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INTRODUCTION TO HRM Evolution of HRM

Earlier references: In western countries HRM had its primitive beginning in 1930s. Not much thought was given on this subject in particular and no written records or documents interesting to note HRM concepts was available, in ancient philosophies of Greek, Indian and Chinese. This is not to suggest that industrial establishment and factories system, as it is known today, existed in ancient Greece, India or china. The philosophy of managing human being, as a concept was found developed in ancient literatures in general and in Indian philosophy in particular. Personnel functions: Till 1930s, it was not felt necessary to have a separate discipline of management called Personnel management. In fact, this job was assigned as part of the factory manager. Adam Smiths concept of factory was that it consists of three resources, land, labour and capital. This factory manager is expected to procure, Process and peddle labour as one of the resources. The first time when such a specialist person was used; it was to maintain a buffer between employer and employee to meet the legitimate need of employees. However, it is the employer who decided what is legitimate need of employees. In fact, the specialist person was more needed to prevent unionization of employees. This was the case before 1930-s all over the world. Environmental Influences on HRM: Since 1930s, certain developments took place, which greatly contributed, to the evolution and growth of Human Resources Management (HRM). These developments are given below: 1. Scientific Management 2. Labour Movements 3. Government Regulations

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Objectives of the HRM


1. Industrial peace: This is secured by excellent union management relations, healthy interpersonal relationships, and promoting participative management style and good industrial and labour relations. 2. Achieve High Productivity: The underlying objective brings to increase the quantity or volume of the product or service for a given input, productivity improvement programme is very significant in a competitive environment. 3. Better quality of working life of employees: This involves both intrinsic and extrinsic factors connected with work. 4. Obtain and sustain competitive advantage through empowerment : continuous improvement and innovative steps being the two essential ingredients to achieve and sustain competitive advantage, todays industries are knowledge based and skill intensive. 5. Cordial relationship between the employer and employees. 6. Personnel research functions. 7. Proper orientation and introduction to the new employees.

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INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


The term refers to the favourableness or unfavourableness of a total job environment for people. QWL programs are another way in which organisations recognise their responsibility to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for people as well as for economic health of the organisation. The elements in a typical QWL program include open communications, equitable reward systems, a concern for employee job security and satisfying careers and participation in decision making. Many early QWL efforts focus on job enrichment. In addition to improving the work system, QWL programs usually emphasise development of employee skills, the reduction of occupational stress and the development of more co-operative labour-management relations. Human resource departments are involved with efforts to improve productivity through changes in employee relations. QWL means having good supervision, good working conditions, good pay and benefits and an interesting, challenging and rewarding job. High QWL is sought through an are systematic attempts by an organisation to give workers greater employee relations philosophy that encourages the use of QWL efforts, which opportunities to affect their jobs and their contributions to the organisations overall effectiveness. That is, a proactive human resource department finds ways to empower employees so that they draw on their brains and wits, usually by getting the employees more involved in the decision-making process The best way of approaching quality of life measurement is to measure the extent to which people's 'happiness requirements' are met - ie those requirements which are a necessary (although not sufficient) condition of anyone's happiness - those 'without which no member of the human race can be happy. QWL may be defined as subjective well-being. Recognising the subjectivity of QWL is a key to understanding this construct. QWL reflects the difference, the gap, between the hopes and expectations of a person and their present experience. Human adaptation is such that life expectations are usually adjusted so as to lie within the realm of what the individual perceives to be possible. This enables people who have difficult life circumstances to maintain a reasonable QWL.

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Industry Profile
The Indian telecom sector has continued its robust growth with the wireless market growing at 9.91 percent and churning revenues worth Rs.371 billion (Rs.37, 196 crore) every quarter. A total of 28.44 million subscribers were added in the past four months, as per the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI).The adjusted gross revenue (AGR) for the quarter is placed at Rs.273 billion (Rs.27, 357 crore) as against Rs.26, 990 crore (Rs.269 billion) for the previous quarter, thereby showing an increase of 1.36 percent. The total subscriber base of the wire line and wireless services reached 353.66 million as against 325.79 million previously, thus registering an increase of 8.55 percent in four months .The tele-density too reached 30.64 Though the wireless subscribers increased from 286.87 million to 315.31 million, the wire line subscriber base decreased for the quarter to 38.35 million from 38.92 million in the past four months .however, the average revenue per user (ARPU) for GSM subscribers, all India segment, decreased 7.53 percent from Rs.239 in March to Rs.221 in July .ARPU for postpaid service showed a decline of 2.8 percent from Rs.600 to Rs.584 during the quarter. Prepaid service also showed a 7.5 percent decline in ARPU from Rs.204 in March to Rs.189.As regards the CDMA segment, all India blended ARPU (per month) for the second quarter is Rs.122 as compared to Rs.139 for the previous quarter. The internet wire line subscribers witnessed a growth of 12.24 million for the quarter against 11.66 million during the previous quarter registering a growth of 4.97 percent. State-run telecom operator Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) retained its top position and reported a subscriber base of nearly 6.38 million internet subscribers against 5.94 million at the end of last quarter, TRAI said. An 11.87 percent growth was registered in the number of broadband subscribers in this quarter. Though the telecom industry saw various ups and downs, the sector witnessed international investor community betting on the Indian market. Norway-based Telenor, the worlds seventh largest telecom operator, bought a new-generation telecom company Unitech Wireless by paying $1.29 billion for a 60 percent stake. Similarly, another start-up, Swan Telecom, which did not have a single subscriber, sold a 45 percent stake to the UAEs Etisalat for $900 million, taking the companys book value to $2 billion.

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st Market Shareof Major Telecom Players in India (As on December 312008) ,

Telecom Company Bharti AirtelLtd. Vodafone Reliance Communications Idea Cellular Tata Teleservices

Market Share 24.3% 17.8% 18.8% 11.1% 9.1%

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPANY

HFCL Group profile


HFCL's vision is to provide cost effective futuristic telecom solutions. HFCL is focused on developing the state-of-art technologies and intellectual property to maintain a competitive leadership and a sustained long-term growth. Established in the year 1987, Himachal Futuristic Communications Ltd. has developed a vast base for indigenous telecom equipment manufacturing in India. It started with manufacturing transmission Equipment and soon expanded its product portfolio to manufacture Access Equipment, Optical Fibre Cable, Accessories and Terminal Equipment. The Group companies and Associates companies of Himachal Futuristic Communications Ltd.HFCL Infotel Ltd., HFCL Satellite Communications Ltd. and Microwave Communications Ltd. which offer Basic Telephony and Internet services, V-sat Services and Paging services respectively have also made a name for themselves. HFCL Infotel Ltd. became the first basic service provider in Punjab. HFCL Satellite Communications Ltd. is catering to a number of channels like Aaj Tak by providing customized DSNG vans. Himachal Futuristic Communications Lets.' Pagelink, together with Page point, is one of the leading players in field of paging services. HTL, a major telecom equipment supplier, which was recently acquired by HFCL, is not only be an extension of the manufacturing aspect of HFCL but also synergises and value adds to the already existing product range of HFCL.

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HFCL Infotel Ltd


The first basic telephony services provider for Punjab launched its basic telephony services on 16th October, 2000. Today CONNECT has added a milestone to the rich economy of Punjab by providing world-class telephony and data services in the state. CONNECT is a business venture of Himachal Futuristic Communications Ltd., India's leading telecommunications giant. CONNECT is further supported by the expertise of Lucent Technologies USA, IIT Chennai, Compaq, Cisco, CGI, Bell Nexxia and Cincom. Lucent is a Fortune 40 company and the world leader in design, development and manufacture of communication systems. With an investment of over Rs.1200 Crores HFCL Infotel, has set up a state-of-the-art network in over 66 towns and cities in Punjab. The average revenue per line (ARPL) for CONNECT subscribers is already amongst the highest in the country. With a clear focus on acquiring quality subscriber through targeted roll out and by using revenue oriented marketing plans we intend to maintain this trend in the future. The wide array of innovative products and services in the data and broadband segment has further allowed the Company in maximizing its revenue drive.

The Technology
CONNECT is in the process of constructing both Wireline ( WLN) and Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) access networks in the major cities and towns of Punjab by using technologies such as CDMA (used for limited mobility, supports voice only), CorDect (supports data, voice, multimedia), Copper & Optical Fibre. CONNECT is further supported by the expertise of Lucent Technologies USA(CDMA switch, High end platform), IIT Chennai (CorDect technology), Compaq( PC Hardware/High end Server), Cisco( networking partner), CGI & Bell Nexxia ( advisory services) and Cincom ( Spectra). Lucent is a Fortune 40 company and the world leader in design, development and manufacture of communication systems. Through convergence of information, communication and entertainment technologies we will provide the optimal business solutions.

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Network Coverage across Punjab

Network Coverage across Punjab

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SERVICE/ PRODUCT PORTFOLIO


LANDLINE TELEPHONY MOBILE TELEPHONY CENTREX CONNECT provides world-class landline telephone service to people of Punjab & Chandigarh. CONNECT provides state-of-the-art CDMA based WLL mobile service in Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Amritsar CONNECT Centrex offers individual telephone lines with the facility of intercom dialing 3-4 digit-numbering plans. PHONE CARDS CONNECT phone card is a pre-paid card that allows you make local and STD/ISD calls from any CONNECT phone even if the phone doesnt have STD/ISD facility. TELEMEET CONNECT Tele Meet is an audio conference service that

enables the subscriber to conduct a telephonic meeting with as many participants as one wants in a single conference, located anywhere in the world. LEASED LINE CONNECT Leased lines are available in denominations of 64 Kbps, n X 64 Kbps and n X 2 Mbps. CONNECT provides Internet leased lines in various bandwidths ranging from 64 Kbps onwards CONNECT offers ISDN, a fully digital service that allows the subscriber to transfer voice, data and image simultaneously at high speeds. CONNECT videoconference service allows subscriber to undertake virtual meeting without physically present at one location

INTERNET LINES ISDN

LEASED

VIDEO CONFERENCING

HFCL Infotel Ltd. (Infotel) is a business venture of the HFCL Group, is a "Total Telecom Solutions Provider" offering Fixed Line telephony (Telephone Services), Mobile telephony, Broadband Services, Customized Data Services and Value Added Services. Page 9

HFCL Infotel Ltd. Is the first basic telephony services provider in Punjab and was launched on 16 October, 2000 under the brand name CONNECT with an investment of Rs. 1400 crores. It provides world class experience Technology, Products, Customer service etc. Infotel has set up state-of-the-art networks with coverage in over 136 towns of Punjab with extensive optical fibre network coverage of over 3,500 km. Infotel Broadband network supports interactive multimedia services and can handle high quality content, high speed internet access and a large number of interactive applications including B2B and B2C e-commerce.

PRODUCT AND SERVICES


Landline telephony Connect mobile Net ready STD Facility Bill Enquiry Centrex Telemeet PCO Services Public Access Terminals Phone Cards

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DEPARTMENTS IN HITL

Operations Business Planning and analysis Marketing Sales-Post-paid Sales-Prepaid Enterprise & Data BRAC Business process and Provisioning Customer Care CRM Finance, accounts and commercial Legal 7 secretarial Administration Human resources People & OD IT Technical OSP ISP Technical Procurement Quality

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ACHIEVEMENTS AND MILESTONES


HFCL Infotel Ltd. launched commercial services in Chandigarh on the 16th of October 2000

under the brand name CONNECT. All the services are provided under the brand name of "CONNECT". .

HFCL Infotel Ltd. (Infotel) is one of Punjab's leading private sector providers of telecommunication services with more then 330,000 customers as on March 31, 2007. and its services are available over 130 towns of Punjab.

Connect has positioned itself as a 'Total Telecommunication Solution Provider' and offers a

complete portfolio of telecom services that include Fixed-line telephony, Fixed wireless phone, Mobile telephony and Broadband services and a host of value added services that include video and audio conferencing, besides exciting lifestyle services. Connect offers extremely innovative products and tariff options to its subscribers, enjoy excellent brand equity and has also been rated as the NO. 1 basic telephony operation in Punjab by TRAI. Launched Planet Connect, a one-stop shop for all telecom needs of a subscriber. Besides subscribing to any Connect service, a customer can also buy mobile phones, personal computer, surf the internet @ 512kbps and video conference with anyone across the world at the Planet Connect. Connect was the first telecom operator to launch broadband internet in Punjab and set new benchmark of services excellence in this domain. The brand is market leader in broadband segment in Punjab.
Pioneered the concept of Public Access Terminal (PATs). a virtual automatic Pay Phone

running on Intelligent Network that can be used by a customer by using Calling Card to make a call to any local, STD or ISD destination. More than 100 such PATs have been installed in high traffic location across Punjab.

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Organization structure of the company

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Organization Structure of the company

ORGANISATION CHART-HR (H.O)

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O A f f s i cs eo

HFCL Vision
Reaching out to meet the challenge of creating a smaller world through leadership, innovation, dedication and excellence.

HFCL Mission
To provide cost effective yet futuristic telecom solutions. To be a leader in the Tele-solutions business on the strength of Core Competencies. To be a home of Excellence. To be the first choice of investors, customers, vendors, professionals and employees. To be a good corporate citizen.

HFCL Core Values


Belief in being a good corporate citizen by strict adherence to all statutory compliances and working towards a better society at large. Page 20

Honesty and integrity in business and personal dealings. Respect for individual dignity and no biases based on religion, caste or creed.

Belief in all round development of all employees for greater success and individual satisfaction. Motivate employees to reach out for their full potential and growth.

Belief in team work, as an individual contribution, however brilliant, cannot promote organizational interests, unless it is made within the framework of the team goal.

Effective two way communication for dissemination of managements objectives and for employees feedback on companys activities, suggestions and grievances/problems. Courtesy and prompt attention to customers, vendors the public and others.

Emphasis on discipline, commitment to work, attention to details and due care in discharge of duties.

Chapter No.-2
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OBJECTIVES, NEED, SIGNIFICANCE & SCOPE OF STUDY OBJECTIVES OF STUDY


To know the quality of work life in HFCL Infotel ltd., Mohali.

To give suggestions and recommendations to improve the quality of work life on the
basis of the findings. To find out effects of quality of work life initiatives on employees. To find out way to improve quality of work life. To find the human resource strategies. To gain an insight into current working life policies and practices, as well as work-life balance issues.

To study cordial relationship between employer and employees. To enhance research, knowledge & expertise in this field.

NEED & SIGNIFICANCE


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Improvement in the working conditions of HFCL connect ,Mohali that can satisfy

employees. Developing an organisational culture so that employees can effectively do their job. Increase individual /organisational effectiveness.
There is great need to improve the facilities and other welfare scheme for employees.

Better quality of working life of employees this involves both external and internal factors connected with work.

SCOPE
It is limited within one company. It does not put light on financial aspects of the company.
The study is intended to evaluate quality of work life of employees in

the organization.

Chapter No.-3
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LITERATURE REVIEW REVIEW OF LITERATURE


ACCORDING TO RESEARCHER D. S. Cohan: the quality of work life movement training, HRD, JAN. 1979, P 24 He defines quality of working life as a process of joint decision making, collaboration and building mutual respect between management and employee. ACCORDING TO AMERICAN SOCIETY OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT - D. Skrovan. It is a process of work organisation which enables its members at all level to actively participate in shaping the organisations environment, methods and outcomes. This value based process is aimed towards meeting the twin goals of enhanced effectiveness of organisation and improved quality of life at work for employees. ACCORDING TO J.R. Hackman and J.L. Suttle Quality of work life is concerned with some questions. They are as follows1- How to develop careers that allow employees to realise their full capabilities and interests? 2- How to design jobs to provide meaningful, interesting and challenging work experience? 3- How to utilise group dynamics and participative management to improve the quality of life at the work place? 4- What supervisory strategies help to improve the quality of work life? 5- How can the desired organisational changes be carried out?

ACCORDING TO ROBBINS (1989) Robbins (1989) defined QWL as "a process by which an organization responds to employee needs by developing mechanisms to allow them to share fully in making the decisions that design their lives at work". Greenspace and quality of life a critical literature review

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This major review of research published by greenspace Scotland and the Quality of Life partnership relates to the links between green space and a range of quality of life issues. It is hoped that the review will help disseminate existing research findings and to inform the need for future research. The areas reviewed were: health and wellbeing; social and community value of green spaces; economic value/impacts of green spaces; environmental value of green spaces and planning and design. Robust search criteria were applied so that this was a critical literature review with a strong emphasis on quality research. In today's high tech, fast-paced world, the work environment is very different than it was a generation ago. According to the Institute of Industrial Engineers, it is not uncommon for a person to change careers an average of six times in his or her lifetime. It is now rare for a person to stay with a single company his or her entire working life. Because employees are often willing to leave a company for better opportunities, companies need to find ways not only to hire qualified people, but also to retain them. Unfortunately, many employees these days feel they are working harder, faster, and longer hours than ever before. Job-related employee stress can lead to lack of commitment to the corporation, poor productivity, and even leaving the company; all of which are of serious concern to management. Many employees bring work home with them on a regular basis, especially now that it is so easy for them to do that. With the wide availability of cell phones, pagers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and computers, employees find it harder to get away from the office. One of the more stressful professions today is in the Information Technology (IT) field. Not long ago, IT professionals were extremely well respected and in demand. As technology advanced rapidly, there was a high demand for programmers and engineers. Most had their choice of high-paying jobs as technology companies competed to recruit the best of them. This is not the case today. In June 2004, Meta Group, Inc. surveyed 650 companies and found that nearly 75 percent of the companies acknowledged morale problems among their IT staffs. This number was up from the year before, which showed that two-thirds cited poor worker morale as an issue. Perhaps this is because the U.S. technology sector experienced widespread layoffs during the third quarter of 2004. In general, when layoffs happen the remaining employees are forced to pick up the workload of those who were laid off. This leads to added responsibility and longer work hours, often without additional compensation. This in turn leads to stress, burnout, and resentment. Other causes of employee dissatisfaction include low wages, lack of challenges, insufficient resources, unrealistic expectations, Pressure to produce, Page 25

willfully blind management, unreasonable policies and procedures, difficulty balancing family and work, and increased health benefit costs. As employers try to address employee turnover and job satisfaction issues, they must first determine what the issues are. Several companies have convened focus groups and conducted employee-satisfaction surveys to find out how their employees feel and to determine what they can do to make their employees happy. There are also a number of independent organizations that conduct employee surveys to gather this information. One such organization is the Families and Work Institute (www.familiesandwork.org), a nonprofit research center "that provides data to inform decision-making on the changing workforce and workplace, changing family and changing community. Founded in 1989, FWI is known for ahead of the curve, non-partisan research into emerging work-life issues; for solutions-oriented studies addressing topics of vital importance to all sectors of society; and for fostering connections among workplaces, families, and communities." Every five years FWI conducts the National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW), a nationally representative sample of employed workers designed to collect and compile information on the work and personal/family lives of the U.S. workforce. The study is widely used by policy makers, employers, the media, and all those interested in the widespread impacts of the changing conditions of work and home life. The 2002 NSCW showed a slight increase from 1992 in the number of companies that offer work-life supports on the jobboth specific benefit entitlements and less formal policies and practices. Despite this, the survey showed a large increase in the number of employees with families who felt there was interference between their jobs and their family lives, than employees 25 years ago. The NSCW also found "the importance of supportive work-life policies and practices, such as flexible work arrangements, is clearwhen they are available, employees exhibit more positive work outcomes, such as job satisfaction, commitment to employer, and retention, as well as more positive life outcomes, such as less interference between job and family life, less negative spillover from job to home, greater life satisfaction, and better mental health." What does this mean to the employer? As more companies start to realize that a happy employee is a productive employee, they have started to look for ways to improve the work environment. Many have implemented various work-life programs to help employees, including alternate work arrangements, onsite childcare, exercise facilities, relaxed dress codes, Page 26

and more. Quality-of-work life programs go beyond work/life programs by focusing attention less on employee needs outside of work and realizing that job stress and the quality of life at work is even more direct bearing on worker satisfaction. Open communications, mentoring programs, and fostering more amicable relationships among workers are some of the ways employers are improving the quality of work life. ADRIENNE E. EATON, MICHAEL E. GORDON, and JEFFREY H. KEEFE:Based on an analysis of data from a 1987 survey of four different bargaining units within the same local union, the authors conclude that union members who participated in Quality of Work Life (QWL) programs were less likely than nonparticipants to view QWL as a threat to the union and also more loyal to the union. Another finding, however, is that the perceived effectiveness of the grievance procedure was a much stronger determinant of attitudes toward the union than was participation in QWL programsleading the authors to speculate that one way for unions to strengthen their ties with their members might be to improve the effectiveness of the grievance procedure. Mirvis and Lawler (1984) suggested that Quality of working life was associated with satisfaction with wages, hours and working conditions, describing the basic elements of a good quality of work life as; safe work environment, equitable wages, equal employment opportunities and opportunities for advancement. Baba and Jamal (1991) listed what they described as typical indicators of quality of working life, including: job satisfaction, job involvement, work role ambiguity, work role conflict, work role overload, job stress, organisational commitment and turn-over intentions. Baba and Jamal also explored routinisation of job content, suggesting that this facet should be investigated as part of the concept of quality of working life.

Chapter No. - 4
THEORETICAL FRAME
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QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


It is almost impossible today to pick up a newspaper of news-magazine without finding a reference to quality of work/working life. In the search for improved productivity, manager and executives alike are discovering the important contribution of QWL. QWL entails the design of work systems that enhance the working life experiences of organizational members, thereby improving commitment to and motivation for achieving organizational goals. Most, often, this has been implemented through the design of jobs that afford workers more direct control over their immediate work environment. According to J.L Ioyd Suttle Quality of work life is the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organization. More specifically, QWL may be set into operation in terms of employees perceptions of their physical and psychological well-being at work. It includes virtually every major issue that labor has fought for during the last two decades. The Human Resource Departments Role The role of human resource department in QWL efforts varies widely. In some organizations, top management appoints an executive to ensure that QWL and productivity efforts occur throughout the organization. In most cases, these executives have a small staff and must rely on the human resource department for help with employee training, communications, attitude survey feedback, and similar assistance. In other organizations, the department is responsible for initiating and directing the firms QWL and productivity efforts. Perhaps the most crucial role of the department is winning the support of key managers. Management support particularly top management support appears to be an almost universal prerequisite for successful QWL programs. By substantiating employee satisfaction and bottom-line benefits, which range from lower absenteeism and turnover to higher productivity and fewer accidents, the department can help convince doubting managers. Sometimes documentation of QWL can result from studies of performance before and after a QWL effort. Without documentation of these results, top management might not have continued its strong support. The department also has both a direct and indirect influence on employee motivation and satisfaction.

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Humanised Work through QWL


One option was to re-design jobs to have the attributes desired by people, and re-design organisations to have the environment desired by the people. This approach seeks to improve QWL. There is a need to give workers more of a challenge, more of a whole task, more opportunity to use their ideas. Close attention to QWL provides a more humanised work environment. It attempts to serve the higher-order needs of workers as well as their more basic needs. It seeks to employ the higher skills of workers and to provide an environment that encourages them to improve their skills. The idea is that human resources should be developed and not simply used. Further, the work should not have excessively negative conditions. It should not put workers under undue stress. It should not damage or degrade their humanness. It should not be threatening or unduly dangerous. Finally, it should contribute to, or at least leave unimpaired, workers abilities to perform in other life roles, such as citizen, spouse and parent. That is, work should contribute to general social advancement.

Major Issues in QWL


Jerome M Rosow, president of the Work in American Institute, has identified seven critical factors which will affect the quality of work life during the years ahead. These are pay, employee benefits, job security, alternative work schedules, occupational stress, participation and democracy in the workplace.

Pay
QWL must be built around an equitable pay programs. In future more workers may want to participate in the profits of the firm.

Benefits
Since workers are now better organized, educated and vociferous, they demand more from the employers all over the world-apart from the pay-in the form of social security and welfare benefits as matter of right which were once considered a part of the bargaining process.

Job Security
Conditions in the work environment must be created by the employer which will give all the employees freedom from fear of losing their jobs. A system must be created in which there are Page 29

healthy working conditions with optimum financial security. The points stressed above are essential to improve the QWL in organizations.

Alternative Work Schedules


With a view to tackle job boredom, modern organizations have been experimenting with several forms of alternate work schedules such as four-day work week, flexi-time and part-time work. Compressed work week is a work schedule in which a trade is made between the number of hours worked per day, and the number of days worked per week, or order to work the standard length hours-four days, 10 hours each day or three days, 12 hours each day are examples of the QWL schedule. In India this is being implemented by a few companies successfully. Managers of large manufacturing organizations report substantial savings by reducing start-up time and increasing energy conservation as well as the savings typically gained from increased employee morale, where the four-day work week, the oldest alternative work schedule, is utilized. With the condensed workweek, the employees gain no control over when he will work. In contrast, flexible working hours or a flexi- time schedule gives such control to an employee. Typically, the organization defines a core time (10 a.m-3p.m) during which all employees are expected to work, and then allows a range of time before and after this core period from which employees can decide their own arrival and quitting times, thus offering a real opportunity to reconcile personal and organizational demands. The reported success rate of flexi-time programs is impressive. Increased productivity, lower unit labor costs, and improved morale have been attributed to flexi-time. In the past decade, part-time work-especially in developed countries-has become a very popular innovative work scheduling alternative. The tremendous influx of women into the job market has increased the supply of part-timers as have family members looking for second incomes to keep pace with inflation. At the same time, managers have begun to realize the benefits-higher enthusiasm and lack of boredom which part-time employees bring to specialized jobs.

DIMENSIONS OF QWL AND CRITERIA FOR MEASURING QWL


(i) Adequate and Fair Compensation There are different opinions about the adequate compensation. The committee on Fair Wages defined fair wage as the wage which is above the minimum wage but below the living age. Page 30

(ii) Safe and Healthy Working Conditions Most of the organisations provide safe and healthy working conditions due to humanitarian requirements and/or legal requirements. In fact, these conditions are a matter of enlightened self-interest. (iii) Opportunity to Use and Develop Human Capabilities Contrary to the traditional assumptions, QWL is improved the extent that the worker can exercise more control over his or her work, and the degree to which the job embraces an entire meaningful task but not a part of it. Further, QWL provides for opportunities like autonomy in work and participation in planning in order to use human capabilities. (iv) Opportunity for Career Growth Opportunities for promotions are limited in case of all categories of employees either due to educational barriers or due to limited openings at the higher level. QWL provides future opportunity for continued growth and security by expanding ones capabilities, knowledge and qualifications. (v) Social Integration in the Work Force Social integration in the work force can be established by creating freedom from prejudice, supporting primary work grq a sense of community and inter-personnel openness, legalitariani and upward mobility. (vi) Constitutionalism in the Work Organisation QWL provides constitutional protection to the employees only to the level of desirability as it hampers workers. It happens because the managements action is challenged in every action and bureaucratic procedures need to be followed at that level. Constitutional protection is provided to employees on such matters as privacy, free speech, equity and due process. (vii) Work and Quality of Life QWL provides for the balanced relationship among work, non- work and family aspects of life. In other words, family life and social life should not be strained by working hours including overtime work, work during inconvenient hours, business travel, transfers, vacations, etc.

(viii) Social Relevance of Work QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial manner. The workers self-esteem would be high if his work is useful to the society and the vice versa is also true. SPECIFIC ISSUES AND STRATEGIES IN QWL Page 31

Trade unions claim that they are responsible for the improvement in various facilities to workers whereas management takes credit for improved salaries, benefits and facilities. However, P/HR manager has (identified) specific issues in QWL besides normal wages, salaries, fringe benefits, etc. and takes lead in providing them so as to maintain higher order QWL. IKlott, Mundick and Schuster suggested 11 major QWL issues. They are:

(I) Pay and Stability of Employment Good pay still dominates most of the other factors in employee satisfaction. Various alternative means for providing wages should be developed in view of increase in cost of living index, increase in levels and rates of income tax and profession tax. Stability to a greater extent can be provided by enhancing the facilities for human resource development. (II) Occupational Stress Page 32

Is a condition of strain on ones emotions, thought process and physical condition. Stress is determined by the nature of work, working conditions, working hours, pause in the work schedule, workers abilities and nature and match with the job requirements. Stress is caused due to irritability, hyper excitation or depression, unstable behaviour, fatigue, uttering, trembling psychometric pains, smoking and drug abuse. Stress adversely affects employee productivity. The P/HR manager, in order to minimize the stress, has identify , prevent and tackle the problem. He may arrange the treatment of the problem with the health unit of the company. (iii) Organisational Health Programmes Organisational health programmes aim at educating employees about health problems, means of maintaining and improving of health, etc. These programmes cover drinking and smoking cessation, hypertension control, other forms of cardiovascular risk reduction, family planning, etc. Effective implementation of these programmes result in reduction in absenteeism, hospitalization, disability, excessive job turnover and premature death. This programme should also cover relaxation, physical exercise, diet control, etc. (iv) Alternative Work Schedules Alternative work schedules including work at home, flexible working hours, staggered hours, reduced work week, part-time employment which may be introduced for the convenience and comfort of the workers which offers the individual the leisure time, flexible hours of work is preferred. (v) Participative Management and Control of Work Trade unions and workers believe that workers participation in management and 1e improves WL. Workers also feel that they have control their work, use their skills and make a real contribution to the job if they are allowed participate in creative and decision-making process.

(vi) Recognition Recognising the employee as a human being rather than as a labourer increases the QWL Participative management, awarding the rewarding systems, congratulating the employees for their achievement, job enrichment, offering prestigious designations to the jobs, providing well-furnished and decent work places, offering membership in clubs or association, providing vehicles, offering vacation trips are some means to recognise the employees. (vii) Congenial Worker-Supervisor Relations

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Harmonious supervisor-worker relations gives the worker a sense of social association, belongingness, achieve of work results, etc. This in turn leads to better QWL. (viii) Grievance Procedure Workers have a sense of fair treatment when the company gives them the opportunity to ventilate their grievances and represent their case succinctly rather than settling the problems arbitrarily. (ix) Adequacy of Resources Resources should match with st4ted objectives, otherwise, employees will not be able to attain the Objectives. This results in employee dissatisfaction and lower QWL. (x) Seniority and Merit in Promotions Seniority is generally taken as the basis for promotion in case of operating employees. Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial people whereas seniority is preferred for promotion of ministerial employees. The promotional policies and activities should be fair and just in order to ensure higher QWL. (xi) Employment on Permanent Basis Employment of workers on casual, the probationary basis gives them a sense of insecurity. On the Other hand, employment on permanent basis gives them security and leads to higher order QWL. (xii) Self-managed Work Teams These are also called autonomous work groups or integrated work teams. These work teams are formed with 10 to 20 employees who plan, co-ordinate and control the activities of the

Team with the help of a team leader who is one among them. Each team performs all activities including selecting their people. Each team has authority to make decisions and regulate the activities. The group as a whole is accountable for the success or failure. Salaries are fixed both on the basis of individual and group achievement. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF QWL The strategies for improvement in quality of work life include self-managed work teams, redesign and enrichment, effective leadership and supervisory behaviour, career development,

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alternative work schedules, job security, administrative orgastisational and participating management. (i) Self-managed Work Teams These are also called autonomous work groups or integrated work teams. These work teams are formed with 10 to 20 employees who plan, co-ordinate and control the activities of the team with the help of a team leader who is one among them. Each team performs all activities including selecting their people. Each team has authority to make decisions and regulate the activities. The group as a whole is accountable for the success or failure. Salaries are fixed both on the basis of individual and group achievement. (ii) Job Redesign and Enrichment Narrow jobs can be combined into larger units of accomplishment. Jobs are redesigned with a view to enriching them to satisfy higher order human needs. (iii) Effective Leadership and Supervisory Behaviour For effective leadership and supervisory behaviour 9-9 style of managerial grid is suitable. (iv) Career Development Provision for career planning, communicating and counselling $he employees about the career opportunities, career path, education and development and for second careers should be made. (v) Alternative Work Schedules Provision for flexible working hours, part-time employments, job- sharing and reduced work week should be made.

(vi) Job Security This tops the employees list of priorities. It should be adequately taken care of. (vii) Administrative or Organisational Justice The principles of justice, fair and equity should be taken care of in disciplinary procedure, grievance procedures, promotions, transfers, demotion, work assignment, leave, etc. (viii) Participative Management Page 35

Employees should be allowed to participate in management participative schemes which may be of several types. The most sophisticated among them is quality circle. Implementation of these strategies ensures higher level of quality of work life.

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AS HR STARTEGY AN ANALYSIS Todays workforce consists of literate workers who expect more than just money from their work. In the modern scenario, QWL as a strategy of Human Resource Management is being recognised as the ultimate key for development among all the work systems, not merely as a concession. This is integral to any organization towards its wholesome growth. This is attempted on par with strategies of Customer Relation Management.

Strategy and Tactics


Over the years, since industrial revolution, much experimentation has gone into exploiting potential of human capital in work areas either explicitly or implicitly. Thanks to the revolution in advanced technology, the imperative need to look into QWL in a new perspective is felt and deliberated upon. Major companies are tirelessly implementing this paradigm in Human Resources Development (some call it Peoples Excellence). Globalisation has lowered national boundaries, creating a knowledge-based economy that spins and spans the world. Major economies are converging technologically and economically, and are highly connected at present moment. The new global workplace demands certain prerequisites such as higher order of thinking skills like abstraction system thinking and experimental inquiry, problem-solving and team work. The needs are greater in the new systems, which are participative ventures involving workers managed by so-called fictional proprietors.

Men Counted
In simple terms, all the above requirements can be easily achieved by providing improved quality of work life to the workers available on rolls. Workers are often referred to as teams or groups in general parlance and whatever the do go to the credit of the teamwork. The concept of teamwork has evolved from the organized toil that has its own social dimensions. Good teams can hardly be imported from outside. They usually occur as an indigenous incidence at the workplace and nurturing the same over time is the responsibility of management. Here, it may also be discerned that the composition of available workers in no more a local phenomenon as in the past. Mobility is caused by migration beyond culture barriers and Page 36

isolation, relocation and globalizes deployment. This phenomenon has become universal and is causing great changes in the work environment at factories as well as offices. The new influx of skilled workers seeking greener pastures is even questioning the skills of new employers and thereby restructuring the new environs on par with those of best in the world, unwittingly though.

Money Matters
For good QWL, cash is not the only answer. Today, the workers are aware of the job requirements of job as also the fact that the performance of the same is measured against the basic goals and objectives of the organization and more importantly, wages are paid according to the larger picture specific to the industry and the employers place in the same. The increased share of workers in wages and benefits through legislation as well as competitive interplay of superior managements in various fields of industry and business on extensive levels has reshaped the workers idea of quality of work life. Moreover, other things being equal, the employers are increasingly vying with their rivals in providing better working conditions and emoluments. This may be owing to many reasons besides the concern for the human angle of workers, like the employers tendency to climb on the bandwagon, to reap to the desired dividends or to woo better talent into their fold as skill base addition and other noneconomic inputs like knowledge bases. Doubtlessly, the increased tendency of recruiting knowledge bases is giving the modern managements payoffs in myriad ways. Some of them are intended potentials for product innovations and cost cuttings. Talking of product, it may appear far-fetched to some that product is being assessed in the market for its quality and price by the environment created in the areas where workers and customers are dealt and transact, like ambience in facilities / amenities as also the companys pay scales. This goes to prove that QWL of manufacturer / service provider is synonymous with the quality of product.

Non-economic Job Security


The changing workforce consists of literate workers who expect more than just money from their work life. Their idea of salvation lies in the respect they obtain in the work environment, like how they are individually dealt and communicated with by other members in the team as well as the employer, what kind of work he is entrusted with, etc. Some of these non-economic aspect are: Self-respect, satisfaction, recognition, merit compensation in job allocation, incompatibility of work conditions affecting health, bullying by older peers and boss, physical constraints like distance to work, lack of flexible working hours, work-life imbalances, invasion of privacy in case of certain cultural groups and gender discrimination and drug Page 37

addiction. One or more of the problems like above can cast a job-insecurity question, for no direct and visible fault of the employer. Yet, the employer has to identify the source of workers problems and try to mitigate the conditions and take supportive steps in the organization so that the workers will be easily retained and motivated and earn ROI. The loss of man-hours to the national income due to the above factors is simply overwhelming. Employer should install in the worker the feeling of trust and confidence by creating appropriate channels and systems to alleviate the above shortcomings so that the workers use their best mental faculties on the achievement of goals and objectives of the employer. To cite some examples, employers in certain software companies have provided infrastructure to train the children of workers in vocational activities including computer education, so that the workers need not engage their attention on this aspect. Employee care initiatives taken by certain companies include creation of Hobby clubs, Fun and Leisure Clubs for the physical and psychological well-being of workers and their families. After all, the workers are inexorably linked to the welfare of their families, as it is their primary concern. Dual income workers, meaning both spouses working are the order of the day. The work life balance differs in this category and greater understanding and flexibility are required with respect to leave, compensation and working hours in the larger framework.

Teamwork
Teamwork is the new mantra of modern day peoples excellence strategy. Todays teams are self-propelled ones. The modern manager has to strive at the group coherence for common cause of the project. The ideal team has wider discretion and sense of responsibility than before as how best to go about with its business. Here, each member can find a new sense of belonging to each other in the unit and concentrate on the groups new responsibility towards employers goals. This will boost the coziness and morale of members in the positive environment created by each others trust. Positive energies, free of workplace

Anxiety, will garner better working results. Involvement in teamwork deters deserters and employer need not bother himself over the detention exercises and save money on motivation and campaigns.

Boss Factor
Gone are the days when employers controlled workers by suppressing the initiative and independence by berating their brilliance and skills, by designing and entrusting arduous and monotonous jobs and offer mere sops in terms of wages and weekly off. Trust develops when managers pay some attention to the welfare of the workers and treat them well by being honest Page 38

in their relations. The employer should keep in mind that every unpaid hour of overtime the worker spends on work is an hour less spent with the family. New performance appraisals are put into vogue to assess a workers contribution vis--vis on employers objectives and to find out the training and updating needs and levels of motivation and commitment. As observed in some advanced companies, the workers themselves are drawing their benefits by filing appraisal forms and drawing simultaneously the appropriate benefits by the click of the mouse directly from their drawing rooms, courtesy e-HR systems. In addition, there are quite a number of channels for informal reviews. Feedback on workers performance, if well interpreted and analyzed, could go a long way in improving ethics at workplace.

Involvement and Communication


Multi- skilling and exposing workers to different lines of activity in the unit indirectly leads to the greater involvement and better job security of worker in the organization. The employer too, can make use of the varied skills to any altered situations of restructuring and other market adaptations. Thus, the monotony of work life can be alleviated. The employer, armed with the depth of cross-trained human resources, need not go hunting for new talent and thus save on the unspent pay packets, which can be spent usefully on the amenities for workers. No doubt, rivals should be envying him for this edge. The change should be apparent in mutual trust and confidence towards effective understanding of the needs of worker and employer. The new knowledge-based workers are mostly young in the fields of technology and management. They are more forthcoming in trusting the boss and older peers. Now, all modern managements are cognizant of the innate desire of workers to be accepted as part of the organization for identity and other social reasons. Effective dialogue is put into play between management and those who execute through well-organized communication channels paving the way for improved cooperation and participation on emotional level. The decision making level is nose diving to the floor level manager, where The poor guy has to think of n number of quick decisions on behalf of the organization. Unless the team is behind and involved with commitment, the manager cannot implement the new tasks in production, distribution, peoples excellence, customer relations, etc., thanks to the e factor prefixed to the names of majority of departments. Logically, harmony plays its part in cost efficiency. Successful managers are those who listen to their workers.

Influences
Overwork is tolerated in emerging industries unlike government departments as part of the game and work culture. This is so, what with the soaring competition among the tightly contested players. The point is empowerment of workforce in the area of involvement. All said and one, the workers are considered as the invisible branch ambassadors and internal customers Page 39

in certain industries. It is evident that most of the managements are increasingly realizing that quality alone stands to gain in the ultimate analysis. Restructuring the industrial relations in work area is the key for improving the quality of product and the price of the stock. Without creating supportive environment in restructured environment, higher quality of work cannot be extracted. It is already high time the older theories of industrial relations should be unlearnt. BALANCING THE WORK AND LIFE OF YOUR EMPLOYEES:Researches indicate that balanced work-life can lead to greater employee productivity. With

the progressive shift of the economy towards a knowledge economy, the meaning and Importance of tile quality of work life is also assuming a new significance. The article details the factors that should be tuned to attain balance between work and life of an employee. You must have both love and work in your life to make you healthy. Don't you agree? Well, this is what Sigmund Freud had said decades ago for healthy workers. Family is an essential ingredient for the love that exists in the life of the employees. But are the corporates structuring the work patterns so as to ensure the necessary balances? Are the corporates providing opportunities to their employees to spend quality time in their personal lives? Many researchers indicate that maintaining a good balance in work and life has become a priority for the corporates in the developed nations. At the dawn of industrialisation, the needs and priorities of employees were at the lower end of Maslows need hierarchy pyramid. The priority was given more to physical and material security. However, with rapid cultural

And economic developments, the priorities outside job became very different. Employees started looking for higher and meaningful quality of life as a result of the outcomes of their work. After all, what are they working for? A good happy and a decent life. With the increasing shift of the economy towards knowledge economy, the meaning and importance of the quality of work life is also assuming a new significance. Today, the connotation of the term 'work' has also become different. It has more to do with the intellectual exercise than physical labour. As a result, the corporates need to streamline and restructure their work schedules in order to bring about a balance in work life of their employees. Understanding and managing the levels and complexities of diverse motivational needs is another area, which requires careful attention from the corporates to bring about work-life balance. Benefits of improving

work-life balance Aiding employee recruitment and retention


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More employees may stay on in a job, return after a break or take a job with one company

over another if they can match their other needs better with those of their paid work.
This results in savings for the employer avoiding the cost of losing an experienced worker

and recruiting someone new.


Employers who support their staff in this way often gain the bonus of loyalty from those

staff.
The British Work-Life Balance Study 2000, including a representative survey of 2500

workplaces, found that 58 per cent of employers thought that work-life balance practices had improved staff motivation and commitment, and 52 per cent thought labour turnover and absenteeism were lower, and that they helped retain female employees. The Australian 2002 Benchmarking Study found that organisations implementing work-life strategies and evaluating them observed reduced turnover, absenteeism, and increased return from parental leave.

Reducing absenteeism
Many companies that have introduced family-friendly or flexible working practices have

seen benefits through reductions in absenteeism. Sickness rates may fall as pressures are managed better, while employees may have better methods of dealing with work-life conflicts than taking unplanned leave.
Workers (including their managers) who are healthy and not over-stressed may be more

efficient.

Improving the quality of people's working lives


Minimising work-life role conflict can help prevent role overload and help people have a

more satisfying working life, fulfilling their potential both in paid work and outside it.
Work life balance can minimise stress and fatigue at work, enabling people to have safer

and healthier working lives. Workplace stress and fatigue can contribute to injuries at work and at home.

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Self-employed people control their own work time to some extent. Most existing

information on work-life balance is targeted at those in employment relationships. However, the self-employed too may benefit from maintaining healthy work habits and developing strategies to manage work-flows which enable them to balance work with other roles in their lives.

Matching people who wouldnt otherwise work with jobs


Parents and carers, people with disabilities and those nearing retirement are among those

who may increase their workforce participation if more flexible work arrangements are possible. Employment has positive individual and social benefits beyond the financial rewards.
Employers may also benefit from a wider pool of talent to draw from this is particularly

to their benefit when skill shortages exist.


The Baseline Study of Work-Life Balance Practices in Great Britain found that there was

strong demand amongst lone parents, carers and disabled people for flexible working time arrangements.

Benefiting families and communities


In a situation of conflict between work and family, one or other suffers. Overseas studies

have found that family life can interfere with paid work, and the reverse. At the extreme, if family life suffers this may have wider social costs.
Involvement in community, cultural, sporting or other activities can be a benefit to

community and civil society at large. For instance, voluntary participation in school boards of trustees can contribute to the quality of our children's education. While such activities are not the responsibility of individual employers, they may choose to support them actively, since community activities can demonstrate good corporate citizenship, as well as helping develop workers' skills which can be applied to the workplace. The benefits gained by organisations who have introduced flexible employment practices include: - An edge over rivals in recruiting the best people; - Lower staff turnover; - Improved reputation and corporate image; - Increased numbers returning to work after maternity leave; - A wider pool of talent from which to promote; Page 42

- Flexibility to meet emergencies, crises or unpredictable demand; - Tasks organised around work rather than work around rigid job definition and processes; - Strengthened loyalty; - A more satisfied, happier team; - Reduced stress levels; - Less sickness and unscheduled absence; - Improved time keeping; - Better return on investment in training.

Universally adopted policies and practices of work life balance

1. Part Time Working Usually defined as less than 30 hours per week. Hours may be worked over any number of days.

Benefits

Points to consider part-time working regulations extend the rights of part-time workers more in line with those of full time staff can increase overall staff numbers and therefore training costs and fixed overheads negative associations with low pay/low status

Allows cover for busy periods

popular option for women returning from maternity leave

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2. Flexi-time Workers choose the hours they work within defined limits. Usually there are set 'core' times for attendance and controls over the maximum credit or debit hours which can be built up and carried over a period of time

Benefits can help with travel difficulties

Points to consider needs to be well Organized/managed requires a degree of self management

can help reduce absence enables company to extend the hours when a service can be provided working times can be adjusted to meet peaks/troughs Improved time keeping

3. Annualised Hours Agreed weekly hours are replaced by an annual hours arrangement and a forward working pattern of rostered and reserve hours. By agreement, reserve hours may be triggered at short notice. Pay is usually set at a regular, guaranteed monthly sum.

Benefits 1 Increases flexibility to handle seasonal fluctuations in demand allows parents and carers to arrange their working hours around term time/school holidays allows parents and carers to take advantage of off peak holidays

Points to consider administratively complex to design and operate implications of national minimum wage legislation

4.Shift Swap

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Benefits 1 2 3 4 reduces overheads better retention of staff with caring responsibilities higher productivity Increases pool of potential recruits

Points to consider issues of supervision issues of communication requires self management implications of national minimum wage legislation

Simple working arrangements which allow employees to cover for colleagues and to take time off without using up holiday allowance. Benefits 1 2 reduces absenteeism reduces time taken off for sickness Points to consider requires central administration

5. Tele-working or Flexi place An arrangement in which employees work from home or an external location and may communicate via a computer link.

6. Job Share Two, or more, people divide responsibility for one full time job. Benefits 1` 2 adds to the expertise available Improves information sharing and joint working can sustain higher productivity over a shorter working week Points to consider may add to management responsibilities increases training/fixed costs requires good communication between sharers and their managers

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7. Family Leave Arrangements which support new parents through enhanced maternity leave allowance, paternity leave, adoption leave, family emergency. May include time off for moving home, family marriage, and bereavement.

Benefits 1 2 helps recruitment and retention of key employees Increases loyalty

Points to consider arrangements must take account of rights to parental leave

8. Workplace Childcare Facilities Arrangements which may include on site nursery, out of school 'club', or holiday play scheme offering places to employees. Baby feeding/changing stations may be provided.

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Benefits 1 can utilise redundant premises

Points to consider a viable option only for large organisations or as part of a partnership many employees prefer childcare near to home if work is at a distance schemes must be registered with local authorities and meet statutory requirements childcare providers are exempt from VAT and cannot reclaim VAT paid to their suppliers

can simplify the journey to childcare/work can enable breast feeding to continue after a mother has returned to work highly visible symbol of employer commitment

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Chapter No.5 Quality of Work Life in HFCL TECHNIQUES USED BY HFCL TO IMPROVE QWL :Rewards and Recognition The reward system is department wise, groups rewards are offered to the employees, which are performance linked. These rewards are generally non-monetary such as picnics, vouchers etc. The employee referrals are also linked to rewards i.e. when the candidates referred by the employee joins the organization he is entitled to a certain amount of money as reward for contributing the talent base of the organization. Employee of the month is declared, based on the performance and the contribution of the employee towards the organization. The name and details are put on the online site of HR. Performance Appraisal system Performance Appraisal (PA) refers to all those procedures that are used to evaluate the personality, performance, potential, of its group members The company conducts quarterly performance appraisals, which may not be linked with, raise in either salary or level. The 180degree appraisals are followed here. Midterm appraisals for the purpose of raise are also conducted, but these are rare. The raise is generally given on an annual basis. The feedback from these appraisals, after the performance and feedback discussions between the appraiser and appraise, is used as a tool to design trainings and development programs for the employees. Revised Designations and Bands at HFCL (Connect) Designation Bands

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CEO COO VP/AVP GM/Head/DGM Sr.Manager Manager DY. Manager Assistant Manager Senior Executive Executive MT/GET Sr.Technician/Technician/Jr.Technician

UC G-1 G-2 G-3 G-4 G-4 G-5 G-5 G-6 G-6 G-6A T

Retention Policies The company offers the Long-term service awards after the completion of five years of service on the condition of an additional year of service. These awards are in form of cheque depending upon the designation of the employee. Exit Interviews Exit interviews are taken by the Human Resource department after the form filling is done. The main purpose of these interviews is to look out the room for development and improvement and to basically finding the issues that concern people and drive them to take such drastic step. RELATION & CO-OPERATION Employee Engagement A positive attitude held by the employee towards the organization and its values. An engaged employee works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. The organization must work to develop and nurture engagement, which requires a two-way relationship between employer and employee.

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Employee engagement is a partnership between a company and its employees Most organizations today realize that a satisfied employee is not necessarily the best employee in terms of loyalty and productivity. It is only an ENGAGED EMPLOYEE who is intellectually and emotionally bound with the organization who feels passionate about its Goals and is committed towards its values thus he goes the extra mile beyond the basic job. Employee engagement is a powerful retention strategy. An engaged employee gives his company his 100 percent. When employees are effectively and positively engaged with their organization, they form an emotional connection with the company. Employee engagement is a barometer that determines the association of a person with the organization. It is about creating the passion among associates to do things beyond what is expected from him. Mentor-Mentee relationship In continuation of the HR initiatives to promote learning and provide the opportunity to develop and encourage employees by enhancing their knowledge through learning, and ensure the best practices of HR in the Company, the mentor policy has been designed in order to ensure: 1. To assign the role as mentor to guide the new joinee to support him to his needs and aspiration, encourage him to accept the new environment/challenge and overcome difficulties and inspire him to reach his full potential of work & Job. 2. To design mentor program at functional level for further progression of the individual and bring him to the expected role in the organization. 3. Create positive counselling relationship and climate of open communication, helps the mentee to identify the problems and solution, Offer constructive feedback in a supportive way, solicit feedback from mentee. 4. Making process to achieve the best learning and for development of individual to achieve personal goal along with the growth of the organization.

Employee Engagement Activities at HFCL (Connect)-The employee Engagement activities are undertaken at HFCL (Connect) to de-stress the employees and to get them together at a common platform so that the employees feel a sense of belongingness to the company. The Expense incurred on an activity at an average is Rs.4500 depending on the activity undertaken. Page 50

Fun Filled Activities

Arm Wrestling Arm Wrestling is a fun activity undertaken every month to de-stress the employees. It has categories based on the gender and the weight of the individual. There is no prize given to the winner but the participants are provided with the refreshments like a banana and milk.

Squeeze the Lemon This Activity involves the participants to squeeze the maximum lemons in a minute. The winner is awarded with a prize. Karaoke-Karaoke is aimed at letting people forget their inhibitions and sing with all their heart in the presence of an audience of around hundred. Shooting Competition (Bulls Eye)-This competition is held every two months and the participants are challenged to aim at the Bulls Eye. The winner is provided with a trophy.

Connect-i-Quest and Fun Train -Quiz contest involves 6 teams having two members each .It tests participants on their general awareness. The winning is team is awarded with a trophy.

Birthday Bash The Birthday Bash is thrown at the end of each month for all those employees who had their birthday in that month.

Project Pustak
Under the Project Pustak, a self-help book is chosen and its review is E- mailed to all the employees. Those interested in reading the book can request the soft copy of the book from the People and OD Team. Know your Management This is an initiative to connect the employees with their top management. An E-mail containing the likes and dislikes of the CEO, COO, VP and AVPs is sent to all the employees, thus helping them to know their management better. Connect Women Employees Network This network has been created to deal with the problems faced by the women employees in the organization .The female employees meet every month to discuss their issues and the common issues faced by all female employees is taken to the higher management .For instance, the need for flexi-timings was felt by most of the women in the organization and the suggestion to introduce it was taken up to the HR Head.The main aim of the group will

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make the first move in attracting ,developing and retaining women employees.CWEN includes: 1. Create a balance work environment, thereby making connect as an employer of choice to work with. 2. Help woman in their career lifecycle through support, group and policy thereby enhancing retention. 3.Development and growth in terms of career enhancement in managerial and key leadership roles, thereby maintaining their position at all level in the organization. Orientation Programme Orientation Programmes are designed to provide a new employee with the information he or she needs to function comfortably and effectively in the organization .At HFCL, orientation programmes are conducted every two months for the new employees to convey them general information about the daily work routine ,a review of the history ,founding fathers ,objectives, operations and product and services and a detailed brochure is handed over to the employees of the organizations policies ,work rules and employee benefits .The Functional heads and the HR Heads meet and interact with the new hires to make the employees feel at home in the new environment. Training and Development Training and Development offer competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies, making employees stay long and meeting future employee needs.At HFCL, training and developments programmes are organized to meet the training needs of the employees. The functional heads request training for their employees in the area which needs improvement. The training programmes are organized by the People and OD Team with the help of the functional heads .External Faculty is invited in case the requirement is not met by the internal resources.

Corporate Social Responsibility


Prayaas is the name given to the CSR activities undertaken by the Company. The Company is involved in the following activities: Blood Donation Camps are organized at each zone as a part of the CSR activities. Employees donate their old clothes for the needy. Page 52

Chapter No.-6 RESEARCH METHODOLGY


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so.

Research Methodology is defined as highly intellectual human activity used in the investigation of nature and matter and deals specifically in manner in which data is collected, analysed and interpreted.

Sample unit: - individual. Sampling type: - random sampling. Sample size: - 30 respondents. Area of study: - HFCL INFOTEL LTD., Mohali

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION There are mainly two types of sources of data: 1) Primary data. 2) Secondary data PRIMARY DATA: Primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first time, and happen to be original in character. It is basically the live data, which is collected on field while doing calls with the customers and shown them list of question for which responses are required. SOURCES: Main sources for the primary data are questionnaires, experiments, surveys and interviews. SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data are those, which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. SOURCES: Books, magazines, newspapers, Internet from different websites and brochures. For my project I have used both primary and secondary source of data from Internet. Page 53

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES As no study could be successfully completed without proper tools and techniques, same with my project. For the better presentation and right explanation I used tools of statistics and computer very frequently. Basic tools, which I used for project are: Bar Charts. Pie charts. Tables. MS-Word MS-Excel

STATISTICAL TOOLS
I have used bar graphs and percentage method for data analysis in my project.

Chapter No.-7
DATA ANALYSIS

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WORK ENVIRONMENT
Total no. of respondents =30 1. Are you satisfied with your work environment? WORKING ENVIRONMENT SATISFIED UNSATISFIED NO RESPONSE Total No. of Respondents 15 5 10 30 Percentage 50 16.7 33.3 100

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Out of 30 respondents, 50% said that they are satisfied with their work place environment, 16.7% were unsatisfied, and rest did not respond. It shows that approximate 50 % of the respondents are satisfied with their working environment.

2. How motivating is the work environment?

MOTIVATING ENVIRONMENT Extremely motivating Fairly motivating Neither motivating nor demotivating TOTAL

No. of Respondents 18 7 5 30

Percentage 60 23.3 16.7 100

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Out of 30 respondents, 60% said that the working environment is extremely motivating, 23.3% said the working environment is fairly motivating, and for 16.7%respondents it is neither motivating nor demotivating .

Organization culture and climate


3. Do the other departments in the company cooperate with each other? Departments cooperate Yes No Total No. of Respondents 30 0 30 Percentage 100 0 100

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This is one question on which all the respondents agree that other departments in the company cooperate with each other.

Relation and co-operation


4. There is a harmonious relationship with our colleagues in HFCL RELATIONSHIP Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total No. of Respondents 8 18 4 0 30 Percentage 26.7 60 13.3 0 100

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The above chart shows that only 26.7% respondents are strongly agree with that there is a harmonious relationship with their colleagues in HFCL. 60% respondents are agree, 13.3% respondents are disagree.

5. Sense of belongingness increase with the cooperation.

BELONGINGNESS Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 16 7 5 2 30

Percentage 53.3 23.3 16.7 6.7 100

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53.3% respondents said that they are strongly agree that sense of belongingness increase with the cooperation,23.3% respondents are agree,16.7% respondents are disagree,6.7% are respondents are strongly disagree.

Training and development


6 .How far training programmers helps an employee to achieve the required skill for performing the job efficiently? TRAINING PROGRAMMES To great extent To some extent Rarely Total No. of Respondents 20 7 3 30 Percentage 66.7 23.3 10 100

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66.7% respondents feel that to great extent training programmes helps an employee to achieve the required skill for performing the job efficiently 23.3% feel that to some extent it helps an employee and for 10% respondents it rarely helps.

7. Do you think the training programmes helps in improving relationship among employees? TRAINING PROGRAMMES Yes No Total No. of Respondents 23 7 30 Percentage 76.7 23.3 100

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76.7% respondents think that training programmes helps in improving relationship among employees but 7% do not think so.

Compensation and Rewards:


8. Do you feel my organization will pay salary by considering responsibilities at work ?

Salary Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 17 7 6 0 30

Percentage 56.7 23.3 20 0 100

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The above chart shows that 56.7% respondents are strongly agree that their organization will pay salary by considering responsibilities at work ,23.3% respondents are agree , 20% are disagree.

9. HFCL does a good job of linking rewards to job performance Linking Rewards Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total No. of Respondents 8 15 5 2 30 Percentage 26.7 50 16.7 6.7 100

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26.7% respondents are strongly agree , 50% respondents are agree, 16.7% are disagree,6.7% are strongly disagree that HFCL does a good job of linking rewards to job performance .

Facilities:
10. Fringe benefits provided to you

Fringe Benefits Insurance Retirement Benefit Health check-up All the above Total

No. of Respondents 0 0 0 30 30

Percentage 0 0 0 100 100

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100% respondents said that all the Fringe benefits provided to them by the company.

11. Does the HFCL provide you the social security benefits?

Social Security Yes No Total

No. of Respondents 25 5 30

Percentage 83.3 16.7 100

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83.3% respondents are agree that HFCL provide them the social Security benefits rest are not agree with this.

Job satisfaction and job security:


12. Do you feel comfortable and satisfied with your job? Job Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Total No. of Respondents 18 9 3 30 Percentage 60 30 10 100

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60% respondents feel satisfied,10% dissatisfied,30% respondents shows the neutral response towards job satisfaction.

Freedom of work:
13. I feel that my work allows me to do in a particular area where I can do best. Particular Area Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total No. of Respondents 10 14 6 0 30 Percentage 33.3 46.7 20 0 100

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33.3% respondents are strongly agree that their work allows them to do in a particular area where they can do best,46.7% are agree,20% are disagree.

Chapter No.-8
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
FINDINGS 1. Almost employees are well satisfied with the working conditions and the facilities provided. 2. There is Connect Women Employees Network created to deal with the problems faced by the women employees in the organisation which is one of the greatest achievements by HFCL. 3. Large no. of employees feels comfortable and satisfied with their job. 4. I have found that HFCL fulfil almost all the needs of their employees. 5. Fringe benefits like insurance, retirement benefits and health check-up are also being provided by the company for the betterment of their employees. 6. I found that this company has many positive aspects such as very open work culture, transparency; knowledge centre etc. and some areas of improvement also exist.

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Chapter No.-9
SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION LIMITATIONS
SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 1. After analyzing the data I have come to the conclusion that employers need to handle employees in such a manner that employees dont get frustrated with the stress and overburdened of the work. 2. Facilities like food and transportation to be provided free, company has to provide more growth opportunities to the workers. 3. Time to time job rotations and job incentives has to be provided. 4. Facilities like Health and yoga camps to provide on regular basis to make get rid of stress of work load. 5. Minimize unnecessary utilization of air condition, lightning and other item which in turn help in cost reduction. 6. There should be harmonious relationship with employees and management. 7. Social responsibility should have to increase at professional level. 8. There can be some Organization Awareness programs that will help sentiment of belongingness among the employees towards the organization. facilitate the their worker

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9.The Reward and Recognition system should be more structured. and increase their morale so as to improve the quality of work life.

The

rewards and recognition offered to the employees are another way to motivate the employees

10. The company must conduct an Employee Satisfaction Survey to gauge the expectations from the job and the company and also to take his feedback on the existing policies and practices.

CONCLUSION The study concludes that quality of work life at HFCL can be improved with the following: It is found that if the employees are provided with the better facilities and working conditions then they can do their job effectively. After analyzing the data I have come to the conclusion that employers need to handle employees in such a manner that employees dont get frustrated with the stress and overburdened of the work. The study was conducted among 30 employees and collected information through structured questionnaire. The management showing their full efforts for the growth. There is still some distance to go for the organizations. There is need for a greater emphasis on career management and in managing employee expectations to improve the quality of work life.

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LIMITATIONS
1. The information provided by the employees is not definitely true. 2. The samples of employees are not representative of the total workforce. 3. The employees hesitate disclosing the true facts in order to secure their Job. 4. There is no measure to check out whether the information provided by the workers are correct or not. 5. The data was collected through questionnaire. The responds from the not be accurate. 7. Another difficulty was very limited time-span of the project. 8. Lack of experience of Researcher. BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITES www.google.com www.hfclconnect.com http://www.chrmglobal.com www.ask.com www.siescoms.edu www.wikepidea.com www.flipkart.com BOOKS Research Methodology- C.R Kothari Personnel Management- C.B. Marmora and S.V. Gankar. Human Resource and Personnel Management -K.Aswathappa Company manual joining kit respondents may

6. Since the organization has strict control, it acts as another barrier for getting data.

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Annexure &Questionnaire
QUESTIONNAIRE ON QUALITY OF WORK LIFE Respected Madam/Sir, As a part of my project I would like to gather some information from you which will help me in an in-depth study of project. I would be obliged if you co-operate with me in filling the questionnaire. Please Tick your choice Work environment 1.Are you satisfied with your work environment? a) Satisfied c) No Response 2. How motivating is the work environment? b) Extremely motivating b) Fairly motivating b) Dissatisfied

c) Neither motivating nor demotivating Organization culture and climate: 3. Do the other departments in the company cooperate with each other? a) Yes Relation and co-operation: 4. There is a harmonious relationship with our colleagues in HFCL. a) Strongly agree c) Disagree b) Agree d) Strongly disagree b) No

5. Sense of belongingness increase with the cooperation. a) Strongly agree c) Disagree b) Agree d) Strongly disagree

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Training and development: 6. How far training programmes helps an employee to achieve the required skill for performing the job efficiently? a)To great extent b) To some extent c) Rarely

7. Do you think the training programmes helps in improving relationship among employees? a) Yes Compensation and Rewards: Do you feel... 8. My organization will pay salary by considering responsibilities at work a) Strongly agree c) Disagree b) Agree d) Strongly disagree b)No

9. HFCL does a good job of linking rewards to job performance a) Strongly agree c) Disagree Facilities: 10. Fringe benefits provided to you. a) Insurance c) Health checkup b) Retirement benefit d) All the above b) Agree d) Strongly disagree

11. Does the HFCL provide you the social security benefits? a) Yes b)No

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Job satisfaction and job security: 12. Do you feel comfortable and satisfied with your job? a) Satisfied b) Neutral b) Dissatisfied

Freedom of work: 13. I feel that my work allows me to do in a particular area where I can do best. a) Strongly agree b) Disagree b) Agree d) Strongly disagree

Thank you for your kind co-operation

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