = 250mA IC = 200mA, IB = 350 A IC = 350mA, IB = 500 A IIN(ON) Dng in vo IIN(OFF VIN(ON) VIN = 3,85V IC = 500 A, TA = 700C VCE = 2,0V, IC = 200mA
43

Min _ _ _ _ _ _ 50 _

Typ Max n v <1 <1 0,9 1,1 1,3 50 100 1.1 1,3 1,6
A
A

V V V mA
A

0,93 1,35 65 _ _ 2,4

in p vo

VCE = 2,0V, IC = 250mA VCE = 2,0V, IC = 300mA

_ _ _

_ _ 1,5 0,25 0,25 _ _ 1,7

2,7 3,0 2,5 1 1 50 100 2,0

V V pF
s
s

in dung u vo M tr Ngt tr Dng in r trn i t in p trn i t

CIN tPLH tPHL IR 0,5 EIN n 0,5 EOUT 0,5 EIN n 0,5 EOUT VR = 50V , TA = 250C VR = 50V , TA = 700C VF IF = 350 mA

_ _ _ _ _

A A

44

Gii hn ln nht: in p ra, VCE : 50V in p vo, VIN : 30V Dng in u ra lin t c, IC: 500 mA Dng in u vo lin t c, IIN: 25 mA Cng sut tiu tn trn mi cp Darlingtor, PA: 1.0 W Di nhit lm vic TA: - 200C n +850C Di nhit chu ng, TS : -550C n +1500C

45

CH G III: THIT K MCH H C G III.1. U THUT GII:

46

begi n - Tt cc cng P2,P3 - Xo contro, bodem, diachi - S Thit lp mt nh l 30 ln qut cho bit dch p2.7 - Diachi = contro + bodem - Tch cc ct bng s-n d-ng xung clock bng lnh: setb P2.6 - Xut d liu hng - Xo bt dch - To trng xung cho xung clock: clr p2.6 - Xo d liu hng - Tng bodem bodem = 32 Xo bodem # 30 # 32

S ln qut 1 nh = 30 Tng contro = 255

contro

# 255

47

end

III.2. CH G TR H ON M CODE: ;CHU CHAY O DAY LA "TRUONG DAI HOC SPKT HUNG YEN _ KHOA DIEN-DIEN TU _ LOP DK5.1" ;CHAY CHU TREN MATRAN 8*32 ;SU DUNG VDK AT89C51 ;QUET HANG DUNG TRANSISTOR C2383 ;QUET COT DUNG 74HC595 ;CLOCK CHAN P2.6 ;DATA CHAN P2.7 $INCLUDE(REG51.INC) BODEM EQU R5 CONTRO EQU R3 DIACHI EQU 66H ORG 0000H START: MOV P2,#00H MOV P3,#00H MOV BODEM,#00H MOV CONTRO,#00H MOV DIACHI,#00H CLR p2.6; clock CLR p2.7 ;data MAIN:;vong lap dau tien la chon tan so quet mot ki tu
48

MOV R2,#30 ;tan so quet anh cao qua thi se dan den anh sang yeu con thap dan den hien ;tuong nhap nhay quy dinh ca toc do chay chi so cang lon thi toc do chay chu cham, chi so thap chay nhanh MAINB:; vong lap thu 2 la thiet lap bit dich SETB P2.7 ; bit dich pai dat truoc vi ket noi theo datasheet MIANC: ;vong lap thu 3 gui du lieu ra cac cong va quet het so cot

MOV A,BODEM ADD A,CONTRO MOV DIACHI,A ; diachi=contro+bodem SETB P2.6 MOV A,DIACHI MOV DPTR,#MAHANG MOVC A,@A+DPTR MOV P3,A ;hangduoi;thoi gian tre de nhin thay tung ki tu dich chuyen LCALL DELAY CLR P2.7 ;XOA BIT DICH CLR P2.6 ; XOA clock

LCALL DELAY; delay lau se lam cho chu mo va nhay do thoi gian qua lau mat nguoi se nhan ra viec sang ko dong deu INC BODEM NOP NOP MOV P3,#00h; chong lem
49

CJNE R5,#32,MAINC ; quet 32 cot MOV R5,#00h DJNZ R2, MAINB INC CONTRO; co tac dung dich du lieu theo cot MOV A, CONTRO CJNE A,#255,MAIN LCALL DELAY LJMP START DELAY: MOV R6,#3 W1:MOV R7,#100 DJNZ R7,$ DJNZ R6,W1 RET MAHANG: DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H ;MATRANG 2H,2H,7EH,2H,2H,0H 7EH,1AH,2AH,44H,0H 3EH,40H,40H,40H,7EH 3CH,42H,42H,3CH,0H 7EH,4H,8H,7EH,0H 3CH,42H,52H,70H,10H,0H ;T ;R ;U ;O ;N ;G

50

DB DB DB

0H,7EH,42H,42H,3CH,0H 7CH,0AH,0AH,7CH 0H,42H,7EH,42H,00H

;D ;A ;I

DB DB DB

0H,7EH,8H,8H,7EH 0H,3CH,42H,42H,3CH 0H,3CH,42H,42H,42H,00H

;H ;O ;C

DB DB DB DB

0H,2CH,4AH,4AH,30H 0H,7EH,12H,12H,0CH 0H,7EH,18H,24H,42H 2H,2H,7EH,2H,2H,0H

;S ;P ;K ;T

DB DB DB DB DB DB DB

0H,7EH,8H,8H,7EH,0H, 0H,0H,3EH,40H,40H,7EH 0H,0H,7EH,4H,8H,7EH

;H ;U ;N

0H,3CH,42H,52H,72H,10H,00H ;G 0H,2H,4H,78H,4H,2H 0H,7EH,4AH,4AH 0H,7EH,4H,8H,7EH,0H ;Y ;E ;N

DB DB

0H,7EH,18H,24H,42H 0H,7EH,8H,8H,7EH

;K ;H
51

DB DB DB DB DB

0H,3CH,42H,42H,3CH 0H,7CH,0AH,0AH,7CH 0H,0H,7EH,42H,42H,3CH 0H,0H,7EH,42H,42H,3CH 0H,2H,2H,7EH,2H,2H

;O ;A ;D ;D ;T

DB DB DB DB DB DB DB

0H,0H,7EH,40H,40H,40H 0H,3CH,42H,42H,3CH 0H,7EH,12H,12H,0CH 0H,0H,7EH,42H,42H,3CH 0H,7EH,18H,24H,42H 0H,4EH,4AH,4AH,32H 0H,40H,4H,7EH,0H ;O ;P

;L

;D ;K ;5 ;.1

DB DB DB DB DB DB

0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H ;MATRANG 0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H 0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H 0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H 0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H 0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H,0H

END

52

III.3. S MCH NGUYN L V NGUYN L HOT NG III.3.1. S mch nguyn l:

53

54

55

56

57

58

III.3.2. Nguyn l hot ng:

59

TNG KT 1/u khuyt im ca mch: *u im: - Mch in t trn dng trong vic qung co rt sinh ng, vic thay th ni dung qung co hay cch thc th hin d dng t tn km, c th s d ng nhiu ni nh: trong nh ga, trong sn bay, cc biu ng ngoi ngSo vi vic dng bng rn hay bng qung co dn decal th n tin d ng v vic thay i ni dung d dng hn. *Khuyt im: - So vi vic dng cc bng qung co thng thng th vic dng bng in t c gi thnh kh cao. - Vic thay i ni dung chng trnh l bt tin. Khi lm mch vi m hnh ln hn th kt ni phc tp hn. 2/Hng pht trin ca ti n ny c th c pht trin ln thnh n tt nghip vi vic giao tip vi my tnh c th thay i cch hat ng cng nh ni dung bng quang bo bng vic thay i ni dung trn my tnh, hay c th dng remote u khin t xa bng quang bo. Mt k thut cao hn l c th thay i ni dung ca bng quang bo thng qua mng internet nh cc bng quang bo m ta thy trn cc xa l hng dn giao thng. Vi s c gng ca c nhm cng vi s gip nhit tnh ca thy Thnh Hiu , chng em hon thnh ti p ng yu cu v ng thi hn. Tuy nhin khng trnh khi mt vi thiu st chng em mong nhn c s b xung gp t thy c cng cc bn ti ny c hon thin thm. Em xin chn thnh cm n!

60

TI LIU THAM KHO 1. Cu trc v lp trnh h vi iu khin 8051.......NXB Khoa hc v k thut 2. Gio trnh k thut vi iu khin.......................Bch Hng Trng 3. Cc trang web datasheetcatalogue.com, diendandientu.com, google.com.....
http://tailieu.vn/xem-tai-lieu/thiet-ke-mach-hien-thi-dung-ma-tran-led.69472.html

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