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Name : DEEP NARAYAN RAM Roll No : 10205390031 Course Code : MBA 301

LC Name : Computronics PTU Learning Centre City : Chamba Course Title : Operation Research

Answer Sheet for Assignment


Part A (Short question answers) 1. Explain Artificial Variable. Ans.-Artificial variables have been introduced in the first basis only to make it feasible basis. They should not appear in the final solution. In order to eliminate them from final solution artificial variables should be assigned. 2. Explain Degeneracy. Ans.-Degeneracy in a transportation problem arises when number of occupied cell is-less than to (number of column + number of row)-1. It may occur at the stage of initial allocation or at a later stage at the time of second or third allocation or even afterward in a more complex problem. 3. Give the primal-dual relationship. Ans.-In order to explore the relationship between the primal and dual form of a linear program, let us put together the solution basis of primal as well as dual program forms of the linear program for them. 4. What is Assignment problem? Ans.-The name assignment problem arises from the classical problem, where the goal is to find an optimal assignment of origin to destination without assigning an origin more than once and ensuring that all destinations are completed. The objective might be to minimize the total time to complete the job or to maximize skill rating. 5. What are various types of replacement problems? Ans.-The various types of replacement problem are a. Replacement of equipment b. Replacement of Mortality & staffing c. Miscellaneous replacement. 6. Write a short note on Trans-shipment problem. Ans.-In this problem it is assumed that the source acts only as shipper of goods and the destination acts only as receiver of goods. We shall now consider the broader class of transportation problem called as trans-shipment problem which allows for the shipment of goods from one source to another. 7. What do you mean by looping? Ans.-Looping error is also known as cyclic error in a network diagram. Drawing an endless loop in network is known as an error of looping. 8. Explain Buffer stock. Ans.-Inventory of inputs held as a reserve against short term shortage and/or to dampen excessive fluctuation in the prices of commodity and thus protect local exporter from wild & wings in world commodity price is called Buffer stock. 9. What do you mean by strategy?

Name : DEEP NARAYAN RAM Roll No : 10205390031 Course Code : MBA 301

LC Name : Computronics PTU Learning Centre City : Chamba Course Title : Operation Research

Answer Sheet for Assignment


Ans.-Pure strategy: - If the rule says to always take the same action is called pure strategy otherwise known as mixed strategy. A pure strategy consists of three interrelated components a. Players b. Actions c. Payoffs 10. Discuss the applications of Dynamic programming. Ans.-Applications of Dynamic Programming: a. Basically concerned with finding a combination of optimal decision over a period of time b. Used to handle problem with probabilistic variable but emphasis here will go on deterministic problem only. Part B (Long question answers) 1. Importance of Operations Research in Decision Making? Operations research is a scientific discipline that managers use to make informed decisions for their operations. It draws heavily from math, statistics and science. Operations managers use this extensively to schedule and assemble their production functions. Operations research is primarily used in the manufacturing, oil, energy and telecommunication industries. History: Operations research was first developed in the 1940s, during and after World War II. Significance: Companies use operations research to devise ways and means to maximize their profits and restrict their losses and risks. The company is able to zero down on the most optimum levels of production. Also, they devise means to produce at lower costs or produce more quantities at the same costs. Features: The operations manager is able to evaluate the various available routes for production and fix the most feasible and practical one. He tries to derive the maximum output with the minimum possible input. Benefits: Operations research is very beneficial to the managers in deciding what to produce, the quantities, the methods of production, which employees to engage in the production processes and the marketing schemes of the produced goods. Limitation: The main limitation of operations research is that it often ignores the human element in the production process. This science is technology driven and does not take into account the emotional factors and absenteeism of the employees. 2. Orient paper mills produce two grades of Paper X and Y. Because of raw material restrictions not more that 400 tons of grade X and 300 tons of grade y can be produced in a week. There are 160 production hours in a week. It requires 0.2 and 0.4 hours to produces a ton of products X and Y respectively, with corresponding profits of Rs 20 and Rs 50 per ton. Formulate al linear programming problem to optimize the product mix for maximum profit. Solution Decision variables Let X1 and X2 be the number of units of two grades of paper of X and Y

Name : DEEP NARAYAN RAM Roll No : 10205390031 Course Code : MBA 301

LC Name : Computronics PTU Learning Centre City : Chamba Course Title : Operation Research

Answer Sheet for Assignment


Objective function Since the profit for the two grades of paper X and Yare given, the objective function is to maximize the profit Max(Z) = 200X1 + 500X 2 , Constraints There are 2 constraints one w.r t. to raw material, and the other w.r t .to production hours. The complete LPP is Max (Z), = 200X1 +500X2, Subject to X1 400 (Constraints of raw material) X 2 300 (Constraints of raw material) 0.2X1+ 0.4X2 160 (Constraints of Production Hours) X1 0, X 2 0,(Non-negative Constraints) 3. A project consists of 20 activities whose duration time estimates (in days) are given next Activity Duration 1-2 15 1-3 13 1-4 14 2-5 9 2-7 8 3-5 7 3-6 8 3-8 34 4-6 9 4-7 21 a) Draw a network for this project. b) Determine the critical path. Ans.-a) Network 2 1 1 5 4 0 1 4 9 6 1 1 3 8 2 7 3 3 3 2 5 3 4 5 9 1 3 1 1 1 8 8 9 5 1 7 8 1 7 7 Activity 5-10 6-9 6-11 7-10 8-9 8-12 9-10 9-11 10-12 11-12 Duration 22 33 25 10 5 17 17 13 19 18

1 0 2 2 1 0 1 9 1 2

Name : DEEP NARAYAN RAM Roll No : 10205390031 Course Code : MBA 301 c) Determination of critical path

LC Name : Computronics PTU Learning Centre City : Chamba Course Title : Operation Research

Answer Sheet for Assignment


1-4-7-10-12=14+21+10+19=64 1-2-7-10-12=15+9+10+19=53 1-2-5-10-12=15+9+22+19=64 1-3-8-12=13+34+17=64 1-3-6-9-11-12=13+8+33+13+18=85 1-3-6-9-10-12=13+8+33+17+19=90 1-3-8-9-10-12=13+34+5+17+19=88 1-3-5-10-12=13+7+22+19=61 1-4-6-9-10-12=14+9+33+17+19=92 (Critical Path) 1-4-6-11-12=14+9+25+18=66 1-4-6-9-11-12=14+9+33+5+17=78

Therefore, from above calculation it is clear that the path 1-4-6-9-10-12 is the critical path and the activities along this path are critical and required special attention. 4. What do you mean by replacement? Why it is needed? Explain the different replacement models used in operations research. Replacement: - The old items has become in worse condition and work badly or require expensive maintenance so there is need of replacement for efficiency. a. b. c. d. Need: - For operational efficiency To reduce the time When life span of instrument have been dismissed When instrument gets break down

Different replacement model: i. ii. iii. iv. Replacement of equipment, whose efficiency deteriorates with time Replacement of items that fails completely Problem of mortality and staffing Miscellaneous problem:- for above mentioned replacement situations various of replacement models are as follows:a. Replacement of items that fails completely is expensive to be replaced b. Replacement of items whose efficiency deteriorates with time c. Replacement of human being in organization d. Miscellaneous problems What is queue? Explain the basic elements of queue?

5.

Queue: - These are common situations which may take the forms of cars waiting for repair at an auto service centre, printing job waiting to be completed at print shop etc. It is an important part of service management and available tool for every operation manager. Basic elements of queue:i. ii. Size of the arrival population: - population size are considered to be either unlimited i.e. Infinite or limited. Pattern of arrival at the system: - Arrival is considered random when they are independent of one another is their occurrence cannot be predicted exactly.

Name : DEEP NARAYAN RAM Roll No : 10205390031 Course Code : MBA 301 iii. iv. v. vi. vii.

LC Name : Computronics PTU Learning Centre City : Chamba Course Title : Operation Research

Answer Sheet for Assignment


Behavior of the arrivals: - Most queuing models assure that an arriving customer is a patient customer. Queuing Length: - The length of time can be either limited or unlimited. Service time: - Service time may be either constant or random of service time is constant; it takes the same amount of time to service each customer. Service facility Service discipline