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OUTLINE

CHAPTER 2
TABULAR Summarizing qualitative data

Summarizing quantitative data


&
Exploratory data analysis: the steam-and-leaf display
GRAPHICAL METHODS
Crosstabulation and Scatter diagrams

SUMMARIZING QUALITATIVE DATA SUMMARIZING QUALITATIVE DATA


DATA FROM A SAMPLE OF 50 SOFTDRINK PURCHASES
Coke Classic Sprite Pepsi-Cola
Frequency Distribution Diet Coke Coke Classic Coke Classic
Pepsi-Cola Diet Coke Coke Classic
Diet Coke Coke Classic Coke Classic
A frequency distribution is a tabular summary a set Coke Classic Diet Coke Pepsi-Cola
Coke Classic Coke Classic Dr.Pepper
Dr.Pepper Sprite Coke Classic
of data showing the frequency (or number) of items Diet Coke Pepsi-Cola Diet Coke
Pepsi-Cola Coke Classic Pepsi-Cola
Pepsi-Cola Coke Classic Pepsi-Cola
Coke Classic Coke Classic Pepsi-Cola
in each of several non-overlapping classes. Dr.Pepper Pepsi-Cola Pepsi-Cola
Sprite Coke Classic Coke Classic
Coke Classic Sprite Dr.Pepper
Diet Coke Dr.Pepper Pepsi-Cola
Coke Classic Pepsi-Cola Sprite
Coke Classic Diet Coke

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SUMMARIZING QUALITATIVE DATA SUMMARIZING QUALITATIVE DATA

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF SOFT DRINK PURCHASES Relative Frequency and Percent Frequency
Distribution
Soft Drink Frequency Relative frequency distribution: A tabular summary
Coke Classic 19 of a set of data showing the relative frequency –
Diet Coke 8 that is, the fraction or proportion – of the total
Dr.Pepper 5 number of items in each of several non-overlapping
classes.
Pepsi-Cola 13
Relative frequency of a class = frequency of the class
Sprite 5
Total 50 n
Percent frequency = relative frequency * 100

SUMMARIZING QUALITATIVE DATA SUMMARIZING QUALITATIVE DATA

Relative Frequency and Percent Frequency RELATIVE AND PERCENT FREQUENCY


DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOFT DRINK PURCHASES
Distribution (cont.) Soft drink Relative Frequency Percent Frequency
Percent frequency distribution: A tabular summary Coke Classic .38 38
Diet Coke .16 16
of a set of data showing the percentage of total Dr.Pepper .10 10
number of items in each of several non-overlapping Peppsi-Cola .26 26
Sprite .10 10
classes.
Total 1.00 100

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SUMMARIZING QUALITATIVE DATA SUMMARIZING QUALITATIVE DATA

Bar Graphs and Pie Charts Bar Graphs and Pie Charts (cont.)
Bar Graph Pie chart
BAR GRAPH OF SOFT DRINK PURCHASES PIE CHART OF SOFT DRINK PURCHASES

20
18
16 Coke
Frequency

14 Classic
12 38%
10
Diet Coke
8
6 16%
4
2 Sprite
10% Dr. Pepper
0 10%
Coke Diet Dr. Pepsi- Sprite
Classic Coke Pepper Cola Pepsi- Cola
26%
Soft Drink

SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

Frequency Distribution Frequency Distribution (cont.)


Construction a Frequency Distribution
A frequency distribution is a tabular summary of a
⌧Gather the sample data

set of data showing the frequency (or number) of ⌧Determine the number of non-overlapping classes
⌧Determine the width of each class
items in each of several non-overlapping classes. ⌧Determine the class limits
⌧Count the number of data values in each class
⌧Summarize the class frequencies in a frequency
distribution table

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SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

Frequency Distribution (cont.) Frequency Distribution (cont.)


Number of classes (K): 5 ≤ K ≤ 20 Class boundaries
Class width
largest data value - smallest data value ⌧Class boundaries are the dividing lines between the
⌧class width =
number of classes classes.
Class limits
⌧Class limits are the largest and smallest number Class Midpoint (Class Mark)
could belong to a given class. ⌧The class midpoint is the value halfway between the
• Lower class limit = Smallest number
lower and upper class limits.
• Upper class limit = Largest number
The difference between the lower class limit of adjacent
classes provides the class width.

SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

YEAR-END AUDIT TIMES (IN DAYS) FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION FOR THE AUDIT-TIME DATA

12 14 19 18 Audit Time Frequency


(days)
15 15 18 17
10-14 4
20 27 22 23
15-19 8
22 21 33 28
20-24 5
14 18 16 13
25-29 2
30-34 1
Total 20

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SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

RELATIVE AND PERCENT FREQUENCY


Relative Frequency and Percent Frequency DISTRIBUTION FOR THE AUDIT-TIME DATA
Audit Time Relative Frequency Percent Frequency
Distribution (days)
frequency of the class 10-14 .20 20
Relative frequency of a class =
n 15-19 .40 40
Percent frequency = Relative frequency x 100 20-24 .25 25
25-29 .10 10
30-34 .05 5
Total 1.00 100

SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE
DATA SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

Dot Plot
Histogram
A horizontal axis shows the range of values for the data. A histogram is constructed by placing the variable

Each data value is represented by a dot placed above of interest on the horizontal axis and the frequency,
relative frequency or percent frequency on vertical
4 the axis.
3 axis.
2
1 Histogram describes a shape of data.
0
10 15 20 25 30 35
Audit time in days

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SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

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8
Cumulative Distributions
7
6 Cumulative frequency distribution shows the
5
44
number of items less than or equal to the upper
33
class limit of each class.
22
11
00
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Audit time in days

SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE
SUMMARIZING QUANTITATIVE DATA DATA

CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY, CUMULATIVE RELATIVE


FREQUENCY, AND CUMULATIVE PERCENT FREQUENCY Ogive
DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE AUDIT-TIME DATA
Ogive is graph of cumulative distribution.
Audit Time (days) Cumulative Cumulative Cumulative 25
Frequency Relative Frequency Percent Frequency 20

Less than or equal to 14 4 .20 20 15


Less than or equal to 19 12 .60 60 10
Less than or equal to 24 17 .85 85
5
Less than or equal to 29 19 .95 95
Less than or equal to 34 20 1.00 100 0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Audit Time in Days

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EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS: EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS:
THE STEM-AND-LEAF DISPLAY THE STEAM-AND-LEAF DISPLAY
NUMBER OF QUESTIONS ANSWERED CORRECTLY
ON AN APTITUDE TEST
Stem-and-leaf display: An exploratory data 112 72 69 97 107
73 92 76 86 73
analysis technique that simultaneously rank 126 128 118 127 124
82 104 132 134 83
orders quantitative data and provides insight 92 108 96 100 92
115 76 91 102 81
about the shape of the distribution. 95 141 81 80 106
84 119 113 98 75
38 98 115 106 95
100 85 94 106 119

EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS: CROSSTABULATIONS AND


THE STEM-AND-LEAF DISPLAY SCATTER DIAGRAMS

6 8 9 Crosstabulation
7 2 3 3 5 6 6
Crosstabulation is a tabular summary of data for two
8 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 variables. The classes for one variable are presented by the
9 1 2 2 2 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 rows, the classes for the other variable are presented by the
10 0 0 2 4 6 6 6 7 8 columns.
11 2 3 5 5 8 9 9 Crosstabulation is widely used for examining the relationship
12 4 6 7 8 between two variables
13 2 4

14 1

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CROSSTABULATIONS AND CROSSTABULATIONS AND
SCATTER DIAGRAMS SCATTER DIAGRAMS

CROSSTABULATION OF QUALITY RATING AND MEAL ROW PERCENTAGES FOR EACH RATING CATEGORY
PRICE FOR 300 LOSANGELES RESTAURANTS Meal Price
Meal Price Quality Rating $10-19 $20-29 $30-39 $40-49 Total
Quality Rating $10-19 $20-29 $30-39 $40-49 Total Good 50.0 47.6 2.4 0.0 100
Good 42 40 2 0 84 Very good 22.7 42.7 30.6 4.0 100
Very good 34 64 46 6 150 Excellent 3.0 21.2 42.4 33.4 100
Excellent 2 14 28 22 66
Total 78 118 76 28 300

CROSSTABULATIONS AND CROSSTABULATIONS AND


SCATTER DIAGRAMS SCATTER DIAGRAMS
SAMPLE DATA FOR THE STEREO AND SOUND EQUIPMENT STORE
Scatter Diagram Week No. of Sales Volume
Commercials ($100s)
A scatter diagram is a graphical presentation of the x y
1 2 50
relationship between two quantitative variables. 2 5 57
3 1 41
One variable is shown on the horizontal axis and 4 3 54
5 4 54
the other variable is shown on the vertical axis. 6 1 38
7 5 63
8 3 48
9 4 59
10 2 46

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CROSSTABULATIONS AND CROSSTABULATIONS AND
SCATTER DIAGRAMS SCATTER DIAGRAMS

Scatter diagram (cont.) Scatter diagram (cont.)


Scatter diagram for the stereo and sound equipment store Types of relationships depicted by scatter diagrams
65

60
Sales
($10 55
0s)
50

45

40

35
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 A Positive Relationship No Apparent Relationship A Negative Relationship

Number of commercials

TABULAR AND GRAPHICAL PROCEDURES FOR


SUMMARIZING DATA
Data

Qualitative Quantitative
data data

Tabular Graphical Tabular Graphical


Methods Methods Methods Methods

•Frequency distribution •Bar graph •Frequency Distribution •Dot plot


•Relative Frequency •Histogram
•Relative Frequency •Pie chart Distribution
distribution •Cummulative frequency •Ogive
distribution
•Percent Frequency •Scatter
distribution •Cummulative Relative
Frequency distribution •Diagram
•Crosstabulation •Stem-and-Leaf Display
•Crosstabulation