You are on page 1of 22

Outline I.

Introduction

1. Monarchy 2. Government II. Main Content

1. British Monarchy 1.1 Queen Elizabeth II and Royal family 1.1.1 Queen Elizabeth 1.1.2 Royal family 1.2 Role and value of Monarchy 1.2.1 Role of Monarchy 1.2.2 Value of Monarchy 2.British Government 2.1 Prime Minister and Cabinet 2.1.1 Prime Minister 2.1.2 Cabinet 2.2 Government in Parliment 2.3 The government and the Crown 3. Comparision British Government and Monarchy with VietNam III. Conclusion

I.

Introduction

1. Monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which the office of head of state is usually help until death or abdication and is often hereditary and includes a royal house. A state of monarchy is said to result that reveals the relationships between resources, communities, monarchy and his office. Monarchy has various titles, including king or queen, prince or princess or even duke or grand duke or duchess. Constitutional monarchy (or limited monarchy) is a form of constitutional government where either is elected or hereditary monarch is the head of state. Most constitutional monarchies have a parliamentary system in which monarchy is the head of state, but a directly or indirectly elected prime mister is head of government. Currently, some nations in the world have constitutional monarchy, including Australia, Belgium, Cambodia, Netherland, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Malaysia, Norway, Spain, New Zealand, Sweden, Thailand, United Kingdom. 2. Government Government refers to the legislators, administrators and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism or determining the policy of the state. There are many types of governments: Authoritarian, Constitutional monarchy, Constitutional Republic, Democracy, Monarchy

II.

Main content

1. British Mornachy 1.1 Queen Elizabeth II and Royal family 1.1.1 Queen Elizabeth Position of the monach in Britain is a perfect illustration of the contradictory nature of the constitution. From the evidence of written law only, the Queen has most absolute power, and it all seems very undermocratic. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, born 21 April 1926 is the constitutional monarch of sixteen sovergeign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. As Head of the Commonwealth, she is the figurehead of the 54-member Commonwealth of Nations; as the British monarch, she is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Elizabeth was educated privately at home. Her father ascended to the throne as George VI in 1936. Elizabeth began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, in which she served in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. When her father died in 1952, Elizabeth became Head of the Commonwealth and queen of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon. Her coronation service in 1953 was the first to be televised. During her 59-year reign, currently the second-longest for a British monarch, she became queen of 25 other Commonwealth countries as they gained independence. Between 1956 and 1992, half of her realms, including South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (renamed Sri Lanka), became republics. Her Silver and Golden Jubilees were celebrated in 1977 and 2002; planning for her Diamond Jubilee in 2012 is underway.

In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, with whom she has four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward. In 1992, which Elizabeth termed her annus horribilis ("horrible year"), Charles and Andrew separated from their wives, Anne divorced, and a severe fire destroyed part of Windsor Castle. Revelations continued on the state of Charles's marriage to Diana, Princess of Wales, and they divorced in 1996. The following year, Diana died in a Paris car crash, and the media criticised the royal family for remaining in seclusion in the days before her funeral. However, Elizabeth's personal popularity rebounded after she appeared in public and has since remained high Elizabeth's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years. Forbes magazine estimated her net worth at around US$450 million in 2010, but official Buckingham Palace statements in 1993 called estimates of 100 million "grossly overstated", and Jock Colville estimated her wealth at 2 million in 1971 (the equivalent of about 21 million today The Royal Collection, which includes artworks and the Crown Jewels, is not owned by the Queen personally and is held in trust, as are the occupied palaces in the United Kingdom such as Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle, and the Duchy of Lancaster, a property portfolio valued at 383 million in 2011. Elizabeth is reported to dislike Buckingham Palace as a residence, and prefers Windsor Castle. Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle are privately owned by the Queen. The Crown Estate and the Crown Land of Canada comprising 89% of Canada's area are owned by the Sovereign in trust for the nation, and cannot be sold or owned by Elizabeth in a private capacity. Elizabeth has held titles throughout her life, as a granddaughter of the monarch, as a daughter of the monarch, through her husband's titles, and eventually as Sovereign. In common parlance, she is The Queen or Her Majesty. Officially, she has a distinct title in each of her realms: Queen of Canada in Canada, Queen of Australia in Australia, etc. In the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, which are Crown dependencies rather than separate realms, she is known as Duke of Normandy and Lord of Man respectively. Additional

styles include Defender of the Faith and Duke of Lancaster. When in conversation with the Queen, the practice is to initially address her as Your Majesty and thereafter as Ma'am. Elizabeth has received honours and awards from countries around the world, and has held honorary military positions throughout the Commonwealth, both before and after her accession. 1.1.2 Royal family Prince Philip is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II, who he married in 1947.although he is not part of the British royal family by blood, his marriage meant he was granted the title 'His Royal Highness' by King George VI (Elizabeth's father). Officially, his main role is to support the Queen, though he is also head of over 800 organisations and carries out over 300 public engagements a year. He is a particular champion of British environment, industry, sport and education. However, he is probably most famous for founding and developing the Duke of Edinburgh's Award. Charles is Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip's eldest son and therefore heir apparent to the throne. In 1981 he married Lady Diana Spencer and had two children with her. nowadays he is well known for his charity work and his campaigns for retaining British architecture and farming.he is concerned about the environment and living conditions in britains cities. He sometimes makes speeches which are critical of aspects of modern life. Diana Princess of Wales was one of the most internationally well known members of the royal family in recent times. she is charles wife. Diana was much loved the world over due to a mix of her glamourous personality and her non-stop charity work, particularly with land mine victims and children. Prince William is the eldest son of Charles and Diana, and is second in line for the throne, only behind his father. He went through military training and is now a qualified helicopter pilot working with a search and rescue team in Wales. Prince William is well

known for his love of sport, and in 2006 he became President of Englands Football Association and royal patron of the Welsh Rugby Union. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales, and third eldest grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He is second in the line of succession, behind his father, to the thrones of sixteen independent sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Consequently, he is also second in line, again behind his father, to the position of Head of the Commonwealth (figurehead of the 54member Commonwealth of Nations) and, in England only, Supreme Governor of the Church of England. He was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews. He spent parts of a gap year in Chile, Belize, and countries in Africa, most notably Kenya where he has lived and holidayed several times. Besides his engagement to Kate whilst living in Kenya, Prince William has also taken Kiswahili studies at universities in Kenya and Tanzania. He was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Blues and Royals regiment of the Household Cavalryserving with his brother Prince Harryand, two years later, earned his wings by completing pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell. In 2009, the Prince transferred to the Royal Air Force, was promoted to flight lieutenant and underwent helicopter flying training in order to become a full time pilot with the Search and Rescue Force. In Autumn 2010, he completed his general and special-to-type helicopter training and he is now at RAF Valley on No. 22 Squadron performing co-pilot duties on board a Sea King search and rescue helicopter. Prince William married his longtime girlfriend, the then Catherine

Middleton, on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey.[3] Hours prior to his wedding, Prince William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus At the age of 21, Prince William was appointed as a Counsellor of State, and began his royal duties by first serving in that capacity when the Queen was abroad to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2003, in Nigeria. For his 21st birthday, William also accompanied his father on a royal tour of Wales, where they visited the Anglesey Food Fair and opened a centre for the homeless in Newport. By July 2005, he was on his first solo overseas tour, travelling to New Zealand, on behalf of his grandmother in her role as Queen of New Zealand, to participate in World War II commemorations. For the 30th anniversary of his father's charity, The Prince's Trust, William and his brother were interviewed together for the first time by Ant & Dec. In July 2007, Prince William accompanied his grandmother's cousin The Duke of Kent, who is President of the UK Scout Association, in opening the 21st World Scout Jamboree, celebrating the centennial of the founding of the Scout Movement. William during the opening ceremony of the 21st World Scout Jamboree It was said in Tina Brown's 2007 biography of Diana, Princess of Wales, that Prince William had, like his father, expressed a desire to become Governor-General of Australia though fulfilment of the idea was considered doubtful by then-Prime Minister of Australia John Howard, who said: "We have for a long time embraced the idea that the person who occupies that post should be in every way an Australian citizen. In 2009, a private office was set up for William by his grandmother, with Sir David Manning being appointed as his adviser. Manning personally accompanied him in January 2010 as he toured Auckland and Wellington on behalf of the Queen; William opened the new building of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and was welcomed as a Mori chief. In March 2011, William visited Christchurch, New Zealand, after the recent earthquake, and there addressed the memorial service at Hagley Park, on behalf of his

grandmother. Upon leaving New Zealand, William travelled to Australia, where he made a visit to areas badly affected by flooding in the states of Queensland and Victoria. After twice accompanying his parents to Canada, the Prince, with his wife, is expected to officially tour the country in June and July 2011, attending Canada Day celebrations on Parliament Hill (See 2011 Royal tour of Canada.) Speculation in late 2009 that William would be taking over increasing numbers of the Queen's ceremonial and state duties has been denied by the Palace. Prince Harry is William's brother and the youngest son of Charles and Diana. He is third in the line of succession to the throne. Zara Philips is the only daughter of Princess Anne, who herself is the Queen's only daughter. Although this means that Zara is not very high up in line to succeed the throne, she is well known in Britain for her sporting exploits. members of the Royal Family support The Queen in her many State and national duties, as well as carrying out important work in the areas of public and charitable service, and helping to strengthen national unity and stability. Those who undertake official duties are members of The Queen's close family: her children and their spouses, and The Queen's cousins (the children of King George VI's brothers) and their spouses. Younger members of the Royal Family who are presently in education or military training - such as Prince William and Prince Harry - do not undertake official duties fulltime, but often play a role in important national events and commemorations. Every year the Royal Family as a whole carries out over 2,000 official engagements throughout the UK and worldwide. These engagements may include official State responsibilities. Members of the Royal Family often carry out official duties in the UK and abroad where The Queen cannot be

present in person. The Prince of Wales and The Princess Royal, for example, may present members of the public with their honours at an Investiture. When official events such as receptions, State banquets and garden parties are held, the Royal Family supports The Queen in making her guests welcome. Members of the Royal Family also often represent The Queen and the nation in Commonwealth or other countries, at events such as State funerals or national festivities, or through longer visits to strengthen Britain's diplomatic and economic relations. The Royal Family also plays an important role in supporting and encouraging the public and charity sectors. The Royal Family also plays an important role in recognising and supporting the work of the Armed Services Finally, the Royal Family as a whole plays a role in strengthening national unity. Members of the Royal Family are able to recognise and participate in community and local events in every part of the UK, from the opening of new buildings to celebrations or acts of commemoration 1.2 Role and value of Monarchy

1.2.1 Role of Monarchy Monarchy is the oldest form of government in the United Kingdom. In a monarchy, a king or queen is Head of State. The British monarchy is known as a constitutional monarchy. This means that, while The Sovereign is Head of State, the ability to make and pass legislation resides with an elected Parliament. Although the British Sovereign no longer has a political or executive role, he or she continues to play an important part in the life of the nation.As Head of State, The Monarch undertakes constitutional and representational duties which have developed over one thousand years of history. In

addition to these State duties, The Monarch has a less formal role as 'Head of Nation'. The Sovereign acts as a focus for national identity, unity and pride; gives a sense of stability and continuity; officially recognises success and excellence; and supports the ideal of voluntary service.In all these roles The Sovereign is supported by members of their immediate family. 1.2.2 Value of Monarchy It's quite a bargain. The monarchy in Britain costs each of its citizens 62 pence last year, according to a Buckingham Palace announcement made last week as part of its annual report on royal finances.That makes the overall yearly amount to fund the monarchy just over 35 million. While some people might scoff at this seemingly extravagant amount being spent on a single family, a closer look reveals this is money well spent. The British monarchy has survived more than 1000 years and as such, it uniquely represents the nation's vast history and culture. No other group or individual seems to have been able to meander its way through Britain's tumultuous ups and downs and survive like the monarchy. The monarchy transcends political, religious and other differences which exist amongst British people and offers a common figurehead for every citizen. The monarch provides a symbol under which the people of Britain can unite, not only for themselves but also for the rest of the world to see. Britain is a democracy and a rather successful one at that. While at first it might seem a bit contradictory to have as their head of state an unelected official, it successfully works for the nation. That's because the monarchy does not govern per se and does not get involved in political disputes or debates. Rather, the monarchy represents the nation as a unified whole. The monarchy provides a sense of continuity in an otherwise hectic and ever-changing world. Whether it's the annual Christmas greeting or the laying of a wreath on Remembrance Day, the monarch is always there to guide the nation through its important times. In return, the British people also celebrate and share in the monarchy's triumphs and sorrows. Thousands of people participated in the various events this year to help celebrate the Queen Elizabeth's 80th

birthday. A seemingly endless queue of mourners poured into London to pay their respects to the Queen Mother after she passed away in 2002. The monarchy also plays a role in supporting the British economy. There are hundreds of people employed by the monarchy - whether it is as a lady-in-waiting, sentry or butler. These people are often so satisfied that they spend their entire working lives with the monarchy. Then there is the monarchy's position in the tourism industry. Every year, thousands of people captivated by the monarchy visit Britain. Many buy admission tickets for places such as the Tower of the London or the state rooms at Buckingham Palace. They also stay at hotels, eat at local restaurants and buy souvenirs to remember their trip. So on first glance, 62 pence a year may seem like a lot for every British citizen to pay for the upkeep of their monarchy. But after recognizing how much the monarchy does for the nation, its value far outweighs the cost. It is probably true that the British, especially the English, are more reserved than the people of many other countries. So the monarchy is a character which expess this personality. The British is different Vietnam: while the British remain two state system and Queen still has absolute power, Vietnam only only state system with a government and interest of people. 2. British Government 2.1 Prime Minister and Cabinet 2.1.1 Prime Minister Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet (consisting of all the most senior ministers, who are government department heads) are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The position of Prime Minister was not created; it evolved slowly and erratically over three hundred years due to numerous acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are

found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement (1688 1720) and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament. Although the Sovereign was not stripped of his ancient prerogotives and legally remained the head of government, politically it gradually became necessary for him to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament. Early Prime Ministers (17201784) were at best ambivalent about the title; many refused to acknowledge or use it. The position was not mentioned at all in legal documents, and was given little formal recognition. Unofficial but popular acceptance of the office of Prime Minister gradually developed between 1784 and 1911. By the 1830s the Westminster System of government (or Cabinet Government) had emerged; and, the Prime Minister had became "first among equals" in the Cabinet and head of Her Majesty's Government. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication (inexpensive newspapers, radio, television and the internet), and photography. By the turn of the 20th century the modern Premiership had emerged; the office had become the pre-eminent position in the constitutional hierarchy vis-a-vis the Sovereign, Parliament and Cabinet. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act of 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process. The accretion of so much political power in one position gave rise to concerns that the office had become too "presidential", and that the Prime Minister was an "elected Monarch". Late in the 20th century several acts of Parliament and political changes placed some limits on the Premier's authority. The Prime Minister's official residence is 10 Downing Street in London. At present the Prime Minister receives a salary of 142,000 including 65,737 as a Member of Parliament. The Prime Minister oversees the operation of the Civil Service and government agencies, appoints members of the Cabinet, and is the principal government figure in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister's unique position of authority comes from majority support in the House of Commons and the power to appoint and dismiss ministers. By modern convention, the Prime Minister always sits in the Commons. The Prime Minister presides over the

Cabinet, is responsible for allocating functions among ministers and, at regular meetings with the Queen, informs her of the general business of the government. The Prime Minister's other responsibilities include recommending a number of appointments to the Queen. These include high-ranking members of the Church of England, senior judges and certain civil appointments. He also recommends appointments to several public boards and institutions, as well as to various royal and statutory commissions. The Prime Minister's Office supports him in his role as head of government. This includes providing policy advice, tracking the delivery of government commitments and initiatives, and ensuring effective communications to Parliament, the media and the public. The Government Ministers are supported by 560,000 Civil Servants and other staff working in the 24 Ministerial Departments and their executive agencies. There are also an additional 26 non-Ministerial Departments with a range of further responsibilities. The current Prime Minister, David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed on 11 May 2010. 2.1.2 Cabinet The Cabinet is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and some 22 Cabinet Ministers, the most senior of the government ministers. Ministers of the Crown, and especially Cabinet Ministers, are selected primarily from the elected members of House of Commons, and also from the House of Lords, by the Prime Minister. Cabinet Ministers are heads of government departments, mostly with the office of "Secretary of State". The collective co-ordinating function of the Cabinet is reinforced by the statutory position that all the Secretaries of State jointly hold the same office, and can exercise the same powers. The Cabinet is the ultimate decision-making body of the executive within the Westminster system of government in traditional constitutional theory. This interpretation was originally put across in the work of nineteenth century constitutionalists such as Walter Bagehot, who described the Cabinet as the 'efficient secret' of the British political system

in his book The English Constitution. The political and decision-making authority of the cabinet has been gradually reduced over the last several decades, with some claiming its role has been usurped by a "Prime Ministerial" The Cabinet is the executive committee of Her Majesty's Privy Council, a historic body which has legislative, judicial and executive functions, and whose large membership includes members of the Opposition. Its decisions are generally implemented either under the existing powers of individual government departments, or by Orders-in-Council. The Cabinet meets on a regular basis, usually weekly on a Thursday morning notionally to discuss the most important issues of government policy, and to make decisions. Despite the custom of meeting on a Thursday, after the appointment of Gordon Brown as Prime Minister the meeting day was switched to Tuesday. However, since becoming prime minister, David Cameron has held his cabinet meetings on Thursdays again. The length of meetings varies according to the style of the Prime Minister and political conditions, but today meetings can be as little as 30 minutes in length, which suggests announcement or ratification of decisions taken in committee, by informal groups, or in bi-lateral discussions between the Prime Minister and individual colleagues, with discussion in Cabinet itself very limited. The Prime Minister normally has a weekly audience with The Queen thereafter. The Cabinet has numerous sub-committees which focus on particular policy areas, particularly ones which cut across several ministerial responsibilities, and therefore need coordination. These may be permanent committees or set up for a short duration to look at particular issues. Junior Ministers are also often members of these committees, in addition to Secretaries of State. The transaction of government business through meetings of the Cabinet and its many committees is administered by a small secretariat within the Cabinet Office. Consequent Orders-in-Council are normally made by the Queen-in-Council with a quorum of the Privy Council, which meets monthly or ad-hoc. The Institute for Government claims that the reduced number of full Cabinet meetings signify "that the role of Cabinet as a formal decision-making body has been in decline since the war." 2.2 Government in Paliment

A key principle of the UK constitution is that the Government is responsible to Parliament, this is called Responsible government. Ministers are responsible to the House in which they sit, they make statements in that House and take questions from members of that House. For most senior Ministers this is usually the elected House of Commons rather than the House of Lords. There have been some recent exceptions to this, for example cabinet ministers Lord Mandelson (First Secretary of State) and Lord Adonis (Secretary of State for Transport) sat in the Lords and were responsible to that House during the government of Gordon Brown. In modern times the Prime Minister must always be an elected MP and therefore accountable to the House of Commons. In practice the Chancellor of the Exchequer must also always be a member of the Commons. The Lords have very limited powers in relation to money bills and it would be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the Lords, with MPs unable to directly question the Chancellor. Under the UK system the Government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons. It requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply (by voting through the government's budgets) and in order to pass primary legislation. By convention if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a General Election is held. The support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign even if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House. The House of Commons is therefore the responsible House. The Prime Minister is held to account during Prime Ministers Question Time (PMQs) which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject. There are also departmental questions where Ministers answer questions relating to their specific departmental brief. Unlike PMQs both the cabinet ministers for the department and junior ministers within the department may answer on behalf of the government depending on the topic of the question. During debates on government legislation Ministers, usually with departmental responsibility for the bill, will lead the debate for the government and respond to points made by MPs or Lords. Committees of

both the House of Commons and House of Lords hold the government to account, scrutinise its work and examine in detail proposals for legislation. Ministers appear before committees to give evidence and answer questions. Government Ministers are also required by convention and the Ministerial Code, when Parliament is sitting, to make major statements regarding government policy or issues of national importance to Parliament. This allows MPs or Lords to question the government on the statement. Where the government instead chooses to make announcements first outside Parliament it is often the subject of significant criticism from MPs and the Speaker of the Commons. 2.3 The Government and the Crown The British Monarch, currently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, is the Chief of State of the United Kingdom. Though she takes little direct part in government, the Crown remains the fount in which ultimate executive power over Government lies. These powers are known as Royal Prerogative and can be used for a vast number of things, such as the issue or withdrawal of passports, to the dismissal of the Prime Minister or even the Declaration of War. The powers are delegated from the Monarch personally, in the name of the Crown, and can be handed to various ministers, or other Officers of the Crown, and can purposely bypass the consent of Parliament. The head of Her Majestys Government; the Prime Minister, also has weekly meetings with the sovereign, where she may express her feelings, warn, or advise the Prime Minister in the Governments work. In practice, the Royal Perogative powers are almost all delegated to the Government or to Crown officials: Domestic Powers

The power to dismiss and appoint a Prime Minister (This power is exercised by the Monarch herself. She may choose a Prime Minister of her own choice, though

nominally she appoints the individual most capable of commanding the House of Commons)

The power to dismiss and appoint other ministers The power to summon, prorogue and dissolve Parliament The power to grant or refuse Royal Assent to bills (making them valid and law) The power to commission officers in the Armed Forces The power to command the Armed Forces of the United Kingdom The power to appoint members to the Queen's Council The power to issue and withdraw passports The power to grant Prerogative of mercy (though Capital Punishment is abolished, this power is still used to remedy errors in sentence calculation)

The power to grant honours The power to create corporations via Royal Charter

Foreign Powers

The power to ratify and make treaties The power to declare war and Peace [19] The power to deploy the Armed Forces overseas The power to recognize states The power to credit and receive diplomats

Even though the United Kingdom has no single constitution document, in October 2003, in order to keep themselves more transparent, the Government published the above list as the powers exercised in the name of the Monarch. 2.4 Comparision with Viet Nam In the past, the autocratic monarchy in Vietnam existed from 1802- 1945 and nguyen dynasty was the last ruling family of Vietnam. It began in 1802 when Emperor Gia Long ascended the throne after defeating the Ty Sn Dynasty and ended in 1945 when

Bao Dai abdicated the throne and transferred power to the State of Vietnam. In the monarchy period, the head of Vietnamese monarchy was the emperor who had absolute power. He had rights to make all decision. all power, all influence, the operation of society is almost in the hands of the king or the emperor. At present , Vietnam no longer has a monarchy because Vietnam is a Socialist Republic country with running of the government who belongs to and serves for right and profitbility of citizens. The government and the state will operate all activities about society, economic, politic, culture. Through laws. The Position of the monarch in Britain is a pefect illustration of the contradictory nature of the constitution. From the evidence of written law only, the Queen has almost absolute power. And that will last for long time There are many differences between British Monarchy Government and Vietnamese Goverment

Factors Monarchy in the past

Britain

Vietnam

The monarchy existed since 410 The autocratic monarchy started with starting of the king, William I. The head of the monarchy is the since 939 and Ngo quyen is the first emperor.

king or the queen. The monarchy of The head is the emperor. Male only Britain parallelly existed with the is heir to the throne. All power is in government. Therefore, it has hand of the emperor. he is the only

almost no power at all, its executive person has absolute power. The powers are limited by constitutional emperor made decision by himself. rules. He is like the God. All citizens had to be loyal and implemented all

requires of the emperor. Monarchy at The queen has still existed beside The autocratic monarchy present the government. As a constitutional disappeared since 1945 when Dai monarch, the Queen is limited to abdicated the throne and transferred non-partisan functions such as power to the State of Vietnam. At present, Vietnam is a Socialist Republic country with running of the government that belongs to and serves for right and profitbility of citizens. Institution Constitutional Monarchy Constitution Republic President of the Socialist

bestowing honours , dissolving Parliament and appointing the

Prime Minister .

Head State

of Heads of state is Queen as a symbol of national strength and national solidarity

The concept There is no law in Britain which of the say anything about people. In fact, people there is no legal concept of the people at all

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a State of the people, from the people, for the people. All State power belongs to the people and is based on an alliance between the working class, the peasantry, and the intelligentsia.

The role of Britain people are legally described Citizens: The citizen exercises his people as Subjects subjects of Her right to mastery at the grassroots by Majesty the Queen participating in State and social affairs; he is dutybound to help protect public propety, legitimate civic rights and interests, maintain national security and social order, and organize public life.

Selection of In Appearance: The Queen can Prime choose anyone she like to run the Minister government for her. There are no restrictions of whom she picks as her Prime Minister. It does not have to be someone who has been elected. In reality: She has to choose someone who has the support of the majority of MPs in the House of Common. That person is really the Prime Minister who decides who the other government ministers are going to be ( Although officially the Prime Minister simply advises the monarch who to choose

The selection of Prime Minister through National Assembly. President propose to the National Assembly to elect, release from duty of the Prime Minister The Government shall be composed of the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Ministers, the Cabinet Ministers, and other members. With the exception of the Prlme Minister, its members are not necessarily members of the National Assembly. The Prime Minister is accountable to the National Assembly and shall make his reports to the National Assembly, its Standing Committee, and the country's President.

The Symbol Her majestys goverment is the The national assembly of of Power central goverment of the Britain Socialist Republic of Vietnam Party Some parties 3 main parties: + Labour + Conservative + Liberal Democratic party By the mid 19th century the Tories had evolved into the Conservative Party, and the Whigs had evolved into the Liberal Party. In the late 19th century the Liberal Party All Party organizations Only one party : Communist party of Vietnam:

the

The Communist Party of Vietnam, the vanguard of the Vietnamese working class, the faithful representative of the rights and interests of the working class, the toiling people, and the whole nation, acting upon the Marxist-Leninist doctrine and Ho Chi Minh's thought, is force leading the State and society. operate

began to pursue more left wing policies, and many of the heirs of the Whig tradition became Liberal Unionists and moved closer to the Conservatives on many of the key issues of the time. The Liberal and Conservatives dominated the political scene until the 1920s, when the Liberal Party declined in popularity and suffered a long stream of resignations. It was replaced as the main left-wing party by the newly emerging Labour Party, who represented an alliance between the trades unions and various socialist societies. Since then the Conservative and Labour Parties have dominated British politics, and have alternated in government ever since. However, the UK is not quite a two-party system since a third party (recently, the Liberal Democrats) can prevent 50% of the votes/seats from going to a single party. The Liberals merged with the Social Democrats because they had very

within the framework Constitution and the law.

of

the

similar views and became the Liberal Democrats which is now a sizeable party whose electoral results have improved in recent years.

Laws

The Queen; not other figure of Laws are approved by national authority,who embodies the law in assembly the courts Laws of parliament become into effect when they are approved by royal family

Members of Cabinet members advise the 90% members of national assembly goverment monarch as member of privy are members of Communist party council Activity principles A key principle of the UK constitution is that the Government is responsible to Parliament, this is called Responsible government. democratic centralism conference mode decided by majority

III Conclusion