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Childrens involvement in sports and academic performance

Introduction

The aim of this study was to identify whether or not children who involved in sports have an effect on their academic performance. In addition, this study was to determine whether children who spend to participate more on sports will achieve higher grades. Usually, children who involve in sport activities could not give full commitment during class period. They might have higher tendency to sleep in class, disturb other friends, being aggressive, and even playing truant. This was due to fatigue that they experienced after participating in sport activities. So that, it will lead to less concentration in class and could not participate actively. However, the children must have additional activities instead of study to improve their mental and physical development. Thus, children who involve in sports are more likely to perform well in academic. These studies support one another in suggesting that when a substantial amount of school time is dedicated to physical activity, academic performance meets and may even exceed rather than the students not receiving additional physical activity. (Shephard, 1997). This research was to discover is there a relationship between children involvement in sports and their performance in academic? It related to how the children manage their time in sports and grade that they will achieve. Children are active during their stage of development. Their Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is high. Thus, they are easier to process new information that they obtained. During this stage, children attempt to involve in such of the extra-curricular activities such as involve in sport. Most of the children like to participate in sports especially when they are in school. The topic of this research is about the involvement of sports among children and their academic achievement. Sport denotes as all forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being
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Childrens involvement in sports and academic performance

and social interaction, such as play, recreation, organized or competitive sport (European Sports Charter, 2001). While, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services gives the definition of academic Performance as it is used broadly to describe different factors that may influence student success in school. These factors are grouped into three primary areas: cognitive skill and attitude, academic behaviors and academic achievement. Academic achievement includes standardized test scores in subject areas such as reading, math, and language arts; GPAs; classroom test scores; and other formal assessments. This proposal is designed to find out either the
children who participate in sports will achieve better grade in their studies. In this research we use random sampling from 100 students from 2 different primary schools. All the participants will be given the questionnaire to collect data.

This research can establish new information about kids either good in sports or academic. Kids can excel in both sports and academics. In fact, Physical activities among children are significant because sports and academics often complement each other. This study is crucial to identify the relationship between sports and academic performance among school children. The physiological effects by participating in sport might increases the brain function. According to K. J. Linder, who wrote about pediatric exercise science, presented data illustrating that brain function, which impacts academic performance, is supported through time spent outside the class. Time outside of a classroom setting is often when physical activities, such as sports, take place. This may include physical education as well as after school sports programs. When a child participates in sports, he may experience increased levels of energy and reduced classroom boredom. This contributes to better student attention in the classroom. Linder also reported that kids who consider themselves outstanding academic performers are generally more likely to be active in sports and physical activities.
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Childrens involvement in sports and academic performance

According to Live Science, physical activity increases the brain's function, supports brain nourishment, leads to greater energy levels and contributes to the ability to concentrate. Sports can also improve a child's self-esteem, leading to improvements in overall behavior. higher energy concentration levels, changes in body build affecting self esteem, increased self-esteem and better behavior which may all support cognitive learning (Cocke, 2002) (Tremblay, Inman, & Willms, 2000) (Dwyer, Coonan, Leitch, Hetzel, & Baghurst, 1983) (Shephard, 1997). In addition, involving in sports in school also provide social benefits to the student. Children will be able to learn, to cooperate, share and abide by rules of group physical activities. They will feel more connected to their school and community by joining sports activities. Student less likely to engage in social problems because of their attention to their physical activities held at their school. Besides that, the physical activities can improves the circulation of blood flow to the brain increases blood flow to the brain, where it can raises the levels of nor epinephrine and endorphins these hormones can reduce stress, improve mood, and give calm effect after exercise, and perhaps could bring to the better result in their studies. Therefore, participation in sport identified in the research literature much about the physiological benefits, social benefits, and it also can improve mental health,

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Childrens involvement in sports and academic performance


Literature Review

There are a lot of studies that investigate the relationship between children involvement in sports and their academic performance. Few studies was conducted and agreed that regular participation in sport is associated with the improvement in academic toward the children. Apart from that, different studies said that sports shown to improve cognitive performance and promote on-task classroom behavior. Children tend to participate in the classroom because their cognitive process becomes active. More time children participate in sports lead to the increased the grade and standardize test score. There is a positive correlation between involvement in sports and Childrens academic performance. Much of the past research has supported that involvement is sport could lead to a better academic performance among children. Supporters of school sport programs argue that sport participation improves students achievement motivation (Casey, 1989; Parker & Johnson, 1981), improves students grades, keeps them in school, raises their educational

aspirations (Melnick, Sabo, & Vanfossen,

1992). Moreover, it also can helps them

appreciate health, helps them learn about themselves and learn to handle adversity, as well as helps them experience team work and sportsmanship (Rasmussen, 1999-2000). These are the benefits that children can get by participating in physical activity held in their school. According to Howard Taras (2005), Students who are involved in both sports and other extracurricular activities had the highest chances of doing more than 3 hours homework per week. Various physical activities account for up to 25% of childrens ability test, which demand childrens total attention and concentration up to 20% of ability, reflected on this school readiness test. Participation in sports was also related to increased self-esteem, a more
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Childrens involvement in sports and academic performance

internalized locus of control, spending more time on home work and increased contact among parents, students and teachers (Broh, 2002). Dr.Karen Martin (2010), mentioned about participation in sports and other forms of physical activity could lead to the enhancement of cognitive functioning such as memory, concentration, behavior and academic achievement for children. It promotes the positive impact on childrens physical and mental health. Furthermore, she also mentioned there are a positive correlation between physical activity participation and academic performance. Students who reported a greater level of exercise spent more time in sports and achieved higher grade point averages. Results from intervention studies provide some evidence that gain in academic achievement are achieved following greater physical activity participation. It suggesting that physical activity is impacting upon learning. Cognitive and academic testing can measures and indicates that physical activity enhances childrens cognitive functioning, concentration and ontask behavior. In addition, Robert wood Johnson (2007) points out that kids who are physically active and fit are likely to have stronger academic performance. Five studies consistently show that more time in physical education does not harmfully affect academic performance. There are several possible mechanisms by which physical education and regular physical activity could improve academic achievement, including enhanced concentration skills and classroom behavior. Physiological effects of physical activity on the brain help out in explaining all this relationship. Exercise can actually increase the levels of the brain growth factor. In a more recent study Broh (2002) also looked at the relationship between sports and students outcomes. Broh analyzed data on students from the National opportunities Educational
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Childrens involvement in sports and academic performance


Longitudinal study of 1988 (NELS 88) .The result of the analysis showed

that

participating interscholastic sport was related to improved mathematical graders, English and Mathematics test scores. One of the early philosophies behind extracurricular activities was that they should, wherever at all possible, grow out of curricular activities and return to curricular activities to enrich them (Millard, 1930). In a study conducted in 1999 with 177 New Jersey elementary students, researchers compared concentration test scores after students completed either a classroom lesson or a 15minute physical activity session. Fourth-grade students exhibited drastically better concentration scores after completing the physical activity. Among second- and third-grade students, the physical activity intervention was neither beneficial nor detrimental to test performance (McNaughten D, Gabbard C. as cited in Stewart G. Trost, 2007). Linder (1999) points out that the increased energy levels and time outside of the classroom may give relief from boredom resulting in higher attention levels during classroom instruction. For example, a national study conducted in 2006 analyzed data collected from 11,957 adolescents across the U.S. to examine the relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Adolescents who reported either participating in school activities, such as physical education and team sports, or playing sports with their parents, were 20% more likely than their inactive peers to earn an A in math or English (Nelson MC, Gordon-Larson P. 2006) . Apart from that, school principals are also interested in the relationship between

academic achievement and participation in interscholastic sports at middle level schools, implying that sports do have some sort of influence on how students perform academically (Stephens &Schaben, 2002, para. 2).Supporters of high school sport programs argue that sport

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Childrens involvement in sports and academic performance

participation improves students achievement motivation (Casey, 1989; Parker &Johnson, 1981), improves students grades, keeps them in school, raises their educational aspirations (Melnick, Sabo, &Vanfossen, 1992), helps them appreciate health, exercise and fitness, helps them learn about themselves and learn to handle adversity, and helps them experience team work and sportsmanship (Rasmussen, 1999-2000).When a substantial amount of school time is dedicated to physical activity, academic performance meets and may even exceed that of students not receiving additional physical activity (Shephard as cited in Leslee J. Scheuer, Dr. Debby Mitchell). The findings of a group of studies indicated that participation in sports increased students overall interest and commitment to schooling as well as their engagement in more student-teacher relationship, more positive attitudes about schooling, and more parent-school relationship. (Crain, 1981; Trent & Braddock, 1992). This study addresses the hypothesis that school children who participate in physical activities in school have a competitive disposition which also motivates them to do well in school and have a better achievement in academic performance. The aim of this study is to show evidence that children who participate in schools sport activities acknowledge the association in their sports competitiveness to motivation in their academic performance.

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Childrens involvement in sports and academic performance

Methods Sample

Participants in this research (n=100) are selected randomly from the primary student from 2 different schools in Klang valley area such as Sekolah Kebangsaan Sri Gombak, and Sekolah kebangsaan Gombak Setia. All the participants will equally sampling between boys and girls. All the participants are selected from standard 4 until standard 6 from each of the school. They will be selected by using the random sampling method. In every school, 50 students will be selected equally between the student who involved in sport and who did not involve at all. Students who participate in this study will be given inform consent to their parent to seek approval from their parents to involve in this study.

Measure.

The study used survey as the method to collect data. The questionnaire consists of 20 statements that are straight forward statements. It is to make student convenient to answer the entire questions based on the fixed time given. Academic achievement includes standardized test scores in subject areas such as reading, math, and language arts; GPAs; classroom test scores; and other formal assessments. All the questions are designs suitable for the level of the students. The participants include the children who involved in sports and not. Participants were asked to rate to what extent the statement reflect their personal belief about their involvement in sport could reflect upon their academic achievement of their study. By using Sports Participation Model Questionnaire (SPMQ). A Likert-scale to measure sports (Aicinena, 2002). Respondents
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Childrens involvement in sports and academic performance

need to response the questions that are 1-strongly disagree, 2- disagree, 3- agree, 4- strongly agree based from their perceptions. Meanwhile, Academic Promise Test (APT) is to measure Childrens Academic Performance (George K.Bennett). This scale is an efficient measurement of three important abilities in academic which consist of abstract reasoning, numerical, and language usage. This test is to obtain the relationship between sports and Childrens academic performance..

Procedure.

Before the study will be conducted, inform consent will be distributed to the participants to get permission from their parents. After we get the approval from the parents, we will start the study according to our time schedule. Participants will be asked to gather in a room to answer the survey and they will be assisted by their teacher. 40 participants who are randomly selected from standard 4 until 6 will be given one hour to answer the questionnaire. All the questions that distributed to the participants are easily to answer and suitable with their age. They have to answer within fixed time given.

Data analysis

We use quantitative data analysis to get the result by encoding the data into SPSS. This study indicates that children who involved in sports have higher tendency to perform better in academic.

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References The Association Between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Revised Version July 2010 Marsh HW, Kleitman S (2002). Extracurricular activities: The good, the bad, and the nonlinear. Harvard Educational Review, 72,464-512. Sunday A. Adeyemo The relationship between students participation in school based extracurricular activities and their achievement in physics International Journal of Science and Technology Education Research Vol. 1, pp. 111 - 117, November 2010 Broh BA (2002,). Linking extracurricular programming Who benefits and why? to academic achievement:

Sociol. Edu., 75, 69-96 January

Danielle Tower : Relationship Between Athletic and Academic Success: A Pilot Study Francois Trudeau & Roy J. Shephard hysical education and school physical activity and school sports and academic performance

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Appendixes

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