You are on page 1of 10

# Defence Engineering College Department Of Electronics Engineering Course Syllabus

1.Instructor Information Name Office location Mobile phone number E-mail Office Hours Course Name Course Code Credit Hours Pre-requisite 2. Course Information Electromagnetic fields and waves EL-2142 3-3-0 Halefom

PH-1142, MA-2011 3. Course Description Aim: To develop the students ability to analyze and solve static and time-varying electromagnetic fields and their application. Description: vector analysis for fields; Electrostatic fields and potential; Conductors, Dielectrics and Capacitors; Laplaces and Poissons equations; Magneto static fields and Amperes law; energy and power in electromagnetic fields; Maxwells equation; Time-varying fields, Wave propagation and polarization; Waves in media: reflection, transmission and refraction at media interfaces. 4.Method Of Instruction 3 contact hours every week Class lectures Active learning (involves the full participation of students) Teaching inductively and followed by deductive assertions Study of lecture notes This is fully the responsibility of the learner Individual Assignment Provided in form of tests per each four chapters finishing Outcome is the average of two tests during semester Group Assignment Individual contribution is evaluated

5. Learning Outcomes After the completion of the course the student will have the following attributes: 5.1 Knowledge 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5

Perform basic vector calculus operations such as line, surface & volume integrals, gradient, divergence & curl operations, Divergence & Stokes Theorems, and perform vector field classification in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. Calculate the electric field and electric potential in regions containing point charges and/or line, surface, and/or volume charge densities.

Understand and analyze the electric properties of various media types Solve Laplaces and Poissons Equations
Describe the vector nature of a static magnetic field; be able to calculate the magnetic field, using the Biot-Savart law or Amperes law as appropriate

Analyze & understand static & time varying electromagnetic fields. 5.1.6 Understand & analyze electromagnetic wave propagation in different media. 5.1.7 5.2 Intellectual skills To have a physical understanding of the role of electromagnetic fields in electronics & 5.2.1 communication. Understand the analytical procedures required for solving more complex electromagnetic 5.2.2 problems. 5.3 Attitude and behavior Students should be punctual Students should be regular Students should be disciplined Students should develop team spirit 6. Course outline Chapter Week Topics to be covered Learning Assignment/activity (Lecture hours) outcomes (Tutorial hours) 1.1 Scalars and Vectors 1.2 Vector algebra CHAPTER 1 1 1.3 Coordinate systems & transformation REVIEW OF 5.1.1 Problems to be VECTOR 1.4 Differential elements of length, area & solved (6 hr) Volume 1.5 Line, surface and volume integrals 2 1.6 Gradient of scalar field 1.7 Flux, divergence and curl of vector field 2.1 Coulombs law 2.2 Electric field Intensity CHAPTER 2 2.3 Continuous distribution of charge 5.1.2 Problems to be ELECTROSTATIC 3 2.4 Electric field due to continuous charges solved FIELDS (7 hr) 2.5 Gauss Law 4 2.6 Application of Gauss Law 3.1 Electric potential and potential difference CHAPTER 3 3.2 Relationship b/n Energy & potential Test 1 is given for ELECTRIC 5 3.3 Electric potential due to charge 5.1.2 students POTENTIAL Distribution (6 hr)

## CHAPTER 4 CONDACTORS, DIELECTRIC AND CAPACITANCE (9 hr)

7 8

3.4 Electric dipole potential 3.5 Energy & Energy density in electric Field 4.1 Current and current density 4.2 Continuity equation 4.3 Conductor properties and boundary conditions 4.4 Dielectric properties and boundary conditions 4.5 Capacitance Mid examination period 5.1 Laplace and Poissons equation 5.2 Uniqueness theorem 5.1.4 5.1.3

## CHAPTER 5 LAPLACE AND POISSONS EQUATIONS (6 hr)

10

Problems to be solved

11

5.3 Problems involving Laplace equation 5.4 Problems involving Poissons Equation 6.1 Magnetic field 6.2 Biot Savart Law 6.3 Amperes Law 6.4 Application of Amperes Law 6.5 Magnetic flux and magnetic flux Density 6.6 Magnetic scalar and vector potential 6.7 Magnetic boundary condition 6.8 Energy in a magnetic field 7.1 Faradays Law of EMI 7.2 Application of Faradays Law 7.3 Displacement current 7.4 Maxwells equation 8.1 Uniform plane wave 8.2 Plane wave in non Conducting media 8.3 Propagation of plane wave in Conductors skin effect 8.4 Poynting vector 8.5 Reflection and Refraction Final examination period

## Problems to be solved 5.1.5

13

14 CHAPTER 7 TIME VARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL EQUATION (6 hr) CHAPTER 8 PLANE WAVE (6 hr)

15

16

17

5.1.7

## Presentation of group assignment by students

18&19

2
Introduction for vector analysis: Analysis of vector field is the important topic from vector chapters in mathematics. Vector field is containing with the related topics like curl, gradient, divergence, and so on. In this order, line integrals are the important one of the vector filed analysis. Vector field analysis is mainly deals with its dimensions. Vector fields have two types of dimensions. Here we are going to explain about those details in vector field analysis. Explanations of Vector Field Analysis: Generally vector fields are things, which are we have solved and determined in previous topics of vectors, in the form of gradient vector fields. This is considered to let us work with more general fields and, in the previous vector fields, with line integrals, a topic that builds on the notion of a vector fields. Types of vector fields: Here, there are two important vector fields are given below: Two dimensional vector fields, and Three dimensional vector fields. We have to explain both vector fields by below. Explanations for Two Vector Fields: Vector fields in two dimensions: Definition: A two dimension vector field is defined by a function which connections with each vector of each point in the field of the function. (Domain = field). In this two dimensions a vector field V can be denoted by the appearance `V (x, y) = (p(x, y), q(x, y))`

Two dimension vector field analysis picture representation: The functions `p ` and `q ` may be randomly defined, or they may depend on some other function, as in the case of a gradient vector field. This demonstration displays a vector field, allows us to define the field and its domain. It shows a vector field in two dimensions with the vectors denoted (represented) by arrows. The functions `p(x, y)` & `q(x, y)` are, define the vector field of , ` V (x, y) = (p(x, y), q(x, y)).` Vector fields in three dimensions: Definitions: In this three dimensions a vector field `V` can be denoted as the appearance of ` V (x, y, z) = (p(x, y, z), q(x, y, z), r(x, y, z)).` Three dimension vector field analysis picture representation: The functions `p, q` , and `r` may be randomly defined, or they may depend on some other function, as in the case of a gradient vector field. This expression displays a vector field in three-space, allows us to define the field and its domain. The vector field is defined over a rectangular field and has the form, (domain = field). `V (x, y, z) = (p(x, y, z), q(x, y, z), r(x, y, z)).` These all above analysis & explanations and examples make clears about the vector filed analysis.

3
Electric Potential and Electric Field We have seen that the difference in electric potential between two arbitrary points in space is a function of the electric field which permeates space, but is independent of the test charge used to measure this difference. Let us investigate the relationship between electric potential and the electric field. Consider a charge which is slowly moved an infinitesimal distance along the -axis. Suppose that the difference in electric potential between the final and initial positions of the charge is . By definition, the change in the charge's electric potential energy is given by (84) From Eq. (76), the work which we perform in moving the charge is (85)

where is the local electric field-strength, and is the angle subtended between the direction of the field and the -axis. By definition, , where is the -component of the local electric field. Energy conservation demands that (i.e., the increase in the charge's energy matches the work done on the charge), or (86) which reduces to (87)

We call the quantity the gradient of the electric potential in the -direction. It basically measures how fast the potential varies as the coordinate is changed (but the coordinates and are held constant). Thus, the above formula is saying that the -component of the electric field at a given point in space is equal to minus the local gradient of the electric potential in the -direction. According to Eq. (87), electric field strength has dimensions of potential difference over length. It follows that the units of electric field are volts per meter ( . Of course, these new units are entirely equivalent to newtons per coulomb: i.e., (88) Consider the special case of a uniform -directed electric field generated by two uniformly charged parallel planes normal to the -axis. It is clear, from Eq. (87), that if is to be constant between the plates then must vary linearly with in this region. In fact, it is easily shown that (89) where is an arbitrary constant. According to Eq. (89), the electric potential decreases continuously as we move along the direction of the electric field. Since a positive charge is accelerated in this direction, we conclude that positive charges are accelerated down gradients in the electric potential, in much the same manner as masses fall down gradients of gravitational potential (which is, of course, proportional to height). Likewise, negative charges are accelerated up gradients in the electric potential.

According to Eq. (87), the -component of the electric field is equal to minus the gradient of the electric potential in the -direction. Since there is nothing special about the -direction, analogous rules must exist for the - and -components of the field. These three rules can be combined to give (90) Here, the derivative is taken at constant and , etc. The above expression shows how the electric field , which is a vector field, is related to the electric potential , which is a scalar field. We have seen that electric fields are superposable. That is, the electric field generated by a set of charges distributed in space is simply the vector sum of the electric fields generated by each charge taken separately. Well, if electric fields are superposable, it follows from Eq. (90) that electric potentials must also be superposable. Thus, the electric potential generated by a set of charges distributed in space is just the scalar sum of the potentials generated by each charge taken in isolation. Clearly, it is far easier to determine the potential generated by a set of charges than it is to determine the electric field, since we can sum the potentials generated by the individual charges algebraically, and do not have to worry about their directions (since they have no directions). Equation (90) looks rather forbidding. Fortunately, however, it is possible to rewrite this equation in a more appealing form. Consider two neighboring points and . Suppose that is the vector displacement of point relative to point . Let be the difference in electric potential between these two points. Suppose that we travel from to by first moving a distance along the -axis, then moving along the -axis, and finally moving along the -axis. The net increase in the electric potential as we move from to is simply the sum of the increases as we move along the -axis, as we move along the -axis, and as we move along the -axis: (91) But, according to Eq. (90), , etc. So, we obtain which is equivalent to (93) where is the angle subtended between the vector and the local electric field . Note that attains its most negative value when . In other words, the direction of the electric field at point corresponds to the direction in which the electric potential decreases most rapidly. A positive charge placed at point is accelerated in this direction. Likewise, a negative charge placed at is accelerated in the direction in which the potential increases most rapidly (i.e., ). Suppose that we move from point to a neighboring point in a direction perpendicular to that of the local electric field (i.e., ). In this case, it follows from Eq. (93) that the points and lie at the same electric potential (i.e., ). The locus of all the points in the vicinity of point which lie at the same potential as is a plane perpendicular to the direction of the local electric field. More generally, the surfaces of constant electric potential, the so-called equipotential surfaces, exist as a set of non-interlocking surfaces which are everywhere perpendicular to the direction of the electric field. Figure 14 shows the equipotential surfaces (dashed lines) and electric field-lines (solid lines) generated by a positive point charge. In this case, the equipotential surfaces are spheres centred on the charge. (92)

Figure 14: The equipotential surfaces (dashed lines) and the electric field-lines (solid lines) of a positive point charge. In Sect. 4.3, we found that the electric field immediately above the surface of a conductor is directed perpendicular to that surface. Thus, it is clear that the surface of a conductor must correspond to an equipotential surface. In fact, since there is no electric field inside a conductor (and, hence, no gradient in the electric potential), it follows that the whole conductor (i.e., both the surface and the interior) lies at the same electric potential.