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1/29/2012

K.Rajan
DepartmentofElectrical&ElectronicsEngineering Muthiah Polytechnic College PolytechnicCollege Annamalainagar

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Learning
Learning is a general term that denotes the way in which people and machine enrich their knowledge and improve their skills. Learning is one of the component of Intelligence.

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Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Muthiah Polytechnic College, Annamalainagar

LearningAlgorithm
Learning algorithm is a procedure to learn systematically. Algorithm specifies how to learn or acquire the knowledge. g p q g

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ArtificialIntelligence(AI)

AI is a branch of Computer Science that deals with the study and creation of computer systems that exhibit some form of intelligence. Intelligence is the ability to acquire (learn) , retrieve and use knowledge in a meaningful way. The term Artificial Intelligence was coined by John McCarthy, in 1956 at MIT
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ComponentsofIntelligence
ResearchinAIfocusonthefollowingcomponentsofIntelligence Research in AI focus on the following components of Intelligence

Learning Itistheprocessofacquiringknowledge,skills,experiencebystudy
andtraining. g

Reasoning Itreferstotheabilityofdrawingconclusionsthatareappropriate
tothesituationinhand.

Understanding

It refers to the identification of the significance, interpretation, or explanation for certain data or information. It is the ability to employ the knowledge knowledge.

Creativity Itistheabilitytogeneratenewideasortoconceivenewperspectives
onexistingdata.
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DomainareasofAI Gameplaying(Search) G l i (S h) Speechrecognition Understandingnaturallanguage Understanding natural language ComputerVision Expertsystems p y Heuristicclassification Robotics

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Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Muthiah Polytechnic College, Annamalainagar

Knowledgebasedsystems
Knowledgeisdefinedastherememberingofpreviouslylearnedmaterial.Itis K l d i d fi d th b i f i l l d t i l It i theresultoflearningandreasoning. Inhumans,knowledgeisstoredasacollectionofinterconnectedneurons(brain In humans knowledge is stored as a collection of interconnected neurons (brain cells)inthebrain,whichcontainsapproximately1012 neurons. Knowledgeplaysanimportantroleinbuildingintelligent,knowledgebased Knowledge plays an important role in building intelligent , knowledge based systems. Knowledgeneedstobeacquiredfromdifferentsourcessuchasprocedures, rulesandfacts. Knowledgeistobestored/organised insuchawaythatretrievalofinformation canbeeasy.
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Knowledgebasedsystems
In knowledge based systems, decisions and actions are based on the manipulation of knowledge. (facts are compared and altered in some manner). Manipulation is computational equivalent of reasoning. Knowledge can be represented using various schemes. Eg. FOPL (First Order Predicate Logic), and associative network.

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Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Muthiah Polytechnic College, Annamalainagar

Theknowledgebasecontainspredefinedconcepts,domainconstraints, heuristicrulesandsoon. heuristic rules and so on Knowledgerepresentationapproachesthatcanbeusedinlearningsystemsare productionrules Frames semanticnetworks predicatecalculus vectorsandmatrices Graphs formalgrammarand proceduralencoding

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FOPLFirstorderpredicatelogic isarepresentationschemeforreasoning. itcomprisesofsymbolstorepresentstatements. Predicate Thissymbolreturnsavalueoftrueorfalse.Capital y p lettersandwordsareusedtorepresentpredicates. (eg.A,B,NOT,EQUAL) Functions indicatesrelations Functions indicates relations (eg.Hasa,partof,Fatherof) Variables Constants Logicalquantifiers(Existential thereexistanx,Universal forallx) ( j , g , j ) Connectors(vdisjunction,~ negation,^ conjunction)
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Structureofmachinelearningsystem Themachinelearningsystem theenvironment thelearningelement h l i l theknowledgebase theperformanceelement the performance element


Environment E i t LearningElement L i El t KnowledgeBase K l d B Performance P f Element

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Structureofmachinelearningsystem
Environment LearningElement KnowledgeBase Performance Element

The environment supplies some piece of information to the learning element The learning element applies the information to make improvements in an explicit knowledge base the performance element uses the knowledge base to perform its task. p g p Finally, the information gained during performing the task can serve as a feedback to the learning element.
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Al learning system may acquire rules of b h i i t i l f behaviour, d descriptions of i ti f physical objects, problemsolving heuristics, classification taxonomies over a sample space, and many other types of knowledge useful in the performance of a wide variety of tasks. Complex tasks require more knowledge than simple ones. The knowledge base grows more in size, the problems of integrating new rules and diagnosing incorrect rules become more complicated.

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DefinitionforLearning
A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T as measured by P improves with T, P, experience E.

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A handwriting recognition learning problem Task T: recognizing and classifying handwritten words within images Performance measure P: Percent of words correctly classified Training T i i experience E A d t b i E: database of handwritten words with given f h d itt d ith i classifications

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A robot driving learning problem Task T: driving on public four-lane highways using vision sensors. Performance measure P: average distance travelled before an error (as judged by human overseer) Training experience E: a sequence of images and steering commands recorded while observing a human driver.

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Somemajorissues
Some major i S j issues which concern th process of l hi h the f learning k i knowledge i l d in general are: What can a system learn objectively from a set of data? The point is that if data do not contain enough information a system cannot "learn" much from it. What should a system learn? In order to solve a particular problem, a system has to learn specific features, dependencies relevant to the solution, but not learn everything(Some irrelevant features only)

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Somemajorissues
How to test h well the system h l how ll h has learned appropriate k d knowledge? l d ? Testing the learning process is usually done through measuring the learning error. The main approaches are: Partitioning of data. A part of the data, say 70%, is used for training and the other part for testing. The leavingoneout method means that we train n times the system with (n 1) examples and check the system's reaction to the leftout example. After doing this n times we can calculate the correct answer of p g the system as the ratio between the number of correctly processed examples and the number n of all the examples

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Machinelearning
Machine learning is one of the important research and application areas of artificial intelligence (AI). Machine learning is the study of making machines acquire new knowledge, and recognize existing knowledge. Machine learning is the capability of a computer to learn from experience (training data) and to extract knowledge from examples.

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Machinelearning
Machine learning is programming computers to optimize a performance criterion using example data or past experience. With a model using some parameters, learning is the execution of a computer program to optimize the parameters of the model using the training data or past experience experience. The model may be predictive to make predictions in the future, or descriptive to gain knowledge from data, or both.

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Machinelearning Goal
The goal of machine learning is to design programs that learn and/or discover, i.e. automatically improve their performance on certain tasks and/or adapt to changing circumstances over time time.

Successfullearner
Makes general conclusions about the data it is trained on. Act appropriately in new situations.

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Machinelearning
There are certain patterns in the data. May not be able to identify the process completely but we can completely, construct a good and useful approximation. That Th approximation may not explain everything, b may still i i l i hi but ill be able to account for some part of the data. We believe that though identifying the complete process may not be possible, we can still detect certain patterns or regularities. regularities
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Machinelearningdrawsonconceptsandresultsfrom Statistics Artificialintelligence g Informationtheory Biology Cognitivescience Computationalcomplexityand Controltheory Control theory

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MajortypesofMachineLearning
Supervised learning Unsupervised l U i d learning i Reinforcement learning

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In supervised learning, there is a teacher that provides the learner with a set of inputoutput pairs.

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Process of supervised learning

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Process of supervised learning


Trainingdata

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Decision Tress Classifier


Trainingdata

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In unsupervised learning, there is no teacher, providing desired answers, but since the data are not entirely random, there are statistical regularities that can be captured and that can be applied in new cases.
Eg.ClusteringAlgorithms

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Reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning corresponds to something between supervised and unsupervised approaches. It differs from supervised learning in the sense that explicit inputoutput pairs are not available. An agent explores environment and is able to take actions. Depending on the outcome of the series of actions taken, the agent is rewarded or penalized. Reinforcement learning is called learning with critic, as opposed to learning with a teacher which is the supervised learning.

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Reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning is called learning with critic, as opposed to learning with a teacher which is the supervised learning. Eg.Gameplayingisanimportantresearchareainbothartificialintelligence andmachinelearning. g

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Learningapproachesarealsoclassifiedas
Statistical (probabilistic or stochastic) methods Connectionist methods/neural networks Symbolic machine learning algorithms Genetic methods and G ti th d d Other hybrid approaches

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Statisticalmethods
Statistical methods use probabilities from the large text corpora corpora. Perform some analysis which uses primarily the text characteristics without adding significant linguistic or world knowledge knowledge. Statistical techniques are g q Ngram techniques Unsupervised clustering and Hidden Markov model that have been used for corpusbased language analysis, probabilistic grammar learning and lexiconbuilding.

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Statisticalmethods
Nave Bayes classifier K-Nearest neighbour Hidden Markov Model Expectation M i i ti algorithm (F E t ti Maximisation l ith (Forward-Backward) dB k d) Maximum Entropy models

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Aneuralnetwork
A neural network is based on concepts of how the human brain is organised and how it learns. The nodes correspond to the neurons in the brain, and the links correspond to the connections between neurons. In d to I order t make prediction, th neural network accepts th values f th k di ti the l t k t the l for the predictors on the input nodes. These values are then multiplied by values that are stored in the links, called weights. These values are then added together at the output node, and a special threshold function is applied to get the prediction.

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Symboliclearningmethods
Do not use probabilities explicitly Decision trees D ii t Transformation based learning (TBL) Inductive logic programming (ILP) and Instance based learning are some of the symbolic learning methods methods.

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Minimumdescriptionlength
MDLapproachesaimtominimizethedescriptionofthesetofwordsinthe inputcorpus. According to the minimum description length (MDL) principle learning is principle, defined as reducing the total length of a set of data. Introducing a theory which can generate certain data and thus serves as an g y g abbreviation of the data set. The implementation uses a learning mechanism which decreases the total description length in each step.

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GeneticAlgorithms(GAs)
Randomized search and optimization techniques Guided by the principles of evolution and natural genetics Efficient, adaptive and robust search processes

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HybridMethods EnsembleLearning
Set of classifiers whose individual decisions are combined to classify new examples. In ensemble learning several classifiers are generated from a single classifier classifier, the so called base classifier, by changing the training set or the input features or the parameters of the classifier. The predictions of all base classifiers are combined into a single final prediction. The idea builds on the assumption that combining the output of multiple experts is better than the output of any single expert

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HybridMethods EnsembleLearning

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Selection of features
Machine learning requires selection of M hi l i i l ti f Samples and features Choice of distance (similarity) metric and Choice of algorithm. Features are usually pre-processed. e u es e usu y p e p ocessed. Dimensional reduction will be used to identify a subset of features, or mathematical combinations of features that greatly reduces the size of the machine learning problem. A distance metric represents how far samples are separated from one another in `feature space'. Proper representation schemes should be used for better learning. l i
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AboutFeatures
The input vector is called by a variety of names, some of these are input vector, pattern vector, feature vector. The components of the input vector are variously called features features, attributes, input variables, and components. Thevaluesofthecomponentscanbeofthreemaintypes:realvalued numbers,discretevaluednumbers,orcategoricalvalues .

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AboutFeatures
The number of features in the instances determine the search space that needs to be explored by the learning algorithm for a given classification task. The Th presence of a l f large number of i l b f irrelevant f t t features unnecessarily i il increases th the size of the search space, thus increasing the time needed for classification. The presence of many features especially irrelevant and redundant ones makes features, ones, it difficult to extract knowledge such as classification rules in a way that is comprehensible to humans. Conversely, the rules based on a small number of relevant features are often concise, easier to understand and use. , The most important reason behind feature selection is that it can eliminate the effects of the curse of dimensionality.
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Applicationsofmachinelearning
ProblemsthatcanbesolvedbyMachinelearningareclassifiedas Associationrulelearning g Classification Prediction Regression Patternrecognition

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Associationrulelearning One application of machine learning is basket analysis, which is finding associations between products bought by customers: If people who buy X typically also buy Y, and if there is a customer who buys X and does not buy Y, he or she is a potential Y customer.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Associationrulelearning Finding an association rule is learning a conditional probability of the form P(YIX) where Y is the product we would like to condition on X, which is the product or the set of products which we know that the customer has already purchased

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Associationrulelearning We may want to make a distinction among customers and toward this, estimate P(YIX, D) where D is the set of customer attributes, for example, gender, age, marital status, and so on. If this is a bookseller instead of a supermarket, products can be books or authors. In the case of a Web portal, items correspond to links to Web pages, and we can estimate the links a user is likely to click and use this information to download such pages in advance for faster access. p g
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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Classification Increditscoring,thebankcalculatestheriskgiventheamountofcreditand theinformationaboutthecustomer. Thisisanexampleofaclassificationproblemwheretherearetwoclasses: lowriskandhighriskcustomers. Theinformationaboutacustomermakesuptheinputtotheclassifier whosetaskistoassigntheinputtooneofthetwoclasses.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Classification&Prediction Aftertrainingwiththepastdata,aclassificationrulelearnedmaybeoftheform IFincome>p1ANDsavings>p2THENlowriskELSEhighrisk Itisafunctionthatseparatestheexamplesofdifferentclasses. Oncewehavearulethatfitsthepastdatathenwecanmakecorrect Once we have a rule that fits the past data then we can make correct predictions fornovelinstances,,ifthefutureissimilartothepast.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Regression In a system that can predict the price of a used car. Inputs are the car attributes brand year engine capacity mileage and other attributesbrand, year, capacity, mileage, informationthat we believe affect a car's worth. The output is the price of the car. Such problems where the output is a number are REGRESSION problems.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Clustering Clusteringisgroupingofinput. with a data of customers, a clustering model allocates customers similar in their attributes to the same group. Input:demographicinformationaswellasthepasttransactionswiththe company. company thecompanymaydecidestrategies,servicesandproducts,specificto differentgroups. different groups Suchagroupingalsoallowsidentifyingthosewhoareoutliers,namely,those whoaredifferentfromothercustomers.
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Applicationsofmachinelearning inPatternRecognition

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Applicationsofmachinelearning inPatternRecognition
Characterrecognition
is recognizing characters from their images Printed character recognition (OCR) Collection of dots Handwritten character recognition Collection of d and strokes d i h ii ll i f dots d k There are multiple classes - as many as the number of characters A character image is not just a collection of random dots; it is a collection of strokes and has a regularity that we can capture by a learning program.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Sequencelearning
A word is a sequence of characters and successive characters are not independent but are constrained by the words of the language. This has the advantage that even if we cannot recognize a character, we can still read t?e word. Such contextual dependencies may also occur in higher levels, between words and sentences, through the syntax and semantics of the language. There are machine learning algorithms to learn sequences and model such dependencies
Sequencelearningmethodsarealsousedinbioinformatics S l i th d l d i bi i f ti
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Applicationsofmachinelearning
FaceRecognition
In Face recognition the input is an image the classes are people to be recognized the learning program should learn to associate the face images to identities.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Speechrecognition Speech recognition
The input is acoustic The classes are words that can b uttered h l d h be d This time the association to be learned is from an acoustic signal to a word of some language language.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Medicaldiagnosis
Theinputsaretherelevantinformationaboutthepatient Theclassesaretheillnesses The classes are the illnesses Theinputscontainthepatient'sage,gender,pastmedicalhistory,and currentsymptoms. current symptoms.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Outlierdetection
Anotheruseofmachinelearningisoutlierdetection, isfindingtheinstancesthatdonotobeytheruleandareexceptions. is finding the instances that do not obey the rule and are exceptions Afterlearningtherule,wearenotinterestedintherulebuttheexceptions notcoveredbytherule,whichmayimplyanomaliesrequiringattention. not covered by the rule, which may imply anomalies requiring attention.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Outlierdetection
Learningarulefromdataallowsknowledgeextraction. Theruleisasimplemodelthatexplainsthedata,andlookingatthismodel The rule is a simple model that explains the data and looking at this model wehaveanexplanationabouttheprocessunderlyingthedata. Forexample,oncewelearnthediscriminant separatinglow riskandhigh For example, once we learn the discriminant separating lowrisk and high riskcustomers(Creditscoring)wehavetheknowledgeofthepropertiesof lowriskcustomers. Wecanthenusethisinformationtotargetpotentiallowriskcustomers moreefficiently.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Compression
Learningalsoperformscompressionbyfittingaruletothedata. Wegetanexplanationthatissimplerthanthedata,requiringlessmemory We get an explanation that is simpler than the data requiring less memory tostoreandlesscomputationtoprocess. Eg.Onceyouhavetherulesofaddition,youdonotneedtorememberthe Eg. Once you have the rules of addition, you do not need to remember the sumofeverypossiblepairofnumbers.

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Applicationsofmachinelearning
Networking&Communications
Innetworkingandtelecommunications,callpatternsandtrafficdataare analyzedfornetworkoptimizationandmaximizingthequalityofservice.

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Applicationsofmachinelearningin NaturalLanguageProcessing g g g
Machinelearningalsohelpsusfindsolutionsformanynaturallanguage processingtasks. Text categorisation Text summarisation Word segmentation POS t i tagging Parsing Word sense disambiguation Spelling correction Unknown word recognition Speech recognition and Machine translation
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Applicationsofmachinelearningin NaturalLanguageProcessing g g g
Machinelearningalsohelpsusfindsolutionsformanynaturallanguage processingtasks.
LanguageIdentification Language Identification Fromtext FromSpeech SpeakerDiarization Toidentifythespeakerchangesandthespeakerclusters,andtoestimatethe numberofspeakersinvolvedinthedocument Audiosegmentationandclassification Audio segmentation and classification Tobeabletoprocessspeechdocumentsaswellasdocumentscontaining music,silence,andothersounds.

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SpeakerDiarization
Toidentifythespeakerturnsandthespeakerclusters,andtoestimatethe numberofspeakersinvolvedinthedocument,withoutanyprioriinformation. Tobeabletoprocessspeechdocumentsaswellasdocumentscontainingmusic, T b bl hd ll d i i i silence,andothersounds.

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