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MINISTRY AERONAUTICAL CURRENT OF SUPPLY RESEARCH PAPERS COUNCIL Higher Harmonics of Flapping on the
MINISTRY AERONAUTICAL CURRENT OF SUPPLY RESEARCH PAPERS COUNCIL Higher Harmonics of Flapping on the
MINISTRY AERONAUTICAL CURRENT OF SUPPLY RESEARCH PAPERS COUNCIL Higher Harmonics of Flapping on the
MINISTRY AERONAUTICAL CURRENT OF SUPPLY RESEARCH PAPERS COUNCIL Higher Harmonics of Flapping on the

MINISTRY

AERONAUTICAL

CURRENT

OF

SUPPLY

RESEARCH

PAPERS

COUNCIL

Higher

Harmonics

of

Flapping

on

the

Helicopter

Rotor

W.

BY

Stewart,

B.Sc.

LONDON:

HER MAJESTY’S

STATIONERY

OFFICE

1953

Price

5s.

Od. net

on the Helicopter Rotor W. BY Stewart, B.Sc. LONDON: HER MAJESTY’S STATIONERY OFFICE 1953 Price 5s.

C.P.

121

 

Report

No.

Aero.2459

 

Higher

Hammnms

OJ?Flappmg

on the Helicopter

Rotor

 

by

 

v.

stewart,

B.Sc.

 
 

The aqlitudes

 

of

the

flapping

hamom.cs

up

to

the

sixth

harmonic

have

been

calculated.

for

a range

of

blade

pitch

and blade

inertia

number

for

tip

speed

ratios

up

to

0.6.

The cdculatlons

 

are

for

a strai&t

 

(infmitely

rigid)

blade

and blade

stallmg

1s not

t&en

into

acocunt.

 

The results

arc

giver.

in

the

form

of

gencraJ&xXI

curves.

For

the

ordinary

the

helicopter,

precedmg

hamonic,

the

amplitude

J. tip

for

of

any harmonic

speed

ratio

about

is

about

0.3.

'/12th

of

the helicopter, precedmg hamonic, the amplitude J. tip for of any harmonic speed ratio about is
the helicopter, precedmg hamonic, the amplitude J. tip for of any harmonic speed ratio about is
 

LIST

OF COiwENTS

1

Introduction

 

%

Theory

3

Effect

d'

Induoed

Velocity

Dxtribution

4

Numerical

Evaluation

5

DXZCUZ310n

Refl%-WlCf%

a

3

3

12

13

13

16

 

LIST

OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Bl

"I

c

or

- 80

v.

Tq

Speed Ratzo

I

2.0r

bl

v.

Tip

Speed Ratlo

2

"0

ao

“2 7 do

v.

Tip

Speed Ratio

 

3

-

b2 g

v.

Tip

Speed

Ratlo

4

a3

 

7

do

2

a0

Y.

v.

Tip

Tip

Speed Ratio

I>_1

%ced

Rat10

 

5

6

“4

v.

Tip

Sped

Ratlo

7

"0

b4

z

v.

Tip

Speed Ratlo

 

8

"j "0

v.

Tip

Speed Ratio

9

10

11

2

17. Tip

Speed Ratio

"6

;i, v*

T1p Speed Ratl.0

r v.

Tip

Speed Ratio

12

0

 

a-hamonlc

amplitudes

 

13

b-hamonx

 

amplitudes

IL

-2-

Tip Speed Ratio 12 0   a-hamonlc amplitudes   13 b-hamonx   amplitudes IL -2-

I

Introduction

vlbratlon,

In .

mclny . forms

It

L:

cf

necessary

hellcopter

to

have

I-~nrk,parti_cularly some knowledge

of

in

relation

to

the magnitude

of

the

Fogher

 

h~~wn~cs

of

thL> bhde

flapping

motion.

It

had

alloys

been

api)~cmtcd

aunlitat-~voly

 

that

the

amplitudes

diminish

rapidly

with

higher

frcqucncy

bu.t no qumtitatlvc

essessmcnt

had been

mGIe.

 

This

was auc

in

pIi-t,

C?

:he

ccpplicated

 

natic

or

the

evaluation

and also

to

the

i3c.i

tiint

other

parsmeters,

such as blade

bending

and twisting,

 

could

lw:e

ix Jar&e

influonoe

 

.w

the

final

effects

on

the

helicopter.

In

order

to

make a start

to

this

work,

thu

report

deals

with

the

evaluation

 

of

the

flapping

motion

for

a strai,&t

blade.

The

effects

of

blade

bsGl~ng

on

tile

flappmg

 

are

not

yet

knolin,

but

it

is

thought

that

these

effects

 

can

ti

treated

separately,

in

w%ioh

case the

present

oalculat~oas

 

Would

@VC

ths

ft.lappmng for

the

lint

throw&

the

root

and

0.75

r&us

poslt>on

on

ihc

blndc.

Eiowcver,

at

the

present

stage,

the

calculatlcns

are

strlotly

valid

 

only

for

the

ufYnitely

 

rigid

blade.

Blade

stalling

 

is

not

taken

Into

 

aLcount

in

the

calculatuns.

 
 

When the

hcl?cqtw

XC: in

i'o?ward

flight,

the

velocity

of

the

air

over

the

advulc3ng

l?Laclc

is

~ncrrnsed

while

that

over

the

retreating

blade

is

decreazecl.

In

order

';o deal

x%th this

distribution

of

velocity

and

to

mainmin

tr:a,

thx

appmpnote

cychc

patch

is

applied

to

the

blades.

This

IS,

on or~m~~r

hcllcopters,

simply

a fwst

order

hannonw

application

end ihe

blr2.c

1s free

to i'lap

at

any

other

frequencies.

Tiius,

the

flappAng

mo1;1.~n o= the

'b-la&s

~a3 bc expressed

as

an infinite

Fourier

series,

m

P4lich

ihc

ocw~n~t

tccrl

;s

the

oonlng

angle,

the

first

harmonics

are

trLm?d

b:r

the

s~p~opr~ate

co?tr?il

acgies

(longitudinal

 

and lateral

oyclic

pitch)

ar2. flapping

at i?ighe.-

_h,lrmonics

 

is

free

 

to

take

place

accor&ug

to

the

aezwlyrwmic.

ccnzrlfq@.

3nd inertia

 

forces

involved.

This

rqort

deals

wth

 

thy

e.ral~aLlon

of

the

mgnitudc

 

of

these

harmonics.

2

Theory

 

A

rotor

of

raiims

I?

is

assumed

to

have

a forward

 

velocity

V

and

a rotatlonsl

velocity

R .

The

d.xes of

referenoe

 

are

taken

through

the

rotor

cenuo

, parallel

and perpendicular

 

to

the

mean tip

path

plane.

This

deflnll-icn

 

is

wnilar

to

chat

used

m

general

helicopter

work,

Ref.1,

except

that

a moan

tip

path

plane

must

be taken

 

to

allow

for

the

lntroductlon

of' higher

 

hanonics

of

flapping.

 

The component

of

the

forward

velocity

parallel

 

to

the

mean tip

path

plane

is

The velocity

through

the

disc,

perpendicular

 

to

the

mean tip

path

plane

is

 

hRR

 

At

the

present

stage

of

the

theory,

the

usual

nssmption

is

made

that

h

is

constant

over

the

rotor

disc.

The velocitlcs

of

the

air

wzth

respcot

to

n blade

element

distant

r

= xR

from

the

rotor

axis

are

as follows:-

 
 

Velocity

parallel

to mean

tip

path

plane

and perpendicular

to

the

blade

(&or&&e)

is

 

(x

+ p

sin

$)

OR

(1)

 

-3-

to the blade (&or&&e) is   (x + p sin $) OR ( 1 )  

Veloa.~

perpenclmdar

to

the

mean tip

path

plane

and

to

the

blade

,(through

 

the

&so)

1s

 

h+ppcos*+-x

 

i nR

 

(

n

>

 

where

 

@

is

assumed to

be mall,

so that

 

sin@

 

can be replaoed

 

by

p

and

00s

p

by unity.

 

reasons

The velocity

already

along

discussed

flapping

the

in

blade

Ref.1.

(spanvise)

 

1s negleoted

for

the

 
 

Defining

angle

in

the

usual

 

way

 
 

b

=

a0

-

a,

cosJr

-

b,

sin

Jr -

a2 00s

2$-

 

b2

sin

29

-

 

-

a3

00s

3*

-

b3

 

sin

3$

 

(3)

 

When the

axes

are

taken

relative

 

to

the

 

rotor

disc,

the

values

of

not 3

 

and

b,

are

zero.

Howwer,

the

higher

harmonics

 

of

flapplng

 

are

more

cvalua-

dependent

on thw

definition

and

in

order

 

to make

the

equations

general,

 

the

al

and

bl

have

been

retained.

 

In

the

subsequent

Cons

of

the

higher

harmonics,

'the

first

order

 

effects

 

are

eliminated

in

the

generalised

forms

91

+

a,

longitudinally

 

and

-AI

+

bl

laterslly.

The definition

of

 

h

perpendicular

to

the

rotor

 

diso

is

required

 

for

the

evriluation

 

of

a,

anti

of

the

control

angles

 

if

required.

 
 

Differentiating

 

equation

(3)

 

n

+a,

sin@

-

b,

00s

I$ +

2 a2

sin

2$

 

-

2

b2

cos

2$

+

 

+

3 a3

sm

314 -

3 b3

cos

3$

.

.

.

.

I

(4)

 

-&

L-l2

=

a,

DOSJr + b,

sm$

+

4 a2

cos

2$

+

4

b2

sin

2JI t

 
 

+

9a3

cos 3$t

9 b 3

SD

3$

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

(5)

Hence,

the

velocity

perpendicular

to

the

blade

 

axis

(through

the

disc)

by combining

equations

(2),

(3)

and

(4,

 

is

[h

+

p

00s

$

(a,

-

a.,

cos

$

-

bl

sin*

-

a2

cos

 

2$ -

b2

sin

2$-

 
 

-

"3

co9

3$ -

b3

 

sin

 

3$

.

.

.

)

 

t

x

(al

sin

*

-

b,

COS$ t

2 a2

sin

2$

-

2 b2

cos 2$t

3 a3

sin

3$

-

 

-

3 b3

cos

3$

.

.

.

.

.

.

)I

n R

 

(6)

 

Assunung

the

usual

expression

for

feathering,

the

blnde

pitch-at

may

azimuth

posiflon

IS

given

by

 

i?=

B.

-

A,

oos$

 

-B,sinj

 

(7)

~~~

equations

(I),

(2)

and

(7)

the

effective

incidence

blade

element

is

   

b

 

CI

=

l9 0

-

A,

cos$

-

B,

sin$

-

h tppcos$+-x

x

+ p

sin

$

n

or,

using

the

expansion

of

equation

 

(2)

as given

by equation

a

=

Oo

A,

cosdr

-

B,

sin

Jr

 

-

-[A+~cos$

 

(a,-a,cos$

 

-b,

sin$

-a2cosZ$-

 
 

-

b2

sin

2*

-

a3

cos

3$

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

+ x

 

(a,

sin

JI -

b,

cos$

+

2

a2

sin2$-

2 b2

.

.

1

00s

of

(6)

the

2$+

The aerdynam~c

force

+

3

a3

aoting

sin

3*

on the

)I/[

blatle

x + p sin * 1

element

CR dx

is

a

=

The corresponding

4p

a 0 n2

RJ

moment with

(x

+

p sin

respect

to

$)2

the

a a.x

flapping

hinge

is

=

$pacn2R4(x+)1sin*)2axdx

The aero@jnamic

moment

is

then

obtained

by mtegrating

equation

(8)

(9)

(IO)

(11)

(II)

along

the

blade.

 

To allow

for

the

tip

loss,

the

integration

1s

taken

from

x

=

0

to

B

5

p a

NI-:

.

.

.lvI

d &i;4.i

Ustig'the

=

B

~pacQ2R4x(x+~sin$)2adx

J

Cl

B

 

(x3

+

2

x2 p

sin*

t

xp*

sin2

*)

a

fix

s

0~

&kluation

 

of

a

from

equation

(9)

the

above

(12)

(13)

equation

s 0~ &kluation   of a from equation (9) the above ( 1 2 ) (13)
- (x3 +2x2psinS   +xp2   sin2   (I) (Al 00s $) - (~3 +

-

(x3 +2x2psinS

 

+xp2

 

sin2

 

(I)

(Al

00s

$)

-

(~3

+

2 x2

p

sin

$ + x

 

$

sin2

$1

(Bd sin

$1

-

(x2

+ x

p sin

*)

A

-

(x2

+

x

p sin

*)(p

00s

 

$)(a,

 

-

al

co9

$ -

b.j

sine

)

-(x3+x2psin$)(al

 

sing-blcos*+2a2sin2*-

 
 

-

2 b2

00s 2Jr+

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. )]

dx

(14)

Integrating

equation

 

(14),

expressing

 

trigmmetncal

 

products

in

86

hamon~c

and.

b6

angles

the

,

snd evaluating

the

expansions

aercdqnamic

mcanentbecames

up to coefficients

/Equation

(15)

-6-

M

$pac*2R4

=

-(

B4 COS$+ 1 B3p smZ$+

T

3

-

B4

(-sml+?jB3p

4

-

;B3p

@

4

oos$-e

cos2$+~B2p2

8 COS~$-~+

sj.n$-??f.$

22

cos$ > AI

sb3$

) BI

--B31-1

_

-

-

3

b2 7

T %

aa

Oos* -

Sin3+-?

b2

COS~J~-~ %

b

--CT 5 sir&*-

B2P2

T b5

- 4

( ac sm2g-3-

--+

b2

2

52

?

cos4~

-

T a4

szm6$cT

a4

"I

-i-

sm$

COST* -?

3

-T

-?

a3

0os4*-~

bl

a3

sin24

-

cos2*--2

2

b3

oos3*

sin4$--;i.

-

b3

F a2

oos*

sin2$

COS~Q-~ b4

sm5$-T

b4

sin3$-F

a5

oos6$-F

a5

cos4r)

sinl&

-T a6

cos7*

-

T a6

cos5*

- T b6

sin7*

-

y b6

sin5* >

7 sul3$-

-

T a3

sm5$

"1 2

+

sin$

a3

T

sm2JitF

.

blc

oos6$-F

+ b1 -pj-- cos3*-

F bl

oos*-

a2

y-

5x1*

+ -py b3 cos5*

-

b3

F

00s

b4

cos2Jr-~

a5

sin7Jr+~sin3$ a5

sin4$

\k

_

.I3 2

B4

T

("I

co57$-2

sin+b,

0os3*-2

cos$t2a2

nini3$+fj

sir&'*-2b2

sin**+2

cos26t3a3

co&Jr--

sinS$-3b3

tl+a4sin4$-4b4cos4$t5agSm5Jr-gbgcOS5Jr+6a&n6~-6'bgco~6~

b6

2

co&.$

>

cos3$

)

&

3

(

3

---

2

"I 2

co&*

-

"I

T

sin

2$l -

a2 cos3*

+

a2

cos*

-b2sin3@b2sin$-

i

a3 coswt

4

a3

oos2*-

s b3sinl&+

2 b3sin2$

-2a4

cos5Jr+2a4

coo3$-2b4

sm5@-2b4sin36

2 agca3+

3 a5cQs4$

-

3 bjsd$+

T5 bgSin~~-~agOOS~t~~6CCS56-~gSi~7~t~b6Sin~

-7-

>

(15)

PW a bhae

d.emm

dx

0f mass

m ,

distant

xR

from

axis,

the

moremat

in

centrifugal

force

and

the

correspcnding

about

the

flapping

huge

are

as follows

 
 

a. C.F.

=mn2xxax

 
 

d

(C.F.

Mom)

= m 0'

x2

R2fi

dx

 

Taking

mcments about

the

flapping

hinge

and neglecting

clue to

the

weight

of

the

blade

the

rotor

mcm%t

the

(16)

(17)

moment

 

Iv1

=

I,

n2

p

f

I,

b'

=

I,"2

( p+l

 

n2

>

F&writing

in

the

form

of

the

L.H.S.

of

equation

(15)

vibfx?.?

I

is

Lock's

Inertia

Nunlzer = pacR4 =I

 

Evaluating

by stlbstitutzon

 

from

equations

(3)

ad

(5)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

t35a6ccs6JCt35b6sin6$

 

.

.

.

)

Ccmpszing

equations

(15)

and

(21)

and equating

the

corresponding

ccdficxents,

the

following

set

of

equations

are

obtamcd.

(19)

(21)

-a

the corresponding ccdficxents, the following set of equations are obtamcd. (19) (21) -a
 

Equations

 

(22)

to

(34)

represent,

m

motion

of

the

blades

and

the

evsluation

of

follows

from

the

simultaneous

solution

of

solution

oan be made fairly

easily

since

it

less

than

that

dealt

with

first

If

order

harmonics

identical

with

can be shown

of

the

that

preceding

the

magnnltudc

hsrmonio.

others

tenw

(22),

OM

of

lx

and then

the

the

small

we neglect

in

the

introduoed

(23)

of

equations

control

snglc

work

generalised

various

caoh

f&n,

coefficients

the

flapping

aw

the

the

these

by suoccsoive

equations.

in

(22)

However,

is

(24)

approximation

coefficient

methods

much

Equations

taken

to

sucocssivo

second

pairs.

and third

by the

and (24),

Rcf.1.

these

equations

beaome

Equation

(22)

leads

to

the

solution

 

for

tho

coning

angle

trim

of

the

rotor

in

terms

of

the

lateral

tilt

cf

the

disc

from

the

gives

the

ion

itudinal

trim

Or the

smplituae

axis

and flapping

(a,).

(B,

k

or

Ref.1

the

also

and with

longitudinal

deals

the

in

(a,);

equation

(23)

amplitude

gives

the

lateral

(A,)

or

the

equation

feathering

the

of

coeffloients

feathering

no-feathering

rotor

tilt

axx1s (b,);

(24)

in

tcnns

of

the

af'

the

diso

from

the

equivalence

the

corresponding

no-feathering

feathering

aetsilwith

of

evaluation

in

relation

to

the

definition

 

of

the

flow

through

the

diso

(1)

for

the

appropriate

axis.

X

in

the

prcseat

report

is

taken

porpcndidar

to

the

rotor

disc.

Hence,

%

=

r_

2

(B2+p2)

0,

-

<

h-

+

B,

+ ??$

Bj E B2 :"1p2 [AB3 190’h’21 3 *lJ

2

B2 +

3

2-p

2 b2

-

b2 1

i

*

a3

m

3 190’h’21 3 *lJ 2 B2 + 3 2-p 2 b2 - b2 1 i *

tip

with

If

we substitute

+

&12

If

"& neglect

loss

i.e.

equations

B

=

I

(15),

for

B,

from

equation

(36)

-

y8

B2p2 +

Bj

B*

+

$"

oo--3-'

in

(35),

B2 -

;

B2 + 2

%B2+&p” >

*2

+ 3@2

2

b2

1

+ 'i;

-

B*

B3~3

+ &?a3

!

the

second

and

third

hnnnonio

these

and

,

(16)

e uations

ii 13)

of

(36),

Ref.?.

(37)

terms

and

end (38)

-1

c-

a,

w2

JL*

acmes

h

(38)

omit

the

are

identical

Rewriting

equation

(24)

-

F

by substitutmg

b2

-&cl

*)

for

-

$

=

h

(B2

0

from

ecpation

(22)

-

3 p2)

a,

 

(39)

weobtain

$

(7B2

-

yg*)

 

8,

t

&

Fmm this,

 

the

value

of

B,

+

a,

=

From equation

 

(23),

 

the

 

-A,+b,

 

=

 

The value

cf

Bj+al

and the

value

of

-Al+bl

generalxation

 

of

 

Bl+al

evaluation

 

of

the

hi&er

oonsdx

 

any

tither

 

the

through

the

disc.

 

Equations

 

(25)

to

form

a,

Bi

-Bp($+@?)t2-+Zaj

B,

+

a,

is

l.r2 a3

-

$

2(B2

-Al+bl

/J 2,

value

is

in

and

of

is

obtaued

2-Fb3 lJ2

and

means

tiat,

0 +%!a 6

substituted

is

It

then

-A,tbl

of

CFF~tnen

~fl equations

(27).

(25)

and

(28)

equations(26)

,

By using

as

not

far

of

as

have

the

this

the

to

flow

the

followxng

harmonics

effect

ooncerned,

we do

different

definitxons

in

(28)

be evaluated

ooncerned, we do different definitxons in (28) be evaluated   ao- a2 - 9 b2  
 

ao-

a2

-

9

b2

 

2(B2

+

4

p2)

B3p

(B2

+

1")

b3

By

a4

=

o

3(B2

t

+

/.i2)

(43)

-1 l-

+ 4 p2) B3p (B2 + 1") b3 By a4 = o 3(B2 t + /.i2)

B3g3

6(B2 + $1.12)

B3~(B2+jP2)a2-+a3+B2($B4+JB2P2+&P4)b3

a,_+

 

2(B*

 

+

;

--a4+8b5 BJP

2

 
 

-

8

34

a3

g*)

B2112

=

0

-

y

b3

-

y

3 b4

-

9

22

B*

.S5

+ 3~1'

=

0

(44)

(45)

Equations

(42)

and

Usmgthese

values,

a3

and

b3

approxmatmn.

my

from

form,

eqmtmns

(43)

oan

Ix

solved

simultaneously

for

a2.

and

b2

taneously

by

similar

generalised

"0

in

*

for

success3.ve

equations

(44)

and

(45)

can

be solved

smul-

,

More

accurate

values

oan

then

be obtained

The

other

cceffxients

are

obtained

in

a

(29)

to

throughout

(34).

In

order

each of

cocffu.xents/a,

to

produce

a more

these

equations

by

can then

be made

we may divldc

of

the

The evaluation

harmonic

-

terms

of

only

three

parameters,

viz.

 

II,

 

Yard

‘90

--

       

%

Effect

of

Induoed

Veloci%

Dxstributlon

 

In

the

theory

of

the

preceding

section,

 

Lt

has been

assumed that

flow

through

the

dxc

1s constant

over

the

dxo

area.

However,

it

kncwn

that

a variation

 

m

the

flop

throug'l

the

disc:

does

exist.

In

Rcf.1.

vas

tests',

almost

condltlons.

it

linear

This

was found

from

offeot

that

the

distribution

of

induced

front

to

rear

of

the

disc

in

fon-rax-d

1s also

refcrrcd

to

111 paragraph

5,Z

3

the

is

sane flight

velocity

flight

af

The induced

velocity

at

cny

point

in

the

disc

$)

the

OM be expressed

as

+xKcos

(46)

is

the

mean lnduoed

velocity

and

of

vi

iii?

value

of

K

of

can

the

be

forvart3

acre

selected

v. =0

for

the

appropriate

the

the

1

forward

flight

conditions.

the

The flow

through

vitb

disc

induced

consists

V

component

velocity

together

velocity

i

+

=

sin

RR

Using

the

ex&ssion

for

h = v sin

RR

i

induced

+

v.

10

flR

+

velocity

fkn

v.

10

x

RR

K 00s

Jr

equation

(46)

(48)

-12-

Hence,

the

flow

through

the

0 +

through

disc

--o

r_t any point

-: K

RR

cos*

the

dmc.

1ocY~&7

(49)

0

can then

be expressed

(50)

On

the

as

h=h

mean flcnv

ncmentum

T

=

for

vlo

where

ho

Usmg

1s

the

the

equatmn

27tR2pv

and substituting

In

ecpatlon

Tins

value

the

the

of

h

can be mtroduced

into

equafaon

(14).

o@effioients,

dve

mntegrating

of

rnoment,eqmtion

velocity

and oom~armg

the

di.str~~bu:ion

1s

to

effect

uxduced

the

following

ad&tional

tens

 

B4 l"

CT to

-

in

and

4

Numerical

Evalilation

The flappmg

79

hamcnz~cs have

been

and

-

y

2

12

for

a raIp3

2nd for

-2 20

-

of

2

P