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Study Material Managerial Skills (A Workshop for New Managers)

C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002

Study Material

New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Are Managers born or Can You Become One? is a common question asked in the context of Managerial Skills Noted management researchers James Kouzes and Barry Posner contend that management is an observable, learnable set of practices. Given the opportunity for feedback and practice, those with desire and persistence lead can substantially improve their abilities to do so. Although managerial skills can be learned and developed, no one formula will apply in all situations and with all people. There are no simple dos and donts. What will work is to gain knowledge about aspects of Management relevant to your goals and circumstances, experiment with them and then internalize them. The C-Cube Managerial Workshop is designed to help you explore some of the most fundamental and important aspects of Manager and to substantially improve your skills in these areas in a systematic and practical manner. This Study Material is not a substitute for the Workshop. It serves as a reminder of some of the concepts covered in the workshop. However, its purpose is more to provide additional, complementary learning in areas that could not be covered because of time constraints.

C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002

Study Material

New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Contents Session Topic

1.

First Time Manager-The Transition & its Implications

2.

Goal Setting and Achievement Planning

3.

Delegation and Empowerment

4.

Developing People

5.

Motivation

6.

Building a Successful Team

7.

Leadership Styles

8.

Gaining Acceptance as a Leader

9.

Communication Intelligence - Being Assertive

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References
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002

Study Material

New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

First Time Manager (The Transition and its Implications)

Why is your performance as FTM important?

The pyramid gets narrower Planning

Top-level Management

Middle-level Management First rung managers (First step on the management ladder)

FTM

FTM

Supervisors Execution Employees

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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Why is your performance as FTM important?

Circle of Concern Circle of Influence

Difference between school and college Greater freedom, greater choices Non-structured situation, scope for creativity Power to influence others Control over destiny

Changes in role Who am I?


FTM= Manager + leader + supervisor + team player Managers get things accomplished with and through people by guiding and motivating their efforts towards common objectives Leaders are proactive in making systematic changes and developing people towards pursuing excellence and inspire the confidence of others, influencing and persuading them to give their very best Management works in the system; leadership works on the system Supervisors oversee; critically watch and direct activities Team players constructively contributes his personal efforts towards team goals and helps others when required
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What will I be doing?


Escalating issues When The problem is outside your capability or power You think a critical deadline is going to be missed You see trouble brewing and you want to pre-empt a disaster Not when You want to pass the buck, not take responsibility of the decision You have not made sufficient effort to resolve it at your level You just want to complain about how bad things are How Pro-actively With a proper understanding of the problem, generation of and analysis of possible alternatives along with their implications

What will I be doing?

Activities directed towards team performance Team goal-setting Planning for goal achievement Organizing resources and negotiating, networking for that Staffing Delegating, directing Empowering, developing, motivating, guiding, helping team members Appraising, disciplining, managing conflicts Problem-solving, decision-making Contributing meaningfully in meetings, encouraging others Monitoring, controlling Client handling Reporting to seniors
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What should be my approach, attitude, perspective?

Ownership (Willingness to own, identify, Belongingness) implies Personal commitment, sense of responsibility The buck stops here Cant go on complaining, blaming the system or individuals Cant take the stance Ive done my bit Cant expect others to take decisions, resolve issues Cant postpone problems hoping someone else will handle them Cant give excuses Have to take decisions, resolve problems, take everyone with you, move ahead Have to perform and deliver results Have to take the flak when things go wrong

What should be my approach, attitude, perspective

Ownership (Willingness to own, identify, Belongingness) is naturally accompanied with Pro-activity Initiative and Resourcefulness Energy, enthusiasm, cheer, Achievement Orientation, Quality consciousness Persistence Loyalty Flexibility

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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

New Competency Set Required

Technical skills are not to reduce, but to widen Executive Administrative jobs of a routine nature should be automatized or delegated You need to develop communication and interpersonal skills, competencies related to delegating work and developing people, influencing, assertiveness and handling difficult people and situations Also, problem-solving, decisionmaking, goal-setting and achievement planning

Conceptual
Managerial

Human
Supervisory

Technical
Workers

The biggest opportunity and challenge

The chance to make a difference

Gaining Acceptability

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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Your perceptions of the changes?

1. What change do you see in your new role? 2. What are the biggest changes you see in your responsibility? 3. The approach, attitude, and perspective you will need in your new job? 4. The new activities and functions you expect to be doing now? 5. The activities and functions you expect to be relieved of? 6. The new set of competencies & attitude you will need to acquire? 7. Do you feel the technical part of your job is going to decrease and the administrative workload increase? 8. The opportunities you see in your new position? 9. The biggest challenge you see in your new position? 10. Tough situations you are apprehensive about? 11. Do you feel honored or overburdened with additional responsibility?

What will I be doing?

Activities directed towards adding to the value chain Finding innovative ways of increasing revenues and productivity, cutting costs and wastages Ensuring a transparent and open environment in which information, issues, feedback is shared Seeking, initiating, and implementing innovative improvements in systems, processes and methods Developing and inspiring people to exceed expectations

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Functions of a Manager

Planning

Organizing

Monitoring And Controlling

Staffing

Leading

New activities, efforts


Exchanging information Paperwork Planning Decision making Problem solving Controlling Interacting with outsiders Socializing / Politicking Motivating Disciplining Managing conflict Training and developing

Communication

Traditional Management

Networking

Human resource Management

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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Action Centered Leadership/ Management Key Actions of a Leader/ Managers 1 Setting Goals Action Misconstrued

2 3 4 5 6 7

Planning & Organizing Delegation & Empowerment Inspire, Influence, Motivate Tackle non-performance Problem solving & decision making Creating positive Team Climate

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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Learning from the session . .... . .... . ... . .... .... ....... ... ... ...... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... .... ...
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Goal - Setting and Achievement Planning


Success is the progressive realization of worthwhile, predetermined goals. Goal setting - supported by careful planning - is the most powerful process available to improve the productivity of your team and to ensure its success. Goals are usually stated in terms of what is to be accomplished and when. A departments what by when statements are generally more specific than the broadly stated objectives of the organization. While the higher-level goal may be to provide quality maintenance services for the entire organization, the departments objective may be to reduce machine downtime by 12% by year end. Even if your goals are set mostly by your bosses, it helps to do your own thinking about it. You can then give concrete reasons for why certain goals are not acceptable or need modification. Goals must be SMART i.e., they must have the following characteristics: Stretch Measurable Agreed / Acceptable Realistic Time-bound Goals are important as they give direction arid set context. Without clear, non-conflicting goals your team will be in a state of chaos and the various team members will be working at cross purposes. Goals state what is to be achieved while plans indicate how. Goals give the destination, plans chart out the path. Planning promotes efficiency and reduces waste and costs. Through thorough planning, haphazard approaches can be minimized and duplication avoided. The minimum time for completion of activities can be planned and scheduled, and facilities and human resources can be used to optimum advantage. Contingencies can be anticipated or estimated and suitable provisions or buffers can be made for the same.
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Good planning requires: the ability to assess situations and peoples capabilities Correctly a good understanding of the tasks involved the ability to foresee contingencies and possible obstacles the ability to be realistic-not overambitious or overcautious Power of Written Goals and Plans Written goals add to clarity both your own and that of your team members. The process of goal-setting allows you to consider your current situation and make a realistic assessment of what can be achieved. Writing your goals and plans forces you to clarify and crystallize your thinking. It also gives a greater sense of sanctity as compared to just a verbal understanding. Definite plans produce definite results. Indefinite plans, in contrast, produce little or no results. The manager and the various team members always know what to do next goals and plans are committed to writing. Written goal setting and planning provides a strong sense of direction to keep you focused on the most important activities. It serves as a filter to eliminate extraneous demands. Conflict between your stated priorities and real use of time by team members becomes obvious more easily. Written goals and plans bring to life order, meaning, and purpose that sustain interest and motivation over a long period of time. Everyone can visualize future results more easily and clearly. The team members believe more strongly in the possibility of success and become more motivated to reach the goals. Stated goals and plans also provide the basis for measuring progress. However, stating the goals and plans in writing is not the end of the story. Written plans are the foundation of success, but action is the springboard to actual success and increased productivity. So, plans must be implemented vigorously, monitored regularly. Controls must be exercised if there are any deviations.
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

As circumstances change or more information comes to light, the manager may need to modify, revise and alter the goals and plans. Conflicting Goals There is some level of inherent conflict in some goals. Quantity Quality Costs Time Team size Safety Employee satisfaction When goals are set without realistically assessing the inherent trade-offs, the manager is sowing the seeds of conflict, chaos and frustration. Problems are bound to arise if you want something but are not willing to pay the price for it. In real life situations, you cannot have your cake and eat it too. So, while, setting goals and planning, the manager must be acutely aware of the trade-offs involved and take decisions based on current organizational priorities. Real Potential and Goals A boy found an eagles egg and put it into the nest of a chicken. The eagle hatched with the brood of chicks and grew up with them. All his life, the changeling eagle - thinking he was a chicken - did what the other chicken did. He scratched in the dirt for seeds and insects to eat He clucked and cackled. And he flew in a brief thrashing of wings no more than a few feet off the ground. After all, that is how ordinary chicken were supposed to fly. Years passed. And the changeling eagle grew very old. One day, he saw a magnificent bird far above him in the cloudless sky. Hanging with graceful majesty on the powerful wind currents, it soared with scarcely a beat of its strong golden wings. What a beautiful bird! What is it? he exclaimed.
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Thats the golden eagle, the chief of all the birds, his chicken brother clucked but dont give it a second thought. You could never be like him So the changeling eagle never gave it another thought. And it died thinking it was an ordinary chicken. Creativity and Futuring in Goal setting and Planning Some people see things that are, and ask Why? I see things that never were, and ask Why not? - George Bernard Shaw Mediocrity is self-inflicted. Genius is self bestowed. - Walter Russel One of the most fundamental human cravings is a search for meaning. - Victor Frank! The best way to predict the future is to invent it now. - Arthur Costa $1.9 billion retailer Nordstrom gets by with a one sentence policy manual: Use your own best judgment at all times Key Steps in Planning 1. List down steps to be taken 2. Milestones and time line 3. People responsible 4. Resource required 5. Expected bottlenecks 6. Counter measures 7. Communications
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Key Learning from this session .


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Delegation & Empowerment


The Time of a Manager or Leader: The time of a manager or leader, productivity spent, is a valuable commodity. Initially you are hired for particular knowledge or expertise in a field accounting, engineering, marketing etc. However, as you move up in the organization, a larger percentage of time must be spent managing and leading rather than pursuing operating tasks. The following chart suggests an appropriate division of time for those at various levels in the organization. IDEAL TIME STRUCTURE Chief Executive Officer Executive manager Middle Manager First Line Supervisor 90% Managing Operating 30% 70% 10%

No matter how ambitious, talented, or self-disciplined you are, as you rise in the hierarchy you have to achieve results through others. You have to free yourself from many jobs that you earlier used to do or jobs you can do but dont need to do yourself anymore. To get quantum benefits from synergy, you have to leverage the use of your time. To make substantial value additions in your new role you need to take up new high-payoff activities and to get more think-time in proportion to do17
C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

time. For all this to be possible you have to develop the fine art of delegation and empowerment. As a manager or a leader earns more responsibility, careful judgment must be used regarding hands-on activities versus those that he turns over through delegation and empowerment. The degree of required control depends on the particular area of responsibility. Investment of the leaders time in many instances is perfectly appropriate and even necessary. Like the conscientious parent who constantly .faces the dilemma of encouraging children to take initiative, while still providing appropriate safety guards, the effective team leader faces the need to balance managing and operating. The two extremes, excessive delegation and crippling control, can be avoided by applying sensitivity and balance - often a tricky task. One needs to recognize the requirement to free adequate time for managing high payoff activities, yet never completely lose touch with operational activities. Direct involvement and support from managers communicates to team members that their work is valued and significant to the overall organization. The most successful, powerful managers / leaders in any organization are those who learn to delegate effectively, who surround themselves with competent people and then allow those people freedom to do the job.

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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Appropriate Attitudes for Delegation effectiveness 1. Flexibility: Delegation must be accompanied by flexibility. Allow people to test new ideas, and you will enjoy the rewards of unexpected, innovative results. People will respond to situations and clients in ways more effective than you could have dreamed. A flexible work environment enables workers to eliminate unnecessary steps and spend time only on activities that add value. This is one of the most effective strategies for increasing productivity. 2. Self-confidence: Self-confidence is the foundation for delegation without fear. Self-confidence gives you the freedom to share necessary information and resources to empower others through delegation. One common reason managers / leaders withhold authority and responsibility from other team members is the fear of being replaced or unneeded. This attitude sacrifices progress of the whole group. A manager who has a deep need for personal power and the dependence of others often expects or demands unquestioning obedience - an expectation fatal to effective team work and maximum productivity. Actually, when your team members become capable of doing your work, you are available for promotion. By delegating in all suitable opportunities to delegate you reinforce the ability and worth of your team members and build a reputation as an energetic person who focuses effort and time on maximum payoff activities. Find contributions you can make that no one else has the ability to perform. Delegate the rest. In this way, you maximize your strengths and also meet the needs of those to whom you report. A person consumed with the passion for finding new, creative, measurable ways to contribute to the organization will always be a vital, valuable team member. 3. Believe in others: Develop consistent thought habits of believing that others are competent, intelligent, and capable of achievement. Believe that different is not necessarily undesirable. People to whom you delegate tasks are unlikely to use the methods you would, but their work
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

is not necessarily inferior. Judge results rather than methods when you delegate. Some people are conditioned to believe that their work and that of their people is valuable only if it is perfect. With these often unreasonable expectations, they hinder their own performance and quench much of the creativity and enthusiasm of other members. You should set appropriate standards of excellence for yourself and your team members. 4. Team Commitment: True heroes are team members who earn respect, involvement, and results through behind -the-scenes, consistent dedication to group goals. Taking credit for work of others, not listening to their ideas, working solo - these are all symptoms of a mistaken belief that effective leaders / managers not release control. Eliminate activities that minimize, undermine, or second-guess the work of other team members. Allow others to succeed and excel. In addition the attitudes described above work on developing these: Think and talk in terms of ewe, not just me Recognize that mistakes are part of the learning process Replace the word failure with- other words in your vocabulary: mistake, learning experience, or test. Know your personal strength and limits. Set healthy boundaries for your time and involvement based on goals. Rotate leadership responsibility for meetings and projects when appropriate Include the names of all contributors on reports, memos, etc. Constantly communicate and repeat your reason for working together
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

your

Be available for others, but at the same time, encourage resourcefulness and creativity Effective delegation gives the message: 9)o whatever it takes; you have the talent! If you have not previously developed the habit of delegation, you will probably experience some discomfort as you delegate tasks you personally handled in the past. Remember, the biggest threat to habit change is the habit itself.. Resist the temptation not to delegate just because it feels uncomfortable initially. The more you delegate, the easier delegation becomes.

Five Steps in Delegation D .

G . R . A . C

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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Empowerment Empowerment is the art of enabling others to take action. Empowerment is the creation of a motivational climate that releases power, resources, and responsibility to each team member to foster maximum involvement, commitment, and desired results. Allow others to make more decisions, and they bring more commitment to any corporate endeavor, impart a degree of ownership to others, and they become involved in your vision and action plan. Empowerment is also about helping team members understand the spirit and mission of their work. The story is told of a traveler who visited a stone quarry and asked three of the workers what they were doing. Cant you see? said the first one irritably. Im cutting a stone The second replied, I am earning a living. But the third put down his pick and thrust out his chest proudly. Im building a cathedral, he said. How people view their work makes a significant impact on long-term productivity. All workers perform and respond to change best when they are accomplishing goals that matter to them. A synergistic, empowered, and productive team consists of individuals who envision their input as meaningful and significant. The Benefits of Empowerment High quality service is one of the significant results of an empowered team. Because empowered team members are well - informed, well -trained, and vested with the necessary authority, they are able to seek ways to satisfy customers without being forced to wade through mountains of bureaucracy and red tape. Empowerment can be the spark of progress, with many tangible and intangible benefits, including Retention of creative, skilled people as they participate and share in the success of the group
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

High-caliber information flow as people know their ideas are solicited, respected, and acted upon Unique competitive advantages derived from maximizing the talents of all individuals in the organization, Increased high payoff time for upper management Improved morale as group members enjoy belonging and becoming emotionally and intellectually involved in projects.

Initiating the process of achievement through empowerment may take longer than imposing an agenda upon others. But strict, top- down control fails to fully use the potential of individuals. Team members show only short-lived effectiveness, along with little or no responsiveness or adaptability. In contrast, once people experience the fulfillment that comes through empowerment and involvement, they are eager to adapt and make full use of their potential.

Ten Rules for Being an Effective Delegate 1. Be a good listener 2. Summarize what you have heard periodically 3. If you are not sure about the time, say so. 4. Add your comments and input to the work assignment 5. Try to confirm your bosss objective for the assignment 6. Show your plan. If possible, on receiving the assignment 7. Identify any potential problems and possible solutions 8. Set priorities together 9. After a meeting, summarize the key points of the assignment as you understand them. 10. Agree with your boss on method of reporting progress orally or by email, leaving a message with the secretary
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

List down some practical actions you can take for empowering people. Key Learning from this session
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C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

Managing Monkeys _________________________________________________________ One of the most useful and practical concepts in time management is that developed by William Oncken and Donald Wass and published first in the Harvard Business Review 01 December 1974. This handout takes the monkey concept and translates it into tools for everyday management. What Are Monkeys? Monkeys are tasks which have to be completed. They may be in the form of a problem, or they may simply be part of someones job but one thing they all have in common is that they are always trying to jump from the back of their legitimate owner on to someone elses back. In their original article, Oncken and Wass were specifically relating monkeys to the boss/ staff member relationship and showing how easily team members pass on their monkeys to their bosses. They referred to the time consumed by this as staff imposed time. In this handout we shall extend the concept to all work relationships, whether manager/staff member, peer/peer or inter-team. The following example helps illustrate what monkeys are and how they can leap from staff to boss: Imagine that a manager is walking down the hallway and that she notices one of her staff, Bruce, coming up the hallway. As their paths meet, Bruce greets his boss with Hi Kathy. Oh, by the way, have a little problem. You see. As Bruce continues, the manager notices the same awful similarity between this and the many other problems her staff gratuitously bring to her attention in the course of a week. Namely, the manager knows (a) enough to get involved, but (b) not enough to make the instant decision expected of her at this moment. Eventually she says Thanks for letting me know Bruce. Look, Im in a rush right now. Let me think about it and Ill get back to you. Then she and Bruce part company.
C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002 Study Material New Managers www.ccubetraining.com

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Lets analyze what actually happened in our little scene. Before the two of them met, on whose back was the monkey? The staff members. After they parted, on whose back was it? The managers! Staff imposed time begins the moment a monkey successfully executes a leap from the back of a staff member to the back of his/ her boss and does not end until the monkey is returned to its owner for care and feeding. In accepting the monkey, the manager has voluntarily assumed a position subordinate to her staff. She has done this by doing two things a staff member is generally expected to do for his/ her manager - the manager has accepted a responsibility from her staff member and has also promised him a progress report. The staff member, to make sure the manager does not miss this point, will later stick his head in the managers office and cheerily query, Hows it coming? (This is called supervision.) As we said, monkeys dont only leap from staff to bosses. Here is another example: Mark and Jenny work in the same marketing team. They are both brand managers and have similar levels of experience. Just as Jenny was about to go home last Monday night, her boss asked her if she would mind doing a special project on competitor X for him by the end of the week. Jenny accepted the task happily. The next morning, Jenny bumps into Mark outside his office and strikes up a conversation. During the conversation Jenny happens to mention that she is trying to dig up some information on competitor X and asks Mark what he knows. Mark enthusiastically responds with I know someone who used to work there. Give me a couple of days and I should be able to get all the information you need. Jenny responds with that would be great Mark, but are you sure you can afford the time? to which Mark says No worries Jenny. Im happy to be of some help and it wont take too long.
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If we analyze what happened in this example, the monkey was with Jenny until Mark offered to get the information she needed. It then took a fast leap to Mark and will stay there until he has obtained the promised information for Jenny. Why Do We Accept Monkeys? Because people accept monkeys so easily it is worth asking the question why do they do it? There seem to be many reasons, but one of the most common is the feeling of wanting to help the other person. This feeling of wanting to help is not in itself bad - in fact it is to be applauded. The question which really needs to be asked is whether this form of help is really helpful. Let us explain. In the short term, accepting the monkey may help the other person as it will get them out of a spot. However, in the long term it will not be helpful as they will not have learned how to do the task or solve the problem for themselves. This means that they will once again need your help the next time, and the time after, and the time after that etc. To be able to recognize this point is paramount for managing monkeys, particularly if they are from staff members. The focus on managing monkeys therefore becomes an issue of how to get people caring for their own monkeys. Lets look at how Oncken and Wass recommend you should deal with monkeys.

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Eliminating Monkeys The first step in the successful management of monkeys is ensuring that you dont collect any more. In their article, Oncken and Wass described a manager who had driven into work on Saturday morning to catch up on all the work he hadnt had time to do during the week (because of all the monkeys he had collected) and how he had looked out at the golf course over the road from the office and seen his staff playing a round of golf. At this point he realized something was dreadfully wrong with the way he was managing his lob and his staff. The question in his mind was who is working for whom? The first thing he does on Monday morning is to call his staff into his office one by one and, announce some new ground rules: At no time while l am helping you with this or any other problem will your problem become my problem. The instant your problem becomes mine, you will no longer have a problem and I cannot help someone who hasnt got a problem. Monkey Deflectors In the above example, the manager has established with his team some new expectations about their work relationship. Often though, monkeys can be effectively and positively handled by asking the right sort of questions. For example, a staff member comes to his/ her manager with a problem, seeking their help. Here are some possible responses: What would you suggest? If you were me, how would you do it? What do you think we should do? What solutions do you see?

C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002

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The questions are all excellent for getting the staff member to come up with some solutions for themselves. We have found that even in very tough, traditionally autocratic; situations where supervisors/managers have tried this approach have been very successful. Typically managers have more time to do their high priority tasks, staff members are learning more and they are more highly motivated. The consequent higher level of staff members confidence means that few monkeys get brought to the manager. The above responses are suitable and effective where the main problem with the staff member is a lack of confidence and/ or motivation. Where the problem is a lack of knowledge or skills (competence), the manager must take a different approach-one of coaching.

Rules for the Care and Feeding of Monkeys Rule 1: Monkeys should be fed or shot. Otherwise, they will starve to death and the manager will waste valuable time on postmortems or attempted resurrections Rule 2: The monkey population should be kept below the maximum number the manager has time to feed. His staff members will find time to work as many monkeys as he has time to feed but no more. It should not take more than 5 to 15 minutes to feed a properly prepared monkey. Translation: tasks/ problems should be properly managed. Dont allocate a task without showing the person how to go about the job. If you are not prepared to do this, do it yourself. Translation: Do not allocate any new tasks to staff members unless you have time to properly coach them. Each coaching session should take no more than about 15 minutes

C-Cube Training & Development A-43/6, DLF City Phase-I, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002

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Rule 3: Monkeys should be fed by appointment only. The manager should not have to be hunting down starving monkeys and catching them on a catch-as-catch-can basis.

Translation: Control the coaching process. Set times for discussing progress with staff members.

Rule 4: Monkeys should be fed face to face or by telephone, but never by mail. Documentation may add to the feeding process but it cannot take the place of feeding

Translation: Coaching should be an interactive process to allow the manager and staff member to each give and receive feedback. This cannot happen with written instructions. Translation: For every task you delegate, your staff members need to know when you will next discuss it and how far they can go in the meantime. If this doesnt happen the staff member may go beyond their current level of competence for the task, or may lose interest.

Rule 5: Every monkey should have an assigned next feeding time: and degree of initiative. These may be revised at any time by mutual consent but never allowed to become vague or indefinite. Otherwise, the monkey will either starve to death or wind up on the managers back

Conclusions: The monkey concept is an excellent way of highlighting the power of effective delegation. As well, it helps to alert us to the ever present potential of monkeys to hop from the backs of others on to our shoulders. This handout is not suggesting that we should avoid monkeys all the time. Sometimes they provide a learning opportunity for us, at other times, by taking on someone elses monkey; we may be strengthening work relationships which will help us in the future. The most important hint is firstly to recognize a monkey when you see it, ask yourself what is the most appropriate to take, and then take that action without feeling guilty.
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Save Time and Get Result A number of years ago, Dale Carnegie interviewed a business executive who stated that he had eliminated 75 percent of the time he had formerly spent trying to solve business problems. The man, Leon Shimkin was Chairman of the Board of Directors for the wellknown New York publishing company, Simon & Schuster. Here is Mr. Shimkins account of the impact of the Four ProblemSolving Questions on his life: Todays businesses require people to spend an enormous amount of time in meetings. As organizations encourage teamwork and more decision making at all levels, meetings continue to increase on importance as a communications forum. Yet, surveys have estimated as much as one-third of the time spent in meetings is unproductive and results annually in billions in lost revenue. . Just as most new parents are given no handbook and little instruction on how to raise a new baby, businesses often give little or no guidance to even the most experienced associate on how to conduct and/or participate effectively in meetings. Meetings are generally conducted for planning, communicating information and/or arriving at decisions. This booklet focuses specifically on a common type of meeting the problem-solving meeting. Problem-solving meetings provide an open forum for sharing ideas and a process by which groups can collectively benefit by communicating ideas based on the thinking and experiences of the whole, resulting in a synergistic effect. For fifteen years, I spent almost half of every business day holding conferences, discussing problems. Should we do this or that do nothing at all? We would get tense: twist in our chairs: walk the floors: argue and go around in circles. When night came, I would be utterly exhausted. I fully expected to go on doing this sort of thing for the rest of my life. I had been doing it for fifteen years and it never occurred to me there was a better way of doing it. If anyone had told me I could eliminate three-fourths of all the time I spent in those worried conferences, and three-fourths of my nervous strain, I
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would have thought he was a wide-eyed, slaphappy, armchair optimist. Yet, I devised a plan that did just that. I have been using this plan for eight years. It has performed wonders for my efficiency, my health and my happiness. It sounds like magic but like all magic, it is extremely simple. Here is the secret: First; I immediately stopped the procedure I had been using in my conferences for fifteen years a procedure that began with my troubled associates reciting all the details of what had gone wrong, and ended up by asking, What shall we do? Second, I made a new rule the rule is that any prepare and submit a memorandum answering these four questions: Question 1: What is the problem? In the old days we used to spend an hour or two in a worried conference without anyone knowing specifically and concretely what the real problem was. We used to work ourselves into a lather discussing our troubles without ever bothering to write out specifically what our problem was. Question 2: What are the causes of the problem? As I look back over my career, I am appalled at the wasted hours I have spent in worried conferences without ever trying to find out clearly the conditions which lay at the root of the problem. Question 3: What are the possible solutions? In the old days, one person in the conference would suggest one solution. Someone else would argue. Tempers would flare. We would often get clear off the subject and at the end of the conference, no one Much less time is now consumed in the house of Simon & Schuster in worrying and talking about what s wrong; and a lot more action is obtained toward making those things right. The Four Problem-Solving Questions The Four Problem - Solving Questions can be used in multiple ways. Besides being used as an outline for a meeting, they can be utilized in a
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memorandum or letter as well as over the telephone. Lets see how we might use these four questions in a problem-solving meeting. Suppose, for example, that we are members of a corporate team that is holding a meeting because our profits are declining. So, we proceed.like this: Step 1. What is the problem? Answer: Sales are declining. Step 2. What are the causes of the problem? Answer: Members of the team have various ideas as to causes, among them: Noncompetitive pricing. Ineffective advertising. Slow response to customer need. Discourteous salespeople. Changing market. Step 3. What are the possible solutions? Answer: Reduce pricing. Change advertising. Identify ways to respond more rapidly to customers. Offer sales associates incentives. Provide sales staff with customer satisfaction training. Survey customers and identify market.
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Step 4. What is the best possible solution? Answer: Lets assume that the team agrees that the best solution is to provide sales associates with more customer relations training. Note: Sometimes the best solution may be a combination of two or more of the possible solutions offered by the group. Most of us will at some point find ourselves conducting a meeting. We should know some guidelines for leading a meeting and for taking part in a meeting.

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Key Learning from this session _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
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Developing People
Effective Leadership is full time people development

Leaders as teachers
They set an example: To your team, you are your enacted priorities, no more and no less. The mundane, minute-to-minute choices you make as you do your own job are the most powerful teachers. Your people wont miss a beat. Like it or not; on and off the field you set the example others will follow. Do you walk your talk? They excel whether in finance, production or marketing, these managers were the best in some aspect of their business. They provide the environment for growth: They gave exposure. They opened doors for them. They made sure that the work and accomplishments of young managers were seen. They provided latitude. They gave young managers the freedom to try, the courage to fail. They involved them in important tasks. They were tough taskmasters. They challenged; they demanded excellence. They gave younger managers constructive advice and feedback. They used younger managers as sounding boards

Aspects of Developing People Performance Appraisal: A systematic assessment of how well employees are performing their jobs, and the communication of that assessment to them. Performance appraisal includes comparing the employees performance with the standards. Regular feedback on performance is essential to improve employee performance and to provide recognition that will motivate employees to sustain satisfactory performance.

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Coaching: Think back on your career, starting as far back as elementary school. Almost all of us can name a handful (but only a handful) of superior coaches teachers, sports or non-sports activity leaders, bosses - who have contributed disproportionately to our development, almost as if they had laid a magic hand on you.. They drew from within you a best that you couldnt have conceived of. In business, as in sports, employees benefit from coaching. The coach observes the employees current performance and communicates what went well and what specifically needs to be improved and then allows time to practice the skills before giving further instructions. The coach must provide constructive feedback on an ongoing basis. A coach knows his stuff was technically commanding. But much more important, he instinctively knows his players limits: He pulls you to those limits and beyond, but never pushes you to discouragement. And, above all, you can know he cares, cares in4ividually about what was going on in your head as you faced tiny (and not so tiny) defeats and exhaustion, as well as occasional victory. He is a demanding taskmaster, but he was demanding because he cared. You can feel it and smell it because he was hell-bent on cajoling the best from you, a best you didnt even know you had. He pushed and nudged, and occasionally raved and ranted. But just as zealously he guarded you against a big fall and religiously avoided pushing you too far. He had the gift of being around when you needed his help the most and not around when you needed to go it on your own. Counseling: Counseling is an effort to deal with on-the-job-performance problems that are the result of an employees personal problems. A counseling interview is the essentially non-directive process of asking, listening, reflecting and encouraging the employee to discuss his problem frankly and to develop solutions. Counseling may be necessary when a staff member is not performing as well as expected, seems to be troubled by something, is showing signs of disinterest, has breached or ignored company policy or rules, seems to be dc-motivated, is disregarding safety requirements etc.
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There are two basic pre-conditions that need to be satisfied for counseling to be successful. Firstly, the employee must be fully aware of what is expected of him in his job. Secondly, you should have isolated exactly what behaviors or actions of the person you are finding unacceptable or of concern because if the person feels that he. is being criticized or attacked on a personal basis they will probably react emotionally and, almost certainly negatively. Sponsoring: Sponsoring makes it possible for people to take charge of their environments after theyve received a full complement of training and encouragement. Sponsors grant practical autonomy by removing obstacles to performance. The key to sponsoring successfully is not to grant too much autonomy too soon and thereby invite failure rather than pride in steady achievement. There are subtle differences between coaching and sponsoring. Coaching teaches people how to contribute and participate as active, full partners sponsoring begins when outstanding skill has begun to speak for itself. Confrontation: Confrontation does not mean a tough battle, clash or personal attack, an unplanned hostile discussion, browbeating or threatening. It never means treating people badly. Confronting is a form of counseling in which the alternatives and consequences are clear and close at hand. Provided the individual understands performance expectations (i.e. you performed your educators role well), and provided you have done everything you can (effectively coached and counseled) to foster improvement, confronting can be a constructive, caring response to an individuals chronic low performance- a face-to-face meeting where you bring an individuals attention to the consequences of unacceptable performance, which include reassignment or termination. Confronting recognizes that a change is imperative. It doesnt take an extroverted personality, or special flair or a flashy style to coach well it only takes consistent attention and vigilant action:

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Criticizing Your Subordinate. By J. Stephen Morris Criticizing a subordinate can be a real test for even the most seasoned manager. Too often what is supposed to be a constructive session turns into a futile confrontation, with mutual gripes and bard feelings, but no solution of the problem. Five simple suggestions can help the manager make criticism sessions more productive and problem-solving. Step 1. Get to the point. Dont evade the issue. Skip the small talk and go straight to the target: Bob, I want to talk to you about your late reports; or Barbara, I called you in to discuss your personality conflict with the director of sales This advice appears cold and heartless. You probably feel that a warm and friendly opening, such as, Bob, how are the kids? or Barbara, hows that training for the marathon coming along? will relax your subordinate and ease the path to solving the problem. But it rarely works out that way. Stalling and beating around the bush usually only increase the anxieties on both sides. Step 2. Describe the situation. Use a descriptive opening that is specific, not general. Avoid evaluative openings at all costs. Evaluative: Bob, I can no longer deal with your late, sloppy reports. Descriptive: Bob, youve been late on three reports in the last two weeks. That caused us two shipping delays and cost US $ 5,OOO Evaluative: Barbara, youre nasty and abrasive: Descriptive: Barbara, the sales director has just informed me that you refuse to communicate with him: Evaluative opening are damaging because they prejudge your subordinates point of view. This can only pave the way to a confrontation. By being descriptive you set the tone for, a factual recounting of the situation without
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prejudging. The subordinate will feel much less threatened, and more willing to cooperate. Step3. Use active listening techniques. Encourage the subordinate to tell his side of the story. It will reduce defensiveness; clarify the situation and provide both parties with an opportunity to think the problem through. It helps to ask open-ended questions that invite discussion, and cannot be answered with a simple yes or no. Begin questions with what or how, or sometimes tell me or describe. Bad: Do you like our new computer system? Good: How do you feel about our new computer system? Nodding the bead, restating the subordinates statement in your own words, encouraging more information through silence are other examples of active listening techniques. They invite your subordinate to open up, and reassure him you are interested in and sensitive to his viewpoint. Step 4. Agree on the source of the problem and its solution. Its essential that the subordinate agree that there is in fact a problem. If he doesnt, theres little likelihood the problem will be solved. Once you and the subordinate have identified and agreed on the problem, work together to identify the source, and let the subordinate get involved in coming up with a potential solution. For example, if the problem stems from lack of knowledge, a training program might be the answer. A lack of motivation might be resolved by exploring ways to make the subordinates job more meaningful or stimulating. If theres a personality conflict between subordinates, you might want to transfer one of them, or get them to work out their difficulties between themselves. You may discover that the subordinate youre criticizing isnt the cause of the problem at all; in that case, you may want to look elsewhere in the chain of command. No one likes to be ordered around. But by allowing the subordinate to participate in your decisions about resolving a problem, you can be better assured of his active cooperation.

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Step 5. Summarize the meeting. Have the subordinate synopsize the discussion and the agreed-upon solution. Both subordinate and manager should leave the session with the same understanding of what was decided. Establish a follow-up date which allows the sub ordinate reasonable time to correct the situation. In closing the session, you should reassure the subordinate that youre always available to discuss his progress. The ultimate measure of your success will be whether the problem that worries you is solved. Thats not always possible. But constructive criticism is a skill that can and must be mastered by the manager who is dedicated to improving employee performance, productivity and morale.

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Keeping Favoritism and Prejudice Out of Employee Evaluations By Andrew S. Grove In my book, High Output Management, I characterized performance reviews as the single most important form of task-relevant feedback with which we supervisors can provide our employees. What I said has not been enthusiastically received in all quarters. A teacher friend of mine heatedly insisted that performance reviewsand compensation and promotional practices based on those reviewswould not elicit better work but only favoritism in her school system. Another objection was raised by a lawyer I know who haughtily announced that nobody, simply nobody, could judge the quality of his work. Comments of this type have reached me from other quarters as well. In spite of the criticisms, I remain steadfast in my conviction that if we want performance in the workplace, somebody has to have the courage and confidence to determine whether we are getting it or not. We must also find ways to enhance what we are getting. But lets examine these criticisms carefully, taking the lawyers position first. I am quite sure that in any sizable law firm, an experienced and senior partner can make a meaningful evaluation of my friends work, no matter how arcane the work might seem. After all, professionals go through intensive series of evaluations during their education. And during their internship, and subsequent professional practice, professionals acquire and share basic facts and values that provide a good basis for meaningful dialogue and mutual evaluation. This is not to say that when professionals are faced with a complex problem, there is only one way to handle it. Assessing performance is not an act but a process, even if the opening barrage is off the mark, the resulting exchange is likely to tune and perfect the work performed. In fact, the more obscure and intangible the nature of the work in question, the in ore such an exchange is likely to contribute toils quality

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For example, some years ago when I was supervising a number of semiconductor engineers, one of them discovered a technique that turned out to be extremely useful in solving an important problem. This solution brought recognition, praise and a lot of satisfaction to my subordinate. However, as time went on, he fell into the pattern of attempting to solve all problems with this same technique, even though it had no relevance to them. This led to wasted effort and a lot of frustration. When I pointed out this pattern to my subordinate, he got defensive at first. He thought I was trying to minimize the importance of his earlier achievement. As we talked about my observation some more, I eventually succeeded in convincing him that his insistence on using the same technique over and over was counterproductive. Eventually, he managed to break his thinking pattern and address his new problems with a fresh approach each time, thus regaining his earlier effectiveness. The very idea of non-reviewability of professional work means that only the most monstrous errors get evaluated after the worst has been perpetrated, and then frequently during the course of malpractice litigation. I think we can reduce the waste and damage caused by this practice in our society by agreeing on a basic principle; namely that all work can and must be subjected to review by somebody. As for the teachers fear of favoritism, obviously power and the right to evaluate is powercan corrupt. What we as managers have to do is build enough checks and balances into the system to minimize the influence of personal bias and distortion. At Intel, we use three safeguards. Once an employee review is written up by a supervisor, the supervisors boss oversees and approves the written evaluation. This manager is the second most qualified judge of the employees performancesecond, that is, to the employees immediate supervisor. Being one level removed, he can put the employees performance in broader perspective; he is in a position to compare it with the work of other people in a larger organization. Our second check of the evaluation process stipulates that the personnel representative assigned to the employees department approve the review.
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Although someone from personnel probably cant judge the quality of highly technical endeavors, he is likely to catch signs of favoritism and prejudice, and call it to the attention of the immediate supervisors manager. For this to have real effect, we must endow the personnel department with enough status and clout to make its opinions and comments count. The third check comes from setting up ranking sessions, where the supervisor meets with his peers and, together as a group, they compare and rank all of their subordinates. Of course, no one supervisor can assess the work of all subordinates of his peers. But collectively, enough will be known about each employee to provide additional - and frequently conflicting points of view to the assessment process, resulting in a fair outcome for everybody. Do such checks and balances weed out all bad evaluations? They do not. No system is foolproof, especially one that is necessarily laden with human judgment. Furthermore, such an evaluation process takes much more time and effort than simply listing a group of employees by date of hire and letting it go at that (the basis of a seniority approach to evaluating performance). At Intel, we estimated that a supervisor probably spends five to eight hours on each employees review, about one-quarter to one-third of 1% of the supervisors work year. If the effort expended contributes to an employees performance even to a small extent over the course of a year, isnt that a highly worthwhile expenditure of a supervisors time? We are paid to manage our originations. To manage means to elicit better performance from members of our organization. We managers need to stop rationalizing, and to stiffen our resolve and do what we are paid to do.

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Key Learning from this session _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
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Motivation
Understanding Motivation Too often motivation is viewed as something that one person can give to or do for another. Managers sometimes talk in terms of giving a worker a shot of motivation or of having to motivate their employees. However, motivating employees is not that easily accomplished since the concept of human motivation really refers to an inner drive or an impulse. Motivation cannot be poured down anothers throat or injected intravenously! Motive is the purpose underlying goal directed behavior. An inner state that energizes activities and directs behavior towards a goal. Motivation is a willingness to exert effort toward achieving a goal stimulated by the efforts ability to fulfill an individual need. In other words, employees are more willing to do what the organization wants if they believe that doing so will result in a meaningful reward. The managers challenge is to stimulate the willingness by making the worker see the relationship between the effort and the satisfaction of the workers own needs through the achievement of team goals. The rewards need not always be money; even praise and recognition can be powerful motivators. They can be anything that employees value. Different rewards motivate different people. So, a key aspect of motivating is to know the various needs of the employees that are important for them; the expectation of these as rewards will stimulate them to act willingly and enthusiastically. The essence of motivation is what individuals feel and do in relation to their own particular needs. Ultimately, all motivation is self-motivation. A good manager structures the work situation and reward systems in such a manner that employees are motivated to perform well because good work performance leads to satisfaction of their particular needs. The slogan Different strokes for different folks should be a part of every managers management practice.
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Hierarchy of Needs Most psychologists who study human behavior and personality generally are convinced that all behavior is caused, goal oriented, and motivated. There is a reason for everything that a sane person does. People constantly are striving to attain something that has meaning to them. Often we may not be aware of why we behave in a certain manner but we all have subconscious motives that govern the way we behave in different situations. One of the most widely accepted theories of human behavior is that people are motivated to satisfy certain well-defined and more or less predictable needs. Abraham H. Maslow formulated the concept of hierarchy of needs. He maintained that these needs range from lower-level needs to higher-level needs in an ascending priority. These needs actually overlap and are interrelated, and it may be preferable to consider them as existing along a continuum rather than as being separate and distinct from one another. Maslows theory implies that people attempt to satisfy these needs in the order in which they are arranged. As one level of needs is satisfied to some extent, the individual focuses on the next level, which then becomes the stronger motivator of behavior. Once a lower level of needs is reasonably satisfied, it no longer motivates behavior, at least in the short term.

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Self

Self-respect (Esteem)

Social (Belonging) Security (Safety) Biological (Physiological)

At the first level are the biological (or physiological) needs such as food, rest, shelter and recreation. The paycheck enables a person to purchase the necessities vital to survival as well some of the comforts of life. Security needs include the need to protect ourselves against danger and to guard against the uncertainties of life. Job security, medical, retirement, disability and life insurance plans are benefits designed to satisfy safety needs of employees. Social needs are those that people have for attention, for being part of a group, for being accepted by their peers, and for love. Many studies have shown that group motivation can be powerful influence on employee behavior at work in either a negative or a positive direction. Some employers provide off-the-job social opportunities for their employees as a means of helping them satisfy their social needs. Self-esteem or ego needs are needs that people have for recognition, achievement, status and a sense of accomplishment. They relate to personal feelings of self-worth and importance. Managers should look for ways of satisfying these internal needs by providing variety and challenge in work tasks and recognizing good performance if possible publicly. Self-fulfillment (or self-realization) needs the desire to use ones capabilities to the fullest. Managers can try to assign tasks that challenge48
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employees to use their abilities more fully or allow them to use their creativity and resourcefulness. The key for the manager is to recognize where each employee is in the hierarchy, what needs are currently driving the employee; and then to design formal and informal rewards to motivate him. It is normal for employees to expect good wages, generous benefit plans, and job security. For many employees (for example those who see other employment option as being available in the market), these items may play a secondary role in day-to-day motivation. The key to longer-term, positive motivation of employees lies in better satisfying their higher level needs (social, self-respect, and self-fulfillment). For some time now, employee surveys have been saying that money is not everything. According to a recent survey, one third of the respondents place a positive work environment at the top of a list of factors for keeping employees satisfied.

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Exercise What Do People Want From Their Jobs _________________________________________________________ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Freedom to do my job Managers and coworkers who care about me Environment where others listen and act on my ideas Opportunity to learn new skills Material and equipment to do job right the first time Good compensation and benefits Opportunity to make work-related decisions Job security Praise and recognition for a job well done Interesting and challenging work Opportunity to use a variety of skills

_____ Knowing what is expected of me _________________________________________________ Key Learning from this session ..
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Building a Successful Team


What is a Team? A group of people do not make a team. Working groups arent necessarily a bad thing. In fact, for some organizations, they are entirely appropriate. People participate in a burking group to share information, to make decisions and to co-ordinate practices. The difference between these and the team is that the emphasis is always on enabling each individual to undertake their own area of responsibility. There is no shared responsibility and no particular need to establish it. A real team, by contrast, is a small group of people who are all jointly committed to a common purpose or goal and are actively cooperating to achieve that same goal or purpose. Team members work with one another to achieve their goals: they dont just get on with their own jobs and leave other people to get on with theirs. Also, they co-operate they dont try to interfere with other people, or make it difficult for them to work efficiently. Instead, they direct their activities towards helping the other team members, to work towards the teams goal. They have come together because they cannot achieve the goal alone, or what they are able to achieve by working together is far more than what they can achieve if they operate on an individual, on a working-group basis. They have shared goals and consider each member of the team to be equally accountable for what the team achieves, as well as for the general working approach that the team adopts. That doesnt mean, though, that everyone in the group is regarded as being the same. A real team of this kind, will consists of people who have complimentary skills and who are also ready to learn new ones if the task demands it. Rather than insist that everyone should be the same, good

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working teams take pride in the very different but complementary, knowledge and skills of their members. So, the characteristics of a team are: > Each team has a common purpose. > The members are interdependent > They agree that they must work together effectively to reach their goal Signs of a high performance team The high performance team is the realization of the ultimate in team potential. These teams have extremely high performance achievements and often achieve goals which appear at the outset to the impossible. Katzenbach and Smith have identified a set of distinctive signs which show a high performance team: 1. Performance results: The most obvious and vital sign of a positively functioning teams is the team is achieving results. A real team, is task-oriented: it is all about performance. This focus, together with the shared approach adopted by real and high-performance teams, makes it almost inevitable that the team will out - perform working groups or sets of individuals engaged in similar tasks. The most distinctive feature of an effective team always is, that it is producing specific tangible results. 2. Enthusiasm and energy Teams that are working well are also teams which are positive and energetic about their work. It is a deeply rooted aspect of human nature that we like to feel that our actions are effective. A positively functioning team is therefore able to tap into
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deep levels of motivation, which manifests in the energy that people put into their work, and in other signs of enthusiasm such as voluntarily staying late to finish a task, offering to help other team members and being enthusiastic about their tasks. 3. Event-driven histories Another sign of positive team-functioning is the way that a team evolves a history of its own. Events happen: setbacks, obstacles and difficulties; and as the team overcomes them, it also gains in strength and techniques. Each event contributes to a shared understanding within the team and to greater awareness of the teams possibilities and potential. The anecdotes which emerge from them act as cautionary tales, or as inspirational stories which help to further stimulate the teams performance. 4. Personal commitment Positive teams also develop a high degree of personal commitment between the teams members. The amount of close interaction and shared experience which team members go through would probably be enough to establish this in itself, since working together so closely helps people to get to know one another very well. But in addition this working together occurs in a positive sphere of achievement and of practicality; where weaknesses not seen as a source of condemnation but as a signifier of a training need, and difficulties are met with co-operative and constructive suggestions. High performance teams have members who are deeply committed, not only to the teams success, but also to one anothers personal growth and development. 5. Themes and identity

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By themes and identity we mean the way that a fully -developed team will have a number of recurrent ideas or patterns which, to the-team members, express their basic purpose and the nature of the team itself. These themes may be expressed indirectly, as images, logos, mottoes or catch-phrases, or they may be a patterned form of activity, like a regular gathering in the pub after work on Friday - afternoon where the team appraises the weeks developments.

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Elements in building a Successful Team Shared goals Alignment of individual goals and team goals affects cohesiveness and performance of the team. The vision and mission must be inspiring. Appropriate members Team members who are selected to the team must have the requisite knowledge, skills and attitude. Clear roles Each team member must be clear about his specific role, job profile, associated tasks, responsibilities and performance expectations. Effective processes Processes for staffing, performance monitoring, appraisals, formal communication, grievance handling, escalating issues etc. must be in place and information about them should be readily available. Excellent communication Open, transparent, productive communication must be fostered both through formal and informal channels of communication. Solid relationships Relationships based on a spirit of co-operation, trust and sincerity must be fostered between team members and with the manager. Accepted Leadership The managers leadership must be acceptable to all the team members.

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Elements of Formal Roles Role Identity: Certain attitudes and actual behaviors consistent with a role Role Perception: Ones view of how one is supposed to act in a given situation Role Expectation: How others believe you should act in a given situation. Norms: Acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by a groups. members Role Conflict: When an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations, the result is role conflict.

Positive Informal Roles Informal Task Roles Initiator-contributor Information seeker Opinion seeker Information giver Opinion giver Elaborator Coordinator Orientor Evaluator -critic Energizer Procedural Technician Recorder
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Informal Building and Maintenance Roles Encourager Harmonizer Compromiser Gatekeeper Expediter/ Encourager Standard Setter Group Observer Follower Negative Informal Roles Aggressor Blocker Recognition Seeker Self confessor Hard to get Help Seeker Special interest pleader Withdrawer Dominator Criticizer

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Managerial Roles Interpersonal - Figurehead - Leader - Liaison Informational - Monitor - Disseminator - Spokesperson Decisional Roles Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Unhealthy Conditions Team Effectiveness would be low if the following conditions exist: Conflicting interests Unclear or unachievable task Group is too small or too big Key members are missing New members are regularly added without proper orientation Lack of resources Infrequent or ineffective Meetings Too much pressure for results Decisions are adhoc rather than based on pre-set processes Weak or Domineering Leadership

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Leadership Styles
The four Leadership Styles There is no one best way to manage people. The most effective leaders exhibit a degree of versatility and flexibility that enables them to adapt their behavior to the changing and contradictory demands made on them: Leadership Style is behavior by the leader as perceived by followers. In the Situational Leadership model, behavior of leaders is classified into four broad styles S1, S2, S3 and S4 based on extent of task behavior (directive behavior) and relationship behavior exhibited by the manager. S1 (Telling) refers to high-task and low-relationship behavior where the manager provides specific instructions and closely supervises performance. S2 (Selling) refers to high-task and high-relationship behavior where the manager explains decisions and provides opportunity for clarifications. S3 (Participating) refers to high-relation ship and low-task behavior where the manager shares ideas and facilitates in decision making. S4 (Delegating) refers to low-relationship and low-task behavior where the manager turns over responsibility for decisions and implementation to the subordinates. No one style is effective in all situations. Each style is appropriate and effective depending on the situation. One of the crucial factors in any situation that determines leader effectiveness is the readiness of the followers. There is no leadership without someone following.

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Readiness levels of followers


Readiness in Situational Leadership is defined as the extent to which a follower demonstrates the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. The two major components of readiness are Ability and Willingness. Ability is the knowledge, experience and skill that an individual or group brings to a particular task or activity. The components of ability are demonstrated knowledge (understanding), skill (proficiency) and experience with respect to the specific task or activity. Willingness is the extent to which an individual or group has the confidence, commitment, and motivation to accomplish a specific task. The components willingness are demonstrated confidence (assurance in the ability), commitment (duty) and motivation (desire to perform). Readiness is not a personal characteristic; it has to do with specific situation: A salesperson may be very responsible in securing new sales, but very casual about completing the paperwork necessary to close on a sale. As a result, it is appropriate for the manager to leave the salesperson alone in terms of closing on sales, but to supervise closely in terms of paperwork until the salesperson can start to do well in that area, too. Even though the concepts of Ability important to remember that they are significant change in one will affect the to which people develop their ability. commitment and motivation. and Willingness are different, it is an interacting influence system. A whole. Willingness affects the extent Similarly, ability affects confidence,

The continuum of follower Readiness levels (R1= low, R2=moderate, R3=moderate, R4=high) represents different combinations of Ability and Willingness

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Behavioral indicators of the four readiness levels: R1: Low Unable and willing R1: Low Unable and insecure (lacks confidence) R2: Moderate Unable but de-motivated R3: Moderate R4: High Able but unwilling. Able and willing. Able and confident

Defensive, argumentative, complaining behaviors, Avoiding task or passing the buck, Late completion of tasks, Performance only to exact request, Intense frustration

Body language expressing discomfort: furrowed brow, shoulders lowered, confused behavior, Fear of failure, Concern over possible outcomes, Being intimidated by task

Able but insecure (apprehensive about doing it alone) Hesitant or Speak resistant. quickly and Focus on intently, Seek clarity, potential Seem eager, problems. Encourage Listen leader to stay carefully, Receptive to involved input, Answer questions superficially, Accept tasks, Act quickly, Interested, responsive, enthusiastic

Be responsible and resultoriented take charge. Be willing to help others

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Moderate Unable and de-motivated

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Matching Readiness Level 1 with style 1 Telling

Effective Telling Guiding Directing Establishing

Ineffective Demanding Demeaning Dominating Attacking

The appropriate manager/ leader behaviors for an unable and unwilling R1: o o o o Directly state specific facts Positively reinforce small improvement Consider consequences for nonperformance Keep emotional level in check

The appropriate manager/leader behaviors for an unable and insecure R1: o o o o o Provide task information in digestible amounts Be sure not to overwhelm follower Reduce fear of mistakes Help step by step Focus on instruction

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Matching Readiness Level 2 with style 2 Selling Effective Selling Explaining Clarifying Persuading Ineffective Manipulating Preaching Defending Rationalizing

The appropriate manager/ leader behaviors for an unable but willing or unable but confident R2: o o o o o o o o Seek buy-in through persuading Check understanding of the task Encourage questions Discuss details Explore related skills Explain why Give follower incremental steps Emphasize how to

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Matching Readiness Level 3 with style 3 Participating Effective Participating Encouraging Supporting Empowering Ineffective Patronizing Placating Condescending Pacifying

The appropriate manager/ leader behaviors for an able but unwilling R3: o o o o Share responsibility for decision making with follower Feed followers need to know Focus on results Involve follower in consequences of task to increase commitment and motivation

The appropriate manager/ leader behaviors for an able but insecure R3: o o o o Combine leader-follower decision making Determine next step Encourage and support Discuss apprehension

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Matching Readiness Level 4 with style 4 Delegating Effective Participating Observing Entrusting Assigning Ineffective Abandoning Dumping Avoiding Withdrawing

The appropriate manager/ leader behaviors for an able and willing R4: o o o o o o o Listen to updates Resist overloading Encourage autonomy Practice hands-off management; observe Reinforce follower-led communications Provide support and resources Encourage freedom for risk taking

Leadership Styles Appropriate for Various Readiness Levels So, to summarize: in Situational Leadership, it is the follower who determines the appropriate leader behavior by his own behavior. READINESS LEVEL R1, Low Readiness (Unable and willing) R2, Low to Moderate Readiness (Unable but de-motivated) R3, Moderate to High Readiness (Able but unwilling or insecure) R4, High Readiness (Able and willing or confident) APPRPOPRIATE STYLE S1, Telling (High task-low relationship) S2, Selling (High task-high relationship) S3, Participating (High relationship-low task) S4, Delegating (Low relationship-low task)

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Leadership Styles Profiles For Different Levels of Management

Key Learning from this session __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ________________________
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Gaining Acceptance as a Leader


Accepted Leadership: Any group of people will always have a leader. The real leader is the person who is seen to be the leader by the group or team members. He may or may not be the person designated as a leader. What is important is that he is accepted by the team members as a leader. In a team where the manager is unable to gain acceptance as a leader, the group accepts someone else as their informal leader. This works against the managers authority. Most people are follower by nature and are waiting for someone to inspire them and lead them on. It is important for the manager to work towards gaining acceptance as a leader.

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Types of Leaders In the Leadership Grid, developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, five different types of Leadership based on concern for production (task) and concern for people (relationship) are located in four quadrants

High

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1, 9 Country Club Management Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly Organization atmosphere and work tempo

9,9 Team Management Work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a common stake. In organization purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect

Concern for People

5,5 Organization Man Management Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level

1,1 Impoverished Management Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership

9,1 Authority-Obedience Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of working in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree

Low

1 Low

9 High

Concern for Production

Concern for is a predisposition about something, or an attitudinal dimension. The Leadership Grid is an attitudinal model that measures the values and feelings of a manager.
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Leadership that gets Results A leaders singular job is to get results. But even with all the leadership training programs and expert advice available, effective leadership still eludes many people and organizations. One reason, says Daniel Goleman, is that such experts offer advice based on inference, experience, and instinct, not on quantitative data. Now, drawing on research of more than 3,000 executives, Goleman explores which precise leadership behaviors yield positive results. He outlines six distinct leadership styles, each one springing from different components of emotional intelligence. Each style has a distinct effect on the working atmosphere of a company, division, or team, and, in turn, on its performance. Coercive leaders demand immediate compliance Authoritative leaders mobilize people toward a vision Affiliative leaders create emotional bonds and harmony Democratic leaders build consensus through participation Pacesetting leaders expect excellence and self-direction And coaching leaders develop people for the future The research indicates that leaders who get the best results dont rely on just one leadership style; they use most of the styles in any given week.

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MBWA (Management by walking around) Spend the lions share of your time out of your office, not behind your desk. Show up in your teams floor space. Listen. Spread rampant enthusiasm and pride. Encourage ties. Get the whole group together often. Participating directly-seeing with your own eyes and hearing with your own ears - is simply the only thing that yields the unfiltered, richly detailed impressions that tell you how things are really going, that give you the minute to minute opportunities to take another couple of steps toward building trust, toward making room for people to innovate and to contribute, and toward making your strategic priorities clear. Its the awesome power of personal attention, and it is communicated in one way only: physical presence. Key Learning from this session __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________
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Communication Intelligence Being Assertive


Its no laughing matter when talented people derail off the track of success just because they havent mastered the art of communicating assertively. Using inappropriate behavior either socially or at work will often exacerbate problems. In contrast, those who have mastered the skills of assertive communication will deal more confidently and successfully with a wide variety of people and situations. People can often be assertive in some circumstances, yet ineffectual in others. However, assertiveness shouldnt be something we dust off every now and then to put in to practice. It should be a way of life. Assertive behavior influences everything we do, particularly our interactions with others and how we deal with any problems and injustices we perceive. You might say that its an outward display of our inward security, confidence and self esteem. A more text book definition however, would be: Assertiveness - the ability to express yourself openly and honestly without denying the rights of others. From a practical point of view, assertiveness is a skill that enables us to prevent and resolve problems that may be interfering with the achievement of your goals. The use of assertiveness skills is varied and unlimited. How many times have you not contributed a great idea to a discussion just by not being able to speak up? Or missed a chance to meet someone by being too afraid to introduce yourself? Or maybe even engaged in a fight or heated argument because you did not know how to deal with conflict properly? When we fail to act assertively, we usually pay a price. This can have quite damaging professional, personal and social implications. Assertive personality types will:Stand up for themselves
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Use open body language Maintain eye contact Arent afraid to ask why or say no

Listening Skills Assertiveness in fact encompasses many topics under the communication umbrella. Because communication is not simply a one- way process where someone sends a message and other people absorb it like a sponge, we must also develop good listening skills. The following is a list of dos and donts for effective listening:Dont stereotype the speaker because of age, sex, economic class, mannerisms, race, religion or sexual preference. Dont express boredom, embarrassment or be threatened by what the speaker is saying. Dont constantly drift off into a remote association with what the speaker is saying. Look for feelings as well as facts. Dont read too much meaning into what is being said, ignoring plain facts and clear words. Dont constantly rehearse witty and profound responses before the speaker is finished speaking. Dont react automatically, unthinkingly and predictably over sensitive issues. Dont jump in with a quick fix when you think you understand what the speaker is saying. Always allow them to finish.

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Know What You Want Assertive communication also means knowing what you want, how you want it done, when you want it and how to ask for it. However, even knowing what you want doesnt always guarantee youll get it. Therefore, you have to know how to negotiate and look for win/win solutions. You should always be open to ideas and suggestions from other people and dont judge their ideas until you have heard them out.

Knowing How to Say No If a request is untimely or unfair, everybody has the right to say no. However, before categorically stating a refusal you should probably consider the following six step evaluation: 1. Ask yourself Do I want this or am I trying to please someone else? What will I receive for my participation? If I agree to do this will it continue to be rewarding or will it become oppressive? 2. Think it over and give yourself time to evaluate the request. 3. Look for clues that the request may be unreasonable. Are you hesitating? Do you feel cornered or trapped? Do you feel nervous? 4. If necessary, ask for further evaluation. 5. Allow for discussions of ideas and differences of opinions. 6. Focus on the problem at hand and not the person.

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Dos and Donts for Saying No Say no firmly and calmly Never say sorry it weakens your position. Follow no by a straightforward explanation of how you feel. Say no and then look for an alternative solution. Make an empathetic statement first before saying no e.g. I understand what youre saying, however As a last resort to persistent requests you should use the broken record technique. Remember to always try alternative methods first, because an initial parrot style response to customers or associates will simply reveal that you do not either, understand or care about their request. Of course, saying yes is also acceptable but remember you cant expect people to be mind readers. Therefore, you should set the parameters within which you are prepared to say yes e.g. I would be happy to do that, however, it cannot be completed until next week. Briefly define the remaining behavior types; passive, passive aggressive and aggressive. Passive Personalities To generalize, passive people are usually shy, lack confidence and get embarrassed easily. Their body language tends to be introverted in that they dont make good eye contact, are prone to fidgeting and their voice tone, volume and inflections arent particularly authoritative. Passive people will often feel quite uncomfortable speaking up in a debate or expressing themselves in general.

Passive/Aggressive Personalities
Passive aggressive characters tend not to say anything to your face but theyll talk about you or the situation behind your back and try to sabotage your efforts. When dealing with passive aggressive characters nobody wins and problems are very rarely solved satisfactorily. In fact, these characters can often be quite dangerous as they tend to fuel the rumor mill and have an adverse affect on company moral.
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Aggressive Personalities Aggressive characters are quite happy to speak their mind but their manner and methods in doing so are often quite intimidating. They are usually prone to flying off the handle and can be quite critical of other peoples ideas and opinions. It is not unusual for them to constantly interrupt and finish other peoples sentences. THE VIDEO After viewing the video how would you now classify your behavior? Can you identify yourself or any of your work colleagues in the program? Do you think Warren is basically a good person perhaps just a little bit dogmatic and overbearing? Why can characters like Jeremy be so dangerous? Activity write down some barriers to assertive behavior. Many people do not believe they have the right to be assertive Cultural pressures and differences Balance of power Some people feel anxious or fearful about being assertive Lack of social skills Bigotry Some organizations do not foster assertiveness

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TRUE OR FALSE TEST? Decide weather or not the following statements are true or false.
Statement True/False

You should feel guilty about saying no to a request, particularly if it is False unreasonable. Assertive communication contributes to increased productivity. Assertive people have control over everything that goes on in the workplace. True False

You should always discuss a problem with the person concerned before taking it True to a higher level. Assertive people need to choose their words carefully if they are to make a good False impression. Assertiveness skills help eliminate frustration and resentment in the workplace. Assertiveness is getting your own way at any cost. True False

The difference between assertive and aggressive behavior is how much we take True into account the rights and well being of other people. Passive aggressive communicators can have a detrimental effect on company True moral. Assertive people shouldnt disagree emphatically with others. False

Benefits of Assertiveness
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Assertiveness aids in problem solving. Every problem can have a win/win solution. Assertive behavior reduces physical and mental stress because people are less like victims. Communication becomes clearer and more concise which reduces misunderstandings and clarifies expectations. Less time is spent gossiping and complaining and more time getting things done. In an assertive work environment, people speak up and say whats on their mind because here is no fear that their ideas and opinions will be shunned or ridiculed.

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WHO AM I? Describe the following behaviors as passive, passive aggressive, aggressive or assertive.
Behavior Behavior Type

A colleague is not contributing to a project assigned to your team. You Passive tell everybody how it makes you feel except the main offender. Aggressive Youve been given some instructions but youre still confused as to Assertive whats being asked of you, so you say, Just to make sure I understand that - could you please repeat it one more time? An unreasonable request has been made of you so you say no Assertive followed by a brief explanation of how you feel. You are openly critical of other peoples ideas, opinions and behaviors. Aggressive

You avoid certain people and situations because you get embarrassed Passive easily. You usually have confidence in you own judgment. You are prone to fly off the handle. Someone has taken your place in a queue so you speak out in protest. Assertive Aggressive Assertive

You cant say no to a sales person even though the merchandise is Passive not what you really want In a room full of strangers you are happy to introduce yourself and Assertive begin a conversation.

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References

High Output Management

: By Andy Grove

Principle Centered Leadership

: By Steven Covey

The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People : By Steven Covey

Emotional Intelligence

: By Daniel Goleman

Human Side of Enterprise

: By McGregor

Change Masters

: By Rossabeth Moss Kanter

Human Motivation

: By David C. McClelland

Power: The Inner Experience

: By David C. McClelland

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