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POLYMER CHEMISTRY ASSIGNMENT

TITTLE : PLASTIC SURGERY GROUP MEMBERS : 1. NUR FARHANA ZULKIFLI 2. NURUL NATRA AHMAD TARMIDI UK 23533 UK23535

3. MOHAMAD AMIRUL FIRDAUS ABDUL KARIM UK 23540 PROGRAMME : BACHELOR OF SCIENCES(CHEMICAL SCIENCES) LECTURER: DR MOHD AIDIL ADHHA ABDULLAH

CONTENTS

Introduction ..

Benefits of Plastic Surgery ..

Risks of plastic surgery ...

Conclusion ..

References

Appendix ..

INTRODUCTION
When you hear of plastic surgery, what do you think of? A Hollywood star trying to delay the effects of aging? People who want to change the size of their stomachs, breasts, or other body parts because they see it done so easily on TV? Those are common images of plastic surgery, but what about the 4-year-old boy who has his chin rebuilt after a dog bit him? Or the young woman who has the birthmark on her forehead lightened with a laser? The word plastic in the phrase plastic surgery has its origin from the Greek word plastikos which means to mould. Plastic surgery is a special type of surgery that can involve both a person's appearance and ability to function. It can be divided into two which are reconstructive and aesthetics. Reconstructive surgery is to repair damage tissue or correct abnormal structure of the body due to the accident. The organ loss the ability to function due to the accident. Whereas aesthetics plastic surgery or cosmetic surgery is surgery to alter a part of the body that the person is not satisfied with. Common cosmetic procedures include making the breasts larger (augmentation mammoplasty) or smaller (reduction mammoplasty), reshaping the nose (rhinoplasty), and removing pockets of fat from specific spots on the body (liposuction). Polymer that usually used in plastic surgery are Polymethylmethaacrylate (PMMA), Polyester, Polyamide, Polyethylene, and Polytetrafluoroethylene .

Benefits of Plastic Surgery


They are several benefits of plastic surgery whether in physical and emotional aspect or internal and external aspect. The physical and external benefits of plastic surgery can be multi-faceted. The first thing is people will notice the change in their bodies, the body that undergone plastic surgery will looks more proportional and balanced. Whether a person opts to have surgery on their face, hips, breasts or thighs the aim is to sculpt the body in a way that looks natural. The result often allows people to look more like they feel like they should look. Surgeons aim to correct this by taking each individual's body into consideration before deciding on a desired result.

The physical result of plastic surgery often produces a healthier look and often people who undergo surgery see this healthy look permeate their entire lifestyle. People who have surgeries like liposuction and breast reduction usually feel that their new bodies allow them to participate in physical activities that they wouldn't have considered before surgery. Plastic surgery can open new doors to people who had previously lived their lives scared to take on activities like swimming or aerobics because of the lack of clothing involved and the way that they felt that they would be looked at by other people. Benefits in emotional and internal aspects are the patients that undergo plastic surgery whether reconstructive and aesthetics will have higher self-esteem and

confidence level compared before surgery. This is a positive factor in our socialization process and may even improve our interaction skills. Whether a person chooses to undergo plastic surgery to improve their lifestyle or to improve their look there will always be emotional benefits when a person is finally able to feel comfortable in their body. Many people find that they are more outgoing, personable and confident when they become comfortable with their transformation and this heightened sense of self-esteem can be a benefit that lasts a lifetime. These results may help the person live a happier life as worries about not being accepted by the society because of appearance may be eliminated. It may also increase an individuals productivity. Improvements in appearances may increase chances of getting hired for a particular job, the person who has undergone plastic surgery may also up his/her chances of becoming successful with their career.

RISKS OF PLASTIC SURGERY


Normally, doing plastic surgery has their own risks. Different people has different antibody. So that they would give different feedback to the body depends on the strength of their antibody. People may react differently to the treatment and procedure. Sometimes a person may suffer from side-effects. Another setback with having a plastic surgery done is the cost of the procedure. Usually, it comes with a high price. However, the benefits the procedure brings may be more than the disadvantages that come along with the process. It is very important to identify possible allergies and negative reactions the body might have towards the treatment. This would minimize the risks and at the same time, maximize the benefits of the procedure. Maximized results can be expected when incisions are carefully planned to fall within the skin folds, stitches are not visible or the visibility is removed soon, and the safest and best way to close the wounds in the sense that they become tightly closed by invisible stitches. Although, the risks or complications are very rare nowadays , one has to seriously look after all probable risks and dangers of plastic surgery involved. before going ahead. Following are some of the most common general risks and dangers associated with plastic surgery. There are 7 major risks of plastics surgery, which are bleeding, infections, seromas, scarring, necrosis, nerve damage, and adverse reactions to anesthesia. Bleeding is regular phenomenon for few hours after surgery and can sometimes results into complications. Blood clotting and its accumulation under the skin can result in a condition called hematoma, which will be firm in appearance and feel and the color

of overlaying skin may change to blue or purple. The area experiences a characteristic pain but it gets reduced gradually, once our body's' own anticlotting mechanism starts addressing the specific area and reabsorbs the accumulated blood.

However, if hematoma continues to grow, it will compress the surrounding tissues and disrupt the flow of oxygen through blood, from circulating around that area. This may lead to numbness, swelling, inflammation and skin death. An immediate attention or perhaps a surgery is required to take out the coagulated blood. Moreover, presence of large hematoma can increase the risks of other problems like infection, wound separation, and necrosis.

Second risks of plastic surgery are infections. During surgery and within next few hours, the patient become more exposed to infections as open wounds offer better access to bacterial and viral pathogens via sutures or drain sites. That is the main reason why the supplement of antibiotics is provided during and following the cosmetic surgery. Typical signs of infection are fever, inflammation in a local area, foul odor, and discharge of thick yellow or white fluid.

Next are Seromas. There are also Seromas which are quite similar to Hematomas. In this case, there is accumulation of tissue fluid, instead of blood. They usually occur in operations involving tissue removal. They are identified by

enlargement, increased weight and sloshing of fluids. The treatment involves compression or drainage.

After that is scarring. Scarring is one of the most common risk, which one should be aware of. It is closely related to suture reactions and wound healing capability. During the process of healing, a thickening of skin edge and formation of granular tissue can occur. Most surgeons like to hide the scarring in places where they are not noticeable. For example in tummy tuck operations it is beneath the swing wear line while in breast augmentation the incision lines are hidden under the crease of breast.

Necrosis is death of tissues, due to insufficient supply of oxygen to the operated area. The risk is very rare in normal cosmetic surgeries, but in plastic surgeries involving facelifts, breast reductions, tummy tucks, there is a possibility of Necrosis. It increases with sudden inflammation. Smokers are very prone to this possibility as blood vessel constriction and relatively less oxygen supply. It is generally treated in early stages by hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Nerve Damage. In very rare, extreme cases nerve damage can occur, characterized by numbness and tingling sensation. Generally the nerve damage can last for not more than a year. Weakness or paralysis of certain muscles may be experienced if a nerve related to muscle movement is impaired. It can be treated with reconstructive surgery.

Lastly is adverse reactions to anesthesia. Risks due to use of anesthesia are very rare but nevertheless its still a possibility. The risks depend on the factors like healthiness and seriousness of surgery. Nausea is a common feature. Sore throat is also commonly experienced risk. The total risk factor of this type is generally very rare.

CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, plastic surgery has two types that are constructive and aesthetics. People keep doing plastic surgery although they know they risk of doing that. This is because they were very obsess to look beautiful and perfect. In case of constructive surgery, it is important to rebuild correct abnormal structure of the body due to the accident. Whereas in aesthetics case, it is important to improve self esteem and confidence level of a person. Besides that, patient need to thinks wisely before make a decision to undergo this surgery. It is very important to identify possible allergies and negative reactions the body might have towards the treatment, if not, maybe this surgery could leads to fatality. To avoid this, it is necessary to consult the doctor and talk out the possible pros and cons of the procedure to be taken to set proper expectations and to avoid possible undesirable side-effects. Lastly, If you are considering plastic surgery, such as breast augmentation, you should make sure to do some soul searching about your physical dissatisfaction and compare that carefully to the costs and risks of surgery. Make sure that the plastic surgeon you meet with is attentive to your goals and motivations.

REFERENCES
1)Why Do People Keep Getting Plastic Surgery? By Richard Lawson http://gawker.com/5489243/why-do-people-keep-getting-plastic-surgery 2) 25 reasons why plastic surgery is insanely dumb http://blog.trutv.com/dumb_as_a_blog/2011/11/25-reasons-why-plastic-surgery-isinsanely-dumb.html 3) How to Decide If You Should Get Plastic Surgery http://emedicine.medscape.com/plastic_surgery 4) Risks and Dangers of Plastic Surgery http://www.buzzle.com/articles/risks-dangers-plastic-surgery.html 5) Benefits and Advantages of Plastic Surgery http://www.plastic-surgery.net/benefits-plastic-surgery.html 6) Disadvantages of Plastic Surgery http://www.livestrong.com/article/23750-disadvantages-plastic-surgery/ 7) PMMA butt injections http://www.newimage.com/injectable-fillers/polymethylmethacrylate.html 8) overview of cosmetic plastics surgery http://www.philippinecosmetic.com/introps.html