MINISTRY
AERONAUTICAL
CURRENT
OF
SUPPLY
RESEARCH
PAPERS
COUNCIL
Higher 
Harmonics 
of 
Flapping 

on 
the 
Helicopter 
Rotor 
W.
BY
Stewart,
B.Sc.
LONDON:
HER MAJESTY’S
STATIONERY
OFFICE
1953
Price
5s.
Od. net
C.P.
121
Report 
No. 
Aero.2459 

Higher 
Hammnms 
OJ?Flappmg on the Helicopter 
Rotor 

by 

v. stewart, 
B.Sc. 

The aqlitudes 
of 
the 
flapping hamom.cs 
up 
to the 
sixth 
harmonic 

have 
been 
calculated. 
for 
a range 
of blade 
pitch 
and blade 
inertia number 

for 
tip speed 
ratios 
up 
to 
0.6. 
The cdculatlons 
are 
for 
a strai&t 

(infmitely 
rigid) 
blade 
and blade stallmg 
1s not 
t&en 
into 
acocunt. 

The results 
arc 
giver. 
in 
the form 
of 
gencraJ&xXI 
curves. 
For 
the 
ordinary
the
helicopter,
precedmg
hamonic,
the
amplitude
J. tip
for
of
any harmonic
speed
ratio
about
is
about
0.3.
'/12th
of
LIST 
OF COiwENTS 

1 
Introduction 

% 
Theory 

_{3} 
Effect 
d' 
Induoed 
Velocity 
Dxtribution 
_{4} 
Numerical 
Evaluation 

_{5} 
DXZCUZ310n 
Refl%WlCf%
a
3
3
12
13
13
16
LIST 
OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Bl 
"I 

c 
_{o}_{r} 
_{} 80 
v. 
Tq 
Speed Ratzo 
I 

2.0r 
bl 
v. 
Tip 
Speed Ratlo 
2 

"0 
ao 

“2 _{7} _{d}_{o} 
v. 
Tip 
Speed Ratio 
3 

 b2 g 
v. 
Tip 
Speed 
Ratlo 
4 

a3 

7 do 2 a0 
Y. v. 
Tip Tip 
Speed Ratio I>_1 %ced Rat10 
5 6 

“4 
v. 
Tip 
Sped 
Ratlo 
7 

"0 

b4 z 
v. 
Tip 
Speed Ratlo 
8 

^{"}^{j} _{"}_{0} 
v. 
Tip 
Speed Ratio 
9 10 11 

_{2} 
17. Tip 
Speed Ratio 

"6 ;i, v* 
T1p Speed Ratl.0 

r v. 
Tip 
Speed Ratio 
12 

0 

ahamonlc 
amplitudes 
13 

bhamonx 
amplitudes 
IL 
2
I
Introduction
vlbratlon, 
In . 
mclny . forms It L: cf necessary hellcopter to have 
I~nrk,parti_cularly some knowledge of 
in relation to the magnitude 
of 

the 
Fogher 
h~~wn~cs of 
thL> bhde 
flapping 
motion. 
It 
had alloys 
been 

api)~cmtcd 
aunlitat~voly 
that 
the 
amplitudes 
diminish 
rapidly 
with 

higher frcqucncy bu.t no qumtitatlvc 
essessmcnt 
had been mGIe. 
This 

was auc 
in 
pIit, 
C? :he 
ccpplicated 
natic 
or 
the evaluation 
and also 

to 
the 
i3c.i 
tiint 
other 
parsmeters, 
such as blade 
bending 
and twisting, 

could 
lw:e 
ix Jar&e influonoe 
.w 
the final 
effects 
on 
the helicopter. 

In 
order 
to make a start 
to 
this 
work, 
thu 
report 
deals 
with 
the 

evaluation 
of 
the flapping 
motion 
for 
a strai,&t 
blade. 
The 
effects 
of 

blade 
bsGl~ng 
on tile flappmg 
are 
not 
yet 
knolin, 
but 
it 
is thought 
that 

these 
effects 
can ti treated 
separately, 
in 
w%ioh case the present 

oalculat~oas 
Would @VC 
ths 
ft.lappmng for 
the 
lint 
throw& the 
root 
and 

0.75 
r&us 
poslt>on on 
ihc 
blndc. 
Eiowcver, 
at 
the 
present stage, 
the 

calculatlcns 
are strlotly 
valid 
only 
for 
the 
ufYnitely 
rigid 
blade. 

Blade 
stalling 
is not taken 
Into 
aLcount 
in 
the 
calculatuns. 

When the 
hcl?cqtw 
XC: in 
i'o?ward 
flight, 
the 
velocity 
of 
the 
air 

over 
the 
advulc3ng l?Laclc 
is 
~ncrrnsed 
while 
that 
over 
the retreating 

blade 
is 
decreazecl. In 
order 
';o deal 
x%th this 
distribution 
of 
velocity 
and
to
mainmin
tr:a,
thx
appmpnote
cychc
patch
is
applied
to
the
blades. 
This 
IS, 
on or~m~~r hcllcopters, 
simply 
a fwst order 
hannonw 

application 
end ihe 
blr2.c 1s free 
to i'lap 
at 
any 
other 
frequencies. 
Tiius, 

_{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{a}_{p}_{p}_{A}_{n}_{g} 
_{m}_{o}_{1}_{;}_{1}_{.}_{~}_{n} _{o}_{=} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{'}_{b}_{}_{l}_{a}_{&}_{s} 
~a3 bc expressed 
as 
an infinite 
Fourier 
series,
m
P4lich
ihc
ocw~n~t
tccrl
;s
the
oonlng
angle,
the
first
harmonics
are 
trLm?d 
b:r 
the s~p~opr~ate 
co?tr?il 
acgies 
(longitudinal 
and lateral 

oyclic pitch) 
ar2. flapping 
at i?ighe. 
_h,lrmonics 
is free 
to 
take place 

accor&ug 
to 
the 
aezwlyrwmic. 
ccnzrlfq@. 
3nd inertia 
forces involved. 

This 
rqort 
deals wth 
thy 
e.ral~aLlon 
of the 
mgnitudc 
of 
these harmonics. 

2 
Theory 

A 
rotor 
of 
raiims 
I? 
is 
assumed 
to 
have 
a forward 
velocity 
V 

_{a}_{n}_{d} 
_{a} _{r}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{l} 
_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} 
_{R} _{.} 
The 
d.xes of 
referenoe 
are 
taken through 

the 
rotor 
cenuo 
, parallel 
and perpendicular 
to 
the 
mean tip path 
plane. 

This 
deflnllicn 
is wnilar 
to 
chat used m 
general 
helicopter 
work, 

Ref.1, except that a moan 
tip 
path plane must 
be taken 
to 
allow for 
the 

lntroductlon 
of' higher 
hanonics 
of 
flapping. 

The component 
of 
the 
forward velocity 
parallel 
to 
the mean tip 

path 
plane 
is 

The velocity 
through 
the 
disc, 
perpendicular 
to 
the 
mean tip 
path 

plane 
is 

hRR 

At 
the 
present 
stage 
of 
the theory, 
the 
usual 
nssmption is 
made 

that 
h 
is 
constant 
over 
the 
rotor 
disc. 

The velocitlcs 
of 
the air 
wzth 
respcot 
to 
n blade 
element distant 
r 
= xR 
from 
the 
rotor 
axis 
are 
as follows: 

Velocity 
parallel 
to mean 
tip 
path 
plane 
and perpendicular 
to 
the 

blade 
(&or&&e) 
is 

(x 
+ p 
sin 
$) 
OR 
_{(}_{1}_{)} 

3 
Veloa.~
perpenclmdar
to
the
mean tip
path
plane
and
to
the
blade
,(through 
the &so) 
1s 

h+ppcos*+x 
i nR 

( 
^{n} 
> 

where 
@ 
is assumed to 
be mall, 
so that 
sin@ 
can be replaoed 
by 
p 

and 
00s 
p by unity. 

reasons The velocity already along discussed flapping the in blade Ref.1. 
(spanvise) 
1s negleoted 
for 
the 

Defining angle in 
the usual 
way 

b = 
a0 
 a, 
cosJr  b, 
sin 
Jr  
a2 00s 2$ 
b2 
sin 
29 
 

 a3 
00s 
3* 
 
b3 
sin 3$ 
_{(}_{3}_{)} 

When the axes 
are 
taken relative 
to 
the 
rotor disc, 
the 
values 
of 

not 3 
and 
b, are 
zero. 
Howwer, 
the higher 
harmonics 
of flapplng 
are more cvalua 

dependent on thw definition 
and in 
order 
to make 
the 
equations 

general, 
the al 
and 
bl 
have been retained. 
In the 
subsequent 

Cons 
of 
the higher 
harmonics, 'the 
first 
order 
effects 
are 
eliminated 
in 

the 
generalised 
forms 
91 
+ a, longitudinally 
and AI 
+ 
bl 
laterslly. 

The definition of 
h perpendicular 
to 
the 
rotor 
diso 
is required 
for 
the 

evriluation 
of a, 
anti 
of 
the control 
angles 
if 
required. 

Differentiating 
equation (3) 

_{n} 
_{+}_{a}_{,} 
_{s}_{i}_{n}_{@}  
b, 
00s I$ + 
2 a2 
sin 
2$ 
 
2 b2 
cos 
2$ + 

+ 3 a3 
sm 314  
3 b3 cos 
3$ 
. . 
. . 
I 
(4) 

& Ll2 
= a, DOSJr + b, 
sm$ + 
4 a2 
cos 
2$ 
+ 
4 b2 
sin 2JI t 

_{+} _{9}_{a}_{3} 
cos 3$t 
9 b _{3} SD 
3$ 
. 
. . 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
_{(}_{5}_{)} 

Hence, 
the 
velocity 
perpendicular 
to the 
blade 
axis (through 
the 
disc) 

by combining equations 
(2), 
(3) and (4, 
is 

[h 
+ 
p 
00s $ (a, 
 
a., cos 
$  bl 
sin* 
 
a2 
cos 
2$  
b2 sin 
2$ 

 "3 
co9 3$  
b3 
sin 
3$ . 
. 
. 
) 

_{t} 
_{x} 
_{(}_{a}_{l} 
_{s}_{i}_{n} _{*} 
 
b, COS$ t 2 a2 
sin 
2$ 
 
2 b2 
cos 2$t 
3 a3 
sin 
3$ 
 

 3 b3 
cos 
3$ . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
)I 
n R 
(6) 

Assunung the 
usual 
expression 
for 
feathering, 
the 
blnde 
pitchat 
may 

azimuth 
posiflon 
IS 
given 
by 

i?= 
B. _{} _{A}_{,} 
_{o}_{o}_{s}_{$} 
B,sinj 
_{(}_{7}_{)} 
~~~
equations
(I),
(2)
and
(7)
the
effective
incidence
blade 
element 
is 

b 

CI 
= 
l9 _{0} 
 
A, 
cos$ 
 
B, 
sin$ 
 
h tppcos$+x x + p sin 
$ 
n 

or, 
using 
the 
expansion 
of 
equation 
(2) 
as given 
by equation 

a 
= 
_{O}_{o} 
A, 
cosdr 
 
B, 
sin 
Jr 

_{} [A+~cos$ 
(a,a,cos$ 
b, 
sin$ 
a2cosZ$ 

 
b2 
sin 
2* 
 
a3 
cos 
3$ 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 

+ x 
(a, 
sin 
JI  
b, 
cos$ 
+ 
2 
a2 
sin2$ 
2 b2 
.
.
_{1}
00s
of
(6)
the
2$+
The aerdynam~c
force
+
3
a3
aoting
sin
3*
on the
_{)}_{I}_{/}_{[}
blatle
_{x} _{+} _{p} _{s}_{i}_{n} _{*} _{1}
element
CR dx
is
a
=
The corresponding
4p
a 0 n2
RJ
moment with
(x
+
p sin
respect
to
$)2
the
a a.x
flapping
hinge
is
=
$pacn2R4(x+)1sin*)2axdx
The aero@jnamic
moment
is
then
obtained
by mtegrating
equation
(8)
_{(}_{9}_{)}
_{(}_{I}_{O}_{)}
_{(}_{1}_{1}_{)}
(II) 
along 
the 
blade. 
To allow 
for 
the 
tip 
loss, 
the 
integration 
1s 

taken 
from 
x 
= 
0 
to 
B 
5
p a
NI:
.
.
.lvI
d _{&}_{i}_{;}_{4}_{.}_{i}
Ustig'the
=
B
~pacQ2R4x(x+~sin$)2adx
J
Cl
B 

(x3 
+ 
2 
x2 p 
sin* 
t 
xp* 
sin2 
*) 
a 
fix 

s 

0~ 

&kluation 
of 
a 
from 
equation 
(9) 
the 
above 
_{(}_{1}_{2}_{)}
(13)
equation
53OOIW.S
 
(x3 +2x2psinS 
+xp2 
sin2 
(I) 
(Al 
00s 
$) 

 
(~3 
+ 
2 x2 
p 
sin 
$ + x 
$ 
sin2 
$1 
(Bd sin 
$1 

 
(x2 
+ x p sin 
*) 
A 

 
(x2 
+ 
x p sin 
*)(p 
00s 
$)(a, 
 
al 
co9 
$  
b.j 
sine 
) 

(x3+x2psin$)(al 
singblcos*+2a2sin2* 

 
2 b2 
00s 2Jr+ 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. )] 
dx 
(14) 

_{I}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} 
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} 
_{(}_{1}_{4}_{)}_{,} 
expressing 
trigmmetncal 
products 
in
_{8}_{6}
hamon~c
_{a}_{n}_{d}_{.}
_{b}_{6}
angles
the
_{,}
snd evaluating
the
expansions
aercdqnamic
mcanentbecames
up to coefficients
/Equation
(15)
6
M
$pac*2R4
=
(
^{B}^{4} COS$+ 1 B3p smZ$+
T
3

B4
(sml+?jB3p
4

;B3p
@
4
oos$e
cos2$+~B2p2
_{8} COS~$~+
sj.n$??f.$
22
cos$ > AI
sb3$
) BI
B311
_


_{3}
b2 7
T %
aa
_{O}_{o}_{s}_{*} _{}
Sin3+?
b2
COS~J~~ %
b
CT 5 sir&*
B2P2
T b5
 4
( ac sm2g3
+
b2
2
52
?
_{c}_{o}_{s}_{4}_{~}

T a4
szm6$cT
a4
"I
_{}_{i}_{}
sm$
COST* ?
3
T
?
a3
0os4*~
bl
a3
sin24

cos2*2
2
b3
oos3*
sin4$;i.

b3
F a2
oos*
sin2$
COS~Q~ b4
sm5$T
b4
sin3$F
a5
oos6$F
a5
cos4r)
sinl&
T a6
cos7*

T a6
cos5*
 T b6
sin7*

y b6
sin5* _{>}
7 sul3$

T a3
sm5$
"1 2
+
sin$
a3
T
sm2JitF
.
blc
oos6$F
+ b1 pj cos3*
F bl
oos*
a2
y
5x1*
+ py b3 cos5*

b3
F
00s
b4
cos2Jr~
a5
sin7Jr+~sin3$ a5
sin4$
\k
_
.I3 2
B4
T
_{(}_{"}_{I}
co57$2
sin+b,
0os3*2
cos$t2a2
nini3$+fj
sir&'*2b2
sin**+2
cos26t3a3
co&Jr
sinS$3b3
tl+a4sin4$4b4cos4$t5agSm5JrgbgcOS5Jr+6a&n6~6'bgco~6~
b6
2
co&.$
>
cos3$
)
&
_{3}
_{(}
3

2
"I 2
co&*

"I
T
sin
2$l 
a2 cos3*
+
a2
cos*
b2sin3@b2sin$ 
i a3 _{c}_{o}_{s}_{w}_{t} 
_{4} 
_{a}_{3} 
_{o}_{o}_{s}_{2}_{*}_{} 
s b3sinl&+ 
_{2} _{b}_{3}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{2}_{$} 

2a4 
cos5Jr+2a4 coo3$2b4 sm5@2b4sin36 
2 agca3+ 
3 a5cQs4$ 

3 bjsd$+
T5 bgSin~~~agOOS~t~~6CCS56~gSi~7~t~b6Sin~
7
>
(15)
PW a bhae
d.emm
dx
0f mass
m ,
distant
xR
from
axis, 
the 
moremat 
in centrifugal 
force 
and 
the 
correspcnding 

about 
the 
flapping 
huge are as follows 

a. C.F. 
=mn2xxax 

d 
(C.F. Mom) 
= m 0' 
x2 
R2fi 
dx 

Taking mcments about the 
flapping 
hinge 
and neglecting 

clue to 
the 
weight 
of 
the blade 
the
rotor
mcm%t
the
_{(}_{1}_{6}_{)}
_{(}_{1}_{7}_{)}
moment
Iv1 = 
I, 
n2 
p 
f 
I, 
b' 

= 
I,"2 
( p+l 
n2 > 

F&writing 
in 
the 
form 
of 
the L.H.S. 
of equation 
(15) 

_{v}_{i}_{b}_{f}_{x}_{?}_{.}_{?} _{‘}_{I} 
is Lock's 
Inertia 
Nunlzer = ^{p}^{a}^{c}^{R}^{4} =I 

Evaluating 
by stlbstitutzon 
from 
equations 
(3) 
ad 
(5) 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 

t35a6ccs6JCt35b6sin6$ 
. 
. 
. ) 

Ccmpszing equations 
(15) 
and 
(21) 
and equating 
the 
corresponding 

ccdficxents, 
the 
following 
set 
of 
equations 
are 
obtamcd. 
(19)
(21)
a
Equations 
(22) 
to 
(34) 
represent, 
m 

motion 
of 
the 
blades 
and 
the 
evsluation 
of 

follows 
from 
the 
simultaneous 
solution 
of 
solution
oan be made fairly
easily
since 
it 

less 
than 
that 
dealt 
with 
first 
If 

order 
harmonics 

identical 
with 
can be shown
of
the
that
preceding
the
magnnltudc
hsrmonio.
others
tenw
(22),
OM
of
lx
and then
the
the
small
we neglect
in
the
introduoed
(23)
of
equations
control
snglc
work
generalised
various
caoh
f&n,
coefficients
the
flapping
aw
the
the
these
by suoccsoive
equations.
in
(22)
However,
is
(24)
approximation
coefficient
methods
much
Equations
taken
to
sucocssivo
second
pairs.
and third
by the
and (24),
Rcf.1.
these 
equations 
beaome 

Equation 
(22) 
leads 
to 
the 
solution 
for 
tho 
coning 
angle 

trim 
of 
the 
rotor 
in 
terms 
of 
the 

lateral 
tilt 
cf 
the 
disc 
from 
the 

gives 
the 
ion 
itudinal 
trim 
Or the 
smplituae
axis
and flapping
(a,).
(B,
k
or
Ref.1
the
also
and with
longitudinal
deals
the
in
(a,);
equation
(23)
amplitude
gives 
the 
lateral 
(A,) 
or 
the 
equation
feathering
the
of
coeffloients
feathering
nofeathering
rotor
tilt
axx1s (b,);
(24)
in 
tcnns 
of 
the 

af' 
the 
diso 
from 

the 
equivalence 

the 
corresponding 
nofeathering
feathering
aetsilwith
of
evaluation
in 
relation 
to 
the definition 
of 
the 
flow 
through 
the 
diso 
(1) 
for 
the 

appropriate 
axis. 
X 
in 
the prcseat 
report 
is taken porpcndidar 
to 
the
rotor
disc.
Hence,
%
=
r_
2
(B2+p2)
0,

<
h
+
B,
+ ??$
Bj E B2 :"1p2 [AB3 190’h’21 3 *lJ
2
B2 +
3
2p
2 b2

b2 1
i
*
a3
m
tip
with
If 
we substitute 

+ 
&12 

If 
"& neglect 
loss
i.e.
equations
B
=
I
(15),
for 
B, 
from 
equation 
(36) 

 
y8 
B2p2 + 
Bj 
B*
+
$"
^{o}^{o}^{}^{}^{3}^{}^{'}
in
(35),
B2 
;
B2 + 2
%B2+&p” _{>}
*2
+ 3@2
2
b2
_{1}
+ 'i;

_{B}_{*}
_{B}_{3}_{~}_{3}
_{+} _{&}_{?}_{a}_{3}
!
the
second
and
third
hnnnonio
these
_{a}_{n}_{d}
,
_{(}_{1}_{6}_{)}
e uations
_{i}_{i} 13)
of
(36),
Ref.?.
(37)
terms
and
end (38)
1
c
a,
w2
JL*
acmes
h
(38)
omit
the
are
identical
Rewriting
equation
(24)

F
by substitutmg
b2
_{}_{&}_{c}_{l}
_{*}_{)}
for
_{}
_{$}
=
h
_{(}_{B}_{2}
0
from ecpation 
(22) 

_{} _{3} _{p}_{2}_{)} 
_{a}_{,} 

_{(}_{3}_{9}_{)} 
weobtain
_{$} 
_{(}_{7}_{B}_{2} 
_{} yg*) 
8, 
t 
& 

Fmm this, 
the 
value 
of 

B, 
+ 
a, 
= 

From equation 
(23), 
the 

A,+b, 
= 

The value 
cf 
Bj+al 

and the 
value 
of 
Al+bl 

generalxation 
of 
Bl+al 

evaluation 
of 
the 
hi&er 

oonsdx 
any tither 
the 

through 
the 
disc. 

Equations 
(25) 
to 

form 
a,
_{B}_{i}
Bp($+@?)t2+Zaj
B,
+
a,
is
l.r2 a3

$
2(B2
Al+bl
/J _{2}_{,}
value
is
in
and
of
_{i}_{s}
_{o}_{b}_{t}_{a}_{u}_{e}_{d}
2Fb3 lJ2
and
means
tiat,
_{0} +%!a 6
substituted
is
It
then
A,tbl
of
CFF~tnen
~fl equations
(27).
(25)
and
(28)
equations(26)
,
By using
as
not
far
of
as
have
the
this
the
to
flow
the
followxng
harmonics
effect
ooncerned,
we do
different
definitxons
in
(28)
be evaluated
ao 
a2 
 
9 
b2 

2(B2 
+ 
4 
p2) 

B3p 
(B2 
+ 
1") 
b3 
By 
a4 
= 
o 

3(B2 
t 
+ 
/.i2) 
_{(}_{4}_{3}_{)}
1 l
B3g3
6(B2 + $1.12)
B3~(B2+jP2)a2+a3+B2($B4+JB2P2+&P4)b3
a,_+ 

2(B* 
+ 
; 

a4+8b5 BJP 2 

 
8 
34 
a3 
_{g}_{*}_{)}
B2112
=
0

y
b3

y
3 b4

9
22
B*
.S5
+ 3~1'
=
0
(44)
_{(}_{4}_{5}_{)}
Equations 
(42) 
and 
Usmgthese 
values, 
a3
and
b3
approxmatmn.
my
from
form,
eqmtmns
(43)
oan
Ix
solved
simultaneously
for
a2.
and
b2
taneously
by
similar
generalised
_{"}_{0}
in
*
for
success3.ve
equations 
(44) 
and 
(45) 
can 
be solved 
smul 

, 
More accurate 
values 
oan 
then be obtained 

The other 
cceffxients 
are 
obtained 
in 
a 
(29)
to
throughout
(34).
In
order
each of
cocffu.xents/a,
to
produce
a more
these
equations
by
can then
be made
we may divldc
of
the
The evaluation
harmonic
_{}
terms 
of 
only 
three 
parameters, 
viz. 
II, 
Yard 
‘90 

 

% 

Effect 
of 
Induoed 
Veloci% 
Dxstributlon 

In 
the 
theory 
of 
the 
preceding 
section, 
Lt has been assumed that 

flow 
through 
the 
dxc 
1s constant 
over 
the 
dxo 
area. 
However, 
it 

kncwn 
that 
a variation 
m 
the 
flop 
throug'l 
the 
disc: 
does exist. 
In 
Rcf.1.
vas
tests',
almost
condltlons.
it
linear
This
was found
from
offeot
that 
the 
distribution 
of 
induced 

front 
to 
rear 
of 
the 
disc 
in fonraxd 

1s also 
refcrrcd 
to 
111 paragraph 
5,Z 
_{3}
the
is
sane flight
velocity
flight
af
The induced
velocity
at
cny
point
in
the
disc
$)
the
OM be expressed
as
+xKcos
_{(}_{4}_{6}_{)}
is
the
mean lnduoed
velocity
and
of
vi
iii?
value
of
K
of
can
the
be
forvart3
_{a}_{c}_{r}_{e}
selected
_{v}_{.} =0
for
the
appropriate
the
the
1
forward
flight
conditions.
the
The flow
through
vitb
disc
induced
consists
V
component
velocity
together
velocity
i
+
=
sin
RR
Using
the
ex&ssion
for
h = v sin
RR
i
induced
+
v.
_{1}_{0}
flR
_{+}
velocity
fkn
v.
_{1}_{0}
x
_{R}_{R}
K 00s
Jr
equation
(46)
(48)
12
Hence,
the
flow
through
the
0 +
through
disc
o
r_t any point
: K
RR
cos*
the
dmc.
1ocY~&7
(49)
_{0}
can then
be expressed
(50)
On
the
as
h=h
mean flcnv
ncmentum
T
=
for
vlo
where
ho
Usmg
1s
the
the
equatmn
27tR2pv
and substituting
In
ecpatlon
Tins
value
the
the
of
h
can be mtroduced
into
equafaon
(14).
o@effioients,
dve
mntegrating
of
rnoment,eqmtion
velocity
and oom~armg 
the 

di.str~~bu:ion 
1s 
to 
effect
uxduced
the
following
ad&tional 
tens 

B4 l" 
CT to 

 
in 

and 

_{4} 
Numerical 
Evalilation 

The flappmg 79 
hamcnz~cs have 
been 
and

y
2
12
for
a raIp3
2nd for
2 20

of
2
P
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