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UDPFI
URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS
FORMULATION a IMPLEMENTATION
GUIDELINES
PREPARED BY
CENTRE FOR RESEARCH, DOCUMENTATION & TRAINING,
INSTITUTE OF TOWN PLANNERS, INDIA,
4 -A, 'RING ROAD, I. P ESTATE, NEW DELHI-11 0002, PHONE : 3318571.
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FOREWORD
The National Workshop on Master Plan Approach : Its Efficacy and Alternatives, held
at Delhi during February 24-25 discussed the state of the art in urban planning and
development process and examined various alternatives. It was generally felt that
urban development plans were potent instruments in guiding the growth of a city.
However, there was a need to re-examine the urban planning and, development
process specifically in the context of making it more dynamic and participatory as
well as reflecting the spirit of the Constitution (Seventy-Fourth) Amendment Act
1992 which, among others, aims at devolving the urban planning including town
planning function to the elected municipalities. The National Workshop, inter-alia,
recommended: (1) Preparation of realistic and eHective urban development plans
including spatial development plan; resource mobilisation · plan; institutional
mechanism for plan implementation; simplifications of laws and regulations relating
. to management/promotion of development; and a participatory approach for
planning; (2) Amendments to land use/development control laws and regulations;
{3) Formulation of guidelines to provide appropriate advice to concerned agencies.
Keeping the recommendations of the National Workshop in view, this research study
was awarded to the Institute of Town Planners, India which is the apex professional
body in the countty. The objectives of the research study included a) preparation of
urban development plans formulation and implementation (UDPFI) guidelines
applicable to small and medium size towns and large cities incorporating efficient
implementation mechanism and innovative techniques for promotion of planned
socio-economic and spatial development of urban centres; b) simplification of
development promotion regulations; and c) amending/restructuring of town planning
laws.
These UDPFI guidelines in two volumes are the culmination of this research study
which has evolved an efficient, dynamic and proactive planning system and
time-bound plan formulation, approval, monitoring and review process. These
guidelines also provide simplifi_ed planning techniques, norms and standards,
innovative techniques of resource mobilisation and land assembly, simplified
development promotion regulations, and full legal support in the form of Model Urban
and Regional Planning,_ and Development Law (Revised) and suggested changes in
Town Planning Acts oLMaharashtra and Gujarat consequent to the 74th CAA, the
UDPFI guidelines and R·evised Model Law .
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These guidelines, when adopted by the state governments and urban local authorities
would ushar in an era of dynamic, participatory and self-sustaining urban
planning and development process and contribute in making urban centres generators
of economic momentum where the quality of life would be conducive to efficient
working and pleasant living.
As Chairman of the Steering Committee for the research study, I congratulate the
Institute of Town Planners, India for such useful research output.
August 1996
New Delhi




Chairman, Steering Committee
and Joint Secretary,
Ministry of Urban Affairs and
Employment,
Government of India
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PREFACE
Planning is a continuous process and the planning system should be such that ensures this
continuity. Commencing from 1915, when Bombay Town Planning Act was passed which
enabled preparation of land use plan within the city Iimits, town planning practice in India has
come a long way. During the early periods planning was piecemeal and such approach
continued to be the practice for about four decades. After independence, city planning
experienced tremendous changes in its approach due to need for resettlement of displaced
persons as a consequence of political changes. Several resettlement colonies were added in
existing cities and many new towns with industrial base were developed. Town and Country
Planning Laws were enacted by various states and master plans of 879 towns were prepared
and plans of some 318 urban centres are currently in different stages of preparation or
approvaL Implementation of these plans, however, has generally been poor and they have
been criticised to be rigid and static having little regard to investment planning efforts and
taking very long time in the process of plan formulation and approvaL
The National Workshop on Master Plan Approach : Its Efficacy and Alternatives examined the
entire process of urban development planning and implementation and there was a general
conclusion that land. use plans are needed to guide development of urban centres but it should
not only remain an instrument of control but a tool to promote an orderly development. This
workshop recommended, among others, preparation of model guidelines for urban
development plan formulation and implementation. As a consequence of this recommendation,
the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment awarded a research study to the Institute of
Town Planners, India.
This report is the ·result of the deliberations of the Expert Group comprising senior urban and
regional planners under the policy guidance of the Steering Committee, appointed by the
.' Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment for the study, under the Chairmanship of Shri
. .
M.S.Srinivasan, Joint Secretary and with technical advice of the 12-member Technical
Committee of experts from different states and organisations in the country.
As Chairman of the Technical Committee, I am pleased with the output of the research study
which has evolved a dynamic, participatory and time saving urban planning system and
process having full regard to the professional, legal and political considerations.
The suggested urban planning system includes a set of four inter-dependent plans: (a) a
policy oriented, long term (20-25 years) Perspective Plan; (b) a comprehensive, medium-term
(5 years) Development Plan formulated within the framework of the Perspective Plan; (c) An
Annual Plan for resource mobilisation and implementation of the Development Plan; and (d)
Plans of Projects I Schemes for execution of the Development Plan.
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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines--
These· urban development plars f6rm4lation and implementation (UDPFI) guidelines also
provide contents of each plan; the planning process and techniques; approval process; the
innovative fiscal resource mobilisation and land assembly approaches; manpower
requirements; spatial norms and standards; simplified development promotion regulations; and
revised model urban and regional planning and developmental law incorporating all the
suggested provisions as per these guidelines as well as the Constitution (Seventy Fourth)
Amendment Act 1992. Suggested changes are also provided in the Town Planning Acts of
Maharashtra and Gujarat.
-,tis a trend-setting work and wheri adapted by the states, will promote development of urban
centres to enable them to serve as generators of economic momentum, provider of jobs and
facilities and services ensuring a good quality of life. There is a need to take further actions
in this context as suggested oy the UDPFI Guidelines.
I congratulate the Centre for Research, Documentation and Training (CF-:tDT), Institute of Town
Planners, India for their commendable work.
August 1996
New Delhi

(Shri
Chairman, Technical Committee and
Chief Planner
Town'& Country Planning
Government of India
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------------------------UDPJ?I Guidelines---
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Planning is a team work and so is this research study. These Urban Development
Plans Formulation and implementation (UDPFI) Guidelines are the result of the
contribution made by expert urban and regional planners and the advice rendered
by the members of Steering Committee and the Technical Committee constituted
by the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment (MUAE), Government of India for
the research study.
As Principal Coordinator of --this research study, I take this opportunity to
acknowledge with gratitude the role of Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment in
giving us the opportunity to contribute, through research input, to the evolution of a
dynamic system of planning and development of urban centres. In this context I
am, specially, -grateful to Shri M.S.Srinivasan, Joint Secretary, MUAE and
Chairman of the Steering Committee; Dr.P.K.Mohanty, Director (UD), MUAE; and
Mrs.V.R.Sundaram, Under Secretary (UD), MUAE.
I extend my thanks to (Late) Shri D.N.Basu, Economic Adviser, Planning
Commission, Mrs.Krishna Singh, Advisor, · Planning Commission; Shri
A.N.Chandrakeerthy, former Director, Town and Country Planning Department,
Karnataka and all other members of the Steering Committee who attended its ,
meetings in spite of their busy schedule and provided useful guidance.
I express my gratitude to Shri D;S.Meshram, Chairman of the Technical Committee
and its members including Shri K.K.Narang, Deputy Adviser, Planning Commission;
Shri B.B.Garg, Head, Housing and Planning, CBRI, Roorkee and others
acknowledged elsewhere, who participated in the four marathan meetings each
lasting more than 8 hours and provided technical input and guidance to the
research study. Their contribution has been most valuable in shaping the output of
this study.
My thanks are due to Shri A.R.Patharkar, Director, Town Planning, Maharashtra
State, Shri N.K.Dash, Director, Town Planning, Orissa State and Shri S.A.Rizvi,
Chief Town Planner, Himachal Pradesh for their active participation and supply of
necessary information pertaining to their respective states which served as a very
useful background· material tor this study. I acknowledge the contribution made by
the Town and Country Planning Organisation, Government of India, New Delhi at
all stages of this research study and I express my thanks to the officers and staff of
the organisation for their cooperation- and help.
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I thank Prof.J.H.Ansari (for his contribution to this study in the form of Simplified
Planning Techniques), Prof.R.C.Gupta (for Norms and Spatial Standards); Prof.Abhijit
Datta and Dr.Gangadhar Jha (for Innovative Fiscal Resource Mobilisation Measures),
Shri S.C.Gupta (for Simplified Development Promotion Regulations), Shri A.Qaiyum
(for Guidelines for Location, Site and ·Situations), Shri R.G.Gupta (for Systems of
Private Sector Participation}, Shri R.L.P.Sinha (for Manpower Resources),
Prof.N.Ranganathan (for Traffic and Transportation Survey Techniques and Norms and
Standards), Shri M.L.Chotani (for Presentation Techniques), Shri P.V.Shiralkar (for
Innovative Land Assembly Systems); Shri Abdul Ali, Shri A.R.Paiharkar, Shri
B.M.Brahmbhatt and Shri R.P.Bansal (for Legislative Support and
Revision/Modification of the Model Law and Town Planning Acts of Maharashtra and
Gujarat). This output, in the form of UDPFI Guidelines, is the result of intense
participation of these experts and I am grateful to each one of them.
My special thanks are due to Shri H.R.Suri, President, !TPI, and Shri J.B.Kshirsagar,
Secretary General, ITPI for extending their full support and making all required
facilities of ITPI available for the research study. Finally, I thank Shri K.K.Joddar and
Shri Abu Nazim for their help in preparation of the report; and Mr.P.Muruganantham
and Ms.Neelam Sharma for their secretarial help; Mr.lkram Khan for accounts keeping
and other members of staff for general assistance to this study.
August, 1996
New Delhi
(Dr.S.K.Kulshrestha)
Principal Co-ordinator of the
Research Study and Director,
CRDT, ITPI.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.10 NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MASTER PLAN APPROACH
1.20 CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY FOURTH) AMENDMENT ACT, 1992
AND. URBAN PLANNING
1.30 THE NEED FOR THE GUIDELINES
1.40 AWARD OF RESEARCH STUDY
1.41 The Terms of Research Study
1.50 SELECTION OF STATES FOR CASE STUDY
1.60 CLASSIFICATION OF TOWNS/CITIES FOR THE STUDY
1.70 ORGANISATION OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
1.71 Collaboration
1.72. Committees
1.80 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT
1.90 HOW TO USE THE GUIDELINES
CHAPTER TWO : URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING SYSTEM AND
iii
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01-10
PROCESSES 11-37
2.10 AN OVERVIEW
2.20 RECOMMENDED PLANNING SYSTEM
2.30 SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF VARIOUS ·URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS
2.31
2.32
2.33
2.34
Perspective Plan
Development Plan
Annual Plan
Plans of Schemes I Projects
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2.40
INTER-RELATiONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS PLANS
2.50 PLANNING PROCESS
2.51. Aims and Objectives
2.52. Identification of Projected Needs
2.53 Plan Formulation
2.54 Decentralisation of Plan Approval Process
2.55. Approval of Perspective Plan
2.56. Approval of the Development Plan
2.60 IMPLEMENTATiON
2.61 Public Sector Interventions
2.62 Private Sector Actions
2.63 Joint Venture
2.70
REVIEW OF PLANS
2.71 Review of Perspective Plans
2.-12 Review of Development Plans
2.73 Review of Annual Plan
2.80 PEOPLE'S PARTICIPATION
2.90 MODIFICATIONS
CHAPTER THREE : CONTENTS OF A PERSPECTIVE PLAN
3.10 GENERAL
3.20 CONTENTS OF PERSPECTIVE PLANS OF SMALL AND
MEDIUM SIZE TOWNS
3.21 Existing Conditions and Developmental Issues
3.22 Projected Requirements
3.23 Development Aims and Objectives
3.24 Policies and Priorities
3.30 ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF PERSPECTIVE PLANS OF LARGE CITIES
3.31 Existing Conditions and Policy Issues
3.32 Projected Requirements
3.33 Policies and Priorities
/
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CHAPTER FOUR : CONTENTS OF A DEVELOPMENT PLAN
4.10 GENERAL
4.20 CONTENTS OF A DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN CASE OF
SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE TOWNS
4.21 Introduction
4.22 Existing Conditions and Developmental Issues
4.23 Projected Requirements
4.24 Development Aims and Objectives
4.25 Development Proposals (formal and informal sector)
4.26 Resource Mobilisation
4.27. Implementation
4.28 Monitoring and Review
45-52
4.30 ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS OF LARGE CITIES
4.31 Existing Conditions and Development Issues
4.32 Projected Requirements
4.33 Development Aims and Objectives
4.34 Development Proposals
CHAPTER FIVE : CONTENTS OF ANNUAL PLANS
5.10 GENERAL
5.20 CONTENTS OF AN ANNUAL PLAN
5.21 Brief Introduction
5.22 Review of Last Year's Performance
5.23 The Annual Plan
53-56
CHAPTER SIX : CONTENTS OF PLANS OF PROJECTS / SCHEMES 57-59
6.10 GENERAL
6.20 CONTENTS OF PLANS OF PROJECTS I SCHEMES
6.21 Location
6.22 Site Planning
6.23 Environmental Impact Assessment
6.24 Spatial Impact Assessment
6.25 Financing Plan
6.26 Project Administration and Organisation
6.27 Legal Support I Constraints (if any)
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CHAPTER SEVEN: RESOURCE MOBILISATION
7.10 INTRODUCTION
7.20 FISCAL RESOURCE MOBILISATION
7.21 General Fiscal Policies
7.22 Innovative Approaches for Fiscal Resource Mobilisation
7.30 LAND ASSEMBLY
7.31 Land and Planning Interface
7.32 Land Pooling and Redistribution Scheme
7.33 Transferable Development Rights
7.34 Accommodation Reservation :
7.40 MANPOWER RESOURCE
7.41 Introduction
7.42 Institutional Set-up
7.43 Policy Options for Manpower Mobilisation
7.44 General Policy of Manpower Development
CHAPTER EIGHT: LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT
8.10 EXISTING SCENARIO
8.11 Maharashtra
8.12 Orissa
8.13 Himachal Pradesh
8.14 Model Law
8.15 Tamil Nadu
8.20 IMPLICATIONS OF CONSTITUTION (74th) AMENDMENT ACT 1992
61-81
83-104
8.21 New Role and Functions of State Town and Country Planning Departments
8.22 Status of Existing Development Authorities I Boards
8.30 SUGGESTED CHANGES IN THE MODEL LAW
8.31 Changes in chapter-!
8.32 Structure of subsequent chapters.
8.40 SUGGESTED CHANGES IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING ACTS OF
MAHARASHTRA AND GUJARAT
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8.41 Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act, 1966
8.42 Gujarat Regional Planning Urban De'l(elopment Act 1973
8.50 SIMPLIFIED DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION GUIDELINES
8.51 Background
8.52 Simplified Urban Land Use Classification
8.53 Simplified Land Use Zoning Regulations
8.54 Development Promotion Regulations i.n Various Use Zones
CHAPTER NINE : FURTHER ACTIONS
9.10 BEGINNING OF A PROCESS
9.20 ADOPTION OF UDPFI GUIDELINES
9.30 BASE MAPS
9.40 CENTRAL ASSISTANCE
9.50 URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING INFORMATION SYSTEM
9.60 MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT
APPENDICES
APPENDIX- A :
APPENDIX- B :
APPENDIX- C :
APPENDIX- D :
APPENDIX- E :
APPENDIX- F :
ANNEXURES ({· ,
~ i . F
ANNEXURE - 1 :
ANNEXURE- 2 :
ANNEXURE - 3 :
SIMPLIFIED PLANNING TECHNIQUES
NORMS AND STANDARDS
SIMPLIFIED DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION
REGULATIONS
ALTERNATIVE MODELS OF PRIVATE SECTOR
PARTICIPATION
PREPARATION OF BASE MAPS AND GRAPHIC
PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES
STEERING COMMITTEE MEMBERS
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE MEMBERS
EXPERT GROUP MEMBERS
105-107
109-144
145-186
187-205
207-217
219-239
241-247
249
250
252
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Need for Guidelines
1. Taking into account the not so efficient capabilities of the urban local authorities
vis-a-vis the provisions of the Constitution (Sevenl.y-Fourth) Amendment Act, 1992
(74th CAA), the deficiencies in the Master Plan approach as identified during the
National Workshop on this subject held at Delhi in 1995 and the current policy of
economic liberalisation, the need is felt to assist the administrators, municipal town
planners, and the consultants with guidelines for urban development plans formulation
and implementation (UDPFI}.
Scope of Study
2.· The terms of reference of the study included formulation of guidelines for :
a) preparation of spatial development plans and resource mobilisation
plans of small, medium and large size urban centres;
b) efficient implementation mechanism and innovative techniques for
promotion of planned spatia-economic development of urban areas; and
c) simplification of town planning laws and their amendments/
restructuring.
Case Study Areas
3. Three states namely Maharashtra (highly urbanised), Orissa (urbanising), and
Himachal Pradesh (hill state) were selected as case study areas.
Classification of Urban Centres
4. For the purpose of this study the urban centres have been classified as:
-----------------------------------------------·------------------------------------------------------------
Population Range
Classification
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plain Areas
Hill Areas
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
a) Small Town :
b) Medium Town:
c) Large City :
less than 50,000
50,000 - 5,00,000
more than 5,00,000
less than 20,000
20,000 - less than 80,000
80,000 and more
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5.
6.
7.
8.
Structure of the Report
The UDPFI Guidelines have been organised in two parts, Part 1, comprising nine
chapters, giving details of the suggested planning system, planning process, plan
approval system, contents of various plans, fiscal, land and resource
mobilisation, legislative support needed and further actions. These chapters are
further supported by appendices giving simplified planning techniques; minimum spatial
norms and standards; simplified development promotion rules and regulations;
alternative systems of private sector participation. The specific variations as applicable
to small, medium and large urban centres have been provided. Variations for hill
areas, where applicable, have also been provided.
Part 2 contains suggested changes required in Model Regional and Town Planning
and Development Law (Volume 2A) and modifications in Town Planning Acts of
Maharashtra (Volume 28) and Gujarat (Volume 2C).
Urban Development Planning System and Process
Review' of literature on the subject in India and abroad reveals that each country has
evolved a system that suited its specific needs and legal provisions. The
recommended urban development planning system, has, therefore, taken into account
the problems and the expectations as well as the legal, administrative and political
. system in the country. The 74th CAA demands devolution of planning function to local
authorities and involvement of people in the planning decision making process; and
administratively and professionally it is expected that the system should provide for
a long-term policy plan, a mid-term comprehensive plan which is further integrated with
budgetary process and divided into projects/schemes for implementation, monitoring /
and review.
Accordingly, the recommended urban development planning system consists of a set
of the following four inter-related plans :
a)
Perspective Plan :
b)
Development Plan :
c)
Annual Plan :
A long term {20-25 years) policy plan of spatio-economic
development of the settlement.
Conceived within the framework of the approved
Perspective Plan, it is a medium-term (generally five
years coterminus with the term of the local authority)
comprehensive plan of spatio-economic development of
the urban centre.
Conceived within the framework of Development Plan,
it is a plan containing the physical and fiscal details of
new and ongoing projects that the local authority intends
to implement during the respective financial year.
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d) Plans of Projects/
Schemes
Regional Approach
Conceived within the framework of approved
Development Plan/Annual Plan, these are detailed
working layouts for execution by a public or private
agency ..
9. As a general principle, it is suggested that plans at the levels higher than the
settlements should be regional in nature and contents. Similarly, national and state
level plans shall incorporate only those developmental policies programmes that
need to be addressed at that level and also those that come under joint
responsibilities of centre, state and local authorities.
Plan Formulation
1 o. . With a view to ensuring participation and commitment of the various departments, it
is suggested that a Development Integration Committee be constituted, comprising
a Chairman and the head of all departments, local, state or -central, functioning at the
settlement level as members, with the municipal town planner as the
member-secretary. This committee will discuss and advise on development aims and
objectives; provide input on projections, priorities and major requirements; and also
ensure cooperation of inter-departmental actions.
11.
12.
Decentralisation of Plan Approval Process
Following the spirit of the 74th CAA and ·recognising the fact that the current process
of approval of urban development l'ja_ns takes a lot of time, resulting in delays,.)f is'.
recommended that the plan approval"proe:ess should be time bound and decentralised
as.follows:
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Plan
Approving Body
Maximum Time frame
for Approval(months)
-----------------·--------------------------------------------------------------------------!.------------
a. Perspective Plan
b. Development Plan
c. Annual Plan
d. Schemes/Projects
State government, through
State Chief Town Planner
Municipal Council/Corporation
Municipal Council/Corporation
Municipal Planner
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Implementation
The recommeded steps for implementation of various plans include :
a)
Formu!ation of the projects for implementation within the framework of
approved development plan/annual plan.
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b)
Identification of various agencies responsible for : (i) Development
Promotion Management ; and {ii) Execution of projects. ·
c) Actions for implementation which include : (i) Public-sector
interventions; (ii) Private sector actions, and (iii) Joint-venture or
public-private partnership.
People's Participation
A system of direct and indirect participation of the people has been suggested as
under:
a. The suggested indirect participation of the people is ensured through
e!ected representatives in the municipal Councii/Coporation and Ward
Committees (74th CAA). This kind of participation has appropriately
been provided in the Perspective, Development and Annual Plans
formulation process.
b. The direct participation can be through individuals, citizens' groups,
neighbourhood groups, business groups, consumer groups, and such
other groups. NGOs and CBOs can also play a vital role as an
intermediate link between the people and the government. Such a
participation has been suggested for plan approval, and formulation of
land pooling and other schemes and rehablitation/re-development
projects that directly affect the people.
Resource Mobilisation
14. For fiscal resource mobilisation the suggested measures include :
a. MuniciJ'N-r1. Taxer : Some of the promising new taxes for which powers
could be delegated to the local authority are :
tax on consumption of electricity {as in Delhi);
a surcharge on petroleum products; ·
a tax on advertisement is already a lucrative and popular tax in
some states;
entertainment tax; and
stamp duty.
b. Land Based Taur: Urban land is emerging as a potent source for local
resource generation. The following are promising areas for land based
taxation :
Vacant developed land cess
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c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Tax on land value increment due to rise in price or
provision/upgradation of infrastructure
Change of use of land cess
Development impact exaction
Development charges
Users' charges
The various alternatives to octroi adopted by some states are:-
Surcharge on sales tax - (U.P)
Entry tax on goods, commodities and bus passengers
(M.P)
Progressive turnover tax (Rajasthan is considering)
Non-Tax Sources: The non-tax sources like remunerative and commercial
projects are promising areas for revenue generation.
Fiscal Transfers: In the short run, it would be advisable to place
maximum reliance on Assigned and Shared Taxes as in Kerala and
Tamil Nadu. As a general purpose grant, grant-in-aid code could be
evolved by the state governments on per head basis by relating the
. quantum of per head grant with size and resource endowments. In
addition to this, capital grant will also have to be rationalised. '
Institutional Finance: The municipal bodies now can take recourse to
HUDCO, Infrastructure Leasing and Finance Corporation, NHB, LIC,
and HDFC for loan. ·
Private Sector Finance: Some of the existing municipal functions like
water supply, transport, electricity, collection and disposal of solid
waste, and sanitation on the fringe areas could be privatised and
contracted out.
Effective TaxAdininistration: This could be done by, among other things,
by introducing a system of incentives for prompt payment and penalities
for defaulting.
in the context of improving the land delivery situation, some practical and effective
systems of land assembly like : (a) Land Pooling and Redistribution Scheme; (b)
Transfer of Development Rights (TOR}; and (c) Accommodation Reservations are
recommended.
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16.
17.
For providing manpower for urban plan formulation, implementation and review it is
suggested that :
(a) All local authorities in large cities should have an appropriate urban
planning department. In this respect rational basic units of manpower
requirement for urb·an local authorities in small and medium towns and
large and metropolitan cities have also been evolved as a guide.
(b) All medium and small towns should have at least a municipal planner
to look after the various planning, approval and implementation
functions including monitoring and review. If the local authority is
unable to provide the appropriate planning department, the alternatives
are as under :
Legislative Support
(i) By pooling resources and. forming an Association of
Municipalities a:t state level and provide appropriate
set-up for plan formulation, or
(ii) Award plan formulation work to consultants on
consultancy basis.
There is a need to revise the model Regional and Town Planning and Development
Law to provide legislative support to the innovative suggestions contained in these
UDPFI Guidelines as well as the implications of the 74th CAA. In Volume 2A, the
revised Model Urban and Regional Planning Law has been provided. It incorporates:
the role and functions of MPC, DPC and local authorities as provided
under 74th CAA;
the contents of plans and process of planning, approval, monitoring
and review of plans of MPC, DPC and local authorities.
·innovative approaches to fiscal resource mobilisation, land assembly
and private sector .
people's participation in plan formulation and approval including
provision for a public meeting to explain highlights of the Development'
Plan.
18. Suggested changes in the Town Planning Acts of Maharashtra and Gujarat as a
consequence to these guidelines and Model Law (Revised) have also been provided
in Volume 28 and 2C respectively.
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-------------------------UDPFI Guidelines ---
Further Actions
19. The suggested further actions include:
a. calling a meeting of Secretaries of Urban Development and State Chief
Town Planners/Director Town Planning followed by a meeting of
Ministers of Urban Affairs and Local Self Government for adaption of
UDPFI Guidelines by the States.
b. Mechanism for procurement of base maps
c. Central assistance by Planning Commi.ssion during the 9th and 1Oth
Five Year Plans to local authorities to provide initial fiscal support in 1
formulation of urban Perspective and Development Plans .
d. · Establishment of Urban and Regional Information System and
e. Identification of Manpower Development Needs
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.10 NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MASTER PLAN APPROACH
1. The Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, Government of India organised a
NatiOrilclJ Workshop on Master Plan Approach : Its Efficacy and Alternatives during
February 24-25, 1995 to critically examine various issues related to preparation and
implementation of master plans, including their alternatives, if any. The National
Workshop concluded that in spite of some deficiencies there is no alternative to land
use plans.
2. The major recommendations of this workshop interalia were as follows :
a) To develop realistic and effective urban development plans and steps
need to be taken to evolve :
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
spatial development plan;
resource mobilisation plan;
institutional mechanism to implement the development
plans;
a set of comprehensive and simplified development
management/promotion rules/ regulations which can be
easily understood by the public; and
a mechanism to involve the participation of the
public,especially the poor, socially disadvantaged
groups,women, non-government and community-based
organisations in planning process.
It highlighted that the growth potential and special functions performed
by urban areas such as marketing, industrial, tourism and pilgrimage
need to be explicitly recognised. The planning exercises should aim at
guiding the activities of public agencies as well as private and the
growing informal sectors while keeping the larger interest of the society
in view. The Ministry of Urban Development (now Ministry of Urban
Affairs and Employment) and state governments should take immediate
action to develop model guidelines in this regard by constituting Expert
Committees to provide appropriate advice to the concerned agencies. -
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b)
- c)
d)
The plan formulation exercise must be completed within a specified
time pF',riod and the time schedule for plan preparation, public
notification/hearing and approval must be statutorily prescribed in the
relevant acts. Considering the importance of metropolitan cities. the
approval of major changes in their development plans should be done
at the higher level and within prescribed time period so as to accord a
sanctity to the development plans.
The periodic review and revision of plans are essential component of
the planning process and mid-term reviews of the plans should be
undertaken at regular intervals to impart flexibility to the planning
process and necessary statutory provisions need to be made in tile
relevant acts in this regard.
Application of the concepts of land swaps, land pooling, town planning
schemes, accommodation reservation, transfer of development rights,
etc., which are innovative plan implementation techniques, should be
explored and the relevant acts/laws may be amended to accommodate
such practices while keeping the provisions of the Constitution
(Seventy-Fourth) Amendment Act, 1992 (74th CAA) and principles of
economic reforms in view.
e) Latest techniques and tools like remote sensing, aerial photography,
geographic information system (GIS) and others be utilised for
preparation of development plans.
f) Base maps of towns and cities need not be regarded as secret
documents. Greater transparency will be in the interest of better public
awareness, especially in the context of planning for development having
been decentralised through the 74th CAA.
g) Appropriate management information system (MIS) and data base
should be devel0ped by state and Central governments to assist
planners in developing realistic plans and programmes.
1.20 CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY FOURTH) AMENDMENT ACT,1992 AND URBAN
PLANNING
2
1. Article 243-W of the Constitution (74th) Amendment Act 1992 (74th CAA) envisages,
among others, that the legislature of state may, by law, endow the municipalities with
such powers and responsibilities subject to such conditions as may be specified
therein, with respect to :
a) The preparation of plans for economic development and social
justice. And
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b)
The performance of functions and the implementation of schemes as
may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matter
listed in the Twelfth Schedule.
2. Jhe first three items of the Twelfth Schedule are:
i) urban planning including town planning;
ii) regulation of land use and construction of buildings; and
iii) planning for economic and social development.
3. Article 243-ZD provides for constitution of District Planning Committee (DPC) to
consolidate the plans prepared by panchayats and the municipalities in the district and
to prepare a draft development plan for district as a whole. It further provides that
every DPC shall, in preparation of draft development plan, have regard to, among
others :
i) matters of common interest between the panchayats and the
municipalities including spatial planning, sharing of water and other
physical and natural resources, the integrated development of
infrastructure and environmental conservation;
ii) the extent and type of available resources whether financial or
otherwise.
4. Article 243-ZE provides for constitution of a Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC)
to prepare a draft development plan for metropolitan area as a whole, which is
defined, by 74th CAA, as an area having a population of ten lakh or more comprised
in one or more districts and consisting of two or more municipalities or panchayats or
other contiguous areas, specified by the Governor by public notification. Every MPC
shall, in preparing the draft development plan, have regard to, among others :
i) the plans prepared by the municipalities and the panchayats in the
metropolitan area;
ii) matters of common interest between the municipalities and the
panchayats, including coordinated spatial planning of the area, sharing of
water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated
development of infrastructure and environmental conservation;
iii) the overall objectives and priorities set by the Government of India and
the government of the state;
iv)
the extent and nature of investments likely to be made in metropolitan
area by agencies of the Government of India and of the government of
the state and other available resources whether financial or otherwise.
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5. From the above provisions it is implied that :
a) Every municipality is supposed to have a spatio-economic
development plan which along with other such plans would be
consolidated by the DPC and form basis for formulation of the Draft
District Development Plan (DDP).
b) The municipalities will be the local authorities entr-usted with the
function of preparation of plans of economic development and social
justice. And
c) The municipalities may be assigned by the state government the
function of urban planning including town planning.
6. Article 243-Q provides for three classes of local bodies as under:
a)
Nagar panchayat for transitional areas, that i3 to say, an area in
transition from rural to urban in character.
b)
Municipal council for a smaller urban area. And
c)
Municipal corporation for a large urban area.
7. By implication, all other classification of local authorities shall cease to exist and
the appropriate local authority for small and medium size towns shall be a municipal
council and for a large city it will be a municipal corporation.
1.30 THE NEED FOR THE GUIDELINES
1. Implementation of the provisions of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act by the
state governments, as stated in earlier sections, is likely to result in devolution of urban
planning functions, including town planning, to the elected focal authorities, that is to
say, the municipalities. These local authorities need technical inputs for discharging
this function. ,
As recommended by the National Workshop on Master Plan Approach, there is a need
to evolve:
a)
b)
c)
d)
An urban planning system that is dynamic, flexible and efficient.
An urban planning process that is less time consuming.
An implementation mechanism that incorporates innovative ideas of
land assembly and fiscal resource mobilisation. And
A legal support in the form of laws, rules and regulations that is simple
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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
and effective. In the absence of a single document that satisfies the
above requirements, need for guidelines becomes desirable and
necessary.
At the same time, the guidelines are flexible as local variations have been kept in view.
Such guidelines would serve as a useful document to the municipal planner and others
in formulating and implementing various urban development plans. It will also serve
as a guide to streamline urban planning practice across the country in both
government and private sectors. The guidelines would provide the details of the entire
range of urban development plans, their purpose, scope, form and contents. The
guidelines will also help in decision-making by the appropriate authority on matters like
process of planning, approval, implementation and review;
requirement of personnel;
techniques of implementation of urban development plans including
land assembly, resource generation and urban development
management through inter-departmental coordination and cooperation
at the settlement level;
ways to involve public participation in planning and development
process for effective planning, implementation and maintenance; and
ways to inculcate private sector participation in planning, development
and management process as one of the new roles of local authorities
is going to be that of a facilitator of development in the current
economic liberalisation scenario.
2. Realising that the task before the local authorities in the coming days is colossal,
the guidelines also examine capacity-building strategies and other actions to be taken
during the transition period which could be 10 to 15 years. Thereafter, it is expected
that each local authority will have its own resources developed to take desired actions
in urban planning, development and monitoring.
1.40 AWARD OF RESEARCH STUDY
1.41
Following the recommendations (see para 1.1 0.2 (a) above) of the National Workshop
on Master Plan Approach, the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment awarded this
research study on guidelines for preparation of plans for urban planning and development
and simplification of town planning laws. (Refer MUAE Letter No.K-14011/7/95-UD-111
dated 30th March, 1995) to the Institute of Town Planners, lndia(ITPI), New Delhi.
The Terms of Research Study
1. The terms of reference of the research study include formulation of guidelines in
consultation with ITPI Regional Chapters, state governments and Ministry of Urban
Affairs and Employment for :
a) Preparation of spatial development plans and resource mobilisation
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1.80
Secretary, Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, as Chairman and
Dr.P.K.Mohanty, Director, Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment as
Member-Convenor to advise and guide the research study from time to
time. (See Annexure 1 for details).
b) Technical Committee:
A 15-member Technical Committee under the Chairmanship of Shri
D.S.Meshram, Chief Planner, Town and Country Planning Organisation,
Government of India with Dr.S.K.Kulshrestha as Member-Convenor to
periodically review the progress of the research study and advise on
technical matters. (See Annexure 2 for detail).
c) · Expert Group:
An Expert Group of 12 persons to conduct various studies related to
this research work. (See Annexure 3 for detail). ·
STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT
1. The UDPFI Guidelines have been organised in two parts, supported by appendices
which will steer the users through the basic inputs required for plan formulation and
implementation. Part I, comprising eight chapters, provides the details of the
innovative planning system, planning process, plan approval system, contents of
various plans, resource mobilisation and simplified regulations supported by
appendices giving simplified planning techniques, minimum norms and standards, land
use-transportation interface and environmental planning principles, innovative
approaches for land assembly and resource mobilisation, simplified development
promotion rules and regulations, alternative systems of private sector participation, plan
formulation requirements of funding agencies, approaches to public participation,
provision for urban infrastructure and low-cost sanitation, presentation techniques, and
institutional set-up for plan preparation and implementation.
2. The specific variations as applicable to small, medium and large urban centres have
been provided. Variations for hill areas, where applicable, have also been provided
to help the planners and decision-makers to identify the necessary
strategies/approaches and techniques of planning urban centres located in such areas.
3. Part-11 has three volumes. Volume 2A provides Model Urban and Regional Planning
and Development Law (Revised) as a consequence of 74th CAA and UDPFI
Guidelines. Volumes 28 and 2C give the modified Regional and Town Planning Act
of Maharashtra and Modified Town Planning and Development Act of Gujarat
respectively.
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1.90 HOW TO USE THE GUIDELINES
1. Figure 1.1 shows the way of using the UDPFI Guidelines for preparation of various urban
development plans. •
DECISION TO PREPARE AN URBAN
DEVELOPMENT PLAN BY THE
MUNICIPALITY. THE PLANNING AND
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
J/
CHAPTER- 2
SELECTION OF THE TYPE OF PLAN
FOR (PERSPECTIVE PLAN.
DEVELOPMENT PLAN. ANNUAL PLAN)
OR PROJECT/SCHEME
FOR PREPARATION
'-
I;
I
--
I
l
CHAPTERS 3.4.5 & 6
APPENDICES
CHAPTERS 7 & 8
CONTENTS OF THE
SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE
RESOURCE MOBILISATION
SELECTED PLAN
TECHNIQUE I NORMS AND
AND LEGAL SUPPORT,
DOCUMENTS
STANDARDS. PRESENTATION
DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION
TECHNIQUES AND OTHER
RULES AND REGULATIONS
DETAILS
!
I
,_1;
FORMULATION OF PLAN
'-,j;
IMPLEMENTATION OF PLAN, I/
MONITORING AND REVIEW
["
fiG.1 : USE OF UDPFI GUIDELINES
•·
"0
·-:;

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·--------------------UDPFJ Guidelines__;_ __
2. It is highlighted here that the Jbjective of UDPFI guidelines is not to introduce regimentation
·in the planning process. These guide!ines basically provide the framework; the necessary
techniques; norms and standards; resource mobilisation and land assembly approaches; and
development promotion rules and regulations needed for formulation and implementation of
urban development plans. Since conditions vary from place to place and even within a
settlement there are variations, these guidelines are not uniformly applicable to all situations
and places hence these may be modified depending upon local conditions, felt needs and
technological innovations so that the development plan may SE.\rve as an efficient and dynamic
instrument to guide spatio-economic development of the planning area. These guidelines
provide basic instruments for planning and do not in any way, intend to limit the freedom of
expression of urban .and regional planners. They are completely free to use these tools and
to evolve various alternative planning and design solution pertaining to urban development.
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CHAPTER 2
URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
SYSTEM AND PROCESSES
---------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
2.10
CHAPTER TWO
URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING SYSTEM AND PROCESSES
AN OVERVIEW
1. A critical examination of the available literature on the current planning practices in
the country indicates that planning objectives, policies and strategies at national level ..
are basically formalised in the Five Year Plans which, are economic and social in
nature and contents. These plans are the major documents which determined the
course of national development. These are sectoral and there is hardly any actual
inter-sectoral coprdination.
2. According to the item 20 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule of the
Constitution of India, social and economic planning is a joint responsibility of the
Central and state governments. However, land being a state subject the role of state
governments becomes more pronounced in the implementation process.
3. At the level, the system of economic planning is similar to the one at the
national level. Spatial or physical planning is generally limited to a few selected urban
settlements. The urban planning system includes the master plan, detailed further
through zonal plans. In some states provision of an interim general plan is also
avai!'able. Generally the state Town and Country Planning Department/Directorate is
responsible for preparation of master/development plans of urban settlements under
the respective state Regional and Town Planning Act. In Maharashtra and Guja1:at,the
development plans of urban centres are prepared by state Town Planning and
Valuation Departments for and on behalf of the municipalities. Tlie development
authorities, in some states, perform the plann)ng function also. Private sector town
planning consultancy firms are also engaged by various organisations to prepare
development plan of state capitals, new towns and towns. But this sector has yet
to develop to its full potential. The implementation of these plans is generally through
development authorities and special function boar_cjs/undertakings.
4. Implementation has generally been "very poor and master plan, as an instrument
guiding urban development, has been found deficient in many ways requiring
necessary redressal. Major deficiencies in the master plan approach are that :
1. It provides a ··long-term perspective of development, neg-lecting
short-term actions and objectives; thus, losing its in a
fast-changing scenario.
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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
~ 2. It is rigid and static because it is treated as an end product and not as
a continU(•Us process.
3. It takes a very long time in its preparation and approval, making it an
out-of-date document even before its implementation. As a
consequence, there are frequent changes in land use.
4. It lacks symbiosis of socio-economic dynamism and physical
determination of a city.
5.
6.
7.
8.
It lacks integration of physical and fiscal planning efforts.
The norms and standards for land use and provision of facilities and
services are generally high and very difficult to be achieved at the time
of implementation.
The public participation in the planning process is not effective.
Many a time, its implementation is held up due to delays in preparation
of zonal plans and other detailed plans.
9. Monitoring and review mechanisms are neither regular nor effective.
10. It emphasises control rather than promotion of development.
11.
12.
Town planning and other related laws, such as acquisition of land, are
not suitably amended to adjust to changing socio-economic,
techno-economic changes and development needs.
Development management is generally not efficient. It lacks
coordination between planning wing on the one hand and
decision-making and executive wing on the other. Coordination and
cooperation among various implementing agencies is also very poor,
resulting in delays and many avoidable mistakes.
13. It hardly caters to the demands of informal sector.
14. In some cases too much political interference is observed which results
in some irrational proposals and implementation decisions.
5. In actual practice,a plan is needed to serve as a guideline to promote urban
development. Such a plan or the planning system should not have the above
shortcomings; rather it should :
1. be dynamic;
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2.20
2. be expeditious, where time taken in plan preparation and approval is
drastically reduced;
3. be participatory in nature where people, their representatives, policy
makers, and experts get opportunity to participate at both
the stages of planning and implementation;
4. promote development and provide conducive opportunities for effective
private sector participation in implementation process;
5. provide effective mandatory monitoring and review mechanisms;
6. provide a system that integrates physical and economic planning and
development initiatives;
7. incorporate informal sector and the needs of the urban poor and
provide opportunities for creation of jobs in both formal and informal
sectors;
8. have an active concern for protection of environment and historical and
cultural heritage;
9. strive for sustainable urban development; and
1 0. be action oriented with adequate fiscal support and resource
mobilisation strategy.
RECOMMENDED PLANNING SYSTEM
1. The planning practices in some other countries like U.K., U.S.A., the Netherlands,
Poland, France and China were studied. A synthesis of the results of this study
suggested that each country has evolved a system that suited its specific needs and
legal provisions. Taking into account the problems of existing system of urban
development planning in India and keeping in view the attributes of the desired system
that are outlined earlier in this chapter, the recommended planning system should
therefore:
be basically indigenous fulfilling the needs of the people in the country
including the urban poor and informal sector;
have the desired attributes; and
evolve out of the legal, administrative and political system in the country
itself.
2. The 74th CAA demands devolution of planning function to local authorities and
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involvement of people in the planning process; administratively and professionally it
is expected that the system should provide for a long-term policy plan, a mid-term
comprehensive plan further integrated with budgetary process and divided into projects
I schemes for implementation, monitoring and review. ·
3. Considering the above, the recommended urban development planning system
consists of a set of four inter-related plans as follows :
a. Perspective Plan
b. Development Plan
c. Annual Plan and
d. Plans of Projects/Schemes
4. The definition of these plans is as under:
a) A Perspective Plan is a long term {Q0-25 years) written document
supported by necessary maps and diagrams providing the state
government the goals, policies, strategies and ·general programmes of
the urban local authorit}f'regarding spatia-economic development of the
settlement under its governance.
b) A Development Plan conceived within the framework of the approved
perspective plan, is a medium tern (generally five years) plan providing
to the people the comprehensive proposals for socio-economic and
spatial development of the urban centre indicating the manner in whicll
the use of land and development therein shall be carried out by the
. local authority and other agencies.
>lo·
c) An Annual Plan, conceived within the framework of development plan,
is a plan containing the details of new and ongoing projects that the
local authority intends to implement during the respective financial year
and for which necessary fiscal shall be mopilised through
plan funds and other sources.
4
• ,,
d) Conceived within the framework of approved Development Plan,
Projects I are detailed workiAg layouts with all supporting
infrastructure. and documents including cost of development, source of
finance and recovery instruments .for their execution by a public or
private agency.
2.30 SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF VARIOUS URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS
2.31 Perspective Plan •·
14
1. As defined earlier in para 2.20.3 (a), a perspective plan is a written document,
supported by illustrations and maps, containing spatia-economic development policies,
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strategies and general programmes of the local authority. This plan presents to the
state govemme11t and people the intentions of the local authority regarding
development of urban centre in the next 20-25 years. The scope of this plan
covers social, ec·onomic and spatial development goals, policies and priorities relating
to all those urban activities that .1ave spatial implications or, in other words, that
require land for their location'and desired functioning. It also covers long-term policies
regarding development of infrastructure and resource mobilisation that are necessary
to promote these urban activities. Great care is always taken in this plan to minimise
the conflict between the environmental protection· and urban development.
2. The basic purpose of a perspective plan is to provide a policy framework for further
detailing and it serves as d guide for urban local authority in preparation of the
development plan.
3. A perspective plan should generally be for a period of 20 years and the plan period
of 20-25. years should be so adjusted that it coincides with the term of the
National/State Five Year Plans. This will facilitate integration of spatial and economic
policy planning initiatives. (Fig.2.1)
2.32 Development Plan
1. Development plan prepared within the framework of the approved perspective plan
is a medium-term (5 years) comprehensive plan of spatio-economic development of
the urban centre. The objective of a development plan is to provide further necessary
details and intended actions in the form of strategies and physical proposals for
various policies given in the perspective plan depending upon the economic and social
needs and aspiration of the people, available resources and priorities. A local authority
cannot adopt a development plan unless it is conceived within the framework of the
perspective plan which is approved or is in the process of being approved.
2. The scope of this plan covers an assessment of current issues, prospects, priorities
and proposals for development of the urban centre including employment generation,
economic base, transportation and land use, housing and other infrastructure; and
matters like environment, conservation and et:ology. It also contains implementation
strategies, agency-wise · (including private sector) schemes/projects, development
promotion rules, and resource mobilisation plan with particular reference to finance,
land and manpower and provides an efficient system of monitoring and review.
3. Depending upon the urgency of the needs and priorities requiring special treatment
and covering special aerial extant development plans for specific subjects could also be
prepared within the framework of the perspective plan and covering the area of
jurisdic_tion of the local authority. These plans could be traffic and transportation plan,
tourism development plan, environmental conservation plan, heritage conservation
plan, mining sites reclamation plan, coastal area development plan, highway corridor
development and such others.
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Five Year
Plans
Existing Plan
(If any)
Preparation
& Approval
Perspective Plan
Period
Review
Pi Pj Pk PI Pm Pn Po Pp Pq
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - · ~ - - - - · - - - - - - - - - - · ~ - · - - · - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - · - ~ · - - · - - · - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - -
T: Base year taken as the year of commencement of the state Urban and Regional Planning
(revised) Act whereunder a municipality shall assume the status of a planning and development
authority.
n : Number of remaining years of a current Five Year Pl.<1n counted from the base year T.
n5, n10 .... ; n + 5, n + 10 ...
Pi, Pj .... Successive Five Year Plans for five year periods i, j ...... .
FIG. 2.1 :CONTINUOUS PERSPECTIVE PLANS
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4. A development plan is a statutory plan, approved and adopted by the local authority
for implementation with the help of schemes and projects. Its proposals are precise
and definite.
5. It makes known publicly the intention of the local authority regarding physicaL social
and economic development of the urban centre, the facilities and services that are
proposed to be provided in near future (next 5 years). It notifies the property owners
the manner in which their properties will be affected; and it informs the developers
about the areas where opportunities for investment will be available.
6. )he time-frame of 5 years expediently the provisions of 74th Constitution
Amendment Act (74th CAA) where, under article 243U(i), the duration of municipalities
. the local au .. thority for development plan preparation, adoption and implementation is
'l.: a period_ of 5 years. A plan and a planning process that provides opportunities to
tffeneeas of the urban centre and development aspirations of the people
through the elected representatives would bedesirable, acceptable to people and be
dynamic as it will have better adaptability to change. (Figure 2.2).
7. As shown in Fig.2.2, the elected local authority (LA-i) soon after assuming office
takes actions to review the existing plan and prepares the development plan which will
be for five years, the first three years of which shall be during and up to the end of the
term of LA-i and the next two years will fall during the term of the next local authority
LA-j. This authority will implement the plan for three years up to the end of their term.
The LA-j after assuming office will review the progress of 3 years' of
""'the __ de:v.elopmeoLcpJ<:trJ"-.M LA-i-wllK;li·=wnr prov1de input Jru__tb_e__p_re_paration oL
Q!an for the next ,5--c-Yeacs. the two-:Year __ and ___ . __
preparation of de\lelopment plan, LJ\-j will have an approved plan for implementation
.,. and by the time its validity expires, the next plan upto the year 12, will be ready. LA-j
will implement this plan up to end of its term and the process will continue. This
ensures a continuous process of planning, implementation, review and further planning
without any break. This also ensures that an elected local authority after assuming
office reviews the plan formulated by its predecessors, prepares the developmenfplan
following its policies, priorities and ideology and implements the same up to the end
of its term.
8. As suggested by these guidelines, under the Model Urban and Regional Planning
and Development Law (Revised) each municipality constituted under the municipal act
shall be the planning and development authority to prepare development plan for
whole or part of the area under its jurisdiction.
2.33 Annual Plan
1. The purpose of annual plan, to be prepared by the local authority every year,-is-te
identify the new schemes/projects, which the authority will undertake for
implementation during the year taking into account the physical and fiscal
- CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi----------------------
17
-----------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
Local
Authority
Existing Plan
(if any)
Preparation
and Approval
Development
Plan
Review
<-······--LA
.;· ·=·=: '•
- - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - · - - · - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - · - - · - - · - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - · - - · - - 1 ~ - - - - · - -
LA-i, LA-j .. : Elected Local Authority for the 5 year's term i, j ....
FIG. 2.2: CONTINUOUS AND PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT PLANS
18 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi------------------------
.. .. ..:. ···-----
---------------------------UDPFI
pertormance of the preceding year, the priorities, the policies and the proposals
contained in the approved development plan.
2. This plan also provides the resource requirements during the year and the sources
of funds including those mobilised by the local authority, grants, . aids and
project/scheme funds of the state and Central governments.
3. It is thus an important document for resource mobilisation as on its basis the plan
funds will be allocated by the funding body. ·This plan, therefore, serves as an
important link with the budgetary process.
4. The annual plan provides a built-in- system of continuous annual review of the
· performance, actions and initiatives of local authority in implementing development
plan.
2.34 Plans of Schemes f
1. Conceived within the framework of the development plan, schemes/projects are the
working layouts supported by written report, providing all necessary details for
execution including finance, development, administration and management. These
schemes/projects could be for any area, old or new; any activity or land use like
residential, commercial, industrial, recreational, educational or health related; or
infrastructure development separately or in an integrated manner; by any agency such
as government, semi-government, private or even individuals; or for any agency
prepared by town planners, architects, engineers as the case may be, enjoying
maximum freedom of expression in their design within the stipulations of development .·
promotion rules and other regulations as applicable. These could also be for subjects
like tourism development, recreation, urban renewal of central area, environmental
improvement, conservation, and even land pooling.
2. The schemes/projects provide all the required planning, architectural, engineering,
financial and administrative details in drawing and written form for execution. These
are to be prepared by the respective executing agencies which could be public or
private. ·
Selection of the area subject/project will be determined by the needs and priorities of.
the executing agency guided by market forces and government policy interventions.
2.40 INTER-RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS PLANS
1. Taking into account the entire planning process and also incorporating the
suggested planning system, Figure 2.3 shows the inter-relationship of the different
development plans, directly or indirectly related to urban development, at various levels
ranging from national to a transitional urban area under the jurisdiction of a nagar
· panchayat.
- CllDT;ITf't, Ntw Dellti---------------------- 19
..
' .. ·. .·.
-------------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
NATIONAL
(PLANNING COMMISSION)
STATE
(STATE PLANNING BOARD)
METROPOUT,O.N
(METROPOUTAN
PLANNING COMMITTEE)
DISTRICT
(DISTRICT PLANNING COMMITTE) .
URBAN SETTLEMENT
(IIUNCIPALITV)
TRANSITIONAL AREA
(NAGAR PANCHAYAD
StATE 5-Year PLAN
DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT·
PLAN
DEVELOPMENT PLAN
PROJECTS/SCHEMES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
e RELATIONSHIP WITH PLANS OF METRO-AREAA.IETRO-CrTY
1' AGGRIGA TION OF PLANS
t DISAGGRIGA TION OF PLANS
FIG. 2.3. : INTER-RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS DEVELOPMENT PLANS
20 -- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------------------
:;i
_.;

--------'----------------------UDI'FI Guidelines---
2. Fig.2.3 also shows the linkages for aggregation of plans' proposals for consolidation
and integration of physical and fiscal planning efforts at district, metropolitan area,
state. and national levels. It further indicates the pattern of disaggregation of policies,
programmes and resources.
3. It -needs to be emphasised here that urban plans should not be conceived in
isolation from its region as each urban centre is part of a regional· system of
settlements which in turn play their respective role in the process of development of
the region as a whole. As contained in the provisions of the 74th CAA, the
metropolitan area development plan or the district development plan serves as a guide
for identifying the basic functions and other development initiatives in case of an urban
centre located in the district or the metropolitan area. This must be considered and
incorporated in the urban development plans.
4. Policies and development proposals contained in other plans of regions like
resource regions, agro-climatic regions, as well as the state perspective plan should
also be appropriately considered and incorporated.
2.50 PLANNING PROCESS
1. As shown in Fig. 2.4, planning is a continuous, time-oriented, cyclic process and,
therefore, spatial development planning should be seen and practised as a process
where planning, implementation, monitoring, review and again planning go on as a
dynamic process.
2. In this process, the decision to prepare a plan is outside the cycle of planning
process. The review of the plan, depending upon the results (positive, indicating
satisfactory implementation or negative showing faults of varying degrees) generates
five possibilities of further action, as shown in Fig.2.4. The following sections provide
more details of various stages of this process.
2.51 Aims and Objectives
1. Aims can be defined as broad and general statements indicating the decisions of
the policy makers, aspirations of the people and needs of the community. For
example, 'to provide job opportunities for all' is a statement of aims.
2. Objectives are specific statements indicating the ways and means of achieving the
set aims, taking into account the potentials. For example, for the aim related to job
. opportunities, the objectives could be :
provision of jobs through development of industries/ commerce or trade;
provision of incentives and inducements (specific) to industries;
provision of informal sector economic activity sites as part of
commercial areas, and such others.
-. - CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi----------------------
21
··.· .. ·.,-··.
;·,·: .. '.'
• ,'::-::.:. '•
•:· ·. ,· . ··.;,
; ...... =··: w ••
I.
DECISION TO PREPARE PLAN
r DEVELOPMENT
AIMS AND
OBJECTIVES
-------------UDPFI Guidelines---
IDENTIFICATION
OF PROJECTED
REQUIREMENTS
PLAN FORMULATION,
EVALUATION AND
·APPROVAL
ANNUAL REVIEW OF PROJECTS/SCHEMES
1 Review results positive, continue further implementation.
2. Review results not satisfactory, AWiae, refine projectjacheme.
REVIEW OF THE PLANS
3. R ~ v i e w results positive, no change in goals, identify projected needs for the next
plan period and continue the process.
4. Review results indicate revision of goals. Revise the goals for the next plan
period and continue.
5. Review results negative indicating termination of the plan (a condition that may
not arise) - abandon the plan and take decision to prepare the appropriate plan
and continue.
FIG. 2.4 GENERAL PROCESS OF PLANNING
22 - CRDT, ITPI, New DeU.i-----------------------
---------'--------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
3. The ai'ms and objectives formulation exercise comprises the following four steps :
a) identification of values cherished by the people, politicians and other
groups of people;
b) identification of aims incorporating the values;
c) identification of criteria that further defines each aim to form basis for
formulation of objectives, and
d) formulation of objectives which could be further defined as design
objectives and implementation objectives.
2.52 Identification of Projected Needs
1. After identification of development aims and objectives, the next stage in the
process of planning is identification of projected requirements of various activities,
supporting infrastructure and land as the basic input for plan formulation. Fig.2.5 shows
the process of identification of projected requirements. It is this stage of planning
process which consumes most of the time. There is the need to minimise time taken
at this stage. In this context, it is emphasised that primary surveys and studies should
be rationally chosen so that it saves time and minimises delays in the process. The
choice of technique of surveys, analysis, synthesis and projections (Appendix - A)
should also be such that it is effective but time-saving.
2. Traditionally, the state Town and Country Planning Departments have been
collecting and compiling relevant information from various departments regarding
theirfuture plans. This process has not been found effective and potent as it lacks
participation and commitment of the relevant department. Accordingly, it is suggested
that a Development Integration Committee be constituted consisting of the following :
a)
b)
chairperson;
heads of relevant Central and state government departments
functioning or having jurisdiction over the local planning area;
c) six non-official
representatives
organisations;
members from amongst the residents and
of non-governmental and community-based
d) municipal planner- member secretary.
3. The function of this committee is suggested to be to :
a) discuss and advise on development aims and objectives;
- CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi----------------------
23
.. l
i ..
--. ·. · .. ·· .. _:_ · - - ~ . :
I . . - -
--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
EXISTING
INFORMATION FROM
CONDITIONS &
~
SYNTHESIS
K:-
ANALYSIS
I/
SECONDARY SOURCES
ISSUES
.......
/i'<
PRIMARY SURVEYS
-
AND STUDIES
......--
NORMS AND
STANDARDS
POLICIES AND
PROGRAMMES OF
CENTRAL AND
'-----
STATE GOVTS
AND DISTRICT/
METROPOLITAN
PLANNING
COMMITTEE
INPUT FROM
DEVELOPMENT
INTEGRATION
COMMITTEE
rl PROJECTIONS l
'-V
'),
[/
SYSTHESIS
IL
PRIORITIES
I:.
.......
'
IDENTIFICATION OF GOALS AND
PROJECTED REQUIREMENTS
-
OBJECTIVES
FIG. 2.5. IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECTED REQUIREMENTS
24 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi·--------------------
-------------------------UDPFI Guidelines __ ...:..
b) proyide input on existing conditions, projections, priorities and major
programmes of each department to form part of projectE;ld requirements;
and
c) ensure coordination of inter-departmental interactions and cooperation
pertaining to plan formulation and integration.
4. Matters of mutual interest could also be discussed by this committee. This would
generate a participatory process of planning and also save time and money in
collection of basic data.
5. The role of municipal planner is very important in this committee. Each individual
department is expected to provide input pertaining to its area of concern and the
municipal planner will compile the information, analyse and synthesise it and present
results to the Development Integration Committee for further deliberations.
6. It is also expected that each participating department/ agency shall spend its own
money and manpower if required for discharging its function as member of the
Development Integration Committee.
2.53 Plan Formulation
1. Plan formulation consists of drawing up of concepts of planning the
settlement, taking into account
aims and objectives,
projected requirements,
·planning principles/theories,
planning techniques, and
norms and standards.
2. It is followed by a process. of evaluation of the alternatives having regard to
achievement of aims and. objectives; judicious utilisation of land· resources;
environmental and fiscal resd\Jrces, sustainability; and urban design quality. ThisJeads
to the selection of a preferred alternative for fur.:her detailing as the proposed plan for
the settlement (Fig.2.6). This plan is further divided into private and public sector ·
programmes of action classified by priprities, operators and the time-frame.
3. For -the purpose of preparation of various development plans every local authority
shall also constitute a Standing Planning Committee. This committee shall comprise
(a) the chairperson·of the local authority as chairperson; (b) two members nominated
by the local authority from among the elected members, chief administrative officer and
the municipal planner as the member-see.retary.
- CRDT, EIPI, New
25
--------------------------UDPFJ Guidelines---
GOALS AND
PLANNING
PLANNING
NORMS AND
I r--
OBJECTIVES
PRINCIPLES/THEORY
TECHNIQUES
STANPARDS
I
~
I
I
PROJECTED
ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS OF
I/
PROPOSALS OF
r- f--
REQUIREMENTS
PLANNING THE URBAN CENTRES ['..
DISTRICT
DEVELOPMENT
PLAN/METROPOLIT
r-- AN AREA
L
DEVELOPMENT
INFRASTRUCTURE
PLAN
AND ENVIRON-
MENTAL
SUST AINABILITY
\.. v
rl EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES k
RESOURCES
\, I/
SELECTION OF AN
'
ALTERNATIVE FOR
I
FURTHER DETAILING
'
/
'-V
~ FORMULATION OF THE PLAN
k-
,,/
PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR,
PLANNING
JOINT SECTOR ACTIONS I
LEGISLATION &
PROGRAMME CLASSIFIED BY
,___
DEVELOPMENT
TIME FRAME, PRIORITIES AND
PROMOTION RULES
OPERATORS
FIG. 2.6. PLAN FORMULATION PROCESS
26 - C'RIJT, ITPJ, New Delhi----------------------
UDPFI
2.54 Decentralisation of Plan Approval Process
1. Following the. spirit of the 74th CAA and also recognising the fact that the current
process of approval of urban development plans takes a lot of time resulting in delays
that, in a fast-changing socio-economic context, make the planning exercise
out-of-date, it is recommended that the pian approval process be decentralised as
follows:
Plan
Perspective Plan
Development Plan
Annual Plan
Schemes/Projects
Approving Authority
State government through
the state chief planner
Municipal council/corporation
Municipal council/corporation
Municipal planner
2. The approving authority may approve the plan submitted to it without or with
specific modifications and in case there are specific modifications, the local authority
or other agency/body or individuals, as the case may be, shall be obliged to modify the
plan before taking next step in the approval process. Time-frame for such modifications
and reconsiderations should not exceed 60 days and be appropriately incorporated in
Town Planning Law.
2.55. Approval of Perspective Plan
1. Perspective plan is to be approved by the state government on the technical advice
of the state town and country planning department. 'In pursuance of the policy of
decentralisation, it is recommended that perspective plans of small and medium size
towns be scrutinised by the Divisional Town Planner at the Divisional Office and plans
of all large cities be technically scrutinised by the State Chief Town Planner at the
headquarters, and sent to the state government with necessary
recommendations/advice for consideration and approval.
2. Fig 2.7 shows step-by-step process of approval of perspective plan. It also indicates
the agency and the operators who shall take the necessary action at various steps as
well as the time period during which the action should be completed. It is expected
that a total of 10 months will be required to complete the approval process. In cases
where there are some specific modifications suggested by the state government, an
extra 60 days would be needed to modify the plain {30 days) and to get approved
(another 30 days).
-. CRD'F, !Tf_l, New Delhi----------------------
27 ''·· · .. •'
----------------------------UDPF/Guidelines---
STEPS
a On submission of DPP to the MC for
according consent and
submission of DPP to URPD and
MPC/DPC for concurrence
b Concurrence for public notification of
DPP
c Public notification of DPP
d
e
f
g
h
Public comments and
suggestions
Public hearing and final DPP
formulation & submission to MC for
consent
Consent on final DPP and submission
of the firial DPP to the Government
through URPD for approval
Approval of the final DPP and
communication to MC
Notification of Approval ·
Draft Perspective Plan
District Planning Committee
Divisional Town Planner
Government
MC/MP
URPD/SCP/DT
P/MPC/DPC
MC/MP
Public
SPC
MC
Govt/SCP/DTP
MC/MP
TOTAL
Municipal Council/Corporation (as the case may be)
Municipal Planner
Metropolitan Planning Committee
State Chief Planner
Standing Planning Committee
01
01
01
: 01
02
01
02
01
10
DPP
DPC
DTP
Govt
MC
MP
MPC
SCP
SPC
URPD Urban and Regional Planning Department of the State
FIG. 2. 7 PERSPECTIVE PLAN·APPROVAL PROCESS
28 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-----------------------
.. ·,1· .. : ·.·
l .

1'0/(

i


UDPFI Guidelines---
2.56. Approval of the Development Plan
2.60
1. Following the spirit of the 74th CCA, a decentralisation is recommended where the
development plans shall be approved by the local authority (municipal
council/corporation). The state and Country Planning Department as the official
agency of the state government, shall examine the draft development plan for its being
within the framework of the perspective plan and issue a letter of concurrence.
Following the process of public notification and public hearing the development plan
will be finalised and approved by the municipal corporation or municipal council,as the
case may be. ·
2. The further details of steps involved in the approval process, the action, the agency
and operators responsible for the action and the time period during which the action
should be completed are given in Fig.2.8. As is clear from fig.2.8, the total time period
taken for approval of development plan will be 7 months.
3. With a view to introducing efficiency, deeming ciause is proposed to be incorporated
in the revised urban and regional planning law in cases where, if by the end of the
stipulated time, with or without specitrc modifications, approval is not communicated by
the state government, the plan shall be deemed to have been approved. This provision
is to ensure an approved plan for development of the settlement which is the right of
the people.
4. With a view to distributing work-load and introduce efficiency and saving of time it
is recommended that function of scrutiny of perspective plan and issuing of letter of
concurrence on development plan being within the framework of the perspective plan
should be devolved as under :
a)
b)
For large cities
For small and medium
size towns
State Chief Planner
Divisional Town Planner
IMPLEMENTATION
1. Implementation of development plans is generally through annual plans and
projects. The various steps for effective implementation include :
a)
b)
Formulation of the annual plan and identification of projects for
implementation within the framework of approved development plan.
Identification of various agencies responsible for :
i)
Development promotion and management : As a consequence
of the 74th CAA, the local authority will perform this function. In
case of infrastructures like post and telegraph, telephone,
national and state highways, seaports, airports, power supply,
- CRDT, JTPI, New Delhi----------------,-----..,----
29
_. __ ,: ......

ti
t? • • • ..

• __ ·_t;_;_l.
-- - -
'. · ..
:· '-:' _·' ._ •, ., -·_ - ., -·.
----------------------------UIJPFI (;uidelines ---
sTE:J?s ActioNs · ... ·· •..... ·.······. . AGENCY/< . ·.·.•··••••·••
. < < .. ··········•···• .. ·• <)PE.RATOR .•..... TIME FRAME >
. •········)··············································••• )················?•••• ·. • ··.•· F()fi J8E••···········i \· .· ·•
ACTION .
·(MONTH$)·····
a On submission of Draft DP to MC for MC/CMC/MP
consent, according consent and
submission of draft DP to URPD and
MPC/DPC for concurrence
b Confirmation of Draft DP being 'Nithin
the framework of approved PP
c Public notification and display of the
draft DP
d Public meeting and public comments
and suggestions
e Public hearing and final draft DP
formulation & submission to MC for
approval
URPD/SCP/
DTP/MPC/
DPC
MP
Public
SPC
Approval of final draft DP and its MC
notification
DP
DTP
DPC
MC
MP
MPC
PP
SCP
SPC
URPD
Development Plan
Divisional Town Planner
District Planning Committee
TOTAL
Municipal Council/Corporation (as the case may be)
Municipal Planner
Metropolitan Planning Committee
Perspective Plan
State Chief Planner
Standing Planning Committee
Urban and Regional Planning Department of the State
01
01
01
01
02
01
07
FIG. 2. 8 DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPROVAL PROCESS
. · .....
PROCESS
<MC$TA.Ta:
30 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------------------
UDPFI Guidelines---
etc. the agency for this activity may be relevant departments of
the Central and state governments.
ii) Execution of action projects and schemes : The agency for this
function could be :
private individuals, groups, organisations, builders,
developers or promoters;
private cooperative societies;
non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and
community-based organisations (CBOs);
local government departments;
semi-government organisations like various boards,
corporations and undertakings;
state government departments;
central government departments; and
international agencies
c) Actions for implementation which include :
i) Public-sector interventions
ii) Private sector actions and
iii) Joint venture or public-private partnership
2.61 Public Sector Interventions
1. Public sector interventions pertain to legal and non-legal matters and capital
improvement programmes. These are self-explanatory, as shown in Fig.2.9. However.
prioritisation of projects, under capital improvement programmes, needs some more
input. As a general principle, classify projects by priority, into :
a) Essential or top priority;
b) · Necessary or second priority;
c) Acceptable or desirable third priority; and
d) Deferable fourth priority.
And then follow the flow-chart in Fig.2.9 for further action.
2.62 Private Sector Actions
1. Fig.2.1 0 shows private sector actions for implementation of development
plans/projects. These actions include formulation of project, fiscal resource
mobilisation, execution of the project, its management and post-project maintenance.
Private sector can execute all types of projects provided they are economically viable
and remunerative. In case of cooperative societies, the question of affordability of the·
members of the society arises and, ·therefore, an affordable project is normally
implemented without any difficulty and delays by such societies.
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi 31
ii I

.· ,··. ··''
- -·---·· ------. -··-.
-----------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
PUBLIC INTERVENTIONS
I
J
l
l
I
LEGAL
I
NON- LEGAL
I
CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME
I
l l
PRIORITISATION FINANCIAL
FISCAL GAP
OF PROJECTS
CAPABILITIES
& IDENTIFI-
& CAPITAL OF IMPLE-
CATION OF
REQUIREMENTS
MENTATION
SOURCES OF
AGENCIES
FUNDS
...
I
I
I
1
l -.j_,-- ,l
ADVICE!
COORD INA-
INCENTIVES &
r DIRECT
INFORM-
TION/COOP-
INDUCEMENTS ACTION!
ATIQN
ERATION
liNVESTMENT
'
1
1
TAX
I I
'FAR'
CONCESSIONS
CONCESSIONS
L T
l J
1
LAND.
HOUSING
INFRASTRU-
ENVIRONMENTAL.
URBAN ASSEMBLY & FOR THE
CTURE IMPROVEMENT
RENEWAL MANAGEMENT POOR
PROVISiON
I
"-.1/
I DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION RULES AND REGULATIONS I
-.1

I SUB-DIVISION REGULATIONS I
BUILDING BYE-LAWS 1
FIG. 2.9. PUBLIC SECTOR IMTERVENTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DEVELOPMENT PLAN
32 - CRDT., ITPI, New
··,,.
,·. · ... ·:>r:

---------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
'-
I/
· PROJECT/SCHEME
FORMULATION
I
-
"'
I/
PRIVATE
SECTOR
ACTIONS
FISCAL RESOURCE
MOBILISATION
I
"'
!/
LAND
ASSEMBLY
J
EXECUTION AND MANAGEMENT
OF ALL KINDS OF
REMUNERATIVE PROJECTS
POST PROJECT
OPERATION/MAINTENANCE
FIG. 2.10. PRIVATE SECTOR ACTIONS
"
1/
MAINTENANCE OF I
INFRASTRUCTURE
·-.- CRDT, /TPI, New Delhi-----------------------
33
:J; '•" .• ,•,,

•. _ ._' •• :·-·; '. '.T- :··.: ·:· -_·:··- ·.:-:. - ':.·:- ·_ ;;: -: ·:: ---· - .J •• :. - •• '.:·t:. ·.-
--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
2. Under the current liberalisation policy and policy of private sector participation in
implementation process, less resources are likely to be made available to the local
authorities as plan funds or grants. Role of private sector will,therefore,be increasingly
significant and should be effectively utilised. (See Appendix 0 for further details).
2.63 Joint Venture
1. Joint venture or public-private partnership is yet another system for effective
implementation of development plans. Fig.2.11_ shows the actions of public and private
agencies in a joint venture or partnership system. It is an effective system and can be
used to ensure social commitments towards the community and people below the
poverty line. Where possible, it should be applied. (For details see Appendix 0).
2.70 REVIEW OF PLANS
1. Review is defined as critical examination of the implementation of development plan
during the given period of time. The basic objective of this exE ,rcise is to assess the
progress of work done so far and identify areas of successes, failures and conflicts to
guide the future course of action. This is an important step in the dynamic planning
process which hitherto has not been effectively utilised.
2. It is emphasised here that this exercise is utmost necessary and must be
undertaken. A review of all plans is, therefore, recommended. It is also emphasised
that this activity should be mandatory and be specified in the revised urban and
regional planning law and the development plan document as well.
2.71 Review of Perspective Plans
1. Review of perspective plan of 20 years shall be conducted immediately after the
expiry of 10 years. A maximum time period of two years should be given for this
exercise which should be conducted by the local authority for the term in which this
year falls.
2. In order to introduce dynamism and efficiency, it is suggested that a fresh
perspective plan for 20-25 years be prepared after incorporating results of the review
and the future projected requirements. It should be followed by usual approval process
including public notification and hearing (Chapter 8).
3. The total time taken for review, preparation of perspective plan and its approval
should not exceed four years. ·
2.72 Review of Development Plans
1. As explained earlier, a development plan covers term of two successive elected
local authorities in such a way that the first three years fall during and up to the end
of the term of the local authority in office and the next two years fall in the beginning
34 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
li· ..
. .
I
..
---------.....,...-----------------UDPFI Guidelines-·--
DIVISION OF ACTIONS AND INTER-RELATIONSHIP
IN PUBLIC- PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP OR JOINT
VENTURE PROGRAMMES
l
w
.J/
I PUBLIC SECTOR ACTIONS I
. r PRIVATE SECTOR ACTIONS
I
~
.j/ X --1
,1
SHARING OF
REGISTRATION LAND
PROJECT
IE-
DEVELOPED/
& ALLOTMENT ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT
PLANNING
BUlL T SPACES,
OF DEVELOPED AND PROMOTION
-
INFRASTRUC-
BUlL T $PACES LEASING THROUGH
. TURE & THEIR
TO URBAN
OF LAND RULES/ FISCAL
. DISPOSAU
POOR
REGULATIONS RESOURCES
II
I'
MAINTENANCE ·
MOBILSATION
II' 1'
1'
If'.
LAND
ASSEMBLY ~
PROJECT
EXECUTION & ~
MANAGEMENT
1
I
DEVELOPED
BUlL T/DEVELOPED
INFRASTURCTURE
SPACES
I
l
OPERATION OF
DISPOSAL OF
MAINTENANCE
SPACE
OF INFRA-
STRUCTURES
I
RANSFER
I
FIG. 2.11 :
PUBLIC- PRIVATE ACTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS
AS A JOINT VENTURE
- CRDT, JTPI, New Delhi.:....· ---__;_---------------"---
35
.... · .. - ~ . _--
- - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - UDPF/ Guidfllines---
of the term of the next ot subsequent local authority. Accordingly, therefore, after
expiry of three years from the date of approval of a development plan and immediately
after assuming office, the local authority shall review the plan. This exercise should be
completed in six months time.
2. Taking into account the results of the review exercise and the future requirements
for the next subsequent plan period of 5 years a fresh development plan should be
prepared and further action be taken,for its approval.
3. The total time taken in review, preparation and approval of development plan should
not exceed two years.
2.73 Review of Annual Plan
1. Performance of the projects/schemes implemented by the local authority, as
contained in the annual plan of the previous year, shall be re·1iewed in terms of
achievements of the physical and fiscal targets. This would ensure a continuous
monitoring and review of actions taken by local authority.
2. Results of the review should provide input for preparation of next annual plan. The
monitoring of the plans/schemes should be regular so that time taken in review and
formulation of annual plan is minimised.
3. Since each year the .annual plan has to be sent to the state Urban and Regional
Planning Board and metropolitan planning committee or district planning committee, as
the case may be, the time for review and annual plan formulation should be suitably
adjusted, depending upon the directives from these bodies.
2.80 PEOPLE'S PARTICIPATION
36
1. There can be no meaningful development in any society if the people themselves
are kept out of the planning process. People's participation, therefore, is essential and
must be introduced at relevant stages in the planning process. Taking into account
the interest, attitude and behaviours of the people, a system of direct and indirect
participation has been suggested as under :





Perspective, development and annual
plans formulation
Formulation and implementation of
land pooling schemes, redevelopment/
rehabilitation/shelter schemes or any
other project/scheme directly
affecting the people
Plan approval
Monitoring
Maintenance
Indirect
Direct
Direct
D i rect/1 n direct
D i recti I n direct
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
- -·-· "!
----------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
2. The suggested indirect participation of the people is ensured through elected
representatives in the municipal council/corporation and ward committees {74th CAA).
This kind of participation has appropriately provided in the plan formulation
process.
3. The direct participation can be through individuals, citizens groups, neighbourhood
groups, business groups, consumer groups, and such other groups. NGOs and CBOs
can also play a vital role as an intermediate !ink between the people and the
government.
4. It should be mandatory to present the salient features of a development plan in a
public meeting organised by the local authority just after the public notice inviting their
comments and suggestion before its approval. All land pooling schemes should be
formulated witi1 direct active participation of the people and the law should make such
provisions.
2.90 MODIFICATIONS
The suggested urban develovnent planning system provides opportunities for review
of development plan every three years by the incoming elected local authority and,
therefore, it is e;:pected that need for changes in land use and modifications in the
development plan will not normally be felt. However, in special circumstances if
modifications are desired necessary in public interest, the local authority may take
action to effect the modification at any time in accordance with the following
procedures :
1. Publish draft modifications in at least one local newspaper inviting
objections and suggestions from the public.
2. Hear the objections and suggestions of the public and finalise the
modifications and submit to the following for approval :
a) the state Urban and Regional Planning Board in case of
modifications in a perspective plan; or
b) the state government in case of modifications in the
development plan.
3. The board or the state government may approve the modifications with
or without variations or even reject the modifications.
" • - CRDT, fl'Pl, V.U.i 37
- . · . lSI _,

. '- ··- '" "" -:. -.
CHAPTER 3
CONTENTS OF
A PERSPECTIVE PLAN
~ . ' ' ·-.. ~ . . ; ' .
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. . .
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- ...... ''
--- --------- -
-----------------------UDPFJ Guidelines---
CHArt:»TER THREE
CONTENTS OF A PERSPECTIVE PLAN
3.10 GENERAL
1. This chapter provides the contents of the written report supported by necessary
"'iilaps, charts and diagrams constituting an integral part of a perspective plan. It
provides major heads and sub-heads to serve as a guide for presenting results of the
various surveys, their analyses and projections and enunciating policies, strategies and
programmes of spatio-economic development of an urban centre. References to the
relevant appendices which give further details regarding analytical techniques; norms
and standards and innovative approaches for incorporation in the perspective plan
depending upon the developmental needs and aspirations of the local people is
recommended.
2. It is highlighted here that the perspective plan is a policy document and, therefore,
the effort should be to identify policies and programmes for socio-economic
development and their implications in setting a trend of spatial development of different
components of the town/city. Elaborate and comprehensive details should, therefore
be avoided which will form part of development plans to be formulated subsequently.
CONTENTS OF PERSPECTIVE PLANS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE
TOWNS
1. Perspective plan should generally contain the following major heads :
a) Existing characteristics and potentials of the town which when
synthesised would form the b_9sis for identification of the policy issues;
b) Projected requirements and assessment of deficiencies;
c) Development aims and objectives; and
d) Policies, strategies, general programmes and priorities.
2) Further details regarding sub-heads under each of the above major heads are
given in the following sections.
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------
39
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----------...,.....-----...,....----------- UDPFI (;uidelines---
3.21. Existing Conditions and Developmental Issues
. 1. Physical characteristics and natural resources
a} Location and regional setting.
b) Climate.
c) Existing generalised landuse.
d) Environmentally sensitive areas.
e) He_ritage, sites, buildings and areas.
2. Demography
a) Existing population, migration and household characteristics.
3. Economic base and employment
a) Formal sector
i)
ii)
iii)
Primary : Urban agriculture, mining, quarrying, etc.
Secondary : industries, trade, commerce, etc.
Tertiary : transport and other services.
b) Informal sector and urban poverty alleviation, informal trade, commerce,
transport, household industries. ,
4. Housing and shelter (both formal and informal)
5. Transportation
a) mode of transportation -by road, rail, air, water as the case may be.
b) Network of roads, railways, waterways and their interrelationship with
major activity nodes.
c) Transport terminals.
6. Facilities like :
a) Education
b) Health care
c) Recreation
d) Religious .
40· - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----;,-------...,....-------------
...... -
. - - ---- ' r.
--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
7. Infrastructure
a) Water
b) Energy
c) Drainage, sanitation and refuse and solid waste disposal
d) Communication
e) Police protection, fire protection
f) Cremation and graveyards
8. Any special problem like disasters, both natural and man-made.
9. Resources
a) Fiscal
b) Manpower
c) Land
1 0. Development management
Institutional set-up, legal support, inter-department cooperation and integration of
development efforts.
1 11. Major policy issues.
;
1
! 3.22 Projected Requirements

j 1. Assessment of projected requirements should be for a period of 20-25 years and
l it should further be classified under periods of 5 years co-terminus with the state Five
Year Plan period. This classification of projected requirement into 5-year terms would
! help in integrating the spatial planning and economic planning efforts as developmental
funds are allocated through the Five Year Plans.

2. The assessment of projected requirements should cover all matters as contained
under section 3.21 , that is :
.::-

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
Extent of the local planning area
Population ·
Economic base and employment
Housing and shelter
Transportation
Facilities
Infrastructure
Resources
Land
i)
ii)
Shelter
Commerce and trade
- CRDT, ITPI, N- IJJhi 41
I

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'·"··.·:···;:: ,.
iii) lndustries
iv) ?ublic and semi-public facilities
v) Open spaces
vi) Roads and streets
vii) Infrastructure
. : ~ '
UDPFI Guidelines---
Special activities, if any, like tourism or pilgrimage which result ·in
increase of floating population and demand for facilities and
infrastructure.
3.23 Development Aims .and Objectives
Write development aims and objectives pertaining to each of the major policy issues
identified under 3.21 and 3.31 (if applicable) taking into account the future
requirements identified under 3.22.
3.24 Policies and Priorities
Taking the existing conditions, projected requirements, major policy issues and aims
and objectives into account write the policies and priorities regarding :
1. Development of economic base and employment generation covering :
formal sector;
informal sector; and
special sectors like tourism and pilgrimage
2. Infrastructure development covering :
utilities like water supply, electricity, sewerage, drainage; refuse
collection and disposal;
facilities pertaining to education, health, recreation;
services like communication (postal and telephone), protection {police,
fire) and others.
3. Housing and shelter development
4. Transportation
5. Environmental protection
6. Spatial development covering :
proposed generalised land use indicating direction, growth of the
settlement and its components like residential, commercial, industrial
areas, open spaces;
network of roads;
42 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
~ l ~
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--"-----------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
major activity node;
conservation of environmentally sensitive areas, historic sites and
monuments and tourism;
phasing of spatial development.
7. Implementation and monitoring
priorities and
monitoring mechanism
8. Capacity building for
fiscal
manpower and
land resource mobilisation
3.30 ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF PERSPECTIVE PLANS OF LARGE CITIES
In addition to all items listed in section 3.20 for small and medium size towns, the
following additional contents need to be provided for in case of large cities :
3.31 Existing Conditions and Policy Issues
3.32
3.33
1. Delineation and assessment of general characteristics of the .city influence
region including settlement hierarchy, functional specialisation and
interdependence.
2. Issues related to decentralisation of economic activities, if any.
3. Issues related to renewal of old d_ilapidated areas.
4. Issues related to mass transportation and its interface with major activity
nodes.
Projected Requirements
As a basic principle the projected population and economic activities in case of large
cities should be a function of environmental and infrastructural sustainability of the city.
· Through policy initiatives the unsustainable activity project should be diverted to the
other settlements in the city region where it would be sustainable and the relevant
projected figures for the city should be adjusted accordingly.
Policies and Priorities
Additional policies and priorities regarding :
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------
43
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1
2:
3.
4.
Economic activities in the context of the city region including dispersal
of activities, if any.
Informal residential areas/slums and unauthorised colonies.
Renewal/upgradation of old dilapidated formal and informal areas.
Intra-city mass transportation system and its interface with land use
pattern and location of major activity nodes.
44 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
CHAPTER.4
CONTENTS OF
A DEVELOPMENT PLAN
~ ,
I . . . . .
-------------------------UDPFl Guidelines---
CHAPTER FOUR
~ CONTENTS OF A DEVELOPMENT PLAN
4.10 GENERAL
1. This chapter provides contents of developmentplan document which incorporates
the written document as well as the map showing the development plan and other
supporting charts and diagrams. It provides major heads and sub-heads to serve as
a guide for formulation of development plan of an urban centre. Reference to the
relevant appendices that give further details regarding analytical techniques; norms
and standards; general policies and strategies; presentation techniques; development
promotion rules/regulations; and such other information so that these may be
appropriately incorporated in the development plan with suitable. modifications
depending upon the local conditions is recommended. -
2. With a view to saving time and also developing a participatory system of
spatia-economic planning, necessary information from secondary sources be utilised,
as far as practical, and primary surveys should be conducted only when it is
unavoidable. In this context, role of the suggested Development Integration Committee
(see chapter 2 para 2.53.3) becomes very important. With desirable cooperation, it
would start an era of participatory development planning of urban centres where inputs
from each of these departments would form the basis for formulation of the
development plan.
4.20 CONTENTS OF A DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN CASE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM
SIZE TOWNS
4.21 Introduction
1. ··conceived within the framework of the perspective plan, a development plan is
prepared for a period of 5 years distributed in such a way that its first three years fall
during and up to the end of the term of the local authority in office and the next ten
years fall during the term of the following or subsequent local authority. (See fig.2.2,
chapter 2).
2. A development plan should contain the following major heads :
a.oExisting conditions and development issues;
b. Projected requirements and assessment of deficiencies;
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-----.-----------------
45
.,
-.-
· ~ ·
4.22
----------- ·---UDP/'1 Guidelines---
c. Development aims and ·=-biectives;
d. Development proposals;
E::. Resource mobilisation proposals;
f. Implementation;
g. Monitoring and review.
3. 'fhe details of each of the major sub-heads of a development plan are given in the
following sections.
Existing Conditions and Developmental Issues
1. Physical characteristicr,; and natural resources
a) Location and regional setting. Brief history of development of the town;
b} Climate;
c) Existing land use;
d) Environmentally and ecologically sensitive areas;
e) Heritage, sites, buildings and areas.
· 2. Demography
a) Existing population, migration and household characteristics.
3. Economic base and employment
a)
b)
Formal Sector
i) Primary : Urban agriculture, mining, quarrying, etc.
ii) Secondary : Industries, trade, commerce, etc.
iii) Tertiary : Transport, government and semi-government
service and other.services.
Informal sector and urban poverty alleviation, informal trade, commerce,
transp01t., household industries.
4. Housing and shelter (both formal and informal)
5. Transportation
a) Mode of transportation - by road, rail. air. water as the case may be.
b) Network of roads, railways, waterways and their interrelationship with
major activity nodes.
c) Transport terminals.
6. Facilities
a)
b)
'
Education
Health care

46 - CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi---------------------
-·-
c)
d)
e)
Recreation
Religious
Socio-cultural
7. Infrastructure
a) Watt.•r
-l!DJ'f'l Guidelines---
b) Energy
c) Drainage, sanitation and refuse and solid waste disposal
d) Comn;unJcatlon
e) PolicE: pmtectlon, fire protection
f) Cremation and graveyards
8. Any special problem areas like disasters (both natural and man-made) prone zones.
9. Resources
a) Fiscal
b) Manpower
c) land
10. Development management
Institutional set-up, legal support, inter-departmental cooperation and integration of
development efforts.
11. Major development issues
4.23 Projected Requirements
1. Assessment of projected requirements should be for a period of 5 years and it
should further be classified under periods of one year. This annual classification of
projected requirement would help in preparation of annual plans and budget.
2. The assessment of projected requirements should cover all matters as contained
under section 3.21 , that is :
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
Population
Economic base and employment
Housing and shelter
Transportation
Facilities
lnfrastructu re
...... :·· >"
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi 47 .



------·-----,.-----------------UDPFI Guidelines---
g) Land requirement for
i) Residential Areas
~ .. '·
- Primary residential
- Mixed residential
- Unplanned/informal residential
ii) Commercial area
- Retail shopping
- General business and commercial district/centers
- Wholesale, godowns, warehousing/regulated markets
iii) Manufacturing area
- Service and light industry
- Extensive and heavy industry
- Special industrial, hazardous, noxious and chemical
iv) Public and semi-public
- Govt./semi govt.lpublic offices
- Govt.land (use undetermined)
- Educational and research
- Medical and health
- Social, cultural and religious
- Utilities and services
- Cremation and burial grounds
v) Parks, playgrounds and open spaces
- Playground/stadium/sports complex
- Parks & gardens-public open spaces
- Special recreational - restricted open spaces
- Multi-purpose open space (maidan)
vi) Transport and communication,
-Roads
-Railways
-Airport
- Seaports and dockyards
- Bus depots/truck terminals and freight complexes
- Transmission and communication
48 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
~ - - - - - ~ - - ~ - - ~ - - ~ - ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ - - _ __:_: __ ·----.. - - - - ~ ~ ~ - < ~ "
---------------------------l!DPFI Guidelines---
vii) Special areas
- Old built-up (core) area
- Heritage and conservation areas
- Scenic value areas
- Disaster-prone areas
viii) Agriculture
- Agriculture
- Forest
- Poultry and dairy farming
- Rural settlements ,
- Brick kiln and extractive areas
ix) Water-bodies
x) Special activities, if any, like tourism or pilgrimage which result
in increase of floating population and demand for facilities and
infrastructure. This will particularly be useful for hill towns and
pilgrimage towns.
4.24 Development Aims and Objectives
Write the aims and objectives of development of the town covering each of the issues
identified under 4.22 (ii).
4.25 Development Proposals (formal and informal sector)
a) Concept of hierarchy of planning units and spatial development of
various activity nodes, facility centres and network of roads
b) Commercial activity nodes and corridors
c) Industrial activity nodes
d) Residential
e) Open spaces system
f) Higher order facilities and facility centres
g) Public and semi-public offices
h) Transportation network and transport activity nodes .
i) Renewal and redevelopment areas
j) Proposed land use
4.26 Resource Mobilisation
a) Proposals for fiscal resource mobilisation including :
- grants
-aids
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
49
"' . __ ;_,_·_
r.uidelines ---
- internal revenue (land-based taxes, non-tax sources, and other
receipts)
- institutional finance
- market borrowing, and
- private sector finance
b) Proposals for land resource mobilisation including :
- Acquisition of land
- Assembly of land through
- land pooling
- transferable development rights
- accommodation reservation
c) Proposals for manpower resource mobilisation including :
-Technical manpower
4.27. implementation
a.
b.
Priorities classify various projects identified as a part of development
proposals by priority as under :
Essential (top priority)
Necessary {2nd priority)
Acceptable and desirable (3rd priority)
Deferable (4th priority)
Phasing : Phase the development in two phases :
Phase-/ : {3 years) up to end of the term of the local authority
which formulated the development plan.
Phase-11 : (2 years) up to the end of the plan period and to be
implemented by the following or subsequently elected local
authority.
c. Identification of projects/schemes by phase and implementing agencies
including private, cooperative and corporate sectors.
d. Development promotion rules/regulations.
4.28 Monitoring and Review
Monitoring system should provide review of development efforts after three years.
50 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
1·•·.·
l: .·. ·.·
I
r· :.::·
---------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
Review should include examination of the development plan implementation
incorporating identification of successes, failures and areas of conflicts for revision, if
necessary, of basic issues; goals and objectives; and priorities. These would form input
to preparation of the development plan for next period. This should also provide areas
and uses where modification is needed.
4.30 ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS OF LARGE CITIES
A development plan of large city, in addition to the above, wiU also have the following
contents :
4.31 Existing Conditions and Development Issues
a. City influence area and its characteristics· including settlement pattern,
rural-urban relationship and fringe area developments.
b. Issues related to decentralisation of activities.
4.22 Projected Requirements
a. Population
. '
The population projection should be guided by environmental and infrastructure
(especially drinking water) sustainability and holding capacity of the city.
Dispersal of economic activity also guide population projection.
b. Economic base and employment
c.
d.
Housing
Hierarchy of commercial areas, dispersal of commercial activity
and related activities.
Dispersal of industries or restriction of specific type of industries
considering pollution level, environmental sustainability.
Urban poverty and its alleviation.
Informal sector housing, slum upgradation and resettlement
strategy
Public facilities
Cultural facilities - museum, cultural centres
- CRJJT, ITP/, New Delhi----------------------
51
. ·., ·, : . .' ·- ·- ..
_,._..--:;-- _ _,__ - · ~ __ ....:. --- ._- •_::_ ~ : · _ -
.. ·:. ·.'
---------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
e. Open spaces
f. Transportation
Specialised hospitals and specialised education and research
centres
Protection of encroachment and misuse of open spaces
Mass transportation system and its integration with activity
nodes/facility centres and land use pattern
Airport, seaport (as the case may be)
4.33 Development Aims and Objectives
Goals and objectives related to dispersal of activities, environmental and infrastructure
sustainability; mass transportation and informal activities to be incorporated if not
already included.
4.34 Development Proposals
~ a . Mass transportation system and land use interfaces.
52 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-----------------------
CHAPTERS
CONTENTS OF
ANNUAL PLANS
!,:·

i'
---------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
CHAPTER FIVE
CONTENTS OF ANNUAL PLANS
5.10 GENERAL
1. This chapter presents the contents of an annual plan prepared within the framework
of an approved development plan by the local authority. It is an in1portant document
for the local authority as its aggregation at the district planning committee or
metropolitan planning committee level will generate the district or metropolitan area
annual plan which when further aggregated at state level will form its consolidated
annual plan. The state annual plan after its ·consideration by the state Planning Board
and the central Planning Commission will provide the state and central funds for
different sectors which finally will result in the allocation of funds to the local
authorities. The annual plan of the local authority will also help in formulation of its
annual budget. ··
2. The contents of annual p1an of a local authority, as given in the following sections,
are applicable to all small, medium-size. or large urban centres.
5.20 CONTENTS OF AN ANNUAL PLAN
5.21 Brief Introduction
Give a brief introduction to the urban centre as indicated in its development plan
(Section 4.22.1 .a.). The objective in writing this introduction is to make the annual plan
self-contained and this section should be as brief as possible.
5.22 Review of Last Year's Performance
i. The review of the performance of the last preceding year should include both
physical and fiscal achievements. It should cover all the components of the
development plan as contained in the last year's annual plan ana highlight for each
component :.
a. The physical target set
b. The status at the end of the annual plan and the level of physical
performance by percentage of target achieved
c. The allocations made
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
53
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d. The money spent and level of fiscal performance by percentage of
money spdnt
2. The review should also present an analysis of performance componentwise,
highlighting :
a. Areas where the local authority had a very high degree of performance.
b. Areas where the local authority had a very low degree of performance
and reasons for such performance as well as the ways and means to
correct the course of action.
c. A further analysis of the performance by source of funds should also be
presented. It should include physical and fiscal performance of the
projects implemented through funds from :
d.
i) Central assistance
ii) Central and state assistance
iii) State ass.istance
iv) National funding agencies
v) International assistance or funding agencies
vi) Local authority resources
vii) Local authority - private sector joint ventures
viii) Private sector funds
Finally, specify the areas or actions which require attention with
particular reference to :
i) Finance
ii) Capacity and skill upgradation
iii) Administrative and legal issues
iv) Changes in policies, programmes or priorities
5.23 The Annual Plan
1 . Aims and objectives
Taking the review of the last year's annual plan and the proposals of the development
plan into account, prepare the annual plan. This plan should provide :
a) Aims and objectives of development during the year. And
b) Priorities.
54 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
UDPFI Guidelines---
2. Fiscal requirements and physical targets
Such a plan should also provide clearly for implementation of each component of the
plan: ·
a) The funds required. And
b) The physical targets to be achieved during the year.
3. Fiscal resource mobilisation plan
The resource mobilisation plan should present the manner of mobilisation of resource
required for implementation of the annual plan, specifying the amount of money
proposed to be mobilised through :
a) Local authority resources
b) Local authority - private sector joint ventures;
c) Institutional financing
d) Market borrowing
e) Private sector
f) State assistance
g) Central-state assistance
h)
Central ass is tan ce
4. Land assembly
Estimate the ~ o t a l land required by the development components and present the
manner of assembly of land by the local authority including assembly through :
a) Land acquisition
b) Land pooling scheme
c) Accommodation reservation
d)
Transferable development rights
e)
Private sector land pooling schemes
- CRDT, 11'Pl, Nt->lv Delhi------------·-----'--------
55
----------------------------UDPFJ Guidelines---
5. Capacity building and skill upgradation
This should include :
a) Appointment of staff, both technical and administrative
b) Training of staff
c) Strengthening of the urban plan-ning department
d) Consultancy practice
6. Other proposals
Depending upon the specific needs and local area requirements provide other
proposals also.
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CHAPTER 6
CONTENTS OF
PLANS OF
PROJECTS/SCHEMES
------'---'----------------...,...----UDPFI Guidelint..>s---
CHAPTER SIX
CONTENTS OF PLANS OF PROJECTS/SCHEMES
6.10 GENERAL
1. The following is the recommended list of contents of plans of projects/schemes for
execution on site. Depending upon the local requirements or requirements of the
approving or funding agency, these may be modified if necessary. ·
2. These contents are applicable to all plans of projects and schemes for all sizes of
settlements, small, medium or large.
6.20 CONTENTS OF PLANS OF PROJECTS / SCHEMES
6.21 Location
1. Location and other physical characteristics of the site if it is already available.
2. Identification of possible sites, if not already available. And :
a) Evaluation of alternative location;
b) · Selection of preferred location; and
c) Physical characteristics of the preferred site.
6.22 Site Planning
1. Aims and objectives and schedule of area requirements as per provision of the
development plan.
2. Alternative concepts of layout, their evaluation and selection of a preferred
concept.
3. Layout based upon the preferred concept.
4. Planning and design of infrastructure (water supply, sewage, drainage,
electricity, road network and arbori-culture).
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6.23 Environmental Impact Assessment
6.24
As per Department of Environment Guidelines. provide environment impact
assessment of the project/scheme.
Spatial Impact Assessment
In case of large projects/schemes, provide spatial impact assessment of the project
or scheme. Such an assessment should include :
a) Impact of the project on additional demand for housing with specific
reference to EWS & LIG sections of the society who would squat near
the project site if no proper care is taken in this context.
b)' Impact on the direction of growth of the settlement.
c) Impact on the commercial and other ancillary industrial activities.
d) Impact on resettlement of population due to compulsory land
acquisition.
e) Impact on city level infrastructure, especially, roads, bridges,
transportation system, water supply, sewage treatment plant, electricity
generation and supply.
f) Impact on city level facilities.
6.25 · Financing Plan
58
1 . Cost recovery strategy
2. Financing terms
3. Financing plan
Sources of finance
Proportion, form and nature of funds
Proportion, forms and nature of financing by various
participating agencies and local authority
Interest rates and terms for borrowed funds
Cash flow and repayment schedule
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6.26 Project Administration and Organisation*
6.27
1. Project administration agency
2. Major administrative requirements
- Advertisement
- Processing of application
- Collection of dues
- System of allotment of plots/units
- Supervision
- Monitoring
- General management
3. Requirement of personnel
4. Executing agency
Legal Support f Constraints (if any)*
1. Land assembly laws.
2. Land tenure laws.
3. Development promotion laws/regulations.
*
These sections may not form part of the documents needed at the time
of approval of private sector project/schemes by the local authority.
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CHAPTER 7
RESOURCE MOBILISATION
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CHAPTER SEVEN
RESOURCE MOBILISATION
7.10 INTRODUCTION
i. Money, manpower and land are the three main resources for planning and
development of urban centres. Among these resources, land is limited and its
availability differs from place to place. As a basic principle, allocation of this resource
among various competing land uses must be such that it helps in achieving a high
level of economic efficiency.
2. In the pursuit of spatial development. the government should not always be
expected to spend money, or participate directly in building activities and development
programmes. Private sector resources should also be appropriately mobilised for .
investment in development of urban centres. The role of private sector in the
development process should be duly recognised, depending upon the potential of the .·
urban centre, and utilised in plan implementation. As a general fiscal policy on ·
resource mobilisation, it would be desirable to have a proper mix of public and private
sectors participation, both playing a symbiotic role in such a way that the public
infrastructure programme is implemented through budgetary sources and marketed
urban infrastructure and facilities are provided through private sector while a joint
venture could also be explored where practical.
3. This chapter focuses on the fiscal, land and manpower resource mobilisation
strategies in general and it is expected that the local authorities will select the most·
appropriate system depending upon local needs and potential.
7.20 FISCAL RESOURCE MOBILISATION
7.21 General Fiscal Policies
A. Perspective Plans
1. While formulating perspective plan, it is necessary to make realistic assessment of
the impact of economic liberalisation on the method of financing urban development
In particular, three aspects are to be considered :
a) alternative methods of plan-finance in view of the gradual abolition of
the system of directed credit;
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b)
c)
limiting public sector activities to financially non-viable community
facilities; and
alternative methods of land assembly by public agencies for
undertaking non-marketed urban development.
2. For inter-governmental transfer, the following principles should be adopted:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
the quantum and frequency of such transfers must be predictable;
they must be transparent through explicit and identifiable entries in
government budget$;
they must imply a hard budget constraint for the municipalities and
there should be no soft option at the margin;
they must be pre-determined rather than being open-ended;
they must have in-built incentives/penalities for promoting local resource
mobilisation and good pertormance.
B. Development Plans
1. For implementing a urban development plan it is necessary first to
identify a nodal agency for inter-authority dialogue and the resultant financial
commitments to realise the plan proposals. There could be two options for such a
nodal agency in the context of the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (74th CAA) :
a) the Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC) and the District Planning
Committee (DPC) may undertake this task themselves; or
b) the core local authority in the designated area may act as ·the nodal
agency.
2. As a result of the economic liberalisation, the directional role of the public sector
would be replaced by the promotional role. in so far as its interaction with the private
sector is concerned, so that local-level fiscal coordination for urban development plan
implementation would be mainly through fiscal incentives and disincentives. rather than
through direct allocation of public resources.
3. The involved local authorities and other public agencies for urban development
would have to utilise their tax power and pricing system efficiently and equitably.
While municipal financial policy would be influenced in future by the working of the
State Finance Commissions (SFCs), there is no such guideline applied on the urban
parastatals to improve their financial performance. Two.issues, in particular. need to
be resolved:
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1. At the stage of urban projects/schemes the implementing local authority starts with
a given size of funds or budget constraint. The financial plan for development projects
requires :
a) the cost recovery strategy;
b) the choice of project out of alternative proposals; and
c) a system of reporting financial performance for mid-course correction
in terms of size of investment or pay-back arrangements.
2. The budget period is dfliermined by the time covered by investment flows within the
capital budget cycle that coincides with the medium-term urban development plan.
Ideally, there should be a capital budget for the development plan within which
individual action agency capital budgets would be identified. But this assumes the
existence of a nodal urban development agency for each urban centre which may not
materialise.
3. Within the budget constraint, there would be alternative project proposals under
various functional areas. The se -functional allocation of funds are determined by
the local authorities in terms o·f political choice, while in the case of urban parastatals
these are confined within single functional areas.
4. Among the various urban project proposals the f'nai choice would be guided by the
results of the appropriate project appraisal methods for non-market facilities (cost
effectiveness), for partially marketed facilities (cost-benefit) and for market-oriented
facilities (discounted cash flow). The non-market facilities are to be created through tax
revenues (budget surplus or revenue hypothecation) while the market facilities are to
be created on the strength of appropriate user charges. The partially marketed facilities
would have the mixed financing characteristics of the non-market and market-oriented
facilities.
5. The requirements of subsidised provision of urban services would result in reducing
the revenue stream or enhancing the expenditure stream, such that a supposedly
market-oriented facility in fact becomes a partially marketed one (e .. g. water supply),
and a partially marketed facility may turn out to be a non-marketed facility (primary
education or health care). There is a case for state assistance to provide for
subsidised urban services in order to make these financially viable both in terms of
facility creation and their subsequent service delivery.
6. The urban project financial reporting system would be concerned with specification
of revenue and expenditure targets, the choice of discount rate, and the assumed
losses due to risk and uncertainity. At the higher governmental levels the objectives
of employment, capacitY utilisation of sunk investment, and conservation of foreign
exchange WOUld also weigh in deciding abOlJt the degree of subsidisation of urban
services providing the local urban authorities - both municipal and parastatals.
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7. In case t ~ e actual experience of revenue inflows and expenditure outflows
exceeding the target, or non-realisation of the assumed financing parameters, there
would be a case for taking correctives. This should be done annually for each project
and at the time of review of the urban development plan. Such a review should result
in a recasting of investment size, in the pay-back period, and the cost recovery
strategy.
8. Fee-based urban services would be optimally utilised only through market
competition among the providers which may result ·in their private supply. This would
make the consumer response market-oriented so that disfunction a! objectives are met
through state level budgetary policies.
9. The implications for urban development financing will require innovative approach
in terms of:
a) enhanced municipal tax revenues,
b) the extent of utilising land profits for urban development.
7.22 Innovative Approaches for Fiscal Resource Mobilisation
1. As discussed earlier, the New Economic Policy, especially through its fiscal
adjustment, financial sector reforms and emphasis on transforming the role of
government from provider to enabler has made the mobilisation of financial resources
a complex task. The traditional system of funding, based on plan and budgetary
allocations, has to be reduced and ultimately withdrawn due to fiscal deficit
compulsions. Availability of funds for implementing urban development plans and
services delivery system wili not be easy. This has implications for tile local
authorities to devise innovative methods of resource mobilisation through fiscal
instruments and accessing the market. Subsidies will have to be rationalised and
urban development plans and projects shall have to be placed on a commercial format
by designing commercially viable urban infrastructure, services and area development
projects.
2. Implementation of development plan and augmentation of urban services require
massive financial investments which, in the existing local fiscal situation, looks quite
a complex task. Urban areas have to be physically and economically rejuvenated to
make them much more attractive for the new investments flowing in the wake of
liberalisation of industrial investments to take place there. The new macro-economic
policy for its success itself will require to give strong urban infrastructure support to it.
As macro-economic policies have urban implications, urban economies have equally
important implications for the success of macro-economic policies.
3. Finance happens to be a critical variable in any scheme of development, and there
does not exist any short-cut to mobilise it. The local authorities would need to
increasingly innovate new fiscal instruments and ways to mobilise financial resources.
These bodies, at present, are handicapped by a fragile fiscal base which has been
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declining. R e s o u r ~ e mobilisation efforts, therefore, have to consist of a number of
policy intervention:;; at the state and local levels. '
4. Public intervention for enhancing fiscal capabilities of local authorities at the state
level has first to address to the existing mismatch between functions and the revenue
devolved to the municipal bodies. The mismatch between availability of financial
resources and the demand for municipal services requires enhancing their fiscal
capabilities by restoring a proper match between functions and sources of revenue
by giving additional tax authority. At the local level, the policy intervention has to
addiess to:
a) devolution of additional tax powers ;
b) increasing use of land as the resource and land based non-property
taxes; -
c) effective administration of existing taxes;
d) refurbishing of major taxes;
e) efficient pricing of all the directly chargeable urban services;
f) increasing use of non-tax sources;
g) system for fiscal transfer;
h) access of municipal bodies to institutional finance;
i) private involvement in performance of some of the municipal functions;
and
j) access of municipal bodies to market borrowing.
A. Ttuer
1. The municipal entities derive their tax powers from the laws enacted by the state
legislatures. The sources of revenue - both tax and non-tax-are delegated to them
under these laws as obligatory and discretionary taxes. Thus, even the municipal
bodies are at liberty to levy a tax and may not exercise the delegated tax powers with
respect to urban taxes and rates. The municipal authorities in Gujarat, for example,
have been delegated to use about 15 kinds of taxes; they are at present using only
six of them.
2. In order to match the functional domain of the municipal bodies with tax powers,
it has become a policy imperative to:
a) devolve additional tax powers to them; and
b) provide for transfer of new functions to them as proposed in the XII
Schedule along with the funds presently being used in performance of
such functions by the state government departments.
3. Some of the promising new taxes for which powers could be delegated to the local
authority are:
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a) tax on consumption of electricity (as in Delhi);
b) a surcharge on petroleum products;
c) · a tax on advertisemnt is already a lucrative and popular tax .in some
states;
d) entertainment tax, and stamp duty are elastic sources of revenue in
some of the states at the local level.
B. Land as a Resource
1. Besides the above traditional areas of taxation, urban land is emerging as a new
area for local resource generation. Now, since the local auttwrities have to be
involved in urban planning and local planned economic development initiative, they
should use land as a resource for mobilisation of funds. There exist already innovative
examples of generation of substantial funds by using urban land in Maharashtra
(CIDCO) and Delhi (DDA). However, too much preoccupation with this also leads to
certain social and economic distortions as was witnessed in Delhi, where a large
proportion of total developed land went to the high income groups much against the
plan objective.
C. Non-Property Taxes
1. There are, however, a number of land based (non-property) taxes which could be
devolved to the local authorities for mobilisation of financial resources. Such taxes
have especially been profitably used in North and Latin America and elsewhere as
well. These taxes, besides acting as an instrument of resource generation at the local
level, are also used to regulate land and development and promote other important
urban development objectives. These are discussed below:
a) Vacant Developed Land Tax : Tax on vacant developed land; though
levied by only a few urban local authorities, especially in the
metropolitan cities in India, has not been in vogue extensively. In the
states where this tax is not used at the moment, the property tax
system provides an incentive for not building upon the vacant
developed land thus providing an incentive for speculation in land. This
adversely affects implementation of urban development plans by
delaying the use of land. If properly used, the tax on vacant developed
land could be· profitably used to speed up the
development of urban land besides helping in mobilisation of additional
financial resource needed badly for implementation of development
plans.
b) Tax on Land Value increment : It is a commqn phenomenon that land
values keep on increasing over the years not because of any individual
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UDPFI Guidelines---
effcrt but due to implementation of development schemes. Land value
increment may also be due to economic phenomenon of rise in general
prices. The basic objective of land value incrementtaxes (LVIT) is to
capture some of this increase for the benefit of the community. Such a
tax is widely used in several countries like Israel, Italy, Malaysia,
Australia, Korea, Canada and New Zealand.
Betterment Levy: The objective of the betterment levy, imposed on the
beneficiaries of the improvement projects, is to recover the project cost
from the beneficiaries of the project. The levy is thus a fiscal
_instrument to generate funds by recouping the land value increments
which are not due to any Individual effort. However, it has been
constrained by problems. . ,
Special Assessment Districts : Special Assessment District (SAD) is
widely practised in USA for recovering the cost of upgrading services
in a given area within a city from th,3 beneficiaries of service
upgradation. SAD allows imposition of additional charges based on
assessed value of properties which have directly benefited from tile
improvement. The properties located within SAD are charged a special
betterment assessment in conjunction with the standard property tax.
SAD had been used in California, Colorado, Maryland and taxes to
finance highway construction of direct benefit to the properties. SAD
may be used by providing for this in the urban and regional planning
legislations in the states through the instrument of development scheme
in a given area and to recover the costs of improvement.
e) Valorisation Charges : Valorisation charges have been used to finance
schemes like street improvements, sewer extensions and other similar
services through a system of taxation by which the cost of public works
is allocated to affected properties in proportion to the benefits
conferred. Valorisation is basically concerned with recovery of project
costs.
f) Development Impact Exaction : The Development Impact Exaction
(DIE) is assessed on a developer for financing additional city level
facilities and services. DIE tries to take care of mobilisation of funds
which could be used to finance the augmentation of services and thus
mitigate the adverse impact of development on the community. The
impacts of new development are measured in terms of pre-determined
standards of services. DIE is primarily used to generate revenues for
financing the augmentation of municipal facilities and services
necessitated by the new development. In the Indian situation, charging
for off-site infrastructure from the developers is a very crude
approximation of the North American DIE. While the Indian practice is
limited and restrictive and is charged as a nominal proportion of the
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g)
total development cost, DIE is a widely used technique based on actual
measurement of the nexus between new development and its impact
on total service system. DIE needs to be put into the urban and
regional planning legislation and, more importantly, by providing for a
new basis for lrban planning, management and by linking planning with
capital improvement programme.
Development Charge : The development charge is used to recover the
cost of providing new services and infrastructure in an area. In Gujarat,
the development authorities levy development charge on the basis of
per unit area, which is not at all related to the cost of service provision.
This needs to be rationalised and refurbished.
2. The land based non-property taxes practised abroad could be profitably used in
India to generate funds. In addition to these innovative practices, there exist others
like planning permission, capitalisation of development cost besides the innovative
Land Pooling Scheme.
D. Effective Tax Administration
·, 1. Even with the existing tax authority, the municipal bodies are not effectively
administering the taxes. With the result the taxes devolved to them are, by and large,
still untapped. Whatever taxes are administered by them, the recovery is very poor.
A study for the Ninth Finance Comr;nission had revealed that about 47 per cent of the
sample municipal authorities were collecting only up to 50 per cent of the property tax
demand.
2. Such a grim situation demands to devise measures for enhancing efficiency of tax
administration machinery. This could be done by, among other things, introducing a
system of incentives for prompt payment and penalties for defaulting and improving
the collection efficiency.
E. Refurbishing of Major Taxes
1. Even though the Acts provide for various taxes and levies, there has been
systematic encroachment on the sources of local revenue. The State
Finance Commissions constituted in states need to provide for devolving of new tax
sources and the measures needed to prevent encroachment on them.
a) Property Tax : Reforming the Property Tax (PT} will require to bring
about amendment in the Rent Control Laws (RCL) either (i) for
delinking its present depressing effect on rental value or (ii) for
permitting legally the periodical revision of standard rent. A new
enactment for Delhi state by the Indian Parliament - the Model Rent
Control Act- provides for refurbishing of standard rent and its periodical
revision. This, if adopted by all the state governments, will go a long
'· ...

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way in restoring the base of this tax with some relationship with the
market value.
b) Octroi : Octroi, besides constituting a fairly high proportion of the total
revenue, has certain good attributes. There is a consensus .to remove
it from the statute book. This will have serious financial implications
both for the local authorities and also for the state governments.
However, as octroi has to go, alternative sources of revenue will have
to be identified so that the burden of state finances could be minimised.
Substitute of octroi like entry tax surcharge on sales tax have been
tried, but the revenues generated have not been sufficient to
compensate it. Conceptually, an entry tax should be able to yield
sufficient revenue as the base continues to remain the same; only the
assessment is transformed from barrier based to accounts based. !f,
however, the proceeds from an effective administration of entry tax do
not yield sufficient revenue, one has to look for a combination of entry
tax and turnover tax and even a surcharge on the sales tax.
F. Pricing of Directly Chargeable
1. The consumers of such municipal services as are termed as ;'public goods" can be
excluded from consuming them if they do not pay for it. These are water supply,
sewerage, urban transport and even solid waste collection and disposal and parks.
These are suitable for the imposition of user charges to be directly recovered from the
consumers. Presently,the user charge concept is applied only with respect to water
and hardly one-third of the user charge is presently recovered; the remaining goes as
the subsidy - even to those who do not need it. Through this user charge even the
operating cost is not recovered. The user charges could be levied separately for
separate services with proper relationship with the cost of service provision but not
as a consolidated rate alongwith property tax, as above in several states. Even if it
forms part of the consolidated rate, the tax amount could be manoeuvered to recoup
the cost. Charging for water,transport and electricity (wherever it is a municipal
function) could be relatively easier and straightforward on the basis of meter and the
unit cost.
G. Non-Tax Sources
The traditionally known sources of local revenue are becoming increasingly exhaustive
and do not seem to be sufficient to yield sufficient revenue. The non-tax sources like
remunerative and commercial projects, licence fee, development charges, impact
fees are promising areas for revenue generation and should be exploited by the local
authorities.
H. Fiscal·Tmnsfen
1. The fiscal transfers to the local authorities are ad-hoc and chaotic as there does not
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exist any rational system for transfers in a large number of states and there exist too
many grants for specific purposes.
2. Whereas the ·transfers between the Central and the state governments are not only
provided for in the Constitution of India, it is periodically reviewed and updated through'
the system of Finance Commission. The fiscal relationship between the state
government and the local authorities is, however, shapeless. Now as constitutional
obligation after the 73rd and 74th Constitution Amendments, the state governments
have constituted Finance Commissions which are to be constituted every five years.
It will enable integration of muni.cipal finance with the state finances and hence
automatically with the central finances through the committed expenditure mechanism
of the state governments.
3. In the short run, it would be advisable to give maximum reliance on assigned and
shared taxes as in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. In Kerala, entertainment tax, profession
tax and the duty on transfer of property are assigned to the municipal authorities who
administer these taxes and retain the entire proceeds from these taxes. In Tamil
Nadu, the proceeds from entertainment tax and the duty on transfer of property which
are administered by the state government, are shared by the municipal authorities.
4. Ta.X assignment seems to be advisable on many counts. It goes very well with local
autonomy. It provides an independent source of revenue as the tax structure and the
tax rates could be varied within certain limits by the municipal authorities in line with
their requirements and the local control over tax improves predictability of receipt.
Therefore, entertainment tax, profession tax, a duty on transfer of property and motor
vehicles could be assigned to them.
5. As a general purpose grant, grant-in-aid code could be evolved by the state
governments on per head basis by relating the quantum of per head grant with size
and resources endowments. Specific purpose grants could be in the form of patterned
grant on the lines of Centrally Sponsored Schemes on matching contribution basis.
However, some element of incentive for better performance will have to be built into
the grant system for enhancing work efficiency.
6. In addition to the general purpose revenue grants, capital grant will also have to
be rationalised. Financing of capital projects will need to be integrated with plan
financing at the state and Central levels. This will call for preparation of capital
development plans by the local authorities and their integration with state plans so
that it could be brought within the ambit of devolution of plan funds. This will have to
be supplemented by institutional finance. As the 74th CAA provides for urban planning
and its consolidation with state plans, plan allocation funds will hopefully flow to the
city governments as well.
I. Institutional Finance
1. Local authorities need substantial funds for capital development programme. The
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7.30
7.31
scope for institutional finance has now improved with the coming into being of Urban
Infrastructure Window of HUDCO and the Infrastructure Leasing and Finance
Corporation. The municipal bodies now can take recourse to these sources for loan.
States like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka have constituted their own financial
institutions to finance urban infrastructure. Other state governments need to follow
suit. However, if the new finance system based on accessing the financial institutions
and the debt market has to be a success, the financial institutions have to rigorously
insist on full cost recovery. After the New Economic Policy, to develop a new system
of financing urban infrastructure has become an imperative which has to be based on
accessing the debt market by devising debt instruments.
2. Water supply, sewerage, ama development and solid waste disposal are included,
within the purview of financing under FIRE's (Financial Institutions Reform and
Expansion) debt component programme. At present, a large number of potential
projects are being examined for structuring them on commercial format. Hopefully, this
will promote a new system of financing urban infrastructure by accessing the debt
market. The local authorities should not have any problem in financing land
development by accessing the debt market.. if they are vested with the responsibility
of implementing development plans and are vested with land. Financial institutions
and the debt market as well will need to be tapped for this purpose.
J. Public-Private Pal"tnerships
1. One of the ways to enhance fiscal capabilities of the municipal authorities is to shed
some of their functions and evolve alternative institutional arrangement for the
performance of such functions. In some of the states, they are er;1gaged even in
performance of health (curative) functions by managing hospitals and even medical
colleges (Gujarat, for example). These are in the nature of state functions and need
to be transferred back to the state governments so that it has some cushioning effect
on municipal finances. Some of the existing municipal functions like water supply,
transport and electricity (wherever these are performed by them), collection of solid
waste, sanitation in the fringe areas could be privatised and contracted out. Even the
maintenance of street lighting could be contracted out to private sector. Already some
headway has been made in this regard. Build-own-Operate (BOO}; Build-oiJI,In-Transfer
(BOT} are emerging variations of such partnership arrangements which need to be
explored. This will provide much needed financial resources for provision of municipal
and urban services and infrastructure.
LAND ASSEMBLY
Land and Planning Interface
1. Land is the medium on which the entire superstructure of human settlement is
created and under which quite a lot of infrastructure find their place. Planning the use
of land leads to socio-economic and physical development of urban and rural areas.
Land is, however, a scarce commodity as its supply is limited and it cannot be created.
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It is, therefore, most essential to ensure that utilisation of the available land .is judicious
and in the best interest of the community through the instrument of development plans.
Land value depends on demand and supply and it increases as the demand exceeds
the supply. Due to these characteristics, planners and urban economists have often
been urging that urban land should be treated as an asset and be planned accordingly.
2. Implementation of the plan proposals requires procurement of land either by way
of private negotiation or through the Land Acquisition Acts. Land procurement through
such means naturally requires huge capital investment which is beyond ·the fiscal
capabilities· of many of the local authorities. As a result, several plans remain only on
paper. There is a growing consciousness that urban development should be
self-financing with minimum burden on local authorities and the central and state
governments. The Planning Commission has also advocated this approach to urban
development. In the context of making the development schemes self-financing, some
practical and effective system of land assembly have been evolved by states like
Maharashtra and Gujarat. These techniques of land assembly/land procurement can
be grouped as :
a) land pooling and redistribution scheme popularly known as town
planning scheme;
b) mechanism of transfer of development rights; and
c) system of accommodation reservatiorr.
Land Pooling and Redistribution Scheme (Town Planning Scheme)
i. A Town Planning (TP) Scheme under the Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning
Act, 1966 is a land development technique undertaken by the land owners who pool
their land to secure a good layout thereof. The TP Scheme is basically a legal
procedure for allowing :
a) pooling of land by different owners;
b) formulation and approval of the layout showing the 'original' as well as
the 'final' plots, including roads and amenities with active participation
of the land owners; and
c) redistribution of 'final' plots after charging betterment contribution and
paying compensation for the land used for public purposes and
transferred to the local authority.
2. The local authority, which is also a party to the TP Scheme, prepares the layout,
processes it for approval by the state government and is responsible for its execution.
In the whole process the land is developed as per the plan and without any land
acquisition. It is this feature of the Town Planning Scheme which distinguishes it from
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other modes of land assembly like b u l ~ acquisition or acquisition of selected lands
required for public amenities. When a Town Planning Scheme is finalised, the land so
carved out for public purposes vests in the local authority free from all encumbrances
and remaining land is distributed amongst the own.ers in the form of developed plots
according to an equitable formula and the development expenses are alsq shared in
a similar manner. This procedure thus provides for smooth vesting of lands, for public
purposes, with the local authorities and the usual opposition to acquisition from owners
of the concerned lands is non-existent. Town Planning Scheme is therefore rightly
called "land acquisition without tears". This scheme has been successfully tried in
case of large cities and with the help of public awareness programmes it can be
successful in small and medium towns also. The only drawback with this scheme is
that there are very long delays in the process of preparation, approval, arbitration and
implementation mainly due to litigation related to compensation receivable by the
owners on account of reduction of the land area, utilised for roads and other public
amenities.
3. After considering various causes and alternative solutions to folve the problem of
delays in implementing the T.P.Schemes, it is suggested that :
a) The scheme be divided into two parts (i) planning part and (ii) the
financial part. After approval by the state government the planning part
should be treated as final and binding on all concerned parties. While
an appeal could be filed to the Tribunal for Land Pooling Scheme by
the aggrieved person against the decisions contained in the financial
part. This will ensure speedy implementation of the scheme.
b) To save delays in planning, where the scheme is first prepared by the
local authority and then it is modified by an Arbitrator, a Project Planner
should be appointed who would prepare the scheme in active
consultation with the original plot holders by calling two meetings to
discuss the draft and final proposals and serve the functions of both the
planner and the arbitrator.
c) The contribution which is based upon the estimated value of land
assuming full development as per the scheme should be replaced by
estimated cost of the scheme which should include :
i) cost of making the scheme;
ii) execution of the scheme;
iii) execution of such part of the peripheral and bulk services as
may be considered reasonable;
iv) three-fourth of all sums payable as compensation for land
reserved for public purpose;
v) legal expenses, if any, incurred by local authority;
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vi) variation, if any, in the estimated value of the original plot and
the final plot due to locational advantages without reference to
improvements contemplated in the scheme.
This suggestion would make the financial part of the scheme more
acceptable as the various development costs shall be calculated as per
the local schedule of rates. This would reduce the number of appeals.
d) If the original plot holders so agree, Transferable Development Right
may be given in lieu of compensation payable by the local authority.
This would reduce number of disputes.
e) There should be a permanent Tribunal for Land Pooling Scheme. This
would save time taken in appointing such a Tribunal for each land
pooling scheme.
f) Land pooling schemes should be prepared only for the areas included
in the current development plan and be within its framework. This would
drastically reduce the time taken during the process of approval.
g) To reflect the nature and purpose of the scheme, it should be called as
Land Pooling Scheme instead of Town Planning Scheme as it is
popularly known in Gujarat and Maharashtra.
7.33 Transferable Development Right
1. Concept of Transferable Development Right (TOR) is a recent innovative land
assembly technique introduced by Maharashtra state for cities having 2 lakh and
above population, wherei11 participation of the land-owner is sought for the purpose of
implementation of the planning proposals.
2. In the TOR concept, the potential of a plot of land identified as intensity of
built-space, guided by the Floor Space Index (FSI) or Floor Area Ratio (FAR), has
been separated from the land itself and made available to the land owner in the form
of Transferable Development Right (TOR) to be utilised by him from an inner-zone
(originating area) to an outer-zone (receiving area) specified by regulations.
3. According to the Development Control Rules of Greater Bombay Municipal
Corpo'lation, land reserved for public amenities, utilities and services can compulsorily
be acquired by granting TDR in lieu of compensation.
4. Under the provisions of the rules, plot-owners of land reserved for public purposes
are eligible for TDR and also for receiving the Development Right Certificate (DRC).
The DRC allows the plot-owner to use himself the FAR/FSI on the area of plot
surrendered to the local authority for public purpose, or transfer the same in full or in
parts to any other person at any time. The purchaser of area under DRC would be
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allowed touse it in addition to the permissible FSI or FAR. The DRC thus becomes
marketable instrument s:Jbject to market forces.
7.34 Accommodation Reservation
1. The concept of Accommodation Reservation allows the land owners to develop the
sites reserved for an amenity in the development plan using full permissible FSI/FAR
on the plot subject to agreeing to entrust and hand over the built-up area of such
amenity to the local authority free of all encumbrances and accept the full FSI/FAR as
compensation in lieu thereof. The area utilised for the amenity shall not form part of
FAR/FS! calculation. Reservations such as retail markets, dispensaries, etc. can be
implemented by this way wherein local authority is not required to acquire the land by
incurring expenditure on payment of compensation.
2. In case of reservations like shopping centres, industrial estates, etc. the owner can
be allowed to develop them on his agreeing to give at least up to 25 per cent of the
shops to the local authority for the purpose of rehabilitation of tt e displaced persons
from sites reserved for public purposes or amenities in the development plan, on
payment of cost of construction. The remaining shops are allowed to be taken care of
by the land owner.
3. In case of road wide'ning and construction of new roads; the local authority can
grant additional Floor Space Index on 100 per cent of the area required for road
widening or for construction of new roads proposed under the development plan,
provided the owner surrenders the land for widening or construction of new roads to
the local authority free of all encumbrances and accept the additional FAR/FSI as the
compensation in lieu thereof. This mechanism has considerably relieved the local
authorities from incurring huge expenses for the purpose of acquisition of such lands.
4. The concept of Accommodation Reservation has already been introduced in
Bombay by incorporating it in the Development Control Rules of Bombay Municipal
Corporation. Realising its positive effect in implementing the development plan
proposals, Government of Maharashtra has recently directed all the remaining
municipal corporations and municipal councils in the state to incorporate this provision
of Accommodation Reservation in their Development Control Regulations. Accordingly,
this new system is also now followed by all the local authorities in the state for the
purpose of executing the sanctioned development plans.
7.40 MANPOWER RESOURCE
7.41 Introduction
1. The manpower needed for preparation, implementation, monitoring and review of
various plans by the local authority depends upon the extent -and nature of work and
the institutional set-up required to perform the assigned function. This section,
therefore, deals with :
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a. the Institutional set-up;
b. policy options for manpower mobilisation; and
c. general policy for manpower development..
7.42 Institutional S e t ~ u p
1. As discussed in chapter II earlier, the plan formulation, implementation, monitoring
and review exercises must be statutorily prescribed in the relevant acts and completed
within the specified time-frame and schedule. In the context of these requirements
institutional set-up has a vital role to play.
2. To carry out the planning function, firstly there has to be a planning agency
entrusted with the task of preparing the plan and implementing it. For cities/towns such
agencies exist normally at local level except in case of metro-cities, where an agency
at sub-state level for areas comprising the city and its influence zone is required.
These agencies should have the necessary legal status and powers to undertake plan
preparation, development promotion (enforcement) and implementation. Generally, the
plan preparation agency at local level should be the enforcement agency. This would
enable the plan preparation agency to be in touch with day to day probiems of
implementation and remove the shortcomings by constant monitoring and review.
Provision in the state town and country planning acts, however, differ and existence
of two separate agencies, one for plan preparation and another for development
control, creates an undesirable situation where neither the development control can
be exercised effectively nor the interpretation of the master plan can be done properly.
3. The execution of the specialised schemes, as conceived in the plan, may be
undertaken by other specialised agencies functioning at local, metropolitan or state.
levels but the planning authority should be responsible for overall coordination of the
work of the implementing agencies and function as facilitator of development. The
planning agency should have competent personnel to carry out the task of preparing
the various plans, plan processing and after approval enforcing the plan, working out
the details of development schemes for execution and subsequently to take note of the
changing conditions in the planning area and appropriately incorporate them in the
development plan. Planning function, as mentioned earlier. is a continuous process
and the planning department work continues from plan preparation to plan processing,
plan enforcement, plan implementation, plan detailing, plan review and then next plan
formulation and thus the process continues.
4. Variety of data on physical and human resources and economic aspects are needed
for plan preparation. Collection of data through conventional means and manual
processing is not only time consuming but also prone to certain inherent inaccuracies.
Preparation of plan so far. was a time consuming and arduous task. In this context,
setting up of the Development Integration Committee, as suggested under chapter two
(Section .2.52 para 2) would be most desirable to introduce efficiency. participation and
reduction of time in the process of plan formulation.
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5. Introduction of computers in data base management and statistical applications as
an aid to planning, has made impact in terms of speed and quality of analysis and
decision support. Geographic Information System (GIS), its capability by linking spatial
data with attribute data management of map data, power of spatial analysis and
production of cartographic quality_ maps has placed it as one of the best tools for
preparation of various plans, and their revision e t c ~ It would be necessary to take
advantage of the new technology and assess its implication on the type of trained
personnel required for preparation of development plan. So far, working out of the
requirement of personnel was based on conventional and manual work environment.
6. The experience of last four decades of planning and development in India has
shown that planning agency wherever exists has generally been provided with only a
limited number of planning personnel, who are unable to look after even the day to day
work. It may be noted that except in few cases, no attempt has been made to evolve
such an organisational structure since the inception of plan formulation exercises four
decades ago, which should provide some guidelines for setting up an organisation for
different sizes of towns. The staffing pattern as suggested by the few studies
conducted by organisations (TCPO) and individuals (Pandya, Gattani, Kulshrestha) so
far takes into account the planning function in manual and conventional work
environment. The application of modem technique in the preparation of the plans has
direct bearing on future staffing pattern.
7. While suggesting the proposed organisational set-up for the preparation of plan,
factors such as existing and anticipated population, area covered by the plan, the time
required to prepare the plan and type of personnel required have been evaluated. Due
consideration has also been given to the suggested changes in planning system, the
involvement of sectoral experts in providing required input through the Development
Integration Committee for formulation of the plan. Besides, provision has been made
for specialists such as demographer, economist and others as per need to avail their
services on Consultancy basis. Besides this, application of modern technology has
also been given due· weightage. The proposed staff pattern for preparation,
implementation, monitoring and review of the various plans of small and medium towns
and large cities is indicated in Table 1.
8. While suggesting the number of sub-professional and administrative staff, a ratio of
1.5 for every professional has been applied from Unit B onwards. That is, for every
professional there would be 1.5 sub-professionals and 1.5 staff under administration.
For small towns a bare minimum set-up is provided which can effectively perform the
planning and enforcement function.
9. The sub-professionals, depending upon given situation and requirements,should
include planning assistants, research assistants, planning draughtsmen with knowledge
of CAD, CAM, GIS, and other analytical softwares; data entry operators and
investigators, and such other persons.
10. The staff for administration, depending upon the specific requirements, may include
78 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------


head clerk, accountant, U.D.C., L.D.C., typists, steno-typists, peon, daftry, driver,
cleaner, gardener, etc.
TABLE-1:
STAFF PATTERN FOR PREPARATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF
PLAN FOR DIFFERENT CITIES AND TOWNS
----------·--------------------.. ---------------·--------------------------------------------------------··---------
Designation
No. of posts
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I. UNIT-A : For Small Towns (Census population up to 50,000)
1. Professional
Assistant Municipal Planner
2. Sub-pmfessional
I Planning Assistant
Planning D'man
3. Administration
II.UNIT-B : For Medium Towns (Census population upto 5 lakh)
1. Professional ·
Municipal Planner
Dy.Municipal Planner
Assistant Municipal Planner
2. Sub-professionals
3. Administration
III.UNIT-C : For Large Cities (Census population of less than 10 lakh)
1. Professional
Senior Municipal Planner
Municipal Planner
Dy. Municipal Planner
Asstt. Municipal Planner
2. Sub-professionals
3. Administration
IV.UNIT-D : For Metro-Cities(Census population upto 50 lakh)
1. Professional
Chief Municipal Planner
Senior Municipal Planner
Municipal Planner
Dy.Municipal Planner
Assistant Municipal Planner
2. Sub-professionals
3. Administration
V.UNIT-E : For Mega-Cities (Census population above 50 lakh)
1. Professional
Municipal Planner -in-Chief
Chief Municipal Planner
Senior Municipal Planner
Municipal Planner
Dy.Municipal Planner
Assistant Municipal Planner
2. Sub-professionals
3. Administration
2
2
4
2
6
6
1
2
2
5
15
15
4
4
8
12
45
45
4
5
5
10
15
60
60
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7,43
1 i. Since different states have different designations of urban and regional planner,
it is recorQmended that a town planner setving a local authority be designated as
municipal planner. Accordingly, the designations in Tabie 1 are shown. For clarity the
equivalent designation in civil engineering are as under :
Municipal Planner-in-Chief
Chief Municipal Planner
Senior Municipal Planner
Municipal Planner
Dy.Municipal Plf.nner
Assistant Municipal Planner
Engineer-in-Chief
Chief Engineer
Superintending Engineer
Executive Engineer
Assistant Engineer(Ciass-1)
Assistant Engineer( Class-II)
12. With a view to dealing with the situation where a municipal planner appointed by
a local authority will stagnate for want of promotional avenues, it is suggested that
there should be a cadre of municipal planners at the state level. This system will also
mitigate to a great extent problems related to exploitation and misappropriations.
Policy Options for Manpower Mobilisation
1. For mobilising manpower for plan preparation, enforcement, monitoring and review,
it is suggested that all local authorities of·:
a. Large cities and medium towns should have, if not already existing,
the set-up as suggested in Table 1. In cases where it is deficient,
necessary action should be taken to strengthen the set--up.
b. Small towns should at least have the assistant municipal planner, as
suggested, supported by necessary sub-professionals, and
administrative staff may be shared with such staff of the municipality.
In cases where it is difficult to provide the sub-professionals to the
assistant municipal planner, the alternatives are as under :
i) Form an Association of Municipalities at state level, pool
resources and provide an appropriate set-up, depending
upon level of work, for plan formulation. The approval
process and enforcement, monitoring, review functions
shall be taken care by the assistant municipal planner.
If necessary, the municipalities of medium towns may
also join this Association of Municipalities.
ii) Award plan formulation work to consultants on
Consultancy basis. Appropriate legal support for this
should be provided in the Town and Country Planning
Act.
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c.
It is highlighted here that the urban planning department should not be
a burden on the local authority. It will generally be self-financing and in
many cases revenue generating department through various
developmental changes as suggested earlier' in this chapter.
7.44 General Policy of Manpower Development
1. According to an estimate, about 8,000 urban and regional planners will be required
to perform the function of planning and development at metropolitan area, district and
local area levels. Currently there are only about 2,000 urban and regional planners in
. I
the country and the output from all 'the institutions teaching the subject is only about
200 per year. This call for an appropriate action. •
In this context it is suggested that :
a) Under-graduate course in urban and regional planning be introduced in
more universities and institutions on the pattern of the one developed
by the Institute of Town Planners, India and adopted by School of
. Planning and Architecture, New Delhi and Guru Nanak Dev University,
Amritsar.
b) Post-graduate courses may be re-oriented to fulfil the demand from the
field especially pertaining to development management, urban
management, district planning (with emphasis on rural planning and·
development) and such other areas.
c) In-service education and training programme and refresher courses be
organised by all institutions teaching urban and regional planning in the
country.
d) Appropriate funds be provided by the state governments to provide
, _grants to institutions and facilitate in-service training programmes.
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CHAPTER 8
LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT
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8.10
CHAPTER EIGHT
LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT
EXISTING SCENARIO
1. Urban and regional planning legislation controls the planning and development
activity in a state. Some states have comprehensive town and country planning
legislation which provides for urban planning and development in a regional
perspective beyond the city limits and coordinated with the overall framework of
economic development, priorities and resource availabilities. Such states are Goa,
Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur,
Mizoram, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. States where town and country planning
legislation is not comprehensive as defined above, include Andhra Pradesh, Assam,
Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Nagaland, Orissa, Pun.iab. Rajasthan, Tripura
and Uttar Pradesh. As of February 1995, the town and country planning bill in five
states, namely, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Meghalaya, Rajasthan and Sikkim was
under consideration.
2. A comprehensive town and country planning legislation generally provides for :
a. constitution of state town and country planning board:-
b. constitution of various planning and development authorities for
designated planning area which could be regional or urban; an existing
town or a new town;· and in some cases a special area;
c. preparation of various plans including regional plans, master plans or
development plan, and town planning schemes;
d. plan enforcement mechanism; and
e.
supplemental or miscellaneous provisions.
3. Before discussing the legal support required for the various suggestions contained
in the UDPFI Guidelines. it would be desirable to have a general appraisal of the basic
provisions of the town and country planning laws of the three selected states for this
research study as well as the Model Regional and Urban Planning Law.
8.11 Maharashtra
1. In Maharashtra, town planning is a statutory function of all municipal authorities
even before the Constitution (74th) Amendment Act. In view of this, no separate




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provtsion was considereJ necessary by the state government to amend the Act. The
Maharashtra Regional md Town Planning (MRTP) Act. 1966 as amended upto 5th
August, 1992 is a comprehensive act and provides that the development plan prepared
under the Act shall indicate the manner in which the use of land. in the area of
planning authority shall be regulated as also the manner for carryin,g out the
The development· plan provides for allocation of land for various
p1Jrposes, including designation of land for public purposes. reservation of land for
community facilities and services. transport and communication. public utilities and
services and regulations and procedures for controlling development.
2. The Act prescribes specific time period for various steps in the plan preparation
process but the time prescribed is invariably extended from time to time by invoking
the expression, 'not later than such further time as the state government may from
time to time extend', as mentioned in the Act. With the result the entire process of plan
preparation becomes indefinite and. more often than not. the plan document becomes
out-dated. As a statutory requirement. only the existing land use survey is carried out
and detailed information on employment. income. envimnment. household
characteristics, etc. is generally collected but detailed land use planning and plan
sanction is a very time consuming process.
3. For implementation of the plan proposals. compulsory acquisition of land was
regarded as a pre-requisite under the Land Acquisition Act. 1894. In view of the
exorbitant market rates of land to be paid tor compensation. opposition to compulsory
. land acquisition by land owners, etc. has compelled the authorities to explore
collaborative · approacl1es within the existing legal framework. As a result, the
alternatives to compulsory land acquisition in the form of Transferable Development
Rights (TOR) and Accommodation Reservation have been tried in Maharashtra under
the Development Control Rules of Greater Bombay. These measures are particularly
relevant and are likely to succeed where land .Prices are prohibitive and higher than
the construction cost. However, it is to be conceded that these alternatives may not
prove to be very successful where land prices are less than the construction cost.
4. In both these cases i.e. accommodation reservation and transferable development
rights, the local authority reserves its right to compulsorily acquire the land if the land
owner does not come forward. This aspect generally prompts the land owners to
agree to accept transferable development rights in lieu of the cost of land as it is more
profitable to them.
5. The Town Planning Scheme (TPS) as an alternative modei for urban land
development has been provided in the MRTP Act as one of the tools for implementing
the proposals contained in the development plan and has been used most extensively
in the state of Maharashtra. In fact, Maharashtra is a pioneer in the field of TPS and
the Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915 laid down the initial legal framework for the
technique which was replaced by the Bombay Town Planning Act. 1954. It has been
subsequently superseded by the Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act, 1966.
As per this Act, the TPS preparation is divided into two stages; firstly, the draft scheme
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and then the final scheme. The draft scheme is prepared by the planning authority
and finalisatiori of development scheme is done by the Arbitrator/Assistant Director of
Town Planning from Town Planning and Valuation Department. The scheme is then
submitted to the government for approval.
6. After the scheme is approved by the state government, the arbitrators are·.appointed
to decide all matters referred to them under the Act including the values of the original
and final plots, cost of the scheme, compensation cost on account of allotment of land
for public purposes, etc. The decision of the arbitrator is communicated to the parties.
As regards valuation matters, the aggrieved parties may appeal to the Tribunal of
Appeal. The arbitrator:is required to make corrections in the records of the scheme as
per the decision of the Tribunal and the scheme is finally submitted to the state
government for sanction, which may sanction it or make such modifications as it may
consider necessary. The final scheme is published in the Gazette and the sanctioned
scheme comes into effect. After the final scheme becomes operative, the lands
designated for public purposes vest with the local authority absolutely in it free from
all encumbrances and the final plots are handed over to the owners to whom they are
allotted in the final scheme. More than 114 schemes in Bombay. Pune, Nasik, etc.
have since been taken up in Maharashtra.
7. The procedure of TPS formulation and approval is time consuming and with
litigations it takes more than 10 years implementing such a scheme and, therefore.
there is a need to simplify the procedure.
8.12 Orissa
1. in Orissa. town planning is governed under the Orissa Town Planning and
Improvement Trust Act. 1956 and the Orissa Development Authority Act, 1982. The
first Act provides for the improvement. development and expansion of towns in the
state. The planning authorities set up by the state under th1s Act. for the whole or any
part of a municipality or other areas are required to conduct a civic survey within 2
years from the date of notification and within 4 years submit, through the, Director of
Town Planning, a draft master plan of the area to the state government for approval.
The implementation and enforcement of the development plans is to be done by. the
. .
planning authorities by formulating improvement schemes within the framework of the
approved plan. The Improvement Trust Act does not contain any provision for
execution of master pl9ns through town planning schemes. The Act has not laid down
any strict time schedule for the preparation and approval of the master plans and, in
its absence, the planning process is not time bound and results in inordinate delays.
2. The Orissa Development Authority Act. 1982 contains provisions for the preparation
and approval of interim/zonal development plans. The Authority is to prepare the plan
and submit to the government for approval who may. in consultation with the Director
of Tpwn Planning, either approve the plan without modifications or with such
modifications as it may consider necessary or reject the development plan with ·
direction to the authority to prepare a fresh· development plan on the lines indicated
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by the government. After its approval by the state government, the plan is notified and
comes into operation from the date of notification. The planning process is laid down
in the Act but no time limit whatsoever has been prescribed to complete this process.
3. Chapter VI of the Development Authority Act, 1982 contains provisions for town
planning schemes but their execution is reported to be very cumbersome and time
consuming. This Act is also not applicable to small and medium towns. The provisions
are largely based on the Maharashtra Regional and Town ·Planning Act. 1966 and the
Gujarat Regional and Town Planning Act, 1976. A separate legislation on Land
Pooling and Readjustment of Plot Boundaries Bill had been drafted by the state Town
Planning Department by taking note of the existing provisions of the Development
Authority Act and the experience gained in the execution of such schemes and
submitted to the state government.
8.13 Himachal P.radesh
1. In Himachal Pradesh, the Himachal Prad
1
esh Town and Country Planning Act, 1977
is in force. It is a comprehensive planning and development act and provides for the
preparation of regional plans, urban area plans. zonal plans and prescribes controls
on development and use of land. It also envisages preparation of town development
schemes by the development authorities const!tuted under this Act. The legislation
also provides for levy of development charges. Six urban development authorities and
five special area development authorities have been set up under the Act.
2. Under the Act, the planning areas are constituted and the Director of Town Planning
is entrusted with the task of preparation of interim/development plan and development
plans to be followed by sectoral plans in consultation with the local authorities
concerned. The interim development plan is submitted to the state government, who
may, approve it with or without modifications. The state government notifies the
interim development plan in the official gazette as approved by it and the local
authorities are required to follow the plan. The development plan which is detailed in
nature and contents is prepared and notified for public objections. suggestions and the
Director of Town Planning is required to consider 8.11 these objections and suggestions
within a period of 90 days from the date of publication and make necessary
modifications and submit to the state government within 6 months of the publication
of draft development plan. The state government may approve the development plan
with or without modifications and the fact of approval is notified in the official gazette
and the development plan finally comes into operation and it is binding on all
development authorities and the local authorities functioning within the planning area.
The development plan is further followed up by the preparation of sectoral plans by the
Director of Town Planning.
3. The Act also contains provisions for undertaking a rev1ew and evaluation of the
development plan and the sectoral plan. The Act also contains provisions for the
constitution of town and country development authorities for preparation of town .
development schemes. There are also provisions for the constitution 0f special areas
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8.14
and special area development authorities for the preparation of development plan for
such areas.
4. Even though the state town planning act is quite comprehensive. the process of plan
preparation, approval and through town development schemes does
not have a statutory time frame-within which this exercise must be completed.
Model law
1. The Model Law formulated by the central Town and Country Planning Organisation
and commended to the states for adoption. with such changes as to suit the individual
requirements, covers comprehensive regional, local and metropolitan planning,
approval followed by enforcement and implementation. Planning here includes plan
preparation, plan approval, plan enforcement and implementation includes promotion
and control of development according to plan, removal of non-conforming uses.
preparation of detailed development schemes and their execution.
2. The Model Law provides for constitution. by the state government, of a regional and
town planning board at the apex for the purpose of advising on delineation of regions
for planned development and directing the preparation of metropolitan. regional and
area plans by the regional and area planning and development
authorities. An area planning and development authority may be a local authority or
an authority set up separately for the purpose of undertaking plan preparation, plan
enforcement and plan implementation.
3. While the planning function is an obligatory function of the planning and
development authority envisaged under the Model Law, the object of the inclusion of
development functions in the Act is not to replace the existing developmental agencies
already operating in the planning area or agencies which may be subsequently set up
to undertake large scale development works. The implementation of a plan involves
a large number of different types of schemes and a number of state and local agencies
drawing funds from different sources for preparation and execution of such schemes.
It is not conceivable for one agency to undertake all types of development. The
developmental functions, entrusted to the planning and development authorities under
the Model Law. are to enable the authority to undertake development when there is
no development agency in the planning area or existing agencies are unable to
undertake development of the type envisaged by the planning and development
authority.
4. The Model Law contains detailed prov1s1ons for the preparation of
regional/development plans and their procedure for statutory approval. The regional
plan is to be prepared by the regional planning and development authority and is to
be submitted to the state town planning board who may approve the draft plan for
publication with such modifications in the plan as it thinks fit. The plan is published and
notified in the gazette for public objections within 3 months from the date of publication
which are considered and the final regional plan is submitted. The government may,
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in consultation with the board, approve the plan with or without modifications.
5. The Model law provides for review of the regional plan once in every 1 0 years by
carrying out fresh surveys as may be considered necessary. Similarly, the outline/
comprehensive development plan is to be prepared by the planning and development
authority and it passes through the 'due process of law' before they are statutorily
enforceable. The Model law has prescribed time limits for the planning process of
preparation and approval of plans, yet it has to be made specific and not left to the
discretion of the state government which may extend the time for various steps as it
may consider necessary and, in fact, rnax,mum time frame must be laid down within
.
which the process shoulrl be completed.
6. There are detailed provisions for the preparation of development schemes for
implementing the proposals contained in the development plan which are ari
improvement over the provisions of the TP Schemes in the Maharashtra and
Acts taking into account the experience of working of the provisions of these acts.
7. Section 21 of the Model Law provides for the constitution of area planning and
development authorities and it has been specifically provided that the local authorities
may be designated as the planning and development authority in the first instance. In
case local authority is designated as the planning and development authority, a
planning committee comprising a chairman. town planning officer and 5 other members
- to be appointed by the government, shal! assist the local authority in performing the
functions of planning and development authority. This committee shall have the status, ·
powers and responsibilities as given to a standing committee appointed under the Act
under which the local authority is set up. The town planning officer shall be the chief
executive officer of the planning committee. With the 74th Constitution Amendment.
the state governments are required to bestow by law necessary powers and authority
to the municipalities to enable them to function as institutions of self-government and
undertake functions relating to urban planning and development as provided in the
newly added Twelfth Schedule. The Model Law already has for this provision.
8.15 Tamil Nadu
i. The Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act, 1971 is currently in force in the
state. The legislation was brought in after repealing the Town Planning Act. 1920. It
is a comprehensive piece of legislation and contains provisions for the preparation of
regional, metropolitan, master plan, new town and detailed development plans.
Besides, the Act envisages the constitution of regional, local and new town planning
· authorities and a town and country planning board at tha apex clothed with
implementation powers.
2. The Town and Country !;>Ianning Act, 1971 had been amended so as to have
separate provisions for the constitution of Madras Metropolitan Development Authority
and preparation and implementation of Master Plan for the Madras Metropolitan
Planning Area. However, there is a proposal to enact a separate legislation 'tor MMDA
88 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
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to meet the grow_ing demands of the metropolitan area.
3. The scheme of the Act is that the planning process starts with the decentralisation
of regional planning area and local planning area under Section 10 of the Act.which
is notified in the gazette, defining the limits of the area and within two months of the
notification, any inhabitant or any local authority may submit any objeCtions or
suggestions with regard to the notification and after considering these objections and
consulting the Director oJ Town and Country Planning and the regional planning
authorities and local planning authorities, the area is finally notified. After this, the
town and country planning authorities are constituted in consultation with the Director
of Town Planning for performing the functions of preparing a regional plan/master plan
and detailed development plan. It has been specially provided in the Act that in case
a declared local planning area falls under the jurisdiction of a single local authority as
the local planning authority the master plan is then prepared by the appropriate
planning authority but no time frame for the preparation of the plan has been specified.
4. After the plan is prepared and submitted to the government, it may give its consent
to the planning authority to the publication of a notice of the preparation of the plan
with or without modifications. The modifications, if any, are carried out by the planning
authority and the plan is published inviting objections and suggestions for which the
period shall not be less than 2 months from the date of publication of the notice. After
considering the objections and suggestions, the plan is submitted to the government.
The government may approve the plan with or without modifications for which no
specific time frame is prescribed under the Act.
5. In case of Tamil Nadu, the Town Planning Scheme (TPS) of Maharashtra or Gujarat
has been redesignated as detailed development plans under the Act. These are
prepared in respect of any land located in the planning area. After preparation of the
detailed development plan modifications have been carried out, the detailed
development plan is published for public objections and suggestions. After considering
all the objections and suggestions, the detailed development plan is submitted to the
Director for approval who may again suggest some modifications and after the
modifications are carried out, the detailed development plan is approved by the
Director which is subsequently notified in official gazette. Similarly, the regional plan
and the master plan after their approval by the government are published and come
into operation.
6. There is provision for review of master plan by the local planning authorities once
in every 5 years and submit the modified master plan to the government for approval.
7. The Act has laid down the procedure for plan preparation and approval but,
unfortunately, there is no time frame within which this planning process should be
completed, with the result it leads to uncertainties and inordinate delays in the
process. It is, therefore, necessary that the Act must lay qown a specific time
schedule for various steps in plan preparation and approval to give a certain finality
to the process.
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8.20 IMPLICATIONS OF CONSTITUTION (74th) AMENDMENT ACT 1992
1. Constitution (74th) Amendment Act (74th CAA) has, in fact, ushered in a new era
in the history of urban local government in the country. It is _a first serious attempt to
ensure adequate constitutional obligation so that democracy in the municipal
government is stabilised. Even though there is reference to village panchayats in the
Directive Principles of State Policy, there is no reference to municipalities except by
way of Entry No.5 in the State List as the subject of local self government is the
function of the state. With the result there was no constitutional obligation for local
self-government in urban areas. The 74th CAA is, indeed, a pointer to the
determination of the state to bestow power to the people to plan for themselves and
participate in the decision-making process. The spatial and environmental planning in
the planning system has also been envisaged by this Act at various levels right from
nagar panchayat to a metropolitan area. It also provides for integration of the municipal
plans with district plans and through them with the state and national plans.
2. The 74th CAA has bestowed the planning function to the rural and urban local
bodies at the grass-root level by providing for the preparation of plans by the
panchayats and the municipalities. Article 243-ZB of this amendment has provided for
constitution of District Planning Committee (DPC) in every district to consolidate the
plans prepared by the panchayats and municipalities and prepare a draft development
plan for the district as a whole. A close study of this Article provides a reasonable
inference that each municipality, by whatever name called, is expected to prepare a
plan for its area and undertake the task of urban planning including town planning,
regulate land uses and construction of buildings and phasing of the programme for
economic and soci&l development as envisaged in the Twelfth Schedule. This
committee at the district level (DPC) would provide interaction with the municipal
bodies and panchayati raj institutions, in addition to planning and conflict resolutions.
In this connection, certain important questions concerning rural-urban interface may
arise, like the fringe area of a town where urbanisation is taking place which may lie
within the purview of panchayati raj institutions. Likewise, certain district roads
maintained by zilla parishad may be passing through the municipal area. Similarly, the
source of drinking water for the town may, in fact,lie outside the limit o1 the town and
the disposal of waste as well. These are illustrative and many more such aspects
would require an overall view of development of the district and- allocation of
investments between rural and urban institutions at the level of a district as a whole.
;1

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--------------------------VDPFI Guidelines---
4. Article 243-ZD of the 74th CAA provides for constitution of a Metropolitan Planning
Committee (MPC) for planning a metropolitan area having a population of 1 0 lakh or
more, comprised in one or more districts and consisting of two or more municipalities
or panchayats.
5. The state governments are expected to amend the relevant acts to incorporate the
provisions of 74th CAA. The constitution of municipalities and the election procedure
and other related matters have generally been provided by all states by amending their
respective municipal acts. But assignment of urban planning function has not been
generally provided to the amended acts. Constitution of MPCs and DPCs has also not
been generally provided.
8.21. New Role and Functions of State Town and Country Planning Departments
The new role of Town and Country Planning Departments that emerges out of the
provisions of the 74th· CAA shall, amorig others, include :
(a) Advice and technical assistance to the state government on matters
pertaining to spatial planning and development as well as
implementation of state programmes;
(b) Initiation of action pertaining to provision of legal support in relevant
Acts to spatial planning and development process as a consequence
of 74th CAA and the suggested urban development planning system;
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Assistance to the state Urban and Regional Planning Board in
formulation of the state perspective plan and strategy of spatia-
economic development of the state having regard to proposals
contained in district and metropolitan area development plans;
Division of the state into various planning regions taking into account
the physical, socio-cultural, economic and climatic considerations and
formulation of plans of their spatio-economic development to serve as
a guide for resolving inter-district developmental issues and provide
basis for inter-district cooperation and coordination with a view to
making district development plans more harmonious;
Scrutiny of the district and metropolitan area development plans for
approval of state government, taking into account the state perspective
plan, spatio-economic development strategy and proposals of relevant
planning region the district or the metropolitan area;
Scrutiny of the perspective plans of urban centres prepared by local
authorities for approval of the state govevernment, taking into account
the provisions of the district I metropolitan area development plan of the
area where the urban centre is located;
- CRDT, JTPI, New Delhi----------------------
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Guidelines---
(g) EnsurinrJ that the urban development plans prepared by local
authorittes are within the framework of the approved perspective plan
of the settlement;
(h) Technical assistance to local authorities if so requested at the cost of
the concerned body;
(i) Preparation of development plan in case of default by the local
authority, district planning committee or the metropolitan planning
committee, if so directed by the state government, at the cost of the
concerned planning body;
U) Provision of necessary research input directly or through the help of
consultants in formulation of policies, strategies, norms, standards,
laws, regulations and rules pertaining to urban and planning
and development matters;
(k) Provision of manpower training facilities; and
(i) Establishment of an Urban and Regional Information System and
dissemination of information.
8.22. Status of Existing Development Authorities 1 Boards
(a) Existing state Regional and Town Planning Board, constituted under
state Town Planning Act may continue.
(b) The current planning role and function of Metropolitan Regional
Planning and Development Authorities and Boards constituted for
planning and development of metro-regions may be in conflict with the
role and functions of Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC) when
constituted as m--;ndatory requirement of the provisions of the 74th
CAA. Considering this and also that an established institution need not
be demolished, it is suggested that these bodies be reorganised to
serve as the MPC itself as per 74th CAA or alternatively serve as
technical arm of MPC.
(c) The Area Planning and Development Authorities constituted to prepare
and enforce development plans of urban centres under the state Town
and Country Planning Act or other Acts shall have a conflict of role and
functions with the urban local authorities constituted under modified
state Municipalities Act as per provisions of the 74th CAA and as
suggested by the Model Law (Revised) (See volume 2A Chapter V). It
is that, taking into consideration the spirit of 74th·CAA, these
bodies should be merged with the municipalities. This merger should
be without retrenchment of its staff which should be redeployed by the
- CRDT. ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
Guideiines---
state government in consultation with the Chief Town Planner I Director
Town and Country Planning, to the various urban local authorities.
(d) , The existing sing:_.; function boards I undertakings like Housing Board,
Electricity Board, Refuse Collection and Disposal Board,, Transport
Corporation I Undertaking, which were constituted under various Acts
for the purpose of discharging the specifically assigned function, may
continue, if so required by the council of the local authority.
8.30 SUGGESTED CHANGES IN THE MODEL LAW
· As a consequence to the 74th CAA and the UDPFI Guidelines, the Model Regional
and Town Planning and Development Law, prepared by TCPQ, New Delhi will require
a complete revision and restructuring. Accordingly, the new scheme of the Model Law
is as suggested in the following sections.
8.31 Changes in chapter I
8.32
Chapter I should be modified as :
i) The title of the Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law
should be changed to :
ii)
iii)
MODEL URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
U W (REf/IS ED)
Revise preamble to reflect implications of 74th CAA.
Incorporate definitions of the new terms like Metropolitan Area. Metropolitan
Area Development Plan, District Development, Development Plan, Perspective
Plan, Annual Plan, Projects and Schemes, Local Planning Area, Planning and
Development Authority. Accommodation Reservation, Transferable
Development Right, Promoter, Special Area, etc.
Structure of Subsequent Chapters
It is suggested that the subsequent chapters should be restructured as :
a. The MPC and DPC
As a consequence to the 74th CAA, it would be desirable to constitute the Metropolitan
Planning Committee (MPC) and the District Planning Committees (DPCs) under the
Urban and Regional Planning and Development (URPD) Act aAd, as per UDPFI
Guidelines, these bodies should prepare long-term perspective plan and medium-term
development plan which is a constitutional obligation also. Accordingly, two new
chapters, chapter - Ill and IV, should include :
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93

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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
94
Composition of the MPC and DPC each one of which should include,
interalia a full-time urban and regional planning member to be known
as Metropolitan Planning Member and District Planning Member
respectively.
Duties and functions of the Metropolitan Planning Member and District
Planning Member.
Functions and powers of MPC and DPC.
Manner of preparation and approval of the perspective plan and
development plan of the metropolitan area and the district respectively,
contents of each plan.
Composition of Metropolitan Area Development Integration Committee
and District Development Integration Committee their function as per
UDPFI Guidelines.
Review, revision and modifications, if any, of the perspective plan and
development plans of metropolitan areas and districts.
b. Planning and Development Authorities
As per the 12th Schedule of the 74th CAA, each local authority may be assigned the
function of urban planning including town planning, but most of the municipal acts have
either not provided this function or have just mentioned that such function may be
provided as and when felt necessary by the state government. Since, according to the
Town and Country Planning Acts of Maharashtra, Orissa as well as the Model RTPD
Law, a municipality may be declared as planning and development authority to
formulate, execute and implement the development plan for the planning area, it would
be desirable that urban planning including town planning function be assigned to a
local authority under suggested Model URPD Law. Accordingly a new chapter V
should be added. A new chapter is necessary as it has to include the suggested :
System of planning, incorporating the declaration of local authorities as
planning and development authorities and their function; long-term
perspective plans and medium-term development plans, the standing
planning committee and development integration committee, their
composition and functions.
Time-bound and participatory manner of formulation of perspective
plans, development plans, and their contents.
Time-bound and suggested decentralised process for approval of
perspective plans and development plans with provision of public
participation through a public meeting to explain the salient features of ·
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
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--------------------------UDPH Guidelines---
the development plan for better understanding of the plan by the
people. This should also include the deeming clause to introduce
efficiency and also a provision to permit the planning and development
authority to proceed with further approval process for the portion where
no specific modifications are suggested by state Chief'Pianner or MPC
or DPC, as the cr 2e may be. This is to avoid possible delays due to
some conflicts.
Time-bound review, revision and preparation of next perspective or
development plans.
Procedure for modifications made in the perspective or development
plan in public interest
c. Land Pooling and Development Schemes
1. As suggested by UDPFI Guidelines, simplified land pooling scheme should be
provided as a technique for assembling land for planning and development and should
be dealt with in a separate chapter (Chapter IX) and should not be termed as Town
Planning Scheme (as in case of Gujarat and Maharashtra) or Development Scheme
(as in Model RTPD Law), as a land pooling scheme may be a town planning or
development scheme but all town planning or development schemes are not land
pooling schemes. As a result, a separate chapter for development scheme (Chapter
VIII) should be added to provide legal support to schemes like industrial estates,
commercial centres, tourist centres, new town, conservation of ecologically sensitive
areas, heritage zones, redevelopment, renewal areas, rehabilitation and upgradation
of slums, provision of infrastructure, public transportation, etc. It should also provide
for a process of approval of such schemes.
2. The chapter on Land Pooling Scheme should include all the suggestions of UDPFI
Gu.idelines including preparation of the scheme with full participation of original plot
holders by a project planner; division of the land pooling scheme in two parts - the
planning part and the finance part; permanent tribunal for land pooling scheme; items
to be considered for calculation of cost of schemes, provision of transferable
development right as a mode of payment in lieu of cost of land transferred to planning
and development authority.
d. Innovative Systems of Land Assembly
The chapter on Assembly of Land {Chapter XI) _should include enabling provisions for
suggested innovative systems such as transferable development right,
accommodation reservation, and negotiated settlement.
e. Innovative Systems of Resource Mobilisation
1. Innovative systems of resource mobilisation should also be provided with
---· CRDT, TTPI, New Delhi----------------------
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----------------------------UDPFJ Guidelines---
appropriate legal support to improve resources of the local authority. Accordingly, the
chapter on Levy, Assessment and Recovery of Developmental Charges (Chapter XII)
should in addition to the usual charges on change of land use or building and for
carrying out any development, include provisions for levy of charges on the following
as suggested by UDPFI Guidelines :
i)
ii)
iii)
0
Increase in value of land or building due to development plan. In this
context the planning and development authority should periodically fix
land and building values in different wards of the local planning area.
These value could be-different for different wards and even vary within
a ward depending upon the use and intensity of development. This
charge could be collected from the user of the land or premises.
The proportionate cost of provision or augmentation- of city level
infrastructure made necessary due to any development in the form of
development impact exaction.
Cess on vacant developed land in an area if left vacant and unbuilt
beyond a reasonable limit to be specified under rules. The cess in this
case should be multiple (say 2 to 3 times) of the property tax payable
assuming the area to be fully built upon as per allowable FAR.
2. To augment the resources of the local authority, it is suggested that the stamp duty
in respect of any deed of transfer of immovable property located within its jurisdiction
be increased by 3 per cent of the value of property transferred or in .case of an
usufructuary mortgage, on the amount secured by the instrument and transfer the
amount to the planning and development authority after deducting incidental expenses,
if any. A provision in this respect be provided in law.
3. Provision be made to recover cost of provision and maintenance of new utilities,
facilities, seNices or amenities and in this context provision be made where users'
charges may be levied by the local authority.
4. Provision should be made to establish a Planning and Development Fund where all
money received from various sources, as given above, and also from other specified
sources, should be deposited and all expenses pertaining to planning and development
activities be met from this fund. It will save conditions where funds assigned for
planning and development are spent on non-planning and development activities.
5. To provide funds to the urban and regional planning board, the MPC and DPC, it
is suggested that every local authority should pay the following percentage of total
money credited in their planning and development fund during the last preceding year;
0.5 per cent to the Board,
1.5 per cent to 'the MPC or DPC in whose jurisdiction the local authority falls
96 - CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi------------------'------
-------------------------UDPFI Guidelitws---
d. Private Sector Participation
The current policies of economic liberalisation in the country and the emphasis on
private sector participation in planning and development process should be provided
with be appropriate legal support. Accordingly, a new chapter (Chapter x) be ad4ed
,on 'Private and Joint Sector Participation in Development'.
e. Revision of Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law
All the suggestions given in this section have been appropriately incorporated in the
Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law (Revised). The revised law
is presented in Volume 2A of this study.
8.40 SUGGESTED CHANGES IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING ACTS OF
MAHARASHTRA AND GUJARAT
For demonstrating the adaption of the Model Urban and Regional Planning Law
(Revised) which takes into account the implications of both 74th CAA and the UDPFI
Guidelines, the Acts of two most advanced states, as far as urban and regional
planning is concerned, have been taken and the suggested changes in this context are
presented in the following sections.
8.41 Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act, 1966
The scheme of the suggested changes in Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning
Act 1966 should be as follows :
Chapter I
(a)
(b)
Chapter II
Replace the Preamble
Add new definitions of terms used in the Act
. Delete Chapter II and add new Chapter IIA under the title :
State Urban and Regional Planning Board and
State Perspective Plan
- CRIJT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------- 97
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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
Chapter Ill
Delete Chapter !II and add new chapters as under:
(a) Chapter Ill A under the title
(b)
(c)
Metropolitan Planning Committee and Plans for
Metropolitan Area Development
Chapter Ill B under the title
District Planning Committee and Pla.ozs for
District Planning Area Development
Chapter Ill C under the title
Planning and Development Authorities and Plans for
Local Planning Area Development
(d) Chapter Ill D under the titl.e
Special Area Planning and Development Authmity and
Plans for Special Area Development "
Chapter IV
Modify the Chapter IV with changed title as under
Control of Development and Use of Land
Chapter V
(a) Modify this Chapter V with changed title as under
Land Pooling Scheme
(b) Add a new Chapter VA L!nder the title
Development Schemes
Chapter VI
(a) Modify this Chapter VI on Finance in the light of the following chapters
of the Revised Model Law:
(i)
Land Pooling Scheme (Chapter IX)
98 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
--------------------------UDP£1 Guidelines---
(ii) Finance, Accounts and Audit {Chapter XIII)
(b) Add a new Chapter VIA under the title :
Private and Joint Sector Participation in Development
Chapter VII
(a) Modify this Chapter VII under changed title :
Levy, Assessment and Recovery of Developmental Charges
(b) Add new Chapter VIlA under the title :
Acquisition, Assembly and Disposal of Land
Chapter VIII
Modify this Chapter VIII titled Miscellaneous as per the Revised Model Law
The suggested changes in the Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act, 1966
are given in Volume 28 of this study.
8.42 Gujarat Regional Planning and Urban Development Act 1973
The scheme of the suggested changes in Gujarat Regional Planning and Urban
Development Act 1973 should be as follows :
Chapter I
(a) Replace the Preamble
(b) Add new definitions of terms used in the. Act;
Chapter II
(a) Substitute this chapter as Chapter II under this title :
State Urban and Regional Planning Board and
State Perspective Plan
(b) Add a new Chapter IIA under the title :
Metropolitan Planning Committee and Plans for
Metropolitan Area Development
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·------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
(c) . Add a new Chapter liB under the title
Chapter Ill
District P.anning Committee and Plans for
District Planning Area Development
(a) Delete Chapter Ill and add a new Chapter IliA as under the title :
Planning and Development Authorities and Plans for
Local Planning Area Development
(d) Add a new Chapter 1118 under the title : _
Chapter IV
Special Area Planning and Development Authority and
Plans for Special Area Development
(a) Substitute this chapter with a new Chapter IV under the title :
Control of Development and Use of Land
Chapter V
(a) Substitute this chapter with a new Chapter V under the title :
Development Schemes
(b) Add a new Chapter VA under the title :
Land Pooling Schemes
Chapter VI
(a) Substitute this chapter with a new Chapter VI under the title :
Private and Joint Sector in Development
Chapter VIA
Delete this chapter and add a new Chapter VIC under the title :
Levy, Assessment and Recovery of Developmental Charges
100 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
:: . .::·,.-:·•.
·- UDPI:'1 Guidelitzes ---
Chapter VII
{a) Delete this chapter and add new Chapter VII under the title :
Acquisition, Assembly and Disposal of Land
{b) Delete sections 130 to 134 and add a new Chapter VIII under the title:
Finance, Audit and Accounts
{c) Delete sections 135 to 165 and add a new Chapter IX under the title:
Supplemental and Miscellaneous Provisions
The suggested changes in Gujarat Regional Planning and Urban Development Act,
1973 are given in Volume 2C of this study.
8.50 SIMPLIFIED DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION GUIDELINES
8.51 Background
1. Development plan provides a legal framework within which development of an area
of city/town takes place and land use zoning and development promotion/control
regulations serve as legal instruments for planning and executing proposals contained
in the plan.
2. The main purpose of the land use Zoning is to provide regulations for development
of a particular area to serve the desired purpose efficiently and to preserve its
ch·aracter. It also provides for the kind of buildings to be constructed. Zoning
regulations are legal tools for guiding the use of land and protection of public health,
welfare and safety. Such regulations also include provisions for the use of
premises/property and limitations upon shape, size and type of buildings that are
constructed or occupy the land. Further, these provide both horizontal as well as
vertical use of land. These regulations also improve the quality of life in an urban
centre.
3. Zoning protects residential areas from harmful invasions of other uses like industrial
use and commercial use. However, it does not prohibit use of lands and buildings that
are lawfully established prior to coming into effect of such zoning regulations. If such
uses are contrary to regulations in a particular 'use zone' and are not to be allowed,
such uses are designated as 'non-conforming .uses'. These are to be gradually
eliminated without inflicting unreasonable hardship on the property owners/users.
4. In order to promote a healthy and balanced development, it is necessary to apply
reasonable limitations on use of lands and buildings. For desirable development, the
city is divided into a number of 'use zones' such as residential, commercial, industrial,
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8.52
recreational, etc. For each zone, specific reguiations are provided for. A single set of
regulations cannot be applied for the whole city.
5. The development promotion/control regulations deal with the extent of the physical
development in various use zones. These regulations are mainly to specify the
quantum of construction, specific location of the structure in various use zones for the
activities to be developed/provided.
6. The zoning and development promotion regulations are generally too many, very
complex and difficult to comprehend and enforce. There is, therefore, a need to have
simplified regulations so that these are adoptable and enforceable within the changing
socio-economic and development in various cities and towns.
7. Simplified zoning and development promotion regulations include :
a. simplified urban land use classification;
b. simplified land use zoning regulations;
c. development promotion/control regulations.
SimpHfied Urban Land Use Classification
1. Simplification of the system of classification of urban land uses is based upon the
requirements of the various plans as suggested by UDPFI Guidelines. For example,
a perspective plan, which is a policy document, need not show very many details of
a specific land use and may only show the main use which could be, say, residential
or commercial. In the case of a development plan, which is a comprehensive plan
indicating use of each parcel of land, there is a need to show more details of a specific
land use. It has to indicate for the land designated as, say, commercial, the further
details as to which land is for retail co·mmercial, or for wholesale trade or for godowns.
In the case of layouts of projects of a shopping centre further details shall be
necessary, indicating which/block of retail commercial is for, say, cloth or electronics
or vegetables. Considering
1
this, it is suggested that there should be three levels in land
use classification as shown under :
Levell
Level II
Level Ill
For Perspective Plans
For Development Plans
For Layouts of Projects/Schemes
2. In the context of computerisation as well as for presentation of maps, numerical and
alpha-numerical codes have also been given. Since level-Ill details are a function of
the requirements of a project/scheme and would vary from project to project, only
Ievei-I and level-11 glassification is presented in Appendix C1.00. It includes 8 main
categories of land uses at Ievel-I and 35 categories at level-11.
3. At level-11, mixed residential zone (12, R-2) and unplanned/informal residential zone
(13, R-3) have been added. A new category of special areas (8, S) has also been
102 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
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added to cater to old built-up areas (81, S-1) or heritage and conservation areas {82,
S-2) etc.
8.53 Simplified Land Use Zoning Regulations
1. For implementation and enforcement of proposals under each land use category,
contained in a development plan, there is a need to list out various uses and activities
that are permitted, permissible on an application to the Competent Authority and
prohibited. Land use zoning regulations precisely provide this list for various use
zones.
2. The suggested list of uses/activities for various use zones has deliberately been
kept quite comprehensive, keeping in mind the local and special characteristics of
various sizes of settlements {large, medium and small). Depending upon the specific
situation, this list could be further enhanced or reduced, as the case may be. It could
also be used to classify the land uses at level-Ill. Appendix C.2.00 provides the
suggested land use zoning regulations. -
8.54 Development Promotion Regulations in Various Use Zones
1. To regulate development within the framework of a development plan, regulations
known - as development promotion regulations - have to be prescribed as part of the
development plan report. The basic purpose of such regJllations is to promote quality
of life of people by organising the most appropriate development of land in accordance
with the developmental policies and the land use proposals contained therein.
2. The development promotion regulations deal with designated use zones and use
premises. These regulations also deal with various controls to be exercised for
designing of comprehensive schemes and buildings for various use zones and use
premises. These govern the coverage, FAR, height, parking norms, setbacks, open
spaces, number of dwelling units, etc.
3. Development promotion/control regulations are generally provided as part of the
development plan report. Alternatively, these regulations could be adopted as
development promotion/control regulations independently under the urban and regional
planning legislation formulated by the state government. Important development
promotion/control regulations for various use zones are given in the form of the
guidelines and could be adopted with suitable modifications for various sizes of
cities/towns such as large, medium and small.
4. In case of new developments, it may be worthwhile to plan mixed residential and
non-residential activities right at the time of preparation of general layout
plan/schemes. The location of mixed use plots should be carefully selected and kept
reserved for intended mixed uses such as shops, household industries, institutions,
professional activities and the residences.
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5. The size of the plots is normally determined in the layout plans when formulated,
based on density pattern, FAR, height of the building, parking requirements and others.
Accordingly, municipal and social infrastructures requirements are worked out and
provided for. Subsequent development, including designing and construction of
buildings, is based on development promotion regulations and the building bye-laws.
6. It is advisable that for the plots above 2 ha in area a landscape plan, a circulation
plan, indicating parking, vehicular and pedestrian movement based on traffic. impact
study and an urban design scheme be prepared to form part of the project.
7. Stilt areas used for pr-.rking and for landscaping need to be counted in FAR.
G. Basemen.t may be allowed in setback lines to be used for parking and for AC plant,
electric sub-station, telephone exchange and other services and amenities and may
not be counted in FAR.
9. Buildings defined as multistoried buildings (above 15 m in height}. Efforts should be
made to have permanent external finish.
10. In the development plan proposals or development control/promotion rules if there
are proposais to increase the FAR in any use zone/use premises, there should be a
provision to charge appropriate development charges from the beneficiary at the rate
of notified land rates of that area from time to time.
11. Appendix C.3.00 provides the suggested development promotion regulations
separately for both plain areas and hill areas. In case where no controls are given for
hill areas, the controls applicable for plain area shall apply.
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, CHAPTER9
FURTHER ACTIONS
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CHAPTER NINE
FURTHER ACTIONS
9.10 BEGINNING OF A PROCESS
The formulation of the UDPFI Guidelines, as presented in this study, is just the
beginning of a process of translating the spirit of the 74th CAA which envisages local
authorities emerging as dynamic and vibrant planning and development agencies at
local level. This process should not stop at.this stage. To keep this process going and
finally resulting into a dynamic urban planning and development system, certain
actions are necessary and need to be taken. These further actions are identified in the
following sections for consideration of the government.
9.20 ADOPTION OF UDPFI GUIDELINES
9.30
With a view to considering the suggested UDPFI Guidelines and the revised Model
Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law, it is suggested that a meeting
of state Secretaries of Urban Development and Chief Town and Country
Planners/Directors of Town Planning may be organised by the Ministry of Urban Affairs
and Employment. This meeting may be followed by another meeting of the State
Ministers of Urban Development and Local Self-Government for consideration of these
guidelines and the Model Law and adaptation in their respective states.
BASE MAPS
Base maps are the backbone of all planning exercises; in this context it is suggested
that:
a. Urban mapping efforts by the MUAE be further strengthened and TCPO
needs to be provided with an appropriate infrastructure to serve as a
nodal agency in this respect.
b. NRSA, Hyderabad needs to participate in the urban planning process
and provide all necessary support for making available satellite imagery
of urban centres at appropriate scale to help preparation of base maps.
c, Survey of India needs to consider production of ungrided maps of urban
centres to serve as base maps. The security implications in releasing
such maps can be met in this manner.
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9.40
9.50
d. Revenue department may also. be appropriatly • to provide
rev·Jriue maps of qrban ·centres.
e. To deliberate further and eviove a workabfe solution to the problem of··
base maps, it .is suggested that an inter-ministerial urban mapping
be constituted. under -the chairmanship_ of the Secretary
MUAE· and. heads of all agencies. involved in urban. mapping as
members. The Chief Planner,_ TCPO. may be the
CENTRAL ASSISTANCE
·a)
b)
. .· .
To provide initial· fiscal support in. formulation of urban development
plans, locaJ authC?rities need to be given appropriate centraf assistance .
by Planning Commission during the 9th and. 10th Five Year Plans.
·The allocation for urban mapping should be increased-to.cover the cosi.
of base maps of all urban centres in the next ·1 0 yl3ars period during the
9th and 1.0th Five Year Plans. ·. .
. . . .
URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING INFORMATION SYSTEM
1. To provide . relevant . data, a networking of data generating·. agencies is
recommended. It is also re.cotnmended that.:.
a. TCPO be· designated as nodal agency for Urban and Regional
_Information System {URIS). ·
b. . Ao .UHIS CQmmittee be constituted by the MUAE with members from
· . TCPO, NrC, Census Office and such other. agenCies to ·examine the
prospect of networking to provide data .to loc-ql authorities for plan
formulation. . · ·
.· . . .
2-: It is also. suggested that a researc!l project on urban development indicators be · · ·
.initiqted to harmonise <;Jata collection, minimise the duplication and check the tendency
of excessive data collection which is costly and time consuming. This will also help
URIS.
. .
9.60 MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT.
. . . .
a) To. take further necessary action to meet the manpower needs for urban
development planning and implementation, an Urban andRegiohal Planning··
·Education Committee be ·constituted with members from AICTE,· Ministr1 of ·
Human Resource Development, TCPO, state Town and Planning
Departments, academic in_stitution and ITPI. ·
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b) This committee should :
assess the education and training needs in the field of urban
and regional planning;
suggest education and training policy and programme in the
field of urban and regional planning; and
suggest other measures to improve the quality of manpower in
the field of urban and regional planning.
c) Funds may be provided during the 9th and 10th Five Year Plans to open new
courses in urban and regional planning in various universities and institutions.
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APPENDIX- A
SIMPLIFIED .
PLANNING TECHNIQUES
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APPENDIX-A
SIMPLIFIED PLANNING TECHNIQUES
A.1.00 GUIDELINES FOR THE STUDY ON LOCATION AND REGIONAL SETTING
A.1.1 0 LOCATION, SITE AND SITUATION
1. Location, site and situation as factors contributing in localising, growth in size and
function of a town are important. Location can be stated quite tersely and precisely
in terms of latitude and longitude, or distance and direction from other established
points. But this gives only one aspect of the total sphere of a town. In order to know
the milieu of towns, other aspects which are equally important, rather more, in the
development of a town are site, the ground upon which a town stands, the area of
earth it actually occupies and its situation in relation to the surroundings.
2. The urban character, both in respect of size and function, emerges by growth and
accretion around a pre-urban nucleus. In each case, however, it is the conditions of
site which have special importance in localising the original function at a particular
spot, fixing there the nucleus.Any appraisal of the value and importance of a particular
site must involve a knowledge of its historical past, that is, when the nucleus was
etablished.
3. In the hilly and mountainous regions towns occupy six types of site :
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Ridges
Valleys
River terraces
Confluences
Entrance to specific hill region
Major transportation routes
4. Another factor in the siting of towns is the tendency for certain kinds of specialised
settlements to cluster together. These clusters tend to grow around some localised
physical resource; and often manufacturing is a dominant occupation. The growth of
clusters of urban settlements is more frequently found around large metropolises and
results in what are sometimes called "city region". Often these are made up of small
towns and villages which have been drawn into the ambit of a major city and have
been enormously expanded as a result of national policy on dispersal of economic
activities away from the metropolises as in the case of the National Capital Region,
and other metropolitan regions of the country. The small and medium towns in these
city regions are related to one another by the functions which they perform.
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5. A factor of greater importance than 'site' in the subsequent growth in size of a town
and enhancement of its function is its wider setting or situation. A town may achieve
great size and prosperity because of the endowment of its situation, although its site
may have little to commend it and may even be a persistent handicap. Great towns
have arisen in many places in spite of serious drawbacks of site, because the
situations demanded the presence of urban functions, and, as it were called towns into
being. Calcutta and Madras which have developed to a metropolitan scale are good
examples.·
6. Although situation may thus be a compelling influence that overrides the deficiencies
of site, more usually it simply provides the stimulus for a degree of urban development
somewhere within a more or less confined area in which the situation can be exploited.
Local site advantages or even historical accident fix the precise spots but it is the
situation which governs their growth.
7. Among the factors that decide the fortune of towns none are more sudden and
striking in their effects than political changes that radically alter the territorial frame of
reference. This is especially evident in respect of towns that discharge administrative,
commercial and cultural functions. No town, however, is independent of the effect of
changes in the cultural situation upon which the value of its physical setting depends.
Moreover, towns are the fixtures of civilization, which cannot readily be improvised but
which are built up by patient effort, thus they are so persistent and capable of
continued growth.
8. Keeping the above factors in mind, the Guidelines for the study on location, site and
situation are as under :
A.1.11 location
a. Express the location of the city/town in absolute terms of latitude and longitude;
also distance and direction from other established points;
b. Establish the nodal significance of the city/town in the national or regional
infrastructure of transport and communication, power, and in an agricultural
area, irrigation network, agricultural extension services, agricultural produce
collection and distribution centre, agro-industries linked to local markets;
c. Establish the status that the city/town occupies in the urban hierarchy involved;
d. Establish the role and status of the city/town in the national delivery systems
of social services;
e. Study the relative significance of locations of city/town in proximity to a
metropolis : ·
i) nodal significance
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ii) pre$ence of high productive economic activities
iii) presence of large market
Site· .
a, Study the conditions of site ; low-lying,: swamp, or dry land, ridge; on. a river
. bank . or canal ·side. the. town - flat, sloping. (in which . direction),
· undulating - gentle slope, moden1te slope, steep, slope.
b. Have an appraisal of the value and importa.nce ·.of the site; also study its.
historical past, that ·is, when the nucleus was established. ·
. c. Analyse the factors responsible for determining the .site:
i) . . . in alluvial plain·s, ·
ii) in hilly and mountainous regions,.
iii) in arid.regions, ..
:iv) in the areas· of territorial rulership, .
v) in the areas. around. sonie localised physical resources, mining
settlements, manufacturing towris; resort · towns.
vi) aro.und large metropolises, .
·vii) historica! towns (whim .and chance urban location) E?tC.
d. ·Study the di111ate and its· influence.· on daily life, on building the homes, the
.. rar:Jge of crops a city-region cari produce; ·how the city activities have modified ·
the climate, pa-rticularly in built-up area. .· ·
· e. · Analyse the :climate type, variations .in. temperature, wind velocity and wind
· directions in "different parts of the city; study the with reference to
sum.mer, ·rainy and winter seasons. · · ·. ·
. .
f. Study the limiting and the favourable factors of the site in the spread and
· . growth of the city/town.
:Situation
a. Study . and .analyse the ·endowment of .. the. situation (wider ·setting) for the
subsequent growth in size of ·the city/towri and for the enhancement of its
·
b. Study the important and interrelated aspects of situation, namely,
i) physical configuration
ii) route patterns
· · iii) . the extent of the territory to which the urban functions are
related.

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c. Suggest measures to retard or even overcome the weakening of the original,
value of the site and situation.
A.1.20 HINTER LAND
1. The endowment of the hinterland is another factor on which tl1e growth of an urban
centre rests. An urban centre. for example, can establish a mutually interacting
relationship with its hinterland if it has a variety and extent of natural resources that
the hinterland possesses in terms of both agricultural and mining potentials. A city's
growth may be consistent and stable mainly because its economic base is closely
linked with that of its hinterland. It is also conceivable that the city can be an
instrument not merely for effectively utilising the existing potential of its hinterland but
also of increasing the hinterland's potential itself. The development of the regional
economy helps the growth of small towns which in the process become the main
serv1ce centres for the1r hinterlands.
2. The larger the city, the more complicated are its relations w1th its surroundings.
since not only does a large city provide certain characteristic services for its region,
but it also provides the services of a major town and a village for progressively more
restricted areas. As a result, the large city surrounded by a series of hinterlands, which
reflect the varying levels of specialisation exhibited by its shops, industries and
institutions. Therefore. considerable attention should be given to the delimitation of the
areas joined by social and economic bonds to a particular urban settlement. The area
linked socially and economically to an urban settlement has been given various
names. such as "Hinterland". "Umland". ''Urban Field". "Sphere of Influence". "Zones
of Influence", ''Tributary Area", or "Catchment Area". The precise term used matters
little. More important are the reasons for delimiting zones of influence at all.
3. The area influenced by a town is a two-dimensional feature. not a sphere. nor does
it necessarily form a continuous zone. For that matter. goods and services flow both
into and out of a town : most modern urban settlements and their hinterlands are
economically interdependent. rather than one being a tributary to the other. An
analysis of the rural area served by a market town gives some Indication of the ·
relations between town and the rural area. whiCh IS of practical application in
examining the provision of goods and services in an urban centre. As smaller towns
fall within the areas served by larger cities, tl1e delimitation of urban zones of influence
also sheds light on the manner in which a city at a particular level in the urban
hierarchy provides specialist services for the surrounding population. both rural and
urban. Finally, very large cities extend a particularly intensive influence over the areas
around them, so much so that they can be said to organise their hinterlands, thus
forming functional regions. Thus, the analysis of the hinterlands of metropolitan cities
has implications for the general study of urban region.
4. In examining zones of influence one is immediately brought up against the practical
difficulty of obtaining readily available information. Studies of individual towns usually
rest upon laborious personal field-work. One commonly adopted method is to
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establish on a map the areas served by employment, shopping, entertainment,
education, health services and so on, which are typical of a town at that level of
specialisation. This method of analysis is applicable to cities and towns at all levels
in the urban hierarchy. At a higher level in the urban hierarchy the criteria used reflect
the more sp!;!cialised nature of the distinctive functions of larger settlements and
employ information like the area served by the city's services and amenities like water
supply, electricity, gas supply and telephone, health services, educational, cultural,
recreational elements, security services such as police and fire brigades, postal
services, mainly the local delivery areas and postal zones; banking and insurance
facilities, the circulation of its daily newspapers. Wholesale and retail trade, specially
in consumer and luxury goods, parts and spares of machines; traffic flow, journey-to-
work, intensity and speed of movement should be taken into consideration. Other
reflective elements, which may be considered are land use ratio of non-agricultural to
agricultural population, density trends in population growth, settlement pattern, growth
of built-up areas and pattern of communication.
5. As a result, a number of short-cuts may be devised to gather information about the
limits of urban zones of influence like a large city; in particular is the focus of areas of
different extent according to the different functions it serves. Its patterns of influence,
therefore, become very complex. Owing to this complexity, the boundary of its zone
of influence cannot be easily marked with mathematical accuracy like political
boundary. Natural or transitional zones occur though not with the well-defined
boundary of buffer states.
6. Further complications arise in heavily industrialized regions, where towns have been
established for purposes other than providing for the nearby rural population. In
practice, it is rare for such a town not to build up some relationships with its immediate·
surroundings, but the circumstances of the town's industrial origins are likely to affect
the nature of its zone of influence. Clearly, its tributary area will be much more
restricted than that of a town of equal size, which has grown as a market centre.
While a service centre which has grown to serve the rural population will dominate a
relatively clearly defined areas, an intrusive industrial town may well not have the full
range of urban services appropriate to its size. These missing functions will be
supplied from other centres, thus making its zone of influence less clearly defined.
7. It will be clear that the analysis of urban zones of influence is most appropriate for
those cities whose dominant role is that of serving as a central place, although most .
settlements of any reasonable size will have this among their various functions.
8. Human settlements primarily serve as the organisational framework for providing
economic and social seryices for the people at different levels. A study of the
settlements should be made in regard to the functions they presently perform and any
possible hierarchy that may exist in the performance of such functions. The different
functional systems that may exist in any area may be listed as below :
a) Administrative function like police, judiciary and revenue.
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b) Developmental function of the state government through block
development offices.
c) Social services like health. education. recreation. etc.
d) Collection and marketing of agricultural products.
e) Distributary services for both goods and services.
f) Transport and communications.
g) . Industrial productron.
h) Specialised skills and services.
9. The Guidelines for study of hinterland are as under :
a) Study and analyse the variety and extent of natural resoures that the
hinterland of the city/town possesses in terms of both agricultural and
mining potentials.
b) Analyse and establish the nature and degree of interdependency and
linkages between the crty/town and its hinterland.
c) Based on established criteria delimit the zone of influence of the
city/town :
i) delimitation of central place
ii) delimitation of manufacturing town. mining town. resort
town. etc.
d) Determine the hierarchy of the city/town and other urban settlements in
the region on the basis of population size and the functions they
presently perform.
A.1.30 ACCESSIBILITY
1. Accessibility is the dominant factor influencing the location. growth and functions of
urban centres. It is seen to combine at least three elements : the location of a place
within a region (in general. centrally located places are more accessible); the form of
the transport system; and the locations within the area of the activities : access to
employment opportunities, access to population. access to educational or health
facilities, etc.
2. Transport routes are in governing the location of cities which link
regions to external areas. Urban settler:nents tend to grow on transport routes only at
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specific places: particularly at junctions and break-of-bulk points, where one form of
transport is changed for another. Hence settlements whose locations are guided by
transport routes are tound not only at the end of these routes. but also along them.
What is important is not the number ot routes wh1ch come together at a particular
point, but the degree to which passengers and goods are interchanged there.
3. The guidelines for the study of accessibility are as under :
a. Establish the role of :
i) Long-distance transportation in determining the locations of the
city/town:
ii) both the long distance as well as local and intra-urban
transportation in the growth of size of the city/town:
iii) intra-urban transportation in affecting the urban form (shape of
urban area and its basic transportation network) and urban
structure (distribution of land uses and population densities);
IV) easy access trorn many areas and by different modes;
v) good mobility within city/town (construction of a bridge or tunnel
results· 1n the development of new areas with commercial.
industrial and residential activities. which leads to population
increases in the entire urban area).
A.2.00 TECHNIQUES OF ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENTS OF VARIOUS
ACTIVITIES
A.2.1 0 INTRODUCTION
1. Town planners use a variety of techniques at various stages of the planning
process. These techniques may relate to surveys for collection of data. assessment
of existing conditions in a town. as well as projections and analysis of future
requirements in respect of various activities within the town.
2. A substantial proportion of these techniques are highly elaborate and demand
intensive data inputs. Considerble time is lost in collecting the required data and long
delays occur in the plan preparation process.
3. Today, the pace of development of towns has speeded up so much that planners
have begun to feel the necessity of simplified and quick techniques tor analysis and
plan preparation. This section briefly describes the most useful and, at the same time,
the most simplified techniques for survey, analysis, planning. implementation and
monitoring stages of the planning process.
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4. The following sections present various simplified techniques for studies and surveys
needed for preparatior. of a perspective or a development plan of a settlement.
A.2.20 IDENTIFYING DATA NEEDS AND SURVEYS
/
1. The basic presumption of simplified information gathering methodologies is that
tl1ere is always a certain amount of uncertainty attacl1ed to any set of data. and that
the available data are invariably incomplete as compared to what is required for
ensuring perfectness in decision-making. Tl1is presumption implies that
decision-making most often involves an element of guess-work. and a good
decision-maker is one who makes intelligent use of imaginative guesses with the help
of the data collected 1n good time throug11 t11e application of s1mplified and sustainable
survey tec11niques. ·
2. Methods of rapid information collection institutionalise existing good practices and
even common sense. They rely mostly on direct observation. seek several views of
any one "fact" (cross-checking) and make use of checklists and semi-structured
dialogues instead of lengthy and often costly questionnaire-based surveys. Due to the
difficulties of measuring much of socio-economic information directly. rapid survey
techniques make liberal use of proxy indicators to trace rankings. trends and shifts.
A flexible and intelligent use of these methods may sometimes be more helpful in
learning about the existing levels of development in an area. Tl1ese rapid methods
must not, however, be considered as substitutes to specialist investigations and are
commended to have a quick access to information for rapid decision-making.
A.2.30 CHECKLIST
1. The checklist is a precise and exhaustive listing of topics/issues and
sub-topics/issues related to information need. It is not a list of questions. The checklist
approach is flexible and allows the surveyor to adapt and improvise in the field.
2. The process begins with the preparation of an initial checklist. The next stage is to
define the method of acquiring ·information about each sub-topic in the list. The
methods used are: documentation, observation, proxy observation and dialogue.
3. The checklist may be modified as it is used and made accessible to all team
members. Development of the subsidiary checklists can be reported in team
briefing/debriefing sessions. Ideally, it can be helpful to keep copies of checklists in a
logbook as they evolve. If this contains brief notes of the reasons for significant
changes and/or enlargements of tl1e checklist topics. it can help to explain the method
of investigation in the report
4. Precisely, the steps involved in the preparation of the checklist are as follows:
a) Listmajor information and indicate how. each will be used for the
analysis.
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b) List topics and agree about their priority.
c) Break down each topic into suo-topics. And
d) Indicate the likely Hormation sources such as
i) document
ii) observation
iii) proxy, or
iv) d1o1ogue
A.2.40 SURVEY TYPES
Simplified survey types can be categorised into visual surveys, key indicator surveys.
documentation, diagramming and dialogue.
A.2.41 Visual Surveys
1. These are direct inspection _surveys which are performed by survey teams moving
in an automobile, riding a bicycle or Just walking. For the purpose of speed and the
necessity of covering the ent1re area. it is advisable that survey teams use fast moving
vehicles in the peripheral areas ot the city being surveyed. However, for intermediate
areas, use of bicycles may be advisable and in the inner city areas pedestrian mode
may be preferred. This type of survey can be used in tile initial stages of the
investigation. An initial survey, often conducted immediately after the preparation of
the initial checklist can pertorm a variety of fuctions. For instance, it can:
a)
Familiarise all the team members with the city or area.
b)
Give initial impressions of the physical and human state of an area.
c)
Identify selected areas for further investigation. And
d)
Spark ideas for development of checklists.
A.2.42 Key Indicators
1. The findings of the initial survey can then be substantiatep with the help of Key
Indicator Surveys (KIS) which are specific to the objectives of the analysis. A KIS.
however. also relies on visual information and can be undertaken on foot. bicycle, or
riding in a fast-moving vehicle, depending upon the type of the area being surveyed.
2. Key indicators are generated through the checklist. They relate to sub-topics which
are identified as important, such as land use, density, house type, environmental
conditions, traffic condition or incidences of encroachments.
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3. A certain amount of preparation is required before these two types of surveys are
carried out in the field. Decisions will have to be taken about the type of survey -
whether on foot, bicycle or riding an automobile or a combination of all modes. How
would various teams undertake the survey? How would the team members take
notes? And, how and about what points would they be debriefed? All these issues
regarding the methodology of the survey would need to be settled before proceeding
to the field.
4. Often, instead of getting direct information on key indicators, surveyors rely on
observing approximations to them such as proxies. Proxy is thus used where
observation of the key indicator itself is very difficult.
.TABLE A.1 : POSSIBLE PROXY INDICATORS
Topic
Economic Growth
Prosperity
Service Levels
Wealth Distribution
Women's
Participation
Municipal Efficiency
Possible Proxy
Housing Construction
Dwelling Extensions
Electricity Consumption
(KWHS)
Sale of New BikesNehicles
Number of Petrol Pumps
Sale of Furnishings Roof Type
(Tile Corrugationffhatch)
Chain Stores
Number of Standpipes
Private Water Carriers
Electricity Supply (KW)
Use of Public Latrines
On-Street Garbange
Differing New House
Construction
Private Car Ownership
Imported Goods
Consumption
Hand Portage of Water
Ratio of Girls in 12 + Education
Frequency of Garbage
Removal Street Lights
Add your own
Proxies
5. A proxy is something that can inform the investigator about a variable but which is
easier to investigate than the variable itself. For example, planners often need
information about household income for purposes such as identifying areas for
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targeting basic services or designing a cost recovery scheme or assessing the results
of an income generating scheme. In such instances, even rough information woulg
suffice but'the documentary statistics tend to be very aggregative or outdated, or both.
Even the data contained in a household income survey is generated from samples and
often with questionnaire methods .liat are prone to major errors. People tend to hide
information about their income. For this kind of a variable, it may thus be advisable
to use a proxy approach to assessment. Observing what people do with their income
may be easier (asset-based indicators), and more reliable than asking them what it is.
6. Generating proxies required imagination. Good proxies are those Which can be
easily investigated, and the best are-those which can be observed. However. proxies
can often be misleading and must be used with care.
7. Generating proxies also requires knowledge about the relationship between the
proxy and the variable it is trying to assess. But this relationship is often area-specific.
Hence, people of the area should be associated with the process of proxy generation.
Table A.1 lists proxy indicators.
A.2.43 Diagramming
1. Diagrams can structure and present information in a readily understandable visual
form. They can be used as a substitute for dialogue to elicit information from
respondents. This participatory diagramming is a process which asks respondents to
share information visually. Some diagrams (e.g., sketches and maps) can be prepared
without the assistance of informants, but they reflect the way the investigator (rather
than the respondent) perceives the environment. Many respondents, however, do not
have the time to spend on diagramming, hence this method can be practised only in
situations where respondents are willing participants in the investigative activity.
2. There are many types of diagrams and their potential number and variety are
limitless. However, only a few illustrative diagrams, their usefulness, and the method
of developing them have been described below:
a. Mapping is one of the most powerful techniques of representing the
physical and socio-economic attributes of an area (e.g., infrastructure,
land ownership, land use, density, social composition, etc.). Maps can
be drawn from a high vantage point or walking around the area. These
maps can be supplemented with photographs to highlight specific
attributes.
b. With the help of people who . know about the past and present
conditions, changes and trends which matter to the people can be
discussed and diagrammed.
Examples:-
- fuels used
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c.
Dialogue
- credit sources. interest rates
. - roofing material
- number of radios
- number of latrines
- type of cooking pot/chair
- number of bicycles/shoes/clothing scooters/cars
Priorities, or preferences can b.e brought out through participatory
diagramming procedures. Priority ranking can be most useful in
revealing people's preferences (e.g., in service type, house
construction, plot location, etc.) or in establishing possessional priorities
(i.e., what will be bought next if additional income accrues to the
household): the resulting possessional priorities (i.e., what will ·be
bought next if additional income accrues to the household); the
resulting possessions can be used as proxy indicator for wealth or
income.
1. Semi-structured dialogue is a flexible two-way process where only some initial topics
are investigated. These topics can be revised as the practitioner gains insight in the
area as information flows in from respondents. Semi-structured dialogue is thus an
informal process but it needs to be managed expertly, particularly the aspects listed
below. ·
a) Behavioural factors
b) Questioning
c} Probing answers
d) Judging responses
e) Cross-checking
f) Managing the conversation
g) Recording the interview and
h) Avoiding errors and biases
2. Non-verbal communication is important to any dialogue. Due attention should be
given to messages coming from not only what is said, but also through change in tone,
modulation of the voice, attitude and body postures. Certain strict behavioural
guidelines should be observed to minimize the impact of the investigator's behaviour
on the answers given by the respondents. These are:-
a) Maintain a comfortable social distance
b) Do not sit at a level above that of the observer
c) Do not distaste/disapproval about surrounding conditions
d) Do not indic'ate contempt or disbelief in the answers given
e) Do not refuse local hospitality
f) Do not look and act too official
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3. While listening to the answers, the investigator should always adopt a posture which
would convey the feeling to the respondent that he/she is being listened to intently.
Similarly, loaded and ambiguous questions should not be asked. Probing is an
impression to the informant that he/she is being cross-examined. Contradictions and
argCJments should be avoided. The investigator should be alert about .the reliability of
the answers being given. Try and classify the information given into the following
categories:
\...'
a) Fact
b) Option
c) Hearsay and
d) Rumour
4. The information obtained through one inteNiew should always be cross-checked
with other information and discrepancies should be explained. With a view to
managing the dialogue, it is always wise to keep the conversation on track. The
dialogue should be recorded immediately after it and, while recording, care should be
taken that a proper noting is made to distinguish between what was actually said by
the informant and what was felt and interpreted by the investigator.
5. There are four common biases in conducting inteNiews, particularly if only a limited /
number of inteNiews are conducted and the inteNiewer is not familiar with the area.
The biases are:
a) Elite Bias - the tendency to give more weight to the answers of the
educated.
b) Hypothesis Confirmation Bias - tendency to focus selectively on
information and ideas which conform to the preconceived hypotheses,
assumptions and beliefs of the inteNiewer.
c) Concreteness Bias -tendency to generalise from the particulars without
probig or cross-checking sufficiently. And
d) Consistency Bias -tendency to search prematurely for coherence in the
information collected, in order to be able to draw meaningful
conclusions as quickl'y as possible.
A.2.50 ANAL VTICAL TECHNIQUES
1. Analysis breaks down complex phenomena into simple elements. It organises,
illuminates, correlates, classifies, displays and resolves. Various analytical tools are
available today which perform one or several of these tasks and which town planners
use to study the state of the society, the settlements and their physical and
soci-economic attributes, technological directions, environmental condition and the
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changes that occur over a period of time. Based on the understanding of the existing
condition and the trends •)f change. the planners carve out short-term and long-term
scenarios of the future and then design schedules of inter-connected interventions to
steer development towards a desired future state.
"
2. This section describes some of the most simplified and rapid analytical modes of
which the most commonly used is that of Simplified Reporting.
A.2.51 Simplified Reporting
1. A report can summarise or else be a detailed description of the studied
phenomenon. Its structuring, organisation and pressntation do help perform the tasks
of analysis which relate to putting the information in an ordered format, identifying
patterns, classifying, observing trends, correlating and inferring, with a view to arriving
at insights, conclusions, policy guidelines or design directions related to
problems/issues under investigation.
2. Most important requirement of a report is that it must be formated properly. It
should introduce the contents at the very beginning, state the objectives, scope and
limitation of the study, and clearly describe the methodology used in _collecting
information and conducting analyses for arriving at alternatives, evaluating alternatives
and deriving conclusions and recommendations.
3. Finally, the effectiveness of the report lies in how it is displayed. The first golden
principle in this regard is that of brevity -try to keep the report as short as possible but
still illuminative. Judicious use of tables. graphs and maps is other essential aspect,
" of reporting. Maps and diagrams are very effective in describing organisational
·structuring of institutions; or presentation of cross-sectional characteristics of an area
like density, air pollution, land use pattern, and socio-economic variations over space
and time.
4. A report may rely on simple deductive techniqes for arriving at conclusions. These
could be in the form of simple logical reasoning, e.g., taking notes of diverse
information in a sketch form and developing the sketch further for analytical purposes
by using connectors between informations that appear to be logically inter-connected
(see Fig. A.1 ). In specific situations where time and resources permit, more elaborate
statistical methodologies may be adopted.
5. Rating the information by grouping it and giving different weights and noting it in an
ordered sequence is also part of the analytical process. This can often ease the most
complex process of sifting and sorting the information in order to classify, connect and
highlight the important results. This is a relatively open-ended process whereby
insights are gained over several sessions of discussions, cross-checking, repeated
formulation and reformulation of ideas, and arriving at conclusions.
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A.2.52 Trend Analysis
1. This is a simple technique to study changes in a system over a period of time.
Availability of time series data at least for three points of time is a basic requirement
for its application. The analysis can be displayed in the form of tables, graphs, maps
or diagrams. · This technique is popularly used in study and analysis of change in
urban economy, demographic pattern and physical form and pattern.
A.2.60 PROJECTION TECHNIQUES
1. These techniques are used, as the name implies, for anticipating future which is a
necessary step in the planning process. Here, only those techniques will be dealt with
which aim at 'simple projections' and operate on limited data.
A.2.61 Population Projection
1. Planners are invariably most concerned with population projections which form the
basic framework for setting targets expected to be achieved within a specified
time-frame, be it for land use, services or facilities. Few of the population projection
methods are briefly explained below:
a. Mathematical and Direct Methods: These are simple or direct methods
since they operate with past population records. Where past data
suggests that the population has been changing by constant absolute
amounts, and arithmatic progression is involved; the figures can be
plotted on a plain paper (conventionally with y = population and x =
time) and the resulting straight line extrapolated to give the projected
estimate. More usually, however, population changes approximate to
a geometric progression, i.e., the change in unit time is a constant
proportion of the preceding figure; in this case semi-logarithmic paper
should be used to yield a straight line for extrapolation.
If the past data do not seem to follow a definite progression, a 'best fit'
straight line equation can be derived by the method of least square and
extended to provide the projection.
Graphical methods are most useful for short-term projections,
particularly when demographic changes show stable trends. Hence.
these methods should be used for projecting up to 10 years in stable
situations and 5 years where population change is more volatile.
b. Employment Method: This method assumed that there is a very strong
inter-relationship between population and employment and indicators
such as workers' population can be correlated with total population to
yield extrapolated information.
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The reliability of this method is certainly no greater than those already
discussed and the method should not be used for long range
forecast:ng.
c. . Ratio Methods: This family of methods rests on the assumption that
changes in any geographical area are a tunct1on of those experienced
in Wider areas. Thus. the population of a city is held to be a function
ofthat of the region, which itself is a function of that of the nation, and
so on.
The requirements of such projections are time series of informations for
the areas to be used in the analysis and a forecast or a set of forecasts
for the largest area. In the ratio method, the population of the second
largest area (e.g., the region) is plotted against the population of tne
largest area (say. the nation). A curve is tt"1en fitted to the points thus
obtained by least square, graphical or other method and extrapolated
to estimate the projected value of the present arE·a for the target year.
This method has the great benefit <?f simplicity and the use of readily
available data. However, this does not directly e x a m ~ ; .e the
components of change which are subsumed in the centml assurnptio
i.e .. there are certain forces at work in nations. regions. and suo-regio%
wl11ch make for pattern and order in the proportionate share wh1ch the
latter have in the former. Further, it is assumed that these relationships
change rout slowly over time.
As with other projection techniques described above. these are weake::
for longer periods and smaller areas. These are most useful for quick
and cheap forecasting tor the middle range (say 10-15 years) for areas
not less than a whole metropolitan area or a city region.
A.2.62 Economic Projections
1. Simple techniques of economic projection, used in physical planning context, are
discussed here. Fundamentally, planners are concerned with the likely demands of
land development for various types of economic activities (broadly within various
sectors of activities), the possible location of these activities within a city or city region,
and the broad relationships between these activities and the scale and timing of
migration (entrepreneurs and workers and dependent population) into and out of the
area. These projections are ultimately relevant for calculating demand for housing,
hospitals, schools and other social facilities.
The following sections briefly describe some of the methods of economic projections.
a. Simple Extrapo/ption: Measures of economic activity - employment,
volume or value of production, value added by manufacture etc .. may
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be ordered in time--series from published or other sources and
extrapolated in a variety of ways. The methods used will be broadly
similar to those defined earlier in the sections on simple population
projection - graphical, mathematical, curve-fitting and so on.
The methods have the advantage of simplicity, can rely on readily
available data (especially on employment) and do not require ariy high
level of skill. But since these methods do not attempt to look behind
the data to reveal the possible causes_ or influences upon it. these are
likely to be unreliable as anything more than a very general guide.
Again, the smaller the area considered and the longer the projection
period. the more unreliable the pro,iections may be.
b. Productivity Metlwd: The variables of ·production' or ·output' on the one
hand and employment' on the other are linked by the variable
'productivity'. This is simply measured as 'output per worker'. This
simpre form is suitable for planners to whom employment is the most
useful measure. The projection is accomplished by obtaining from
some reliable source an estimate of future production or output and a
projection of productivity.
Output
Output 1 --------- = workers
Worker
or, in other words, output divided by productivity yields an estimate of
workers.
Clearly, this method has advantages over the simple manipulation of
employment data since it enables us to examine separately and.
therefore. more clearly the future trends in output or production and
these tn the productivity of labour.
c. Projection by Sectors of Economy: It is more valuable to have estimates of
the tutu re levels of output or employment in the various sectors of the
economy - for example. to estimate the possible amount of secondary
activity, the land requirements for different kinds of manufacturing, the
floor space needed for wholesaling and retailing and office type
employment.
In the simplest and crudest case, the forecaster simply extrapolates, by
a means of hrs choosing, the past trend in each sector of the economy.
d. Economic Base 4fetlwd: Perhaps no method of economic analysis and
projection h'as seen such widespread use in planning offices. It
postulate·$ that growth in an area's economy comes from the expansion
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of the economic base which is defined as all those , basic' activities
which produce for export beyond the boundaries of the local area and
wh!ch increase its wealth and 1ts ability to pay for imports. The
remaining activities are referred to as the 'service' or 'non-basic'
activities.
The chief practical problem associated with this method is the
definition of the 'local area' and the identification of the basic sector of
the economy itself. The method involves, firstly, projection of basic
activities, a sector at a time, by the use of ratios of local to national
trends: then, by way of an extrapolation of the past trend in the
basicinon-basic ratio. the forecasts of basic employment are expanded
to total employment estimate.
The shortcomings of the economic base method are, first. that the
reliance on employment as a measure ignores the possible effects of
change in productivity; second. that the basic/non-basic ratio is a
suspect measure even at a point in time. and has been shown to be
highly unstable over time.
e. Ratio Method: Generally 'sl(eaking. these methods make use of a similar
rationale to those described earlier in population studies. That is, local
levels ot economic act1vity (either in total or sector by sector) bear
proportional relationships to levels of economic activity in successively
larger geographical areas. The ratio method also implies that these
relationships may be studied as they change over time and
extrapolated so that, given a set of forecasts for the largest
geographical unit (e.g .. the nation). estimates for the local area may be
derived.
A.2.70 ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENTS OF HOUSING
1. Based on projections of population and economic activities. town planners' major
pre-occupation is to determine the levels of demand for housing and other facilities in
a town.
2. While dealing with housing, it is first necessary to clearly distinguish between
housing need and demand. Whereas, need refers to inadequacy of existing provisions
when compared with socially acceptable norms. demand is an economic concept
whnrein standard and amount of housing demand is related to household's income
and ability to pay. Both housing need and demand are affected by factors such as
housing shortage and rate of obsolescence, whereas demand would be additionally
affected by affordability and future housing needs.
3. The first step in estimating housing need is to subtract the number of unsuitable ....
dwellings from the existing housing stock. If the number of houses so arrived at is
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compared with the existing number of housing units, the housing need can be
established.
4. Future housing need can be estimated from the projected number of additional
households there will be in the city at a given date in the future. A simple way of
doing this is to estimate the future population of the city and divide it by the expected
household size at the date.
5. Finally, for identifying demand component of housing need, planners have to
carefully analyse the affordability criterion. This can be done be simultaneously
looking at three factors. namely. initial capital cost of the housing units. total annual
household income' and annual economic rent. The annual economic rent can be
further analysed based on the information on amortisation rates. interest rates, and
cost of maintenance, repair and management.
6. As with all other projections, there is always the danger that estimates of housing
need and demand can be quite off the mark. particularly if the base data are
unrealistic or inadequate or if the projections are made too far al1ead in time. Yet the
degree of accuracy required in forecasting housing needs is not very high. An
indication of the order of the magnitude will suffice 1n most of the cases.
A.2.80 ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENT FOR PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
. "
1. Adequate water, power, drainage and sewerage facilities are the basic needs of
human life. Their standards. of course. vary according to climatic. economic and other
conditions. In India. standard of urban growth the deficiencies in infrastructure will
become more apparent. It is necessary to evolve suitable norms based on which the
dificiencies can be rationally analysed and steps taken to rectify the associated
problems.
2. The first step in rationalising the procedure of assessment of infrastructure
requirement would be to appraise the existing norms with a view to setting them up
realisticaJiy in conformity with community's affordability levels. These norms should
also be perspectively graded to allow for incremental upgradation with time, ostensibly
with prospective increases in the standard of living and affordability levels of the
people. There is also a need to look at the differentials in standards of provision of
infrastructure in different communities and try to reduce its inequitable spatial
distribution within town or city.
3. However, the level of facilities may be graded according to city size. Towns of
smaller sizes do not need the same level of facilities that a big city will need. For
example, in big cities the use of water for industries, public uses. etc. is more.
Similarly, large cities may produce much larger amounts of solid waste per capita and
may also need to transport the wastes to longer distances for disposal.
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4. Today, in the context of economic liberalisation policies and encourging of services.
it is possible that varying standards in provision of infrastructure and the levels of
services are adopted in different areas based on the ability of the area to financially
sustain particular levels of provision of infrastructure and service. If so. the
assessment of requirements for infrastructure would vary from area to area within a
town or city.
5. This kind of policy would invariably result in a different kind of tariff structure for
pricing of services. A differential pricing structure and a hike in charges for use of
services on the cost of provision basis would also affect the level of demand and will
have to be incorporated in the assessment methodology for physical infrastructure.
6. The assessment of infrastructure has to take into account:
a. both present population and future additions in population;
b. quantity and quality of service;
c. existing gaps and future requirements based on assumption of rising
levels of standards of provisions on and services;
d. financial sustamability:
e. demand levels related to a pricing mechanism that eliminates all kinds ..
of subsidies and thus truly reflects the cost of provision;
f. minimum affordable standards: and
g. incremental improvement in the quality of services.
A.2.90 MARKET RESEARCH TECHNIQUES
1. Essentially, market research techniques help the planner in analysing how much
should be built and produced in respect of various facilities which can be economically
justified. If the issue is housing facilities, the market analysis helps to meQ.sure the
local housing supply in kind and quantity. It also reveals the demand for riew units
and the pace at which supply may satisfy demand. Similarly, if the market research
is required to analyse the feasibility of a shopping centre project. then the analysis
helps in determining whether the site is If the site 1s tound suitable. then the
. analysis helps in deciding that how much of it should be acquired and developed.
Market research technique is thus a useful tool which planners use for establishing
economically justifiable development targets for various facilities. The market an?lysis
techniques for housing and market'centres are described below.
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A.2.91 Housing
1. Before starting a project, a developer has to lay hands on certain facts: the
prospective home buyers or the tenants, their preferences. their levels of income, the
number of children they have. With definite information about the local market for
houses and apartment units. the developer is in a position to establish the kind. size.
scope and timing of a project.
2. The data useful for market research for housing in the market research include
urbanisation pattern, population growth of the entire study area, age composition of the
population. family size. housing inventory. occupation and income levels of the people
presently living and likely to be resident in the area. affordability of households for
housing, and availability of housing finance. Also to be ·included in the analysis is the
information about the direction or segment of tile area in which building activity is
taking place. These studies when compared with the location of places of employment
and correlated with transportation facilities, highway routes (both existing and
proposed). land. use, topography and zoning will help to evaluate quickly the locational
characteristics of any contemplated site. Such site location study should show relation
to regional physical features. facilities and proposals. and woulp reveal relationship to
competing sites and to the entire urban area.
A.2.92 Shopping Centres
1. The steps and stages which a shopping centre project must go through before the
ingredients are ready for the construction and pre-opening stages start with the market
analysis. Even before a site is selected. the first decision to be made is whether the
project is feasible. If the site is already owned by the developer then the site must first
be analysed for its suitability as a shopping centre. The site should not be developed
for shopping centre it it is not found to be tl1e best site for the purpose because
otherw1se the best site would be developed too. leading to over-development.
Ultimately, the centre on the less desirable site would most likely suffer from
over-competition.
2. To justify the project, a careful analysis of the supporting evidence must be made.
The analysis preliminaries tell the investor-developer whether there is a demand for
additional shopping facilities. Tile study should clearly come out with whether new
facilities will answer a need growing out of mcreased population and purchasing power,
or would merely compete with ex1sting retaii outlets.
3. The market analysis or shopping centre is used to discover economic facts about
the sales volume, potential of the location and to uncover how the project may fit the
prospective market. It can also be used in negotiations with tile tenants and financial
i nsti tuti ons.
4. The market analysis for a new shopping centre becomes a problem like the chicken
or egg :' which came first? Two types of market analyses must be made. The first
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one would be made to interest the key tenants to get anchored to the prospective
centre. After the key bnants are firmed up or committed, then a market analysis must
be made to determino the number and types of customers who will be brought to the
centre, recognising the importance and the extent of the drawing power that will be
built into the centre.
A.2.93 Methodology of Market Analysis for Shopping Centre
1. The scope and degree of the required investigation is indicated by the following
factors: population, income, purchasing power, competitive facilites .. and access to the
site. There are other related considerations, such as shoppers' buying habits and
preferences. The expected trade area of the proposed competitive centres, and study
of the access roads with the limits are set by factors of distance and travel time.
2. The type of retail outlets needed or wanted will stem from study of the supporting
population's income and composition. The age-groups and other socio-economic
characteristics of the population living or likely to• reside in the trade area have a strong
bearing upon deciding on the type of shopping centre.
3. An analysis of the spendable income against the total volume of business done in
existing retail areas will help determine the level of the purchasing power that would
become available to the new shopping centre. The proportion of this spending to be
drawn to the centre will depend upon the customer pull to be created. This estimation
will point to the size of the operation to plan for. The character of the prospective
trade will indicate the quality level at which to aim the tone of the development.
A.3.00 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION SURVEYS
The following traffic and transportation surveys and studies are generally carried out
for preparation of a transport plan:
1. Inventory of Road Network System,
2. Speed and Delay Studies, .
3. Classified Traffic Volume Counts at cordon and screen lines,
4. ' Origin and Destination Surveys at cordon points,
5. Household Survey,
6. Parking Surveys,
7. Public Transport System Study,
8. Terminal Studies,
9. Para Transit Study,
10. Traffic Accident Study, and
11. Activity Place Survey.
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A.3.10 OBJECTIVES OF SURVEYS
The objectives of each of the above s'urveys are briefly described in the following
sections:
1. Road Network Inventory
a. to appreciate the physical characteristics of the identified roac
network in terms of right-of-way, carriage-way, number o ~
access points, surface type, abutting land use, etc;
b. to identify physical constraints and bottleneck points along the
Identified road network;
c. to assess the capacity potential of the identified road network,
and
d. to appreciate traffic management measures presently adopted
along the identified road network.
2. Speed and Delay Survey
a.
to elicit the journey and running speed along the road network,
b. to identify the bottleneck points,
c. to obtain the travel time matrix for all the 0-D pairs,
d. to quantify delays and identify factors causing delays.
3. Classified Traffic Volume Survey
a. to appreciate traffic characteristics in terms of size composition
and variation - directional and temporal,
b. to appreciate the spatial distribution of traffic, and
c. to establish the level of service on the road network system.
4. Origin and Destination Survey
a. to appreciate the traffic characteristics,
b. to appreciate the desired patterns of passenger and goods
traffic,
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c. to assess the intensity of through and destined traffic, and
d. to use in model validation.
5. Household Travel Survey
a. to elicit socio-economic. characteristics of the household,
b. to elicit travel characteristics of the household (total trips,
purpose of trips, mode used, trip length, trip origin and
destination, etc.),
c. to appreciate desire pattern of traffic, and
d. to elicit opinion (of the residents of study area) regarding
general transport problems of the city 3.nd the probable areas
of improvement.
6. Parking Survey
a. to assess the parking characteristics in terms of parking
duration and accumulation by mode,
b. to assess future levels of demand, and
c. to develop a parking policy.
7. Public Transport System Study
a. to appreciate system and operational characteristics, and
b. to appreciate the performance and economic characteristics.
8. Terminal Studies "'·.
I I.,
a. to appreciate physical CQaracteristics of the terminal regarding
size, space usage, etq.,.
b. to appreciate the operational characteristics in terms of flow of
vehicles/goods/people to and from the terminal,
c. to appreciate the user characteristics (in case of passenger
terminal) regarding their origin, destination, mode used, trip
length, etc.,
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d. to appreciate the parking characteristics in the terminal, and
e. to appreciate the problems, constraints and potentials for
expansion of the terminal activity.
9. Para transit Study
a. to appreciate the role and function of paratransit,
b. to appreciate the system characteristics of paratransit, and
c. to appreciate characteristics paratansit users.
10. Traff!c Accident Study
a. to appreciate the trends of accidents in the study area,
b. to appreciate the temporal and spatial variation of accidents,
c. to identify the accident prone areas, and
d. to identify planning and management measures for improvement.
of traffic safety.
11. Activity Place Survey
a. to appreciate the activity pattern in terms of type and intensity,
b. to appreciate the employment levels by type of activity,
c. to develop relationship between floor space and employment,
d. to appreciate the trip and other characteristics of employees,
and
e. to develop trip production and attraction rates by type and
intensity of activities.
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Guidelines---
A.3.20 HOUSEHOLD TRAVEL SURVEY
A.3.21 Sample Size
The Sample size o.f households c,an be based on· following criteria:
Population
< 50,000
50,000 - 1 ,50,000
1 ,50,000 - 3,00,000
3,00,000 - 5.00,000
5,00,000 - 1 0,00,000
> 10,00,000
Sampling Rate
1 in 5
1 in 8
1 in 10
1 in 15
1 in 20
1 in 25
A.3.22 The Outputs Proposed to be Derived are :
a. Household Characteristics
i. Household distribution by area,
2. Distribution of households by size,
3. Household size by income group,
4. Distrib,ution of population by age group,
5. Distribution of population by age and sex by area.
6. Educational level by area,
7. Occupation pattern by area,
8. Distribution of households by income groups,
9. Distribution of households (HH) by income group by HH size,
10. Household expenditure pattern by income groups by area. and
11. Household expenditure on travel by mode groups by area.
b. Trip Characteristics
1. Trip generation zonewise.
2. Distribution of trips by purpose.
3. Sectorwise distribution of trips by purpose,
4. Distribution of trips by mode.
5. Distribution ot trips by trip length,
6. Distribution of trips by income groups.
7. Distribution _of trips by purpose by income group.
8. Distribution of trips by income group and trip length.
9. Distribution of trips by purpose by mode,
10. Distribution of trips by prupose by trip length, and
11. Distribution of trips by mode by trip length
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c. Movement Pattern
1. Distribution pattern of all trips by area,
2. Distribution pattern of work trips by area,
3. Distribution pattern of education trips by area.
4. Distributk . ~ pattern of trips by slow vehicles.
5. Distribution pattern by trips by walk by area.
tic User Perception
1. User rating of service by mode,
2. User perception of service by mode,
3. Users suggestions for improvement of service by mode.
A.3.30 TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING PROCESS
The first phase of the transportation planning process deals with surveys, data
collection and inventory. The next phase is the analysis of the data so collected and
building models to describe the mathematical relationships that can be discerned in
the trip making behaviour (trip generation). After having obtained an estimate of the
trips generated from and attracted to the various zones. it is necessary to determine
the direction of travel (trip distribution). Further, the person trips are separated by the
mode of travel (modal split). Lastly, the trip interchanges are allocated to different
parts of the network forming the transportation system (traffic assignment). A brief
description of each of these stages is presented in following section.
4.3.31 Trip Generation
The trip generation stage of the transportation planning process is concerned with the
prediction of future levels of person or vehicular travel. by and amongst traffic zones.
The rate of trip making within an area depends primarily on land use of the area. This
land use, in conjunction with socio-economic characteristics of population has been
found to be closely related to the demand that area places on transportation system.
Once the significant land use, population and transport characteristics influencing
travel demand have been identified. they are projected to the horizon year to provide
estimates of the total amount and kind of travel demand. Some of the factors
influencing trip generation are :
1. Land use factors
2. Household factors
3. Other factors
type and intensity of use
size, vehicle ownership income
degree of urbanisation, quality of transport
facility, level of accessibility and socio-economic
characteristics of population
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· The main trip generation models are :
a. Regression models
b. · Trip rate analysis
c. Category analysis
A brief description of each type of models is presented below :
(a) Regression Models
Zonal regression and household analysis are the two approaches in trip
generation analysis. In a typical regression analysis the given data relates to
the present day values of dependent variable and independent variables (X1
to Xn) for all the zones {households) of the study area. The regression
coefficients are estimated using least square technique. Some of the examples
of models developed are :
· i) Zonal Regression
House-based work trips = 4353.3 + 0.10 X1 + 2.21 X2
where X1 = population in zone
X2 = number of vehicle in zone
ii) Household Regression
Total trips/household= 12 + 0.64 X1 - 0.003 X2 + 0.007X3 + 0.95 X4
where
X1 =family size
X2 = residential density
X3 = total family income
X4 = cars/household
(b) Trip Rate Analysis
This method refers to determination of average trip production/attraction rates
associated with important trip generators within study area.
(c) Category Analysis
This method is based on the assumption that trip generation rates for different
categories of household will remain constant in the future. Thus by knowing
the generation rate for each category of household and the number of such
households for some future date, estimates of future trip generations are
derived. The households are categorised based on number of persons,
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. number of employed persons, ·incQ.me." number of. vehicles .owned, etc.
A.3.3.2 Trip Distri,bution.
Trip distribution refers to the given number of travel origins from every zone of area
under stud_y to the mi.mber of travel destinations located within the other zones of the
area. Trip distribution methods are. primarily of two types :
a) Growth Factor Metho.ds
. b) Synthetic·. Methods·
· a) Growth Factor Methods
This group of methods can be represented in general terms by -formula
Tij = ti.i" E
where
Tij = tutu re number of trips from zone i to zone ·j .
· ·tij"= existing number of trips. from zone ito zone J.
E = growth factor
· The tour growth factor methods in chronological of their development are:
i) Uniform factor ·
· · ii} · . Average factor
.. iii) · Fratar
iv) . Detroit
i) Uitiform Factor : A single growth factor is calculated for the entire
area ·u"n.der study and this is used to multiply· all existing inter-zonal
movements to produce estimates of future· infer-zonal movements.
Mathematically;
Tij= tij. E;
T
and E =
t
where Tij =future number of trips from zone ito zone j ·
tij = present number of trips for zone i to zone j
T = total future number of trips in area under study-
t =total present number of trips in area und.er"study
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Due to its own demerits, the method is now only used to update the
recent 0-D tables in area where intensity and pattern efland use are
relatively stable.
ii) Average Factor : It utilises a growth factor for each zone within study
area"
Mathematically,
tij (Ei + Ej)
Tij = -----------------
2
Ti Tj
Ei
=
Ej = ----
ti tj
where
Tij =future number of trips from zone i to zone j
tij = present number of trips from zone i to zone j
Ei & Ej = growth factors for zones i & j
Ti, Tj = future movements originating in i or destined for j
ti, lj = present movements originating in i or destined for J
It is an iterative process and if number of iterations required is large the
results may be seriously affected.
iii) Fratar Method: This method considers the effects of zonal locations
in the study area. The mathematical expression for the future year trip
interchanges is :
where
(li + lj)/2
Tij = tij . Ei . Ej
li, lj = locational factors &
Pi
li =
L tij. Ej
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This method is not sensitive to changes in properties of transport
network or changes in behaviour of trip makers. It is normally used for
estimating intraurban trip interchanges for small cities or cities in which
significant changes in urban structure are not expected.
iv) Detroit Method : It is an attempt to overcome the shortcomings of
simple growth factors and at the same time to reduce the number of
interactions required for Fratar Method.
Mathematically,
tij . Ei . Ej
Tij =
E
b) Synthetic Methods: Gravity Model
These methods were based on the assumption that :
i. before future travel patterns can be predicted, the underlying causes of
movement must first be understood,
ii. the causal relationship of trip making pattern can be understood if they
are considered to be similar to certain laws of physical behaviour.
The most important synthetic method is the gravity model. It is based on the
assumption that trip interchanges between zones is directly proportional to the
relative attraction of each zone and inversely proportional to some function of
spatial separation between them.
Mathematically it can be expressed as :
where
Pi . Aj . Fij . Kij
Tij == -------------------------------
n
L Aj . Fij . Kij
j=1
Tij = number of trips from zone i to zone j
Pi = total number of trips produced in zone i
Aj = total number of trips attracted to zone j
Fij = empirically derived travel time factors
Kij =specific zone to zone adjustment factors to
account for social and economic factors
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The travel time factors are the of trip making ·probability at each chosen
increment of time and are derived empiric_ally. through a trial and error process.
A.3.33 -Modal Split
Modal split is defined as the· proportionate division of the total number of person trips
between different methods or ll)Odes of traveJ. ·It can be expressed numerically as a
fraction' ratio or percentage of the total number of trips.
. . . .
Modal split models can be classified into two broad categories :
i. models are applied prior to the trip distribution stage of the
process and allocate a portion of total travel demand to different modes
available. These are known as trip end modal split models.
ii. model allocate portions of given trip movements resulting from
trip distribution to the competing modes of transport. These are often
referred as trip interchange modal split models.
The factors influencing modal choice are :
a. Characteristics of trip
i) trip length
ii) trip purpose
b. Characteristics of the traveller
i) income
ii) vehicle ownership
iii) density of residential development
iv) other socio-economic factors
c. Characteristics of transportation system
i) relative travel time
ii) relative travel cost
iii) relative of service
iv) accessibility indices
A.3.40 TRAFFIC ASSIGNMENT
Traffic assignment is the process of allocating a given set of trip interchanges to a
specific transportation system. The purposes of traffic assignment are broadly :
a. To assess the deficiencies in the existing transportation system by
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Guidelines---
assigning estimated future trips to the existing system.
b.' · To evaluate the effects of limited improvements and extension to the
existing transportation system by assigning estimated future trips to the
network which inr'ude these improvements.
c. To develop construction priorities by assigning estimated future trips for
intermediate years to the transportation system proposed for these
years.
d. To test alternative transportation systems proposals by systematic and
readily repeatable procedures.
There are three major alternative procedures for assigning future trips to a
transportation system. They are :
i) all or nothing assignment
ii) diversion curve assignment
iii) capacity restraint assignment
A.3.41 General Procedure
The procedure is based on the selection of a minimum time path over an actual route
between zones. The minimum time path is the shortest route from one zone centroid
to another. The next stage in the process is to assign the zone to zone trips to the
links on the minimum path routes between the various zones. ·...,
The choice of assignment procedure to be adopted in any particular transportation
study depends largely on the purpose of that study, and the degree of sophistication
required in the output.
Of the three methods, the most widely used is the 'all or nothing' assignment. The
basic procedure of this method involves :
a. The description and coding of network into links and nodes.
b. Determination of minimum path time from each zone with originating
traffic to all other zones.
c. The assignment of all traffic flows from each zone to every other zone
by appropriate minimum path and aggregation of total flows on each
link in the network.
d. Repeat the process untill all nodes have been reached.
One major drawl:tclck of this technique is that it takes no account of increasing
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congestion associated with increased volumes. A 'capacity restraint' assignment is an
alternative method of dealing with overloaded links in the network wherein the new set
of minimum time,paths between zones are derived using a set of adjusted travel times
automatically wh-enever traffic loads on individual links are in excess of capacity.
A.4.00 PARTICIPATORY TECHNIQUES IN PLANNING
1. There can be no meaningful development in any society if the people themselves
are kept out of the development process. In fact, they must be at· the centre of it.
People can participate in the development process in the following senses:
a. participation in decision-making such as the identification of
development priorities;
b. participation in implementation of development programmes and
priorities;
c. participation and monitoring and evaluation of development
programmes and project; and
d. participation and sharing the benefits of development, managing the
assets, etc.
2. The various techniques presently in use for soliciting people's participation are as
follows: ·
a. Public opinion polls and other surveys;
b. Referenda;
c. Ballot box;
d. Public hearings;
e. Advocacy planning;
f. Letters to editors or public officials;
g. Representations of pressure groups;
h. Protests and demonstration; ·
i. Court action;
j. Public meetings;
k. Workshops or seminar; and
I. Task force.
A.4.1 0 CHOICE OF TECHNIQUE
1. Choice of specific technique for use in a particular situation would vary much,
depending upon the stage of the planning process to which the situation corresponds
to. During the pre-planning stage (e.g., collection of data and conduct of surveys},
local leaders of the community, teachers, students and others may be associated, both
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to facilitate the task as well as the means of contacting the local community through
locally knowl!l people so as to reduce any resistance from the public.
2. At the scheme formulation stage, meaningful public participation would require:
a. interaction with people in the community or with representative
organisation for ascertaining felt needs of people and perceptions of
their problems and priorities, adoption of strategies and schemes. and
identification of beneficiaries;
b. purposeful consultation with beneficiary groups in respect of the
relevance and efficiency of on-going programmes;
c. consultations with various categories of people such as landless
labourers, tribals, schedule castes and artisans engaged in different
trades;
d. consultations with age and gender specific groups of people to
ascertain their point of views.
3. At this participatory stage, the technocrat should learn to adjust their images of a
desirable environment to what people say, rather than trying to impose their (planners')
view on the people.
4. At the stage of determination of schemes and priorities, people may be consulted
in open forum. This would greatly assist the planner in identifying the felt needs of the
people and fixing priorities.
5. Certain aspects of decision-making, particularly those relating to land use policy and
location of various community schemes like drinking water. school, construction of
health centre, etc., would be facilitated through discussion in open local level
assemblies and meetings, direct representation or resident welfare associations or the
like.
6. Local people can be encouraged to participate in the implementation aspects of a
project in three principal ways, by :
a. making contribution of resources in the form of labour, cash, materials,
goods, information, etc.;
b. assisting in administration and coordination efforts; and
c. enlisting themselves in the programme activities for public benefits.
7. People's involvement can also be secured in monitoring and evaluation of projects
and programmes. This will help to identify not only that how many but also who
benefits from a particular investment and whether any leakages or corruption has been
noted. The information provided by the people on the progress of the project could
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also help in identifying the problems and constraints .. in implementation.
B. People's involvement may be secured with great .advantage ih running, maintenance
and managerrient of various completed projec.ts by con$tituting suitable organisations
of the people. · It will not only. give them certain .Pridl:l of ownership but wi!l ·also·
contribute to management.· · · · ·
A.4.20 INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM
1. From the discussion above,. the need for .people's .involvement in .the planning
process is clearly highlighted.· Planners realise that it is their duty to not only inform
the people ab'out their development plans and how it would" inform' the people about'
their development plans" arid how it would affect them, but ,to keep people fully
involved while accomplishing the various· stages of plannin·g .process. bn.the other
hand, people have to shed their apathetic approach 'towards the planning process and
come out of their shibboleths to guide-and influence the planners and decision-makers.
. . ·; . -..
2. To achiev.e the oqjectives ot' peopie•s· pa,rticipation .. it necessary to lay down
suitable institutional_ mechanisms through which people's can be ensured.
3 .. First and foremost of these mechan'ismsis the institution of citizen groups: In USA,
for instance, there are numerous groups like the Citizen.Apviso.ryCorruTiittee. Citizen ·
'',-Planning Committee, Community-wide .Housin-g .and.· ·counci.ls; Special
Purpose Groups and Inter-community Regional and f\lational Orgailisations.
There are host of functions which these· citizen groups handle, ranging from advising
the plal")nfng council, reviewing major elements of a loca! ·planning programme to being
'watchdog' in the public .interest.. These growps fil,l in the much rieeed role of
disbursing public information arid.educ'ation 8:mong the people. Notable among special
purpose groups are neighbourhood groups conservation and rehabi_litation area.
central busirless district groups, industrial· development organisations. anticpoverty
groups and urban design beautification and open space groups_ A particular mention
needs to be made of the anti-poverty groups which are formed to assist the lowest
income people through a variety ofprogretmmes from. education and welfare
to neighboljrhood planning activities.·. ·
4; The National Commission on Urbanisation (NCU) in its report that came out ,in 1988
have strongly recommended for setting up of National Urban· Council for Citizen Action
(NUCCA)., State l)rban CounCil for Citizen Action (SUCCA) in each state, and Forums
for Citizen. Action {FCA) at the clty level to enable non-governrriental promotional,
educational, advisory and innovative roles, to act[vate the· citizens: participation in the
field of urban development . At. the same time, it. niay ·be' added here, that
neighbourhood level groups of people may be energised, to start with, which should
comprise of women, eminent persons and 'representatives of different interest groups
to guide planners in. detailing o"ut local area layout plans in accordance· with people's
aspirations. · · · ·
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APPENDIX- B
NORMS AND STANDARDS
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APPENDIX-B
NORMS AND STANDARDS
8.1.00 THE BASIC- FRAMEWORK
1. The basic objective of suggesting various norms_ and standards for urban
development plans formulation is to provide a basis for taking decisio-n: The
suggested norms and standards are indicative and can be suitably modified depending
upon the local conditions. Variations in the norms and standards, as applicable to
small and medium towns and large cities as classified by UDPFI Guidelines, have
been given. Variations in respect of urban centres located in hill areas have also been
provided at appropriate level.
2. Table 8.1 gives the classification of urban centres by population size and location
in plains and hill areas.
3. Norms and standards have been provided for :
a. Distribution of land use,
b. Infrastructure, further ·classified as :
i) Physical infrastructure including :
Water supply
Sewerage
Drainage
Electricity. and
Solid waste
ii) Social Infrastructure covering :
Education
Health
Socio-cultural Facilities including :
Religious Sites
Community Room
Community Hall and Library
Recreation Club
Music, Dance and Drama Centre
Meditation and Spiritual Centre
Socio-cultural Centre
Museum and Art Gallery
. -
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Cinema/Theatre
Distributive Services including :
Petrol Pump
fviilk Booth, and
LPG Godown
Miscellaneous Facilities including :
Dt10bi Ghat
Cremation Ground
Taxi Ground, and
Bus Stops
Other Facilities and Services including :
Communication
Postal Service
Security Service, and
Fire Protection Service
iii) Commercial Facilities covering :
CBD
Sub-city Business District
District Centre
Local Shopping Centre
Convenient Shopping Centre
Informal Shopping and Weekly Markets, and
Service Centres
iv) Recreational Facilities covering :
Parks and Open Spaces
Sports Centre and Play Grounds
Botanical and Zoological Parks
Water Bodies/Other Natural Features, and
Places of Tourist Interest
c. Traffic and Transportation
8.2.00 DISTRIBUTION OF LAND USE
The land use distribution norms are dependent upon the following basic norms for
densities and work force :
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8.2.10 DEVELOPED AREA AVERAGE DENSITIES
------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------ '
Persons per hectare(pph) in
Settlement Type
-------------------------------------------------------
Plain Areas
Hill Areas
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Smali Towns
Medium Towns
Large Cities
Metro Cities
75- 125
100 - 150
100- 150
125 - 175
45-75
60- 90
60- 90
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------·---------------------
8.2.20 WORK FORCE
a. Work force participation 33% of total population
b. Industrial workers as percentage of total work force :
Small and mediu111 town
Large cities
c. Industrial workers density
20
25
100 pph to 125 pph
8.2.30 PROPOSED LAND USE STRUCTURE OF URBAN CENTRES
IN PLAIN AREAS
------.----------------"'!--.:-·;.._. ·---
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Percentage of Developed Area
Land use
Category
--------- -------------------------- ----------------------- ---------------------------
Small
Medium
Large Cities
Metro Cities
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Residential
45-50
40-45
35-40
35-40
Commercial 2-3
3-4
\.
4"5
4-5
Industrial
8-10
8-10
10-12
12-14
Pub.& Semi-
Public
6-8
1(Ji12 12-14
14-16
Recreational 12-14 1 & : ~
18-20
20-25
Transport &
Communicat 1on 10-12
1%:14
12-14
15-18
Agriculture &
r-:tc.,..
Water Bodies Balance
BAlance
Balance
Balance
--------------------------- ---------------------------
. --. -----------------------------------------------
Total Developed
Area 100
100
100
100
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8.2.40 PROPOSED LAND USE STRUCTURE IN HILL TOWNS
Land Use Percentage of Developed Area
Small Towns Medium Towns Large Cities
Residential 50- 55 48- 52 45- 50
. Commercial 2- 3 2 -. 3 4- 5
lndustnal 3 -· 4
.1 _· 5
5-T
Public & Sem1-Public 8- "!G B- 1(' 12 . 15
Recreational ·15 - 18 15 - 18 16- 20
Transport & Commn. 5-6 5-6 6- 8
Ecological 8- 10 8- 10 8- 10
8.3.00 INFRASTRUCTURE
1. Infrastructure is the· basic requirement of urban life. and its adequacv and
accessibility are two important ingredients and key contributors in the upgradation and
enrichment of quality of urban life· which is the primary objective of any planned
·development effort. The extent. and the nature of problems faced by different towns
vary by size, geographical conditions. local natural resources: state/regional
differentials in ·the resource availability and the policies, resource base of local
authorities and several such factors directly or indirectly affecting the population of
cities/towns.
2. SoCial amenities and infrastructure fall under the social welfare objectives of the
urban development programme, as distinct from economic development objectives and
especially in context of the rapidly developing liberalised and competitive economic
scenario.
3. The city planners, urban managers and administrators are required to make special
efforts to devise innovative strategies in order to ensure their wider coverage and
equitable distribution for the society as a whole and the vulnerable sections of the
urban society in specific. Thus, this is an effort to suggest the. norms arid standards
for different components of infrastructure with respect to their hierarchy, locational and
spatial affordability; socio-economic compatibility and manageability.
. .
8:3.10 PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
The standards are applicable for hill as well as non-hill. towns/Cities.
/48 - :cRDT, ITP/, New
·· ...
--,·
'' .:::.·:
_:_-------------.,.----------------UJJPFI f;uidelines ---
8.3.11 Water Supply
. . .
----- -------- ---------- ------ -------- --- ---- -----..-:--- -- ------ ------------- -----------:---------------- ----------------------------
Size of Town
----------------------------------- --------- ---- -- ---------------------------------!.- ---------------- ---------------------------
S.No. Aspect Small
(<50,000\
Medium
. (> 50,000)
Large and Metro
1
>10 lakh )
----------------- ---- ------ -------------------------- ... -- --------_ ... ------------------- ---- ----------------------- ---------------
Standard::.
a) Domestic
i) Absolute Mm.
70 lp(;r;
ii) Desirable
100 lpcd
70c 1 00 Upper
limit above
100;000
135-150 lpcd
135 lpcd
it can be reduced
up to 70 lpcd
1 50-200 lpcd
Upper limits for
;-netro c1t1es
1ncome areas the
standards to lpcd
----------. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -·- ---------------------------------
· b\
i}
ii)
·,iii)
iv)

industrial
Fire l-ighting
Public Purpos.;
"i'"ier Table 8.3. 12. ·
t: :::ier ·r o.ble 8.3. 13
demand
i 0- 5 lpcd 20-25 lpcd
30-35 lpcd
--· ---- ---------- ------------ ------:------ -- --.-·· -- -- _ ... ---- ---------- ----------------------. ··- --- .. ----------------------------------
Suggested Policy Interventions
· Involvement of NGO's for awareness programme on optimal utilisation
ana· saving water.
Involvement of community to develop their own systems of supply .
. Equitable.distribution, every individual household shall get at least the
-minimum including those· living in squatters.
Cross-subsidisation for weaker sections .
. Efforts should be made to reduce the water losses in transmission and
d_istribution. The contingency provision of 15-20% to be made to
account for the losses.
CRDT; JTl'l, New Delhi------------------'---------- 149
-------------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
8.3.12 Water Requirements for Institutional Buildings
Sl.
No.
1.
3.
4.
,5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Institutions
Hospitai (including iaundry)
a. No.of beds exceeding 100
b. No.of beds not exceeding 100
Hotels
Hostels
Nurses' homes & medical quarters
Boarding schools/ colleges
Restaurants
Airports & seaports
Junction stations & intermediate stations
where mail or express stoppage (both
railway and bus stations) is provided
Terminal stations
Intermediate stations
(excluding mail and express stops)
Day schools/colleges
Offices
Factories
Cinema. concert halls and theatres
'Litres per head
per day
450 (per bed)
340 (per bed)
180 (per bed)
135
135
135
70 (per seat)
70
70
45
45 (could be reduced to 25
where bathing facilities are
not provided)
45
45
45 (could be reduced to 30 where
no" bathing rooms are required
to be provided
15
Source : Manual on Water Supply, CPHEEO. Government of India.
ISO -- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------------------
----------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
8.3.13 Water Requirements for Industrial Units
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
· Industry Unit of Production
Water Requirement in
Kiloliters per unit
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Automobile
Vehicle
40
D1stil!ery
Kilolitre(proot alcohol)
122-170
Fertilisers
Tonne
80-200
Leather
100 Kg (tanned)
4
Paper
Tonne
200-400
Spl.quality paper
Tonne
400-1000
Straw Board
Tonne
75-100
Petroleum Refinery
Tonne (Crude)
1-2
Steel
Tonne
200-250
Sugar
Tonne (cane crushed) 1-2
Textile
100 kg (goods)
8-14
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Manual on Water Supply, CPHEEO, Government of India.
8.3.14 Sewerage
1. The treatment of sewerage is essential to check the decay in the environment as
well as to provide hygienic conditions for the population. Besides the sewerage from
households, the waste from industries also needs attention. The sewerage is estimated
at the rate of 80% of the water supply in any area.
2. The small and medium towns may be encouraged for adopting low-cost sanitation
technologies with the technical assistance by the local bodies and involvement of
NGO;s in actual implementation of such programmes. The newly developed areas shall
be considered for the provision of community level septic tanks based on economic
and environmental considerations with a flexibility in planning for the extension of
regular sewerage faCility in long term. The large and metro cities shall be provided
with regular sewerage treatment facilities at zonal/city level. The squatter settlements
may be provided with a facility of 1 toilet for 4 to 5 families based on the concept of
low cost and low water consumption, the maintenance of such community toilets to be
looked after by the community and the voluntary organisations together. For the
existing developed areas without sewerage network, the individual households or a
group of households may be encouraged for adoption of low-cost sanitation systems.
8.3.15 Drainage
The drainage system for any city/town is governed mainly by natural drainage course
and topography. Besides on the impact of region level of development, its climate and
hydrological consideration, the discharge is calculated that guides the requirement for
provision of additional drain as well as upgradation of existing drains.
- CRDT, ITP/, New Delhi--------'---------------- 151
Guideline1· --···-·····
8.3.16 Electricity
Based on the estimated requirements of pow_er supply as per the Master Plan for
Delhi. the consumption works out to be about 2 KW per household at the city level and
includes domestic. commercial. industrial and other requirements. · The actual .
estimation ot power requirements can be made on the industrial development
(type and extent). commercial development. domestic and other requirements. The
provision of one electnc sub-station of 11_ KV for a population ot 15.000 !S
recommended as a general standard tor all categories of towns/cities.
8.3.17 Solid Waste Disposal
The production of solid waste in an urban centre is a function of the socio-economic
profile of the population and activities in the area. The insufficient conservancy
services in most of the urban centres tend to leave the garbage spread on the road
sides or open spaces leading to unhygienic living conditions. The garbage is removed
by the mumcipai bodies and dumped at the sanitary landfill or in some cases it is
converted to compost especially in small towns .. The generation of waste varies from
about over a quarter of kilogram in towns to ·about half a kilogram per capita in
large and metro cities.
8.3.20 SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
1. The provision of these amenities in any size town/city shall consider the regional
bearings as small towns cater to the requirements of surrounding villages, medium size
towns cater to small towns and villages and so on in the hierarchy of settlements in
the region for the higher level facilities. Especially in case of large and metro cities,
certain apex level facilities significantly cater to regional demand in addition to the city
demand.
2. This affects the general level of satisfaction and further strains the facility
infrastructure. In order to efficientiy cater to the city and regional demands. alternatives
which could be considered may be to provide :
a. Amenities for 25% additional population overail as a cushion. or
b. Exclude such apex level facilities from the total estimated ·needs
provision.
3. It is common knowledge that the local level facilities once provided at considerable
cost, tend to lose their efficiency owing to neglect. inefficient management, lack of
funds for upkeep, encroachments and at times misuse. It is imperative to encourage
local community participation in management of local level facility units. even if created
fully or partly by public funds. The idea is that the user community should have a
stake in proper functioning and maintenance of the facility .
.152 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------
··.
:;
--------------------------UIJPFI Guidelines---
4. It is also observed that a number of lower level social amenity units particularly in
regard to education and health infrastructure are operating in private residential
premises due to both non-availability as well as deficiency in number of designated
sites. The potential of such practices shall be assessed to find out the actual needs,
which shall be reliable input for arriving at realistic norms, as also for providing
adequate number of sites for such facility units.
5. In residential areas where exclusive sites for social amenities units are not available,
local level facilities only (viz. nursery and primary .schools, dispensary, etc.) may be
allowed to operate from residential use premises on condition that specific controls and
guidelines are.adhered to.
6. The possibilities for multiple use of social amenities may also be considered
especially for the areas with deficiencies of certain facilities depending upon the
compatibility of the activities and acceptance of the society.
7. In distribution of infrastructure, population plays the guiding role and, therefore,
indication of population served by a facility or service has been given. In some cases
depending upon the regional requirements, a higher-order facility becomes necessary
in a lower order settlement. No attempt has been made to classify them by size of
town, that is, small. medium town or large city.
8.3.21 Educational Facilities
A. Pre-primary to Seconcftlry Education
a.
b.
c.
Pre-primary. nursery school 1 for 2500
population
Area for school
Pre primary/nursery school to be located
near a park
Primary school (class I to V)
Strength of the school
Area per school
School building area
Play field area with a minimum of
18m x 36 m to be ensured for effective play
Senior secondary school (VI to XII)
1 for 7,500 population
Strength of the school
Area per school
School building area
Play field area with a minimum of
68m x 126m to. be ensured for effective play
0.08 ha
500 students
0.4 ha
0.20 ha
0.20 ha
1000 students
1.60 ha
0.60 ha
1.60 ha
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------- 153
.·.'·,; '
----------UDPFI Guidelines---
d. Integrated school without hostel facility
(Class 1·-XII) 1 for 90,000-1 lakh population
Strength of the school
Area per school
School building area
Play field area
Parking area
e) Integrated school with hostel facility
1 for 90,000 - 100,000 population
f)
Strength of the school
Area per school
School building area
Play field area
Parking area
Residential hostel area
School for handicapped 1 for 45,000 pop.
Strength of the school
Area per school
School building area
Play field area
B. Higher Education - General
g)
h)
i)
College
1 for 1 .25 lakh population
Student strength of the college
Area per college
College building area
Play field area
Residential including hostel area
University campus
Area of the university campus
New University
Area
1500 students
3.50 ha
0.70 ha
2.50 ha
0.30 ha
1 000 students
3.90 ha
0.70 ha
2.50 ha
0.30 ha
0.40 ha
400
0.50 ha
0.20 ha
0.30 ha
1000-1500 students
4.00 ha
1.80 ha
1.80 ha
0.40 ha
10.00 ha
60.00 ha
/54 - CRDT, /TPI, New Delhi-------------------.;__-
I.
I
!_ · ~
...
I.
I
I
I
f
r.
I
!- .·
.. •
.. :.:...... .. ...:..:.:_ _,..:._;__,,L_ ',•, ,,' -• -· - •- "• • ---- •- o _.....:_____, ___ ._,_,_;!__. _-.:___ ,__c,
-------------------------l!DPFI Guidelines---
C. Technical Education
j)
k)
Technical education centre (A)
1 such centre provided for every 1 0 fakh
population to include one industrial
training institute and one polytechnic
Strength of the polytechnic
Area per centre
Area per ITI
Area for polytechnic
Technical centre (B)
1 provided for 1 0 lakh population to include 1 ITI
1 Technicai centre and 1 coaching centre
Area per centre
Area per technical centre
Area for ITI
Area for coaching centre
D. Professional Education
m) New engineering college
2 numbers to be provided in urban extension
Strength of the college
Area per college
n) New medical college
2 sites of 15 ha each in urbqn extension.
This includes space for specialised general
hospital
8.3.22 Health Care Facilities
a)
b)
General hospital
Hospital for 2.5 lakh population capacity
Initially the provision may be tor 300 beds
Area for hospital ·
Area for residential accommodation
Total area
Intermediate hospital (Category-A)
1 hospital for 1 lakh population capacity
initally the provision may be for 1 00 beds
Area for hospital
Area for residential accommodation
Total area
500 students
400 students
4.0 ha
1.60 ha
2.40 ha
4.00 ha
2.10 ha
1.40 ha
0.30 ha
1500-1700 students ·
60.00 ha
500 beds
4.00 ha
2.00 ha
6.00 ha
200 beds
2.70 ha
1.00 ha
3.70 ha
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-----------,.-------"'-__:_--'----
155
. . . . . . -
. ·,_._._·._.__·_- ____ : _ ~ - - - · · - _ . _ · ~ ~
-- '-- ~ - ---- . ' .. - - ~ - ' -
,..,....._._
--------....-------------------UIJPFI Guidelines---
c)
d)
e)
0
Intermediate hospital (Category-B)
1 hospital for 1 lakh population capacity
80 beds initally the provision may be
for 50 including 20 maternity beds
Area for hospital
Area for residential accommodation
Total area
Poly-clinic with some observation beds
1 for 1.0 lakh population
Area
Nursing home, child welfare and
maternity centre 1 for 0.45 to 1 lakh
population
Capacity
Area
Dispensary
1 for 0.15 lakh population
Area
8.3.23 Socio-Cultural Facilities
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Community room
One for 5,000 population
Area
Community hall and library
One for 15,000 population
Area
Recreational club
One for 1 lakh population
Area
Music, dance and drama centre
One for 1 lakh population
Area
Meditation and spritual centre
One for 1 lakh population
Area
f) Socio-cultural centre
0.60 ha
0.40 ha
1.00 ha
0.20 to 0.30 ha
25 to 30 beds
0.20 to 0.30 ha
0.08 to 0.12 ha
660 sq.m.
2,000 sq.m
10,000 sq.m
1,000 sq.m
5,000 sq.m.
156 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------
..
l\
. -·
...
: .
i '
--------------------------UDPF/ Guidelines---
One for 10 lakh population
Area
15 ha.
8.3.24 Distribution Services
a) Petrol pump
b)
c) .
8.3.25 Police
One petrol pump for 150 ha. of gross residential areas in residential
use zone
One petrol pump for 40 ha. of gross industrial area
Two petrol pumps in each freight complex
Two petrol pumps in each district qentre
One petrol pump in each community centre
Milk distribution
One milk booth for 5,000 population. The standard recommended as per the
Delhi Master Plan is adequate.
LPG godowns
One gas godown for 40-50 thousand population is sufficient for any size of
town. The major concern for its storage and distribution is the location which
shall be away from the residential areas.
Planning norms for police, civil defence· and home guards and fire shall be as under:
Police
a) Police station
1 for 90,000 population
Area inclusive of essential residential accommodation
0.05 ha additional to be provided for civil defence and
home guards
b) Police post
1 for 0.4 to 0.5 lakh population (not seNed by a police
station)
Area inclusive of essential residential accommodation
1.5 ha
0.16 ha
- CRDT, riPJ, New Delhi----------------------
157
\
-------------------------UDPf1 Guidelines---
c) District office and battalion
1 for 1 0 lakh population
Area for district office
Area for battalion
Total area
d) Police line
e)
f)
8.3.26 Fire
1 for 20 lakh population
District jail
1 for 1 0 lakh population
Area
Civil defence and home guards
1 for 1 0 lakh population
Area
1 fire station ..:;r sub-fire station within
1 to 3 km to be provided for 2 lakh population
0.80 ha
4.00 ha
4.ad ha
4.00 to 6.00 ha
10.00 ha
2.00 ha
Area for fire station with essential residential accommodation
Area for sub-fire-station with essential residential accommodation
1.00 ha
0.60 ha
8.4.00 COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY
8.4.10 HIERARCHY OF COMMERCIAL CENTRES
Hierarchy of commercial centres is a function of tl1e hierarchy of planning units in an
urban centre. Normally an urban centre has some or all of the following, depen.ding
upon its· size :
------------··---------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------
Planning Unit Class of Settlement
S M L
Popn.
served
Hierarchy of
Commercial Centre
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Housing cluster
1000 - 4000 Cluster Centre
Sector
5000 - 20000 Sector Centre
Community
25000 - 100000 Community Centre
District
125000 - 500000 District Centre
Sub-city
25 lakh - 50 lakh Sub-city Centre
City
50 lakh + City Centre
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------
S : Small towns
M : Medium towns L : Large cities
I *
Indicates the availability of the planning unit and the hierarchy of the
commercial centres.
158 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delh1'----------------------
-----------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
Since every settlement has a town/city centre, for small and medium size towns one
of the community centres or district· centres, as the case may be, will serve the
function of the town centre.
8.4.20 AREA OF COMMERCIAL CENTRES
_______ .,. ______________________________ ,.. ________________________________________ ..; ___________________ _
Area per 1000 No.of shops
persons sq.m.
Cluster centre 220
Sector centre 300
Community centre 500
District centre 880
8.4.30 DISTRIBUTION OF SHOPS BY TYPE
~
Type of Shops District
Formal Shops(total} 1250
General Retail 1200
Fruit & Vegetables Not specified included .
in general retail
Service & Repa1rs 50
Informal Shops 370
General Retail 355
Fruit & Vegetables Not specified included
general retail
Service & Repairs 15
Total shops (formal
and informal) 1620
1 for 11 0 persons
1 for 200 persons
1 for 200 persons
1 for 300 persons
Community Sector Cluster
365 55 24
295 35 16
40 6 3
30 13 5
110 22 13
88 14 8
9 5 ' 3
475 77 37
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi------------------------
159
---------.....,....------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
8.4.40 Distribution of Activities
Activities Hierarchy of Commercial Centre
1. Shopping (retail service, repair)
2. Limited wholesale
3. Informal shopping
4. Commercial Offices
5. Cinema
6. Hotel
7. Guest House
8. Nursing Home
9. Service Industries
10. Auditorium
11.Museum
12.Library
13. Science Cent res ,ArVCraft/
Music/Dance School
14.Weekly Markets(on close days)
15.Local Govt.Offices
16.Bus Terminal
·, 17. Fire Station
18.Police
19. Telephone Exchange
20. Electric Sub-station
21. Post and Telegraph
22. Petrol Pump
23. Conve niencE?s
24. Residential
City and sub-
city centre
2
*
*
*
*
* Activities to be provided in the commercial centre.
District Community Sector Cluster
centre centre centre centre
3 4 5 6
*
*
..
8.4.50 NORMS FOR INFORMAL SECTOR ACTIVITIES
i) Retail Trade
Central Business District
Sub-central Business District
District Centre -
Community Centre
Convenience Shopping Centre
· ii) Government and Commercial Offices
No.of informal commercial units
3 to 4 units per 1 0 formal shops
as specified,in the norms separately
5 to 6 units per 1 000 employees
160 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-----------------------
-------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
iii) Wholesale Trade and Freight
Complexes
iv) Hospital
v) Bus Terminal
vi) Schools
Primary
Secondary/Senior Secondary/! ntegrated
vii) Parks
Regional/District Parks
Neighbourhood Parks
viii) Residential
ix) Industrial
x) Railway Terminus
3-4 units per 10 formal shops
3-4 units per 100 beds
1 unit per two bus bays
3-4 units
5-6 units
a ~ 1 0 units at each major entry
2-3 units
1 unit/1 000 population
5-6 units per 1000 employees
To be based on surveys at the
time of preparation of the project
8.4.60 VARIATIONS IN NORMS AND STANDARDS BY SIZE OF SETTLEMENT
B.4.6'1.Small Towns
1. For the general retail shopping requirements, the_ concept of street/roadside
commercial activity shall be accepted as a policy with certain specific controls such as
no commercial activity along the NH/SH or any major district road;
the minimum width of the street to be 12 m. where vehicular movement
is permitted to a limited extent (i.e. only up to 2 wheelers or rickshaw)
and the streets with a minimum width of 4.5 m without vehicular
- movement may be permitted for road/street side commercial activities;
2. The open spaces within residential areas or certain streets with completely
controlled traffic on specific day can be made available for weekly markets to
shop-keepers. The weekly markets tend to generate more waste and thus effort
should be made to ensure that the cleaning of the area is arranged by the cooperation
of shopkeepers. It has been generally observed that the service and repair shops
emerge along the major roads and the activities are extended upto the roads in most
cases, thereby _affecting the smooth flow of traffic and increasing probability of
accidents.
- CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi--------------------- 161
'

.. -. .. ' ... '.' ..
------------------'-----------UDPP1 Guidelines---,---
3. Thus, it is suggested that the service centres shall be provided as a planned
component and the sites near the petrol pumps shall be considered. The exact
requirement of the area for service centre will be guided by the following factors :
vehicular population,
villages falling in the influence zone of the towns or, in other words, the
service requirements of the villages in the surrounding areas.
4. The function based commercial requirements such as mandi
(vegetables/grains/fruits), cattle markets or any other such specialised markets are to
be planned as per the case specific requirements based on the study of the area.
5. The other important aspect that requires a serious thought is the quantum of
commercial activities to be proposed but in light of the suggested policy, it is
envisaged that the control shall be restricted to locational attributes and the local need
based emergence in its natural growth be permitted.
6. For the newly planned schemes in small towns also, the policy of mixed land use
shall be considered as accepted practice to suit the behavioural pattern of society.
7. As already dealt in the previous section on landuse, the area requirements for
commercial activities in small sized towns works out to be about 0.2 - 0.25 ha/1 000
persons on an average, based on the proposed landuse which is governed by the ·
functional character of the town.
8.4.62 Medium Size Towns
i. The growth of towns from small to medium sized town through transition phases
(50,000-1 00,000) changes the requirements of commercial activities gradually and for
a town exceeding a population of 1 lakh, the extensions starts developing in pockets
of well-defined economic strata of the people and thus it is suggested that the areas
predominantly planned for upper income groups shall be provided with the planned
commercial centres (with adequate inbuilt provisior) for informal commercial activities
with the commercial centres) at the rate of 4-5 formal shops and 2-3 informal shops ·
per 1000 persons. The requirements for trade will be governed by the
following factors :
location of the town with respect to large/metro cities,
small towns and villages falling'iq- the direct influence zone of the town
for which it has to act as a distribution centre.
2. As already dealt in the previous section on land use, the area requirements for
commercial activities in medium sized towns works out to be about 0.24-0.32 ha/1 000
persons on an average, based on the prQposed land use which, in fact, is governed
by the functional character of the town and the regional imperatives mentioned above.
162 - CRDT, lTPI, New Delhi----------------------
---------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
8.4.63 Large and Metro Cities
The average land requirements for commercial activities (based on a sample of 14
large cities) work out to be 0.4 ha per 1000 persons in a range of 0.2 to 0.6 ha/1 000
persons depending on the location of these large cities with respect to metro cities.
Similar requirements have also been observed in case of metro cities: which are
located in the influence zone of mega cities, the average land requirement for
commercial activities under this category works out to be about 0.3 ha/1 000 persons.
8.4. 70 VARIATIONS FOR HILL TOWNS
1. The hill areas can be broadly classified into two categories, i.e. tourist centres and
non-tourist centres. The requirements of commercial activities in hilly areas are mainly
limited to retail activities and that too are mainly catered by small shops in the
residence in tourist centres. The provision of commercial facilities in tourist centres
is to be reviewe6 for two major aspects. First, the boarding and lodging requirements
of the tourists and second the informal activities near tourist spots.
2. The requirements of hotels and restaurants can be worked out only on the basis of
the data on tourists and their growth trends. The informal activities at the tourist spots
are mainly informal eating places and other general shops selling local specialities, but
it shall be ensured that these activities do not spoil the environment around the tourist
spots.
8.5.00 RECREATIONAL FACIUTIES
The norms for parks, play fields and other open space such as specified park,
amusement park, maidan, a multi-purpose open space, botanical garden and
zoological parks, traffic parks etc. are as under :
Planning Unit
Housing Cluster
Sector
Community
District
Sub-city centre
Area in sq. m. per person
3-4 local parks and playgrounds
3-4 local park and playgrounds
2-3 community level park and open space
1 district level park and sports centre. maidan
1 city level park. sports complex.
botanical/zoological garden ,maidan

Overall town/city level 10 sq.m.- 12.00 sq.m. per person
- CRDT, ITPI, New
163
---------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
8.5.1 0 VARIATIONS BY SIZE OF SETILEMENT
8.5.11 Small Towns
i
1. In light of the standards recommended by various bodies, it is suggested to provide
1.0 to 1.2 ha per 1000 persons for town level recreational facilities (excluding the open
spaces in residential pockets) which can be distributed for different residential pockets
uniformly for a population of 8,000 - 10,000.
2. As already mentioned, the open spaces are to be developed with the other
socio-cultural and commercial facilities so that they can serve multiple purpose.
8.5.12 Medium Towns
The recreational open spaces shall be provided at the rate of 1.4 - 1.6 ha/1 000
persons as per the hierarchy recommended in the Master Plan for Delhi. The lower
income areas shall be provided with more open spaces and the area under facilities
like community halls etc. can be merged with the open spaces to suit their social
requirements.
8.5.13 large and Metro Cities
1. Large and metro cities shall at least be provided with the recreational facilities as
per the standards given in the Master Plan of Delhi. The suggested standards for open
spaces in large and metro cities are 1.2 - 1.4 ha/1 000 persons, depending on the land
availability.
2. Secondly, the older parts of large cities have normally been found highly deficient
with respect to the availability of recreational spaces, thus additional provisions in the
new developments to take care for the existing deficiencies also to be made. For the
large and metro cities, provisions shall also be made for city level special parks such
as botanical and zoological parks, picnic huts, children parks and amusement parks,
etc.
8.6.00 SOCIO-CULTURAL FACILITIES
1. Merely the prescription of norms for the provision of socio-cultural facilities is not
enough as there are certain vital issues involved with their provision which are as
follows:
a. It has generally been observed that the religious buildings come up on
encroached sites and especially· those meant for open spaces. In fact, just the
provision of 400 sq.m. area for a population of 5,000 is not enough. It is not to
say that the area is inadequate but effort should be made by the development
agencies, with the assistance of NGO's in the area, to ensure that the places
of worship come up as planned with the participation and preferences of the
164 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi------·--,.---------------
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community itself.
b. The provision of housing cluster and sector level socio-cultural facilities such
as community room, community hall and library shall be given following
considerations :
Socio-economic profile and behavioural pattern of the beneficiaries as
for the areas with lower income group population, the maintenance and
management of formal community. buildings is not an easy task and
even it does not match with their behavioural pattern. Thus, for lower
income areas the use of such facilities shall be planned and designed
for multipurpose activities which can ensure optimal utilisation. The
activities such as adult education, training programmes for economic
generation activities, child and family welfare programmes, etc. can be
organised in such spaces besides the facility of reading room.
c. The community halls for middle and higher income areas are utilised more
often for various functions, etc. compared to lower income areas where open
spaces/streets are preferred for such functions.
d. .In the congested
1
areas, the schools are used for various social functions in
non-teaching hours which in fact is a practice in small or even in medium sized
towns, can be considered as an option.
2. As a general basis, separate religious sites (2 for 15,000 population) may be
provided so that places of worship do not get established on encroached sites as is
invariably happening. Further, the norms for socio-cultural facilities may be considered
as under:
a. Community hall(multi-purpose): House Cluster Level
b.
c.
d.
The small parks/open spaces should also be developed with the community
hall to suit the cultural and behavioural needs of the society.
Local Community Center
(Hall, Library, Space for
extra-mural activities)
Recreation Club
Music,Dance, Drama
Center
: Sector Level
One for 15;000 population, 2,000 sq.m.
One for 50,000 population 0.5 ha
One for 100,000 population, 1.0 ha
One for 5Q,OOO population
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e.
f.
Meditation and Spiritual
·Center
Socio-cultural Center
One for 50,000 population
One for 5 lakh population
3. Increased provision of space for socio-cultural facilities is essential in view of the
increasing demand of such sites for diverse needs, creating more avenues for
socio-cultural interactions and enriching . the quality of built environment at
neighbourhood and community levels.
8.7.00 MISCELLANEOUS FACILITIES
B. 7.10 CREMATION/BURIAL-GROUND
The sites for cremation grounds shall be identified in locations which are not proximo us
to residential areas. It may be advisable to provide one electric crematorium for large
size towns besides the provision of at least 2 sites for 5 lakh population.
8.7.20 DHOBI GHAT
It is suggested to provide one site for 1 lakh population with appropriate arrangements
for water and drainage facilities and it shall be ensured that the water bodies are not
polluted as a result of such activities.
8.7.30 TAXI STANDS/BUS STOPS/RICKSHAW STANDS
The taxi stands/bus stops shall be provided with the following considerations:
these should not be located near the road intersections;
the maximum distance of such facilities should not exceed 0.5 km from
the farthest point in any residential area.
8.7.40 OTHER FACILITIES AND SERVICES
8.7.41 Telecommunication
The norms for other facilities and services listed under communication, security, fire,
postal are derived from the departmental norms which are governed by the
national/state level policies. The communication sector is getting lot of priorities due
to its increasing importance in the economic development and thus immaterial of the
size of town. It is hoped that the standards as well as level of service will be improved
in time to come. The existing standards for these services are as under :
a. Communication - 10 lines per 100 population.
b. Fire - one fire station for 2 lakh population within 1 to 3 km distance.
166 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------
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c. Postal services - One post office for 10-15 thousand population.
8.7.42 Fire Protection
The fire services for srnall and lowE'r category of medium size towns shall be provided
taking into consideration the demands of surrounding villages also.
8.8.00 NORMS OF SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION IN EXISTING
BUILT-UP AREAS
1. The norms and standards of facilities outlined in the preceding paragraphs have
been proposed primarily with respect to minimum requirements of social amenities to
be provided in new development areas at various levels. While the level of facilities
and infrastructure to be provided should not make any distinction in their qualitative
aspects between existing built-up areas vis-a-vis new development areas, in view of
ground realities and other constraints, it is often observed that problems arise in
implementing these norms in existing built-up areas, particularly the core areas of any
town, calling for their rationalisation for effective adaptation.
2. In order to resolve these problems following guidelines are proposed for existing
built-up areas.
a.
b.
It is proposed that while Unit Norms (facility per unit size of population)
of local level facilities should be kept uniform, the space norms may be
considered at a reduced scale, which may range between 50-60% of
those proposed for urban extension areas.
In order to compensate for the shortfall in various types and levels of
facilities which cannot be provided within the existing built-up area,
such facilities may be provided in contiguous/proximus sectors of new
development as additional provision, e.g. due to space constraints in
existing built-up area the school facility may not have ample space for
playgrounds/open spaces in the proximus new sector to compensate for
its non-availability in the built-up area. Such provision shall be over
and above that which may be required for the sector's own assigned
population.
c. As proposed earlier also, multiple use of one facility unit should be
encouraged so that optimum use of a facility could be possible. Such
a step would also compensate for non-availability of individual facility
units in a built-up
8.9.00 SPECIAL PROVISION FOR FRINGE AREAS/TRANSITIONAL AREAS
1. It has been observed that the fringe areas, particularly the fringe rural settlements,
are subject to considerable stress during the process of a city's growth. Such fringe
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'
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settlements are normally not included in the programme of social infrastructure
development as they lie outside the urban limits, despite the fact that they are both
functionally and physically integral part of the urban area. In order to mitigate the
existing deficiencies and conditions, and to prepare such transitional settlements
and development pockets for proper integration with the planned urban areas, it is
proposed that such fringe villages and pockets be identified and skeletal provision of
basic infrastructure and facilities may be made. An incremental approach for
upgradation of these facility units should be in-built in provision of such facilities in
fringe/transitional areas.
2. While no specific norms and standards can be suggested as these will depend on
the broad of development and nature of demand, the above measures,
if incorporated in the total programme of social infrastructure p!anning, be able
to help in their integration with the urban area as well as improve the quality of life in
these fringe settlements which otherwise would grow into slums, which would result
in serious implications in the quality of built environment.
8.10.00 NORMS AND STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION
8.1 0.1 0 CLASSIFICATION OF URBAN ROADS
Besides expressways and freeways, the urban roads can be classified as :
a.
b.
Arterial Road : Roads for intra-urban through traffic, with no frontage access,
no standing vehicle and very little cross traffic and minimum roadway
intersection spacing 500 m.
Sub-Arterial Road: Roads for intra-urban through traffic with frontage access
but no standing vehicles having high cross traffic, high capacity intersections
and minimum roadway inter-section spacing 300 m.
c. Collector Street :.Streets for collecting and distributing traffic from and to local
, streets and also for providing access to arterial sub-arterial roads, having
free frontage access but no parked vehicles and having heavy cross traffic and
minimum roadway inter-section spacing ·150m.
d. Local Street: Street for access to residence, business or other abutting
property, having necessary parking and pedestrian movement. Free Access.
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8.10.20 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF URBAN ROADS
8.10.21 DQsign Speed
The recommended design speeds for different categories of roads are :
Arterial
Sub-Arterial
Collector Street
Local Street
8.1 0.22 Space Standards
80 kph
60 kph
50 kph
30 kph
The space standards (land width) recommended for different categories of roads are
Arterial
Sub-Arterial
Collector Street
Local Street
50- 60 m
30-40m
20- 30m
10- 20m
The land width is often referred as 'Right-of-way'.
8.10.23 Cross-Sectional Elements
The width and layout of urban road cross-sections depend on many factors, the chief
amongst them being the classification of roads, design speed and volume of traffic
expected. Some of the salient cross-sectional elements are described below :
a) Carriageway Widths
The recommended carriageway widths are sl1own below :
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
Description
Single lane without kerbs
2-lane without kerbs
2-lane with kerbs
3-lane with/without kerbs
4-lane with/without kerbs
6-lane with/without kerbs
Width (m)
3.5 m
7.0 m
7.5 m
10.5/11.0 m
14m
m
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·_j . ',' '' •'·
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7 .••
Foot ·I ••••loo Rd
Way. Traa k
1

Central •
. Unpa•.•d
• • •
a.
Foot
Woy
URBAN ARTERIAL STREET
U n P•••d
lou ll'fard
7 ,I •
Carr •••• way
7 •••
M 1 dIan
·unp•••cl
loufayard
Track Way
U n pawed
llouleYard
SUB-ARTERIAL STREET THROUGH OPEN AREA
311
201 2• 7 •• -
... ,. 2•
2• a•
Foot Way Cyole
J ...
Carr 1 Way
I
Cyola Foot
Traok
Traak
U nl'••• d
BouiiYard
aouleyard
URBAN COLLECTOR STREET THROUGH RESIDENTIAL AREA
a•
7 .•
Foot Way
Carr I
URBAN RESIDENTIAL STREET

'_
Foot Way Carriage Way
1
Foot Way
URBAN CUL-DE-SAC
Woy
Fig.
1 : TYPICAL CROSS-SECTIONS OF URBAN ROADS
170 -- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-------------------------
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b) {sidewalk}
The minimum ·widtl:l .of footpaths· should be 1.5 m. The width. should be
.increased .by 1 m ·in business/shopping areas to allow for dead width.
Footpaths ·adjoining shopping frontage should be at least 3.5 m and a· minimum
of 4.5 · m. is desirable. adjoin.ing longer ·.shopping frontages. The capacity
guidelines for design of footpaths are as below .:
----------·----4-- ,; ____ :., __ ----':"'-------'-.-··---------=---------·---------_______ .,;:, __ ,_ __ -----·-.-- ---- ------- .
· Capacity (Persons) Required width of.
· c ________ -------- c- ------·-------- ---- -·------- ------ ---"--------- F oat path ( m) ·
All in one direction lri both directions' ·
-- _______ .:.,..:, __________ ;.. ..:.:. -------------'---------:------.:.,. -------.:--------· ----_____ .,;_, ---------_:_ _______ -
1220 800' 1.5
2400 1600 .2.0
3600 .2400 2.5
4800 3200 3.0
6000 4000 4.0
_______ .:, ___ ·----=--------=-----------_____________ _: ___________________________________________________ _
8.1 0.24 Cycle Tra.ck$ · ·
The . minimum width . of cyc_le tracks should be 2 m. Each additional lane, where
required, should be one m. Separate cycle tracks be provided when the peak
cycle traffic is 400 or more. on routes where motor vehicle traffic is 100-200 vehicles/hr.
When number of motor vehicles using routes is more than 2oo per hour, separate
cycle tracks are justified even if cycle traffir;: is only 100 cycles per hour. The capacity
of cycle tracks is as belo':' : . .
_________________ ,;. ___________ .:,;.. ___________________ :.:-----------------------------------.. ---------:---------------
Width of Cycle Track
Two lanes
Three lanes
Four·lanes
(m)
3
4
5
R10.30 PASSENGER CAR UNITS (PCU)
Capacity (Cycles/hr) ·
One way
250 - 600
7600
Two way
.50- 250
250 - 600
> 600
1. Ur.ban roads are characterised by mixed traffic conditions, resulting in complex
interaction between various kinds of vehicles. Capacity of urban roads is normally
expressed in terms of a common unit, namely Passenger Car Unit (PCU). Each vehicle
type is converted into equivalent PCU based on their relative interference values.
2. The relative PCU of a particular vehicle type is affected to a _certain extent by
increase in its proportion in the total traffic. Following table shows the recommended
PCU factors for various types of vehicles on urban roads. ·
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. .. = ·, ..: :. __:_- --- -
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-----------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
3. Recommended PCU factors for various types of vehicles on urban roads :
-----------------..
Equivalent PCU Factors
Percentage composition of vehicle
type in stream of traffic
10% 10%
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fast Vehicles
1. Two wheeler motor cycle or scooter etc.
0.5 0.75
2. Passenger car, pick up van
1.0 i.O
3. Auto rickshaw
1.2 2.0
4. Light commercial vehicle
1.4 2.0-
5. Truck or bus
2.2
3.7
6. Agricultural Tractor Trailor
4.0
5.0
Slow Vehicles
7. Cycle
0.4 0.5
8. Cycle rickshaw
1.5
2.0
9. Tonga (horse-drawn vehicle)
1.5
2.0
10. cart
2.0
3.0
----------------------------------------·------------------------------------------------------------·-----------
Source: IRC Code: 106-1990.
8.10.40 DESIGN SERVICE VOLUME
'
1. It is recommended that normally 'C' LOS be adopted for design of urban roads. At
this level, volume of traffic will be around 0.70 times the maximum capacity and this
is taken as 'design service volume' for the purpose of adopting design values.
2. The design service volumes for different categories of urban roads are shown in the
Table given below.
Recommended Design Service Volumes (PCU's per hour)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.-------------------:--
SI.No. Type of Carriageway
Total Design Service Volume
for different road categories ·
Arterial Sub-Arterial Collector
--------·-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. 2-lane (one way)
2. 2-lane (two way)
3. 3-lane (one way)
4. 4-lane undivided (two way)
5. 4-lane divided (two way)
6. 6-lane undivided (two way)
7. 6-lane divided (two way)
8. B-lane divided (two way)
2400
1500
3600
3000
3600
4800
5400
7200
1900
1200
2900
2400
2900
3800
4300
1400.
900
2200
1800
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8.10.50 PARKING
8.10.51 Equivalent Car Space {ECS) for Different
Carrraxi
Two wheeler
Auto rickshaw
Bicycle
1.00
0.25
0.50
0.10
8.10.52 Parking Space Requirements
a. ihe minimum parking space requirements for each car and truck is as follows:
Car: 3m x 6 m -
2.5 m x 5 m
Truck : 3.75 m x 7.5 m
b. Residential
When individual parking space is
required.
When community parking space is
required.
i. Detached, semi-detached and row houses
c. Flats
Plot area upto 100 sq.m. - No private or community parking space
Plot area : 101-200 sq.m.- Only community parking space
Plot area : 201-300 sq.m.- Only community parking space
Plot area: 301-500 sq.m.- Minimum 1/3 of open area for parking ·
Plot area: 501-1000sq.m.- Minimum 1/4th of open area for parking
Plot area : 1001 sq.m + - Min. 1 /6th of space area for parking
One space for every two flats of 50-90 sq.m. or more of floor area.
One space for every flat of 100 sq.m. or more of floor area.
i) For all kinds of developments excepting residential, warehouses
and godowns
One berth for initial 500-1500 sq.m. of floor area. Additional
berths at the rate of one for every subsequent 1000 sq.m. or
part thereof.
ii) For and godowns
Two berths for initial 500-1500 m of floor area. Additional berths
at the rate of one for every subsequent 500 m or part thereof. -
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UDPFI Guidelines---
d. Parking Norms for Work Centres
The parking norms for· centres as suggested by different organisation is
shown below : · · · · · · ·
(ECSJ1 00 sq.m. floor area) ·
. -------.---:. ___________ ..; _________________________ . ___ :-------.... ... ---------------
Work Centre Type
. .
--- :--------------:--------------------.-----
o • ... a ......... .:. ... ,....... --.:. .. .............. ":'"'"- ..... •• ...... '"'•• ... •................ :.:.. ......... •: ••;-,. --:--------- :.. .................. ':" ••• ........................ ..: .......... ,.. ...... ., •-:--•
· ·Commercial. Offices·. ·
Delh.i Master Plan
Delhi Master-Plan 2001 :
New Delhi ·Advisory
. Committee, 1 972 . ·.
· Indian Road.Gongress, 1973
Central Pi.ll?lic Works Department
1. 1.4
1.67
2:28
. 1.25

1. 67
1.14
1.42
1.23
---------------... .,.. ______ --------... .: ..... ----- ------.-----------------··-':" -·· ., ...... ___ ;.. ____ -------- ·--.: ------------
space per employee anci emptoyee to _visitor norms
. ,. The sp??e riorm for floor space per- adopted is :
a) Government
· b) Public sector.
9 sq.m.
·a sq;m.
· The employee-to Visitor ratio in· office complexes as 1 : 0.4.:
. . •.. · .. • .. · .. . . .
8.1 0.6o· a us ·
8.10.61 · Functions
The function of bus terminaL primarily includes· processing Of vehicles, passengers etc.
with provision of necessary facilities· for smooth Jovv. The tenninql SeNes·as a
point and unit where ncessaryinfoimation to user .is made available for processing. A
passenger bus terminal broadly needs to:perform the Wnctions to meet.requirements
of following : · · · · · · ·
· ·a. Passeng·ers and ·Vehicles
b. . Passengers only
c. · Vehicles only ·
d. Crew .·
.·. e. Management
The functions re_lated to both _arid :vehicles include:
concentration
.loading ·
174 - CRnT, TTPI, New
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dispersal
unloading
Passenger only oriented functions of the terminal include provision of
passenger plat..;,rms to board and alight
waiting lounges
rest houses/rooms
baggage storage facilities
basic shopping and commercial facilities
utilities, services and amenities
information system
ticketing facilities
8.1 0.62 Components
shelter from weather
communication and postal facilities
eating places
The components' related to vehicles (bus) only include provision of:
bays for loading and unloading
idle bus parking spaces
facilities related to maintenance
information system for movement within terminal
,.'
The terminal components to meet the needs of crew are :
rest rooms
information system
communication facilities
eating places
The terminal facilities for the mangement in terms of :
demand management on account of concentration
incurring minimum expenditure
development of centralised information
ensuring better control
8.10.63 Design Criteria
The design criteria of terminal includes determining the size of terminal and factors to
be taken into consideration in planning the facilities and activities. The size of the
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi
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terminal is primarily governed by the following factors :
traffic demand
traffic characteristics
function of terminal
type and sophistication of facilities
The other factors to be considered in terminal design by appreciating activity and
facility inter-relationship are :
a. segregation of terminal and non-terminal traffic;
b. segregation of vehicular and pedestrians traffic and movement;
c. segregation of traffic by type, function and direction;
d. coordination of different activities in terms of functional and spatial
inter-relationship;
e. provision ·of good user and vehicular information;
f. provision of necessary and identified facilities to meet requirement of
all user groups;
g. achieving minimum passenger and vehicular processing time;
h. achieving overall functional and spatial efficiency;
i. achieving smooth flow of all types of traffic to and from terminal.
8.1 0.64 Planning Norms and Space Standards
Norms
a. Capacity of an intracity bus terminal
b. One bus bay for 5000 passengers per day
c. One bus bay for 10,000 passengers per day
d. Peak hour load
e. Occupancy/Bus
f. Time taken for loading
for unloading ·
Space Standards for Parking Facilities
a. Bus bays
1.5 lakh passengers/day
(Loading)
(Unloading)
1 0% of daily passenger load
50 ideal
6 min; 12 min
3 min; 6 min
176 - CRDT, ITPI, New
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Type of Parking
Idle Parking
Angular
Parallel
b. Parking of other Modes
Car
Two wheeler
Taxi
Auto rickshaw
Cycle
8.10.70 TRUCK TERMINAL
Area/Vehicle
145 sq.m.
76 sq.m.
104 sq.m.
25 sq.m.
4 sq.m.
16 sq:m.
5 sq.m.
1.2 sq.m.
A truck terminal is a highly specialised facility, designed for a specific function and
operating plan in terms of the service standards it must meet, the area it serves and
the volumes to be handled. It provides interface between intercity and local
transportation facilities and which handle the distribution and collection of goods within
the city.
The major objectives of a truck terminal are :
a. To reorganise office and godown space of transport companies.
b. To provide for expansion·of companies. '
c. To reduce parking, loading/unloading instances in CBD.
d. To locate the facilities for vehicle repairs, servicing, rest places, shops,
etc.
e. To cater to intercity movements destined to operator's godown and
provide for idle parking for trucks waiting for return load.
{. ' To function as a rest and halting place for through traffic.
8.1 0. 71 Facilities in Transport Nagar
The main facilities for which area allocation needs to be made in transport nagar are:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Transport Agencies
Circulation
Parking
Open Space
Petrol Pump
Service Centre
Toilets
Police Station
i. Restaurant
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j. Shops
k. Godowns
I. Bridge
m. Stalls/Dhabas
n. Administrative Office
o. Fire Station, Post Office, Dispensary
p. Bank, Bus Station, Electric Sub-station
q. Cold Storage
r. Spare Parts Shops
s Body Building Shops
t. Cinema
8.10.72 Locational Factors
The following factors are generally considered while locating a truck terminal/transport
nagar:
a.
b.
c.
d.
They should be located on main corridor of goods movement.
They are generally located on fringe of developed lands.
/
They should have proper linkage with other freight generating activities
as well as developed areas.
Consideration for intra-city goods movement pattern in terms of desire
of movement, modes ·used and distances over which movement· is
made should also be kept in view.
8.1 0.73 Broad Land Use Break-up
The broad land use break-up in a truck terminal (transport nagar) is as below :

---------------------------------------------------------------·-----------------------------------------------
1.
Transport Operators
30.0
.,
- Office, god own, loading/ unloading
2.
\ Service Industry
6.0
Petrol pump, service area, weigh bridge, etc.
3.
Public/Semi-public
3.0
- Police post, post office, telephone, first aid etc.
4.
Commercial
3.0
5. Parking
18.0
- idle, transit, other vehicles
6.
Open spaces
10.0
7.
Circulation
28.0
8 . Others
2.0
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Total
100.0
........................................................................................................................................................................ ":' .............................................. ..
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8.10.80 INTEGRATED FREIGHT COMPLEX
"' 8.10.81 Functions
The basic functions of an integrated freight complex are :
a. To p'rovide· facilities for regional and intra-urban freight movement.
b. To provide facilities for freight in transit as well as interchange of mode.
c. To provide warehousing and storage facilities and inter-link these sites with
specialised markets.
d. To provide servicing, loading and boarding, idle parking, restaurants and other
related functions in the complex.
8.10.82 Objectives
The functional objectives of wholesale complex-cum-truck terminal should be :
'
a. To provide adequate facilities for wholesale trade activities, these include:
b.
i) auction areas
ii) wholesale shops and subsidiary storage capacity
iii) packaging facilities
iv) wholesale godowns, cold storage, etc. togather with handling facilities
and equipment, etc.
To provide adequate parking space and facilities for trucks expected to utilise
the terminal. These facilities include :
i) service/repair facilities
'ii) rest/recreation for drivers
. iii) weighing of trucks etc.
c. To provide adequate facilities for office/storage activities of trucks operating at
terminal. . These include :
i) godown space
ii) office space
iii) loading/unloading facilities
iv) weighing of goods vehicle etc.
Apart from the above-mentioned objectives, the complex must provide for a number
of'·associatedlancillary facilities and services, some of which are :
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a. Provision for goods movement within the complex in terms of truck movement
and loading'unloading/ stacking of goods.
b. Building and amenities for administration and security measures necessary for ·
o o m ~ ~ - , ·
i} Facilities like banking, postal facilities, etc. required for business
transactions
ii} Amenities for wholesalers, truckers and their empl()yees
iii) Areas for shops, eating houses and other service establishment
iv} Provision of lighting, water supply and garbage, sewarage disposal.
B.1 0.83 Space Norms
The space norms in kg/sq.mt. for selected commodities as per Central Warehousing
Corporation (CWC} is given below :
Commodity
Food grains
· Fruits and Vegetables
Hardware and Building Material
Iron and Steel
Timber
Machinery
Auto parts
Textile
Chemicals and Fertilisers
B.1 0.84 Broad land Use Break-up
Wt./Area (Kg./sq.m.)
1054
721
1054
904
968
968
9Q8
968
968
The broad land use break-up of an integrated freight complex could be as follows :
Use Type Percentage of Area
------------------.-----------.. -------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Wholesale Market 35.0
2. Warehousing RO
3. Booking Agencies 2.0
4. Commercial & Public/Semi-public 5.0
5. Utilities and Services 3.0
6. Service Industry 4.0
7. Parking 12.0
8. Circulation 25.0
9. Others 6.0
Total 100.0
ISO - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-----------------------
UDPFI Guidelines---
8.10.85 Area Requirements
As a general guideline, the area required for a truck terminal (transport nagar) should
be reserved at the rate of one hect.per 300 tonnes of daily goods inflow into the
complex. In case of integrated freight complex, the area necessary would be one
hectare per 400 tonnes of do..1y goods inflow into the complex. '
8.10.90 MODAL SPLIT BY PUBLIC TRANSPORT MODES
Recommended derived modal split levels i.e. share of public transport modes based
on city size are :
City Size
Below 1 million
Around 1 million
1.5 million
3.0 million
6.0 million
9.0 million
Recommended Modal Split
30%
35%
40% plus
50% plus
70% plus
75% plus (85% with a Mass
Transit System)
In the absence of suitable modal split method, the above-mentioned modal split levels
- could be adopted for working out transportation system of urban_ --
settlements.
B.10.00 MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES FOR FORMULATION OF SPATIAL
STANDARDS
The Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee has evolved the following
mathematical relationships for formulation of spatial standards.
B.10.10 IMPACT OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS UPON SPACE STANDARDS
The impact of the value of land use percentage allocations and space requirements
per 1000 persons upon gross and net densities can be determined by the following
equations:
D X ( 1 00 - z + y)
G =
100
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-------------------- 181
---------'------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
where
G = Gross density in persons per hectare
D = Net density in persons per hectare
z =Land use percentage allocation for amenities
y =.Land use percentage allocation for ciruculation
I,
8.10.20 IMPACT OF ECONdMIC PARAMETERS UPON SPACE STANDARDS
The economic success of an amenity among a complex of amenities depends upon
the overall cost of development and the paying capacity of the inhabitants. The space
standard in relation to" land costs, cost of development and permissible rate of interest
can be calculated from the following equation :
8.3 X c X R
D
=
E
where
D = Space standards in hectares per 1000 persons
C = Cost of land or cost of development per sq.m.
R =Rate of interest per annum
, E = Maintenance cost in rupees per month
8.10.30 LOCATION ASPECTS OF AMENITIES
(Amenities, Catchment Area and Population to be served)
The population to be served by an amenity should be based upon the maximum
spatial distance and density of habitation and should be determined by the following
equations:
R = 56 P/NZ
where
R = distance in meter
P = population to be served
N =Net density in person/hectare
Z = Land use percentage
8.10.40 SPA.CE FOR EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS
The space requirements of nursery, primary and higher secondary should be worked
out per 1000 population, keeping in view the amenities to be provided, nature of
development and the socio-economic conditions of the population to be served. The
space can be determined by the following equation :
182 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------
• I
-------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
AxQxM AxQxM
E: == --------------------------- == --------------------------------
where
A
==
Q
==
E
==
M
==
c
==
1 00 X 1 000 X F X 1 00
1 00 X 1 00 X C X 8 X 1 00
Number of children per 1000 population in the age-group pertaining to
nursery or primary or higher secondary
of expected enrolment in the particular type of school
Site area in hectare per 1 000 population
Gross built-up area in sq.rri. per child for particular type of school
Coverage in percentage
8.10.50 SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR OUTDOOR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
The space can be determined by the following equation for total lots, play fields at
·primary level and play fields including parks at higher secondary level per 1 000
persons.
AxQ
A = ------------- +
100 X 1000
where
A
==
Q
==
A1,2, .... n
==
R1,2, .... n
==
M1,2 ..... n
==
L1,2, .... n
==
D1,2, .... n
==
(A1 x R1 x M1)
A2 x R2 x M2
(An x Rn x Mn)
--------------------- + ---------------------- + ..... +
l 1 X 0 1 X 1 000 L2 X 02 X 1 00
Ln x Pn x 100
number of children per 1000 population in age group ,
/
pertaining to that amenity
percentage per expected utilisor in that age group
Area for provision and operation of amenity 1 ,2, ... nth
respectively
Average time upto which a particular batch plays on amenity
1 ,2, .... nth respectively
Percentage of users out of the total users interested in amenity
1 ,2, ...... nth respectively
Load in terms of users of the amenity 1 ,2, ..... nth respectively.
Duration for which amenity 1 ,2, ...... nth respectively generally
remains in use
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------------- 183
'

/
------------------··--------UDPF/Guidelines---
8.10.60 SPACE STANDARDS OF HEALTH BUILDINGS
In order to find out the space requirements for health buildings, the following equation
may be used:
where
E
A
Q
M
F
c
s
1000 X Q X A M M 1000xQxA
------------------ X --------- :: ---------------- X -------------------
100 X 100 F X 1 00 C X 8 X 1 00 1 00 X 1 00
::
::
::
=
=
::
=
Site area in hectare
Percentage of population using the facility
Population at risk in percentage
Gross built-up area in sq.m. per patient
Floor Area Ratio
Coverage in percentge
Number of storeys
8.10.70 SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR SHOPPING FACILITIES
The shopping requirements at different levels depend upon the expenditure pattern of
the households of the residential area. The space requirements for shopping should
be worked out per 1000 persons with the help of following equation :
E
where
A
=
M
=
E
=
F
=
c
=
1000 M
::
- ~ - - - - - - - - - -
X -----------
=
A Fx 100
Population to support one shop
Built-up area per shop
1000
----------- X
A
Space requirements for shopping at each level
Floor Area Ratio
Coverage in. percentage
M
··-------------
CxSx 100
8.10.80 AFFORDABLE SHELTER- A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH
An approach consisting of six steps for arriving at optimum housing option has been
worked out as given below :
Step One : Establish the rent paying capacity for the selected groups of
households and the housing demand 1n different urban pockets.
184 - CRDT, ITPI,. New Delhi---------------------

--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
Step Two:
StepThree:
Establish correlation between rent paying capacity of the different
households a,nd the capital cost of housing in relation to rate of interest
and period of amortisation.
Apportion optimally the capital cost of housing per dwelling into the
three components viz cost of land, cost of infr?structure and cost of
construction.
Step Four : Establish correlation between plot size net land use percentage of
housing, land cost and cost component of housing each
arrived at in step three.
Step Five:
The relationship is governed by the following equation :
c
=
where ,
c
p
z
LP
=
=
=
=
{1 0,000/P x 1 00/Z) LP
Cost of land per dwelling unit
Net density in plots per hectare
Land use percentage allocation in net housing
Price of land in Rs. per sq.m.
Establish correlation between costs of infrastructure (provision of
amenities) and community facilities costs of infrastructure development
· and its component per dwelling as arrived in step three. The provision
of on-site and off-site infrastructure is very imporant and the cost of
provision affects the economic viability of the total project. The following
equation is suggested to determine the cost of infrastructure per .
dwelling for varying parameters :
A
where
A
D
B
=
=
=
=
10,000 I D X B
Cost (in Rs.) of infrastructure
development per house (apportioning the
total cost of development per dwelling
unit)
Gross residential density in dwellings per
hectare.
Cost of infrastructure development per
sq.m. (taking total area under
development).·
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
185
.: : .. .. .
.. ">'J;.

- - - ~ - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - UDPFI Guidelines---
Step Six:
Establish correlation between built-up space and cost component per
house for superstructure as arrived in step three.
The provision of plot size, land use extent of infrastructure services on
minimum acceptable land for specific situation determines the cost of
superstructure within the specified cost of the house assigned in step
two. Therefore, the cost of superstructure should be viewed as function
of severai alternatives of plot area and its cost (after examining various
alternatives based on above steps) s·o as to lead to an acceptable and
affordable shelter solution within the existing cost limits.
186 -·- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi------------------------,.--
'"\-
1' ..
r·.··_· .. >:·'·
1.,· .. : : ~ ' - . .;··, '
(' ..
APPENDIX- C
SIMPLIFIED DEVELOPMENT
PROMOTION REGULATIONS
I
i
-----------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
APPENDIX- C
SIMPLIFIED DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION REGULATIONS
C.1.00 SIMPLIFIED URBAN LAND USE CLASSIFICATION
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Level-l
Level-l I
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N A-N
Use Zone
N A-N Use Zone
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. R
Residential
11 R-1
Primary Residential Zone
12 R-2
Mixed Residential Zone
13 R-3
Unplanned I Informal
Residential Zone
2. c
Commercial
21 C-1
Retail Shopping Zone
22 C-2
General Business and
Commercial District/Centers
23 C-3
Wholesale, Godowns.
Warehousing/ Regulated Markets
3. M
Manufacturing
31 M-1
Service and Light Industry
32 M-2
Extensive and Heavy Industry
33 M-3
Special Industrial Zone Hazardous,
4. PS
Public and
Noxious and Chemical
Semi-pub lie
41 PS-1
Govt.!Semi Govt./Public offices
42 PS-2
Govt.Land (use undetermined)
43 PS-3
Educational and Research
44 PS-4
Medical and Health
45 PS-5
Social Cultural and Religious
46 PS-6
Utilities and Services
47 PS-7
Cremation and Burial-grounds
5.
p
Recreational
51 P-1
Playgrounds/Stadium/Sports Complex
52 P-2
Parks & Gardens - Public Open Spaces
53 P-3
Special Recreational Zone -
Restricted Open Spaces
54 P-4
Multi-Open Space (Maidan)
6. T Transportation and
Communication
61 T-1
Roads-
62 T-2 Railways
63 T-3 Airport
64 T-4
Seaports and Dockyards
65 T-5
Bus Depots/Truck Terminals
and Freight Complexes
66 T-6
Transmission &
Communication
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi
187
.. :.·.··.··.-·. :.· .. : .":< ;·.:
- ,.,
-------------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
Level-l
N A-N Use Zone
7. A · Agriculture and
Water Bodies
8. -s Special Area
N
71
72
73
74
75
76
81
82
83
84
85
Level-l I
A-N
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
A-6
S-1
S-2
S-3
S-4
S-5
N : Numberic Code A-N : Alpha-Numeric Code
... Notes:
Use Zone
Agriculture
Forest
. Poultry and Dairy Farming
Rural Settlements
Brick Kiln and Extractive Areas
Water Bodies
. Old Built-up (Core) Area
Heritage and Co:1servation Areas
Scenic Value Areas
Village Settlement
Other Uses
1.' Areas of informal activities may be identified in the above land use categories at Level-11.
2. Mixed use zone may be id!'lntified at the development plan level, having more than one use zone
with mixed activities of such use zones.
3. In all, there could be 35 use zones at the development plan level within eight land use categories
at the perspective plan level as given in the above table.
4. Use premises for different activities, as specified in the next section on Simplified Use Zone
Regulations could b.e provided at the project/action plan level or with the approval of the
Competent Authority as the case may be.
5. Use zone regulations for the use permissibility (from the suggestive list) could be de.cidsd by the
town planner depending upon the requirell)ent!feasibilny.
6. Appropriate code in terms of both numerical and alphabetic (letter) are provided to facilitate the
reference and to have a simplified procedure to follow.
C.2.00 SIMPLIFIED URBAN LAND USE ZONING REGULATIONS
Buildings and premises listed below are permitted normally on specific sites/locations
forming part of the layout plans, action plans and projects. However, this is a
list which could be enhanced or reduced, as the case may be,
depending the size of the city/town, characteristics and other relevant factors. The
also contains the buildings/premises which could be allowed on an application to
188 - CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi------------------------
--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
the Competent Authority if such sites do not form part of the layout plan, action plan
or the project. Such use/activity is termed as permissible. The uses/activities which
are otherwise not allowed in a particular use zone are termed as prohibited and in
certain use zones are listed as bel(")w :
C.2.1 0 RESIDENTIAL (R)
In Residential Use Zones R {Primary Residential Zone, Mixed Residential Zone,
Unplanned/Informal Residential Zone - i.e. R-1, R-2 & R-3), for general guidance, the
following uses/activities are prescribed as permitted, permissible on an application to
the Competent Authority and as prohibited. The buildings/premises are permitted for
the foliowing uses/activities on specific sites/locations indicated in the layout plan,
action plan and projecVscheme.
C.2.11 Uses Permitted
Residence - plotted, (detached, semi-detached and row housing} group housing
houses, residential-cum-work, hostels and boarding houses, night shelters, foreign·
missions, dharamshala, barat ghar, community hall, police. post, guest houses,
convenience shopping centres, local {retain shopping), medical, clinics, dispensaries,
nursing home and health centres {20 bed), professional offices, educational buildings
: (nursery, primary, high school, college), research institutes, community centres,
auditoriums, religious premises, weekly markets, library, gymnasium, parkltotlots, plant
nursery, technical training centre, yoga centres/health clinics, exhibition and art gallery,
clubs, banks, police stations, taxi stand/three wheeler stands, bus stops, electrical
distribution depot, water pumping station, post offices, hostels of non-commercial
nature, kindergartens, public utilities and buildings except service and storage yards.
C.2.12 Permissible Uses/Activities
Petrol pumps, motor vehicle reparnng workshops/garages, household industry,
bakeries and confection aries, storage of LPG gas cylinders, burial-grounds, restaurants
and hotels, printing press, godowns/warehousing, bus depots without workshop,
cinema halls, markets for retail goods, multipurpose or junior technical shops, transient
visitors camp, municipal, state and central government offices.
C.2.13 Uses/Activities Prohibited
'
Heavy, large:and extensive industry : noxious, obnoxious and hazardous industries,
warehousing, storage god owns of perishables, hazardous, inflammable goods, turnkey
yards, workshops for buses etc., slaughter-housing, wholesale mandis, hospitals
treating contagious diseases, sewage treatment planVdisposal work, water treatment
plant, solid waste dumping yards, outdoor games stadium, indoor games stadium,
shooting range, zoological garden, botanical garden, bird sanctuary,. picnic hut,
international conference centre, courts, sports training centre, reformatory, district
battalian office, forensic science laboratory.
- CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi---------------------- 189 .
·.'·. :> ..
• K • :. • •• : .... {
Guidelines---
C.2.20 COMMERCIAL USE (C)
In commercial use zone - C (Retail shopping zone, general business and commercial
district/centres, wholesale godowns, warehousing and regulated markets i.e. C-1, C-2
and C-3), the following uses/activities are permitted, permissible on an application to
the Competent Authority and prohibited for general guidance. ·
C.2.21 Permitted Use/Activity
Shops, convenience/neighbourhood shopping centre, local shopping centres,
professional offices, work places/ offices, banks. stock exchange/financial institution.
bakeries and confectionaries. cinema hall/theatre, banquet halls, guest houses,
restaurants, hotels, weekly market, petrol pumps, godowns and warehousing, general
business, wholesale, residential plot- group housing, hostel/boarding housing, hostel,
banks, restaurants, bakeries/confectionaries, cinema halls/theatres.
auditoriums/banquet halls, colleges, nursing homes/medical clinics, religious places.
offices/work places, commercial centres, research/training institute. service
centres/garages/workshops, barat ghar/night shelter, weekly/formal markets, library.
parks/open space, museum, police stations/posts, taxi stand/three wheeler stands.
parking site, post offices, government/ institutional offices, telephone exchange/centres,
warehousing and covered storage, research institutions.
C.2.22 Permissible Uses/Activities
Non-polluation, light industries, warehousing/storage godowns of
perishable, inflammable goods, coal, wood, timber yards, bus and truck depots, gas
intallation and gas works, poly-techniques and higher technical institutes, junk yards.
water treatment plant. railway yards/stations. sports/stadium and public utility
installation, hotel and transient visitor's homes. religious buildings. hospitals and
nursing homes.
C.2.23 Prohibited
Dwellings except those of essential watch and ward personnel, heavy, extensive,
noxious, obnoxious, hazardous and extractive industrial units, hospitals/research
laboratories treating contagious diseases, poultry farms/dairy farms. slaughter-houses,
sewage treatment/disposal sites, agricultu-ral uses. storage of perishable and
inflammable commodities. quarrying of gravel. sand. clay and stone, zoological garden.
botanical garden. bird sanctuary, picnic hut. international conferfjnce centre, courts,
sports training centre. reformatory, district batallian office. forensic science laboratory
and all other activities which cause nuisance and are noxious and obnoxious in nature.
' 190 - CRDT,ITPI, New Delhi-----------------------
: ',< ·.·· ;·.· .·\·,· ,·
).-.
- - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - UDPFJ Guidelines---
C.2.30 INDUSTRIAL USE ZONE
(Service and Light Industry. Extensive and Heavy Industry, Special Industrial Areas
and Warehousing)
In the Industrial Use Zone the buildings and premises shall normally be used for
identified and associated permitted and permissible use/activities, on an application.
C.2.31 Permitted Use/Activity
Residential buildings for essential staff and for watch and ward, all kind of industries.
public utilities, parking, loading, unloading spaces, warehousing, storage and depot of
non-perishable and non-inflammable commodities and incidental use, cold storage and
ice factory, gas godowns, cinema, bus terminal, bus depot and workshop. wholesale
business establishments, petrol filling stations with garages and service stations, parks
and playgrounds. medical centres, restaurants.
C.2.32 Permissible Uses/Activities
Noxious, obnoxious and hazardous industries except storage of perishable and
inflammable goods, junkyards, sports/stadium/playgrounds, sewage disposal works,
electric power plants. service stations. cemeteries.
government/semi-government/private business offices, banks and financial institutions.
helipads, hospitals/medical centres, religious buildings, taxi stands. gas installations
and gas works, animal racing or riding stables, workshops/garages. dairy and farming _
quarrying of gravel, sand, clay or stone.
C.2.33 Uses/Activities Prohibited
Residential dwellings other than those essential operational and watch and ward staff,
schools and colleges, hotels, motels and caravan parks, recreational spots or centres.
other non-industrial related activities, religious buildings, irrigated and sewage farms,
major oil depot and LPG refilling plants, commercial office, educational institutions,
social buildings.
C.2.40 PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC USE ZONE (PS)
In Public and Semi-public Use Zones PS (Government/Semi Govt., Public Offices-PS1,
government land (use undetermined)-PS2, Educational Research and Research-PS3.
Medical and Health. PS-4, Social Cultural and Religious-PSS, Heritage and·
Conservation Areas-PS6, Utilities and Services-PS?. Cremation and Burial-
grour.ds-PSB, the following uses/ activities are prescribed as permitted, permissible on
an application to the Competent Authority and as prohibited for general guidance.
C.2.41 Permitted Uses/Activities
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-------------------,---- 191
UIJP/<1
Government offices, central, state, local and semi government, public undertaking
offices, defence courts, universities and specialised educational institute, colleges,
schools, research and development centres, social and welfare centres. libraries,
hospitals, health/primary centres. dispensaries. clinics and libraries, social and cultural
institutes, religious buildings/centres, conference hatis, community halls, barat ghar,
dharam shala, museums/art gallaries, exhibition centres, auditoriums, police
station/police posts, police lines, jails, fire stations/fire posts, burial-
grounds/cemeteries, public utilities and buildings, solid waste dumping grounds/sites,
post offices, local, state and central government offices and use for defence purposes,
educational and research institutions. social and cultural and religious institutions. bus
and railway passenger terminals, public utility and buildings, local municipal facilities,
U$es incidental tp government offices and for their use. monuments. radio transmitter
and wireless stations, telecommunication centre, telephone exchange, cremation
grounds and cemeteries, hospitals. nursing homes and dispensaries. police
headquarters and police lines. fire stations and flre posts. museums, libraries.
C.2.42 Activities/Uses Permissible
Hospitals, health centres, nursing homes, dispensary, clinic, residential flat and
residential plot for group housing for staff employees, university and specialised
educational institute. college, nursery and kindergarten. welfare centre, auditorium.
open air theatre, health centre. playground, recreational club, guest house, bank,
museum, fire post, police post, post and telegraph office, hostels, water suppfy
installations, sewage disposal works, service stations, railway stations/yards,
polytechnics, cultural and religious buildings, community hall, bus/truck terminals,
cemeteries/graveyards, warehouses/storage godowns, helipads, commercial
uses/centres. other uses/ activities.
C.2.43 Uses/Activities Prohibited
.Heavy, extensive and other obnoxious. hazardous industries. slaughter-houses, junk
yards, wholesale mandis. dairy and poultry farms. farm-houses. workshops for
servicing and repairs. processing and sale of farm products and uses not specifically
permitted herein.
C.2.50 RECREATIONAL USE ZONE (P)
In Recreational Use Zones P (Playgrounds/stadium/sports complex-P1,
parks/garden.s-P2. Specialised Recreational Areas-P3, Multi-Use Open Space
(Maidan)-P4, the following uses/activities are prescribed as permitted, permissible on
an application to the Competent Authority, and as prohibited for general guidance.
C.2.51 Permitted Uses/Activities
Regional parks, district parks, playgrounds, children traffic parks, botanical/zoological
garden, bird sanctuary, clubs, stadiums(indoor), outdoor stadiums, picnic huts, holiday
. 192 - CRDT, ITPI. New
.
- - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ · U/JPFI Guidelines---
resorts, shooting range, sports training centres, specialised parks/maidans for
multi-use, swimming pool, special recreation and special educational areas, bus and
railway passenger terminals, library, public utilities and facilities such as police post,
fire post, post and telegraph office, health centre for players and staff.
C.2.52 Uses/Activities Permissible
Building and structures ancillary to use permitted ·in open spaces and parks such as
·stand for vehicles on hire, taxis and scooters. commercial use of transit nature like
cinema, circus and other shows, public assembly halls, restaurants and caravan parks,
sports stadium, open air cinemas.
C.2.53 Uses/Activities Prohibited
Any building or structure which is not required for open air recreation. dwelling unit
except for watch and ward, uses notspecifically permitted therein.
C.2.60 TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION USE ZONE
C.2.61 Uses/Activities Permitted
Road transport terminals (bus terminals and depots), goods terminals, parking areas,
circulations, airports - buildings and infrastructure, truck terminal, motor garage,
workshop, repair and repair shop and facilities such as night shelter. boarding house,
banks, restaurants, booking offices, transmission centre, wireless station. radio and
television station, observatory and weather office.
C.2.62 Uses/Activities Permissible
Any other use/activity incidental to transport and communication. residential dwelling
units for essential staff and watch and ward.
C.2.63 Uses/Activities Prohibited
Use/activity not specifically permitted herein.
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------- 193
,·.:···-·.··
. · . · ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
. ',:

C.2.70 AGRICULTURE AND WATER BODY USE
C.2.71 Uses/Activities Permitted
Dwelling for the people engaged in the farm (rural settlement), and
accessory buildings, agriculture, horticulture and forestry, poultry and dairy farm.
cottage industries, storage, processing and sale of farm produce, petrol and other fuel
filling stations, public utility and facility buildings.
C.2.72 Uses/Activities Permissible
Farm houses, extensive industry, brick, sewage disposal works, electric power plant.
quarrying of gravel, sand, clay or stone, service industries accessory to obnoxious and
hazardous industries, schools and temple, churches, mosques and other
religious buildings, milk chilling stations and pasteurisation plants.
C.2.73 Uses/Activities Prohibited
Residential use except those ancillary uses permitted in agricultural use zone, heavy,
extensive, noxious, obnoxious and hazardous industries, any activity which is creating
nuisance and is obnoxious in nature.
C.2.80 SPECIAL AREAS
In addition to the various uses/activities, permitted, permissible on application to the
Competent Authority and prohibited. listed under various use zones, may also be
specified keeping in view the special characteristics of such areas/pockets. This may
comprise old built-up areas having mixed land use. It may be areas of historical or
archaeological importance having historical monuments and architecturally important
buildings. It may be areas of scenic value and need to be preserved without spoiling
the character by putting up various kinds of structures. Therefore. it is necessary that
use/activity permissibility in special areas should be carefully thought of in the
development plan when formulated keeping in view the predominant and compatible
activities of a specific use, of which such a special area is a part.
C.3.00 SIMPLIFIED DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION REGULATIONS IN URBAN
USE ZONES
C.3.10 MINIMUM SETBACKS
The following Table may be referred for deciding the minimum setback for different
size plots in various use zones. The size of plots should be decided after taking into
account the provisions of National Housing Policy and the Urban Land (Ceiling and
Regulation) Act. The setback, if necessary, may be changed depending upon the local
situations and specified in the development plan.
194 - CRDT, JTPI, New Delhi----------------------
------------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
SI.No. Plot Size (in sq.m.) Front Rear in Side Side
---------------------------------
Plains Hi is
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Upto 60 0 0 2 0 0
2. Above 60 & up to 150 3 0 2 0 0
3. Above 150 & upto 300 3 3 3 0 0
4. Above 300 & upto 500 3 3 3 3 0
5. Above 500 & upto 1000 6 3 3 3 3
6. Above 1000 & upto 2000 9 3 3 3 3
7. Above 2000 & upto 4000 9 6 6 6 6
8. Above 4000 & upto 10000 9 6 6 6 6
9. Above 10000 15 9 9 9 9
Note: (i)
In case the permissible coverage is not achieved with setbacks. the setbacks of the preceding
category may be followed.
(ii)
Above provisions of setbacks are subject to requirements of height and ventilation as per building
bye-laws.
(iii) In case a layout is sanctioned with more than the minimum prescribed setbacks. the same shall
be followed in the sanct1on of the building plans.
(iv)
The building plan sanctioning authority may relax setbacks in special circumstances.
C.3.20 PARKING STANDARD
The following Table may be referred for deciding the parking norms for different use
zone/activities depending upon local vehicle ownership, mass transportation and
parking needs. Only one value of ECS and NOT a range should be specified in the
development plan. It should fall within the range indicated and can be changed in
subsequent plan depending upon need.
Sl. Use/Use Prmises
No.
1 . Resident iai
Group Housing, Plotted Housing (plots above
250 sq.m.) and Mixed Use
2. Commercial
i)
ii)
iii)
Wholesale Trade and Freight Complex
(including parking for loading and unloading)
City centre. district centre, hotel, cinema and others
Community centre, local shopping centre,
convenience shopping centre
Equivalent Car Spaces
(ECS) per 100 sq.m.
of floor area
0.50- 1.50
1.50- 2.50
1.00 - 2.00
0.50- 1.50
Table Contd.,
-- CRDT, JTPI, New Delhi------------------------- 195
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Guidelines---
Sl. Use/Use Prmises
No.
Equivalent Car Spaces
(ECS) per 100 sq.m.
of floor area
3. Public and Semi-Public Facilities
i)
ii)
Nursing home, hospit'als (other than government),
social, cultural and other institutions, government
and semi-government offices
Schools, college and university government
hospitals
0.50- 1.50
0.25 - 0.75
4. Industrial
Note
Light & service industry, flatted
group industry, extensive industry 0.50- 1.00
1. For the provision of car parking spaces, tHe space standards shall be as under :
i) For open parking 18.0 sq.m. per equivalent car space.
ii) For ground floor covered parking 23.0 sq.m. per equivalent car space.
iii) For basement 28.0 sq.m. per equivalent car space.
2. In the use premises. parking on the. above standards may be provided on the ground
floor. or in the basement (where the proVISIOn exists).
3. In case of organised centres like district centre and community centre to meet with the
above demand of parking, additional underground space (besides the basement) may
be provided below the piazzas or pedestrian or open spaces but within the setback
lines.
4. Plots forming part of any commercial development, basement(s) maximum equivalent
to the plot area within the building envelope line, may be permitted for parking and
services such as electric sub-station with specifications and approval, installation of
electrification for fire fighting equipment with the approval and any other services with
appropriate approval.
C.3.30 SPECIFIC USE ZONES
C.3.31 Residential Use Zone
The residential areas are developed either as (a) plotted development or (b) group
housing/flatted development. The density pattern i.e. (high density, high medium
density, low medium density or low density) are followed for working out the pattern
of development with respect the size of the plot to number of dwelling units on eac:.
196 -- CRJJT, /TPI,New Delhi-------------------------
Guidelines---
plot, setbacks, FAR and the number of storeys/height of the building. The municipal
and social infrastructure qs per the norms and standards specified in the master plan
are provided. The various sites/plots required for social and municipal infrastructure
are indicated in th.e layout plans. The development norms for different use/activities
and on different size of plots are applied for sanctioning of the plans. are based
on development control rules applicable to the. city/town.
a. Buildings within the Residential Use Zone
Buildings for various uses/activities within the residential use zone forming part
of the residential layout plan are to be constructed with the norms of the
coverage, FAR, height and others as applicable to that size of a residential
plot. ·
b. Plotted Development
The layout plans for residential scheme are formulated keeping in view (1) that
there would be sufficient light and air in the buildings when constructed (2) that
there would be protection against noise, dust and local hazards (3) that there
would be sufficient open space for various family needs (4) that the circulation
and access is easy and is safe from accident point of view (5) that, as far as
possible, the plots are of regular shape and size and (6) these are logically
arranged in a systematic manner so as to give a regular pattern of
development in the form of row houses, detached and semi-detached houses
and if necessary ttie regular bungalow type sites.
c. Residential Premises - Plotted Housing
For low-income group the minimum plot size should not be less than 30 sq.m.
HowL Jer, the plot size may vary depending upon the type of the housing
needed for a particular city based on general affordability of the people. The
size of the plot would also depend on the number of dwelling units to be
permitted on each plot. Normally, a plot should be built for two dwelling units
on each plot. However, on bigger size plots, more than one dwelling unit per
plot can be built. The following Table is suggested for different size of the plots·
applicable, ground coverage, FAR. height and number of dwelling units for a
residential area :
- CRDT, ITPI, New 197
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-----------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
.
Sl. Plot Area (sq.m.)
No.
Maximum
Ground
Coverage(%)
FAR N o ~ o f
DUs
Maximum
Height
(m)
Low-Income Group Housing (mainly for large cities/towns)
1. 30 75 150 1 8
2. Above 30 upto 50 75 150 2 8
Normal Housing (mainly for large, medium and small towns)
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Note: 1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Above 50 upto 100 65 180 3 12
Above 100 to 250 65 180 3 12
Above 250 to 500 55 165 6 15
Above 500 to 1000 45 120 8 15
Above 1000 to 1500 40 100 8 15
Above 1500 to 2250 33 1/3 100 12 15
In the already approved/developed plots the pattern of development should conform to the
ex1st ing regulations.
Basement. if constructed, may be used for incidental use such as parking, servicing and
household storage. It is not to be used as a dwelling unit.
The area of the basement should not be more than the ground coverage.
Parking as per the prescribed norms should be provided with the plot or provision should be
made in the layout plan without affecting the circulatjon pattern.
50% of the open area of the plot should be used for proper landscaping and for plantation.
d. Group Housing
The number of dwelling units are calculated on the basis of the density pattern given
in the development plan, taking into consideration a population of 4.5 persons per
dwelling unit.
Minimum size of the plot
in hill towns
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
2250 sq.m
5000 sq.m.
35%
125 (higher FAR may be given
depending on the pattern of development
and should not exceed 150)
198 - CRDT, ITP/, New Delhi------------------------
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Guidelines---
Maximum Height
In hill areas
Number of dwelling units
15 m(for plot sizes upto 4000 sq.m.) and
26m for plots above 400 sq.m.
15 m for all size of plots
To be calculated on the basis of the net
plot area of a particular
neighbourhood. This may vary between
50 DUs to 125 DUs per ha.
Note: 1)
Basement, if constructed, is to be used for parking, servicing
and for essential household storage and for providing facilities
without counting in FAR.
2) The quantum of basement may vary between 33 1/3% to 50%
of the plot area.
C.3.32 Commercial
a. Cluster Centre Convenience Shopping
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
Maximum Height
-In hills
b. Sector Centre
Maximum ground coverage
- in hills
Maximum FAR
Maximum Height
-In hills
Community Centre
Maximum ground coverage
-In hills
Maximum FAR
Maximum Height
-In hills
40%
60
15 m
6m
30%
35%
100
15 m
9 m
25%
30%
100
26m
15m
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------:-------------- 199

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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
d. District Cenfre
Maximum ground coverage .
Maximum FAR
- !n hills
Maximum Height
- In hills
e. Other Controls :
25%
125
100
37m
15 m
i) Some of the buildings in a district centre in non-hill towns could be
permitted up to 50 m height with the approval of the government for
achieving an urban form.
Public & Semi-Public Premises
·.A. General (in cases where specific regulations are not given)
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum-FAR
Maximum Height
- In hills
Other controls :
25%
iOO
26m
15 m
i) 15% of the total floor shall be allowed for residential purpose.
ii) Basement upto envelope line and to the maximum extent of 50% of the
plot area shall be allowed and if used for parking and services should
not be counted iri FAR.
B. Government Offices
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
-In hills
·Maximum Height
- In hills
Other controls :
"
25%
125 .
100
37m
15m
i)
The integrated office complex shall include Central government office,
local government office, public undertaking offices and courts.
200 -. CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi----------------------
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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
ii) Basement up to the building envelope line and to the maximum extent
of plot area shall be allowed and if used for parking and services
should not be counted in FAR.
C. Nursery School
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
Maximum Height
In hills
33.33%
66.66
am
6m
Note:
Basement below the ground floor and to the maximum extent of
ground coverage, and if constructed shall be counted in FAR.
D. Primary School
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
Maximum Height
33%
100
15m
Note:
School for the handicapped shall have the same norms as the
primary school.
E. Higher Secondary School
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
-In hills
Maximum Height
F. College
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
-In hills
Maximum Height
30%
140
100
15m
25%
100
75
15m
Note: 1.
In case of the above premises the total area of the plot shall be divided
in
i) school/college building area
ii) play field area
iii) parking area
iv) residential and hostel area
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------- 201
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2. The maximum ground coverage and FAR shall be calculated only on
the areas meant for building ":laterials.
G. Education and Research Centres
(Large campus i.e. above 8 ha)
Large campuses of universities, medical and engineering colleges and other education
and research institutes shall be covered under these regulations. The campus will be
divid.ed into three parts and the regulations shall apply' as given below :
i} Academic, including administration (45% of the total land area)
ii)
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
Maximum Height
-In hills
20%
80
26m
15 m
Basement below the ground floor and to the maximum extent of ground
coverage shall be allowed and if used for parking and services should not be
counted in FAR.
Residential (25% of total land area)
This will be developed at a density of 400 pph gross. The land shall be
reserved for residential facilities @ 9.2 sq.m. per person. Sub-division
. regulations as given for group housing shall apply.
iii} Sports and Cultural A'ctivities (15% of the total area}
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
10%
15
iv) Parks and landscape (15% of the total land area): suitable landsGape plan to
be prepared for this area.
H. Religious Premises
Maximum ground coverage
Maximum FAR
Maximum Height
33.33%
66.66
11 m
.\ '
(excluding minarets, shikharas and domes)
Basement below the ground floor and to the maximum extent of ground /i
coverage, if constructed, shall be counted in FAR. ,
I 202 - =1, 1%111
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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
C.3.34 Industries Use
A. Flatted Group Industry
Minimum plot size
Maximum ground coverage
· Maximum FAR
hills
Maximum Height
-In hills
Other conlrols :
2000·sq.m.
30
120
100
15 m
15m
i) Basement up to the building envelope line to the maximum extent of
50% plot area shall be allowed and if used for parking and services
should not be counted in FAR.
and Service Industry
-·-·---------------------------------------------------------------··-------------------------·-----'1"-----------
Sf. Plot Size
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
No. (sq.m.)
Ground
FAR in
height in
Coverage
----------------
-----------------
Plains Hills Plains Hills
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. 100 to 400
60%
125 100
12 m 9m
2. Above 400 & up to 4000 50'%
125 100 12 m 12 m
·3.'
Above 4000 & up to 12000
45%
125 100 12 m 12 m
Above 12000
40%
100
75 12m 9m
--------------------------------------------------------------.; ......................................................................................................................................................
Other conlrols :
(i)
Maximum Jloors allowed shall be basement, ground floor and first floor;
basement should be below ground floor and to the maximum extent of ground
coverage shall be counted in FAR. In case the basement is not constructed,
the permissible FAR can be achieved on the second floor.
(ii) In case of roof trusses, height of buildings should be adjusted/relaxed.
C. Extensive Industry
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Sl.
No.
Plot Size
(sq.m.)
Maximum
Groun.d
Coverage
Maximum FAR in
Plains Hills
Maximum
height
(in m)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. 400 to 4000
2. Above 4000 & upto 12000
3. Above 12000 & upto 28000
4. Above 28,000
50%
45%
40%
30%
100
90
80
60
75.
60
50
45
9
9
9
9
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-----------------------..- 203
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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
Other controls :
(i)
Single storey building with basement is allowed. Basement shall be below the
ground floor and the maximum extent of ground coverage and shall be counted
in FAR.
(ii) In case of roof trusses, height of buildings could be adjusted/relaxed.
C.3.35 Agriculture
a. Farm Houses
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S.No. Size of Farm
Max. FAR
Max. Height
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.
Above 1.0 ha and
100 sq.m. (including
Single storeyed
upto 2.0 ha
mezzanine floor)
maximum height 6 m
2.
2.0 ha and above
150 sq.m. (including
Single storeyed
floor)
maximum height 6 m
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Other controls :
i) Setback in dwelling house should be 15 m away from any boundary line of the .
property.
ii) Where the property abuts an urban road, the dwelling house building should
be setback from the centre line of that road by 60 m. Where the property abuts
a village road, the building setback from the centre line of that road should be
by 30m.
iii) No dwelling units should be built within 400 m of the right of way of any
National Highway.
C.3.36 Circulation
a. Bus Terminal
Maximum coverage on different floors :
Ground floor
In hills
1st floor
In hills
3 % (for passengers facilities)
5 % (for passenger facilities)
3 % (for facilities)
5 % (for facilities and terminal offices)
204 - CRI)T, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
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':,,. . .. -.... :.·.- . . • .. ,'.·,
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2nd floor 10 % (for terminal offices)
(for plain areas only)
Maximum floor area permissible shall be 500 sq.m.
Maximum Height 14 m.
In hills 9 m
Other controls :
(i)
(ii)
The space on 1st and 2nd floor shall be essentially used for public services like
post and telegraph, police-post and other essential services.
Bus queue shelters are not to be included in the coverage and FAR.
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------- 205
APPENDIX -lJ
ALTERNATIVE
MODELS OF
PRIVATE SECTOR
PARTICIPATION
I ..
i.
I
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APPENDIX- D
ALTERNATIVE MODELS OF PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION
0.1.00 EXISTING SCENARIO
1. Urban planning and development activities, in most of the states, are generally
performed by the public sector which is the sole operator in the process. This
monopolistic situation has resulted in loss of efficiency of this sector. As a
consequence, the development of urban centre is suffering.
2. Recently, a few states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh
and Uttar Pradesh have promoted a varying degree of private sector participation in
urban planning and development process. But, the role of this sector is not yet clearly
defined and there is a lack of proper control and operational mechanism.
3. The private sector, therefore, is generally unrecognised and its activities are
piecemeal. This sector, however, has an excessive competition which has resulted
tn professionalism, dynamism and efficiency. It has capabilities of mobilisation of ,.
resources and if properly promoted can contribute very effectively in urban planning
and development process. But, this sector is being criticised for its profit motives and
lack of social commitment.
4. With the current policy of economic liberalisation and stress on privatisation, the role
of government is shifting from 'provider' to that of a 'facilitator' of development of urban
areas.
5. The areas of private sector participation include :
{a) Infrastructure Development
i) Water supply : augmentation of source, treatment, distribution
and maintenance;
ii) Provision and maintenance of sewage treatment plant, sewage
reclamation plant for reuse and recycling of sewage for
non-domestic use, and city sewerage system;
iii) Collection transportation and safe disposal of solid waste.
{b) Development of Facilities
i) Provision and running of health, education and recreation
facilities.
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------------- 207
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(c) Transportation
i) Provision and operation of MATS;
ii) Provision and maintenance of highways; and
iii) Provision of city bus service system.·
(d) Urban Development
i) Township planning and development;
ii) of commercial complexes;
iii) Development of residential colonies;
iv) Development of tourist complexes.
6. The private sector includes individuals; groups; consultancy firms; developers,
builders and promoters; cooperative societies; non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
and· community based organisations (CBOs); cooperative bodies; industrialists and
businessmen. In large and medium size urban centres, economically weaker sections
of the society play a major role in providing housing and employment in informal
sector. This sector, hitherto, was neglected and must be recognised as a private
sector; of course, with different attributes than the one given earlier.
0.2.00 SYSTEMS OF PARTICIPATION
The various systems of involving the private sector are
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
Contracting out the work.
BOT : Build-operate-transfer system. The variations of this system
include Build-transfer-operate (BTO), Build- rent-transfer( BAT),
Lease-develop-transfer (LDT) and Lease-develop-operate (LDO).
BOOT : Build-own-operate-transfer.
Turnkey system.
Housing cooperative societies.
Societies formed by NGOs and CBOs and common interest groups for
provision and maintenance of services at local area level.
Public-private sector joint venture.
0.3.00 JOINT VENTURE
208 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
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--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
The objective of the joint venture programmes where both public and private sectors
jointly participate is to ensure implementation of the social objectives attached to a
project and also, in some cases, to mutually share the benefits accruing from the
project. The various options for partnership arrangements are shown in Table, 0.1.
TABLE 0.1 MODELS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP ARRANGEMENTS AS
A JOINT-VENTURE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Model Private Sector
Responsiblity
Public Sector Role
Responsibility
-----------.-----------------------------------------------------------------------... -------------------------------
1.
2.
3.
4.
5 ..
Finance
Finance, operations
Planning, development,
construction, sale of built spaces
Developr;nen t, construction
sharing of built space
Land assembly, planning
development, sale of built
spaces
All operations
Lease of equipment
Land acquisition,
development control,
registration and allotment of
EWS houses
Land acqui istion, planning
sharing of built space,
peripheral development
Development control
. .
-----------------------------------------------.---------------------------------------------------------------
D.3.10 SOME MODELS OF PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION AND JOINT
VENTURE
0.3.11 The LOA Model
The Lucknow Development Authority (LOA) allotted 113.13 ha. of land (283 acres) to
a private developer (called owner) in December, 1986 and an agreement to execute
the work was made in May, 1988 with the following salient features:
a) The project was for the development and construction of residential
dwelling units.
b) Period for the completion of the scheme was three years.
c) All EWS houses were to be single-storeyed according to norms,
specifications and conditions laid down by the LOA.
d) Out of a total number of EWS houses, 50% were to be handed over by
the builder to the LOA in the second year and the balance within three
years of the period.
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------- 209
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e)
The cost of EWS houses as constructed by the builder was to be
reimbursed by the LOA ..
f) Allotment of EWS houses was to be made by the LOA while allotment
of houses/plots other than of EWS was to be made by the builders as
per allotment rules. ·
g) The registration and allotment of EWS houses was to be made by the
LOA after obtaining complete ·information from the builder..
h) Allotment of land for primary health centre was to be made by the LOA
while that for public facilities by the builder.
i) A maximum of 2% of the total area was to be used for commercial
purposes.
j) The private builder was to construct the entire area including social
infrastructure.
k) The builder was to be held responsible for removing defects, if any, in
internal noticed before handing over the services to respective
departments.
I) The builder had to take a completion certificate from the LOA and after
the issue of the same the bank guarantee was to be released within 30
days by the application of the builder.
0.3.12 The Gurgaon (Haryana) Model
The agreement between the owner of land, or developer, intending to set up a colony
(hereinafter called the owner) and the Director, Town and Country Planning, Haryana
contains the following conditions :
a) The owner shall deposit 30% of the amount realised by him from plot
holders, from time to time, within 10 days of its realisation in a separate
account in a scheduled bank and this amount shall be used only for
internal development of the colony.
b) The owner shall undertake to pay proportionate external development
charges with 9· break-up of 25% within one month and the balance 75%
in two years in four equal half-yearly instalments. Interest at the rate
of 18% per annum sha.ll. be charged on payments.
c) If there is any del1y .i.n payment of instalmehts, penal ·interest at the rate
of3%,per month on the belated amount shall be charged in addition.
210 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------,.----------
----·---------------------UDPFJ Guidelines---
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
I)
m)
Enhanced compensation on land, if any, will be payable by the owner.
Some amount has been added for the construction of internal
community buildings in the external development charges and for this,
no recovery shall be made from the plot holders. However, grants will
be given by the HUDA for the internal buildings constructed by the
owner of the colony.
The owner shall pay electrification charges directly to the Haryana State
Electricity Board (HSEB). No external development charges would be
recovered from the EWS/LIG categories.
The owner shall be responsible for the maintenance of services for a
period of 5 years from the date of issue of completion certificate or
transfer of services to the local authority whichever is earlier.
The owner shall complete the internal development works within two
years of the grant of the licence. The owner shall pay a service charge
on the total plotted area of the colony, excluding areas for social
infrastructure.
The owner shall give requisite land for the water and sewage treatment
works, oxidation ponds at his own cost till the external
system is completed by the Haryana Urban Development Authority
"(HUDA).
The owner shall reserve 20% of the total number of residential plots for
the EWS/LIG. For the allotment of these plots, the owner shall invite
applications and would allot only to eligible persons falling in this
category by draw of lots.
The owner shall further reserve 25% of the 'residential plots for
allottment on 'No Profit No Loss' basis and
1
would also allot the
applicants registered with him via draw of lots. Out' of these plots, 75%
would be.allotted in the general category and the. balance 25% to - i)
. , '
Non-Resident Indians (NRis) against foreign exchange; ii) alternate
:allotment to those whose lands were required by the owner, and iii) 5%
·at the discretion of the owner.
,1-- If;
The balance 55% residential plots of 125 sq.m. and above would be
sold by the owner in the free market subject to the .bondition that he will
not get a net profit of more than 15%.
The owner shall submit the list of allottees to the Director twice a year.
- CRDT, ITPJ, New Delhi--------------------- 211
' ' ,' . : .. : .. ' . .' ·: : : "
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0.3.13 The Jaipur Model
The Jaipur Development Authority (JDA), in 1989 floated a commercial project by the
name "A_shok Towers Commercial Complex" on 1.71 ha. after getting complete plans
prepared through consultants. The cost of the project was Rs.68.7 million with design
parameters namely- i) ground coverage 35%; ii) FAR- 134; iii) maximum height- 15
m. iv) No.of floors- basement+ ground+ three other floors. The complex has shops
on the ground "floor and offices on other floors. The following terms and conditions
were envisaged, but ultimately the project was not implemented. However, the terms
and conditions, as'"given under, would be useful while drawing/making a policy on the
subject:
a) Entire paper planning was done by the JDA based on an architectural
design competition.
b) Builders were. requested to indicate the percentage of the built-up area
to offer to the JDA.
c) A performance guarantee or security of Rs.5 million was asked from the
builders. On this amount, a rate of interest of 6% was paid or it can be
a fixed deposit in favour of the JDA. After the completion of the project
and sharing of built-up spaces sp.tisfactorily between the builder and the
JDA, the security amount/F.D. wo.uld be refunded/released to the
builder.
d) Builders were not allowed to mortgage the land for drawing a loan ..
e) The sharing of the built-up area would take place after construction of
the project is completed. The sharing would not be possible at any
stage before the completion of the project. However, the builder would
be allowed the facility of booking its percentage of the built-up space
floorwise, but this booking would also commence only after the ground
floor roof is laid. All bookings shall be done through the JDA.
f) The sharing of spaces would be done vertically.
g) The area agreed to be shared would be made available to the JDA
within the specific prescribed period.
h) If the completion of the project is delayed due to the fault of the builder,
'then the JDA's share of the built-up space would increase by 1% every
quarter.
i) Peripheral development would be done by the JDA.
212 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------'--_:._........_ ____ ---'-----
UDPFI Guidelines---
j) The entire money for the internal development and construction of
building shall be borne by the builder.
k) Roof rights of the building shall remain with the JDA.
I) The building would be constructed under the supervision of the JDA,
but -only at the following stages :
m)
n)
o)
p)
q)
i) on the laying of the foundation,
ii) at plinth level,
iii) at every roof level,
iv) during the process of finishing,
v) at the time of completion, and
vi) at any stage deemed fit.
Builder would be able to transfer any property to the prospective buyer
only when the share ·of the JDA is handed over to it.
Commissioner, JDA may be the final arbitrator.
Common facilities of the built-up space would be available to the
allottees equally.
Common facilities would be maintained by the Estate Management /
Society on fhe basis of a levy of fae from the beneficiaries.
Builder is permissible only for the first allotmenVsale; in case of other
allotments, namely second or third, on.e has to approach the JDA.
r) Builder would be the owner of the shared built-up accommodation and
not of the open area.
0.3.14 The DDA {Slum Wing) Model
The Slum Wing, DDA, in April, 1980 invited developers and builders to join hands in
giving Delhi many prestigious commercial complexes, including one district centre, 13
community. shopping centres, 27 local shopping centres, one flatted works centre and
one office complex. Terms and as given in the newspapers in May, 1990,
were as under :
a) The entire paper planning would be done- and got approved by the
Slum Wing, DDA.
b) A bank guarantee equivalent to 10% of cost of the project would be
given by the party.
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c) Entire development including laying of all peripheral and internal
services, construction of basements and buildings would be done by
the party with its funds.
d) Entire construction would be undertaken by the party from its own funds
as per detailed plans to be supplied by the Slum Wing, DDA, except the
plots to be auctioned or to be allotted by Slum Wing, DDA to various
institutions.
e)
f)
g)
Developed areas and built-up urban spaces would be shared between
the party ana the Slum Wing, DDA as per mutual agreement.
Developed area/built-up urban spaces would be auctioned by the Slum
Wing, DDA and the party on uniform policy, terms and conditions.
Leases/sub-leases would be. executed by the Slum Wing, DDA with the
intended purchasers/buyers.
h) Maintenance of the complex during the period of development and
construction would be done satisfactorily by the party.
i) Developed and constructed urban spaces would be handed over to the
MCD for maintenance purposes and deficiencies, if any, would be paid
by the party to the local body.
0.3.15 The CIDCO Model
1. The City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) New Mumbai adopted
the following two methods :
a) 21,000 tenements to be constructed under this project were divided into
different units, each comprising approximately 1000-1500 tenements.
i) CIDCO appointed an Architect who worked as 'Action Area
Consultant' and was responsible for the preparation of physical
plans, and pre-qualification of intending tenderers.
ii) CIDCO also selected a professional 'Construction Management
Consultant' who was responsible for execution of the project,
and hand it over to CIDCO for allotment. . ·
iii) The 'Construction Management Consultant' was responsible to
the CIDCO for any defect found in the construction and for this
purpose he executed a 'Defects-Liability' agreement in· favour of
CIDCO.
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' .
b) In this project also, 21,000 tenements were to be constructed, but on
'Turnkey Basis', with planning to be done by the developer/builder's
capital. The project, as in the first method, was broken up into ·
schemes, each covering 1000-1500 tenements.
i) The m :nagement of schemes was to be done by the
'Construction_ Management Consultant' who was to be appointed
by CIDCO.

ii) In this case also, the and consJ,Jitants' were to
execute the 'Defects-Liabilily' agreement in favour of CIDCO.
2. The scope of work for Architects/Action Area Consultant was as under : -
a) Pre-tender activities :
i) Coordination with Consulting Architect and· CIDCO regarding·
project planning and site data collection.
ii) Preparation of tender documents as per specifications and bill
of quantities/drawings to be furnished by the Consulting
Architects.
iii) Scrutiny of pre-qualification offers for short-listing of building
contractors.
iv) Invitation, receipt, analysis and scrutiny of tender and
· recommendations to CIDCO for award of work.
v) The execution of contract agreements in the format to be
approved by CIDCO, on behalf of CIDCO.
b) Post-tender activities (Consultancy during construction stage) :
i) Complete day-to-day supervision of contracted buildings and .
land development works for individual schemes, with 1 000 to
1500 tenements of various categories, ensuring quality control
in accordance with specifications, drawings and site conditions.
The quality control will be at all stages of construction, namely
approval of materials, usage thereof in proper proportions and
workmanship at all stages of execution of individual items of
work.
ii) Ensure proper establishment of field laboratories by contractors
to cqnduct .laboratory tests of materials like cement, steel,
bricks, etc. essential gauge instruments etc. should be got
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calibrated periodically.
iii) Suggesting modifications, if any, due to site conditions and
advising about cost variations from time to time.
D.4.00 SUGGESTED ROLE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS
The following Table provides a list of suggested· roles of public and private sector
interventions.
TABLE 0.2 SUGGESTED ROLES OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTORS IN THE
URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Public Sector Role
1. Basic Role
- Promotion of development'
- Protection of community interests
2. Professional Planning Role

- Settlement planning policies
and guidelines
- Regional planning & inter-regional
coordination
- Preparation of :
- Perspective plans : (20-25 yrs)
- Development plans (every 5 yrs)
- Monitoring & review
- Promotion of private sector's
professional planning role
3. Development Roles
/
- Assembly of land for trunk services and
major public and semi-pub lie uses and
EWS/LIG housing
- EWS/LIG housing
- Development of settlement level and
off-site infrastructure
- Urban renewal programme
- Land distribution to users
Private Sector Role
1. Basic Role
- Detailed & specialised planning, and
- Development with a reasonable
balance between the client's and
community's interests.
2. Professional Planning Role
- Detailed area planning
(Plans. of projects and schemes)
- Specialieed inputs as expert
consultants pertaining to the
following public sector planning
efforts;
- transport system
- urban design
- urban services
-fiscal resource planning
- project formulation and estimation
- legal support
3. DeveiGf!l'ment Roles
;
\,
- of land for development
through outright purchas- et market·
· prices or land pooling
- Land development
- Developed land distribution
- Building & distribution, sale of
built-up spaces
- Urban renewal through
cooperative action
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Public Sector Role
Private Sector Role
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4. Non-Legal Roles
-Advice to and persuation of people
to follow development plans
Intra-public sector coordination
and cooperation
Public and private sectors coordination
and cooperation
- Introduction of incentives and
inducements to inculcate
development by private sector
with community interest
5. Managerial Role
- Office administration/management
- Capital improvement
- Management and maintenance of
settlement level and off-site
infrastructure, urban spaces and
built-up spaces.
6. Education, Training & Research
- Education, training and research
by institutions
- In-service training by other
organisations
Research by research institutions
7. Legal Roles
- Zoning regulations
-Sub-division regulations
- Legal controls pertaining to private
sector participation in planning
and development process (including
into, mal sector)
- Plan sanction and other related roles
4. Non Legal Roles
- Introduction of awareness
;:tbout planning and development
efforts among the people
- Persuation of people to support
public sector development/renewal
programmes by social groups
- Participation in settlement planning
process with dedication when called
for
5. Managerial Roles
- Development management
- Capital improvement
- Management and maintenance
of on-site urban spaces
and infrastructures
6. Training
- Organisation of professional
training programme
- Inputs in education, training
and research programmes
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APPENDIX- E.
PREPARATION OF
BASE MAPS AND GRAPHIC
PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
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APPENDIX-E
PREPARATION OF BASE MAPS AND GRAPHIC PRESENTATION
TECHNIQUES
E.1.00 MAPPING AND RELATED ASPECTS
E.1.10 BASE MAP
1. Be'fore taking up any urban development plan exercise the first task, both from
planning point of view and as statutory requirement, is to prepare or obtain a reliable,
accurate, and up-to-date base map of the respective town or city for which the plan
is being prepared. The map may be defined as the representation of earth's pattern
as a whole or part of it on a plane surface with conventional signs, drawn to a scale
and projection so that each and every point on it corresponds to the actual terrestrial
position. The amount of information to be represented on the map depends on :
i) scale
ii) projection
iii) conventional signs
iv) draughting skill
v) methods of map-making
vi) purpose of map
and hence would vary from map to map.
2. Uniformity of base map with regard to presentation of features, scale, size and
notations would facilitate the readability of these maps and comparison of one map
with another.
E.1.11 Information on Base Map for Urban Development Plan
For urban development plans the base maps are to· be drawn on large scale and
should show all or part of the physical, topological and cultural features and
administrative and planning boundaries as per the details given below:
a. Physical
i) hills
ii) water bodies
iii) agricultural land and forest areas
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b. Topological
i) Transport networks
-airport
-railways
- roads, streets, lanes
ii) utility and service lines
iii) built-up areas by plots and parcels preferably with survey numbers
iv) contours at an interval of less than 5 meters depending on
physiography of town and scale of the map
c. Cultural Features
i) parks and gardens
ii) public and semi-public buildings (important landmarks)
iii) Important archaeological and historical monuments
d. Planning and Administrative Boundaries
i) municipal boundary
ii) census ward
iii) administrative sub-division limits (if any)
iv) planning area boundary (if identified)
v) gaothan area (urban village or rural settlement within the
limits or on the fringe of the municipal town) ·
vi) cantonment area boundary (if any)
vii) grids (artificial or latitudes and longitudes)
E.1.20 STANDARD SIZE OF MAPS
The size of the base map is largely influenced by the standard size of drawing boards,
digitising tables, sheets available in the market, size of scanning and photographic
equipments and statutory requirements. In order to standardise the size of the maps,
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS} has also made an attempt in simplifying the
numerous size of the maps. Keeping in view the requirements of urban development
plan and recommendation of the BIS the following sizes of maps/drawings could
generally be used :
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SI.No . Category Size
............................ .:. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ ...
1. AOO 1710 mm X 1230 mm
2. AO 1230 mm X 880 mm
3. A1 880 mm X 625 mm
4. A2 625 mm X 450 mm
5. A3 450 mm X 330 mm
6. A4 330 mm X 240 mm
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E.1.30 LAYOUT OF MAPS
The layout of map should facilitate convenient reading of the map and location· of
essential information as given below :
E.1.31 Margin
a) A trimming margin of 10 mm all around for the purpose of trimming and edge
binding.
b) A second margin with thick firm line indicating the outer limits of the drawing.
E.1.32 Title
Such margin on filing edge side could be 25 mm while on other three sides it
could be 15 mm for all sizes of maps.
The title of the map should be as short as possible and should include the general title
as well as sub-title. Size of letters used for the sub-title should be generally one size
smaller than the size of letters used for the main title.
Normally, the title block should contaih the following parttculars :
a) Name of the office
b) Drawing number and title of the drawing
c) Signature of dealing officer
d) Date of preparation/revision/alteration
Title block should be located at the bottom right hand corner of the sheet in a simple
manner. Recommended size of title block is 150 mm x 100 mm for sizes A2 and
larger and 150 mm x 75 mm for sizes A3 and A4.
E.1.33 North Point .
Indication of north point is essential on the drawing and it could be located immediately
above the title block. Wherever possible north point should be shown alongwith the
wind rose.· The north point on a map should, as far as possible, point upwards.
E.1.34 Scale
a) Graphic Scale
b)
Graphic scale is also an essential requirement of map and preferably it should
be given in metric system for the convenience of reproduction. The graphic
scale coLid be drawn above the title block.
'
Spatial Scflk
,)
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In addition to graphic scale the spatial scale should also be given on all plans.
The spatial scale should consist of a square with metric sides and the area
covered by the square should be given inside the square. Such spatial scale
could be located above the graphic scale in the drawing.
c) Numeric Scale
A numeric scale giving representation fraction (R.F.) e.g. 1 : 10,000 should be
given below the graphic scale.
E.1.35 Numbering
A systematic numbering of maps/drawings would be convenient for reference. The
respective department/ organisation may follow its own numbering system based on
standardised methods such as :
i) Systematic numbering
ii) Consecutive numbering
iii) Sectional numbering
E.1.40 SCA.lE OF MAPS
The scale of maps used depends upon the size of the planning area and the coverage
and extent of the information to be shown. Maps of regional setting and metropolitan
areas covering large extent of area have to be necessarily drawn to a small scale than
the maps of small urban areas. The scale of maps for different types of planning
exercises at various levels may be selected out of the range indicated in the following
Table E.1. as per the operational convenience and job requirements.
TABLE E.1. SCALE OF MAPS
Sl.
No.
Type of Map/Planning
Exercise
Size of Planning Area
Metropolitan Level Small and Medium
Town Level
1. Map of Regional Setting 250,000- 1 : 100,000-
1,000,000 .1 : 250,000
2. Perspective Plan 1 100,000 - 50,000
1 250,000 1 : 100,000
3. Development Plan 25,000 - 10,000
50,000 25,000
4. Plans of Project/Scheme 1,qoo- 500-
5 , 0 0 ~ .
2,500
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E.1.50 SOURCES OF MAP
E.1.51 Conventional Sources
a) Topographical map'' of Survey of India
b) City survey' sheets from settlement survey and land records
departments·
c) Old maps published in gazettes and other publications
d). Maps included in Census of India publications
e) Old municipal/property maps
f) Maps prepared by other local development departments like PWD,
public health, power, etc ·
g) NATMO maps
h) City guide and tourist maps
i) Specific field survey
E.1.52 Innovative Techniques
a) Conventional aerial photography and photogrammetry
b) Digital photogrammetry
c) Small format aerial photography
d) Satellite imagery
e) GPS, GIS, etc.
So far, maps from the conventional sources have been the major input for generation
of base maps for preparation of development plans. Of late, the emerging techniques
of aerial photography and remote sensing are being used for generation
of base maps and updating of existing base maps in conjuction \with conventional
collateral data and limited field survey.
E.1.60 ENLARGEMENT AND REDUCATION OF MAPS
Maps from various sources whether conventional or innovative are
available generally in different size and scales. All these maps could be brought in a
required uniform scale by employing any of the following methods.
a) Square method
b) Similar triangle method
c) Pantograph {mechanical method)
d) Optical pantograph method
e) Photographic method {optical)
f) Digital method
The last 3 methods require sophisticated equipments b.ut they produce more accurate
maps than those produced from the conventional methods.
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E.1.70 PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING MAPS
All unclassified maps from various conventional sources could be obtained by following
normal official procedure. All unrestricted topographical/city guide maps published by
Survey of India are available for sale in various departments of Central and state
governments and to the public and can be obtain'ed from the Map Sales Offices of the
Survey of India as well as from the authorised map sales agents in important cities.
Standard topographical maps on scale 1 : 25,000; 1 : 50,000 and 1 : 250,000 and city
guide maps published for selected towns/cit.i.es are useful maps for urban develop(l'lent
plan purpose.
E.1. 71 Restricted Maps
All the topographical maps along the external boundary/coastline of India, as indicated
in the Topo Index Map of Survey of India, are categorised as restricted maps. The
restricted category maps are not available for open sale but these can be procured by
genuine users especially the state and Central governments by following a prescribed
procedure. Private individuals and organisations/commercial firms can also obtain
Restricted Maps' but their demand has to be approved by the Ministry of Defence
through the state government to whom they should apply.
Procedure for indenting restricted maps :
a) Indent to be given in form 0.57 (a) 'Indent for Restricted Maps'.
(Available from Map Sales Office of Survey of India).
b) Scrutiny of the indent form by the Map Sales Office of Survey of India.
c) Intimation of cost of the required maps by the Map Sales Office to the
indentor.
d) On receipt of advance payment the Map Sales Office will supply the
required maps to the indentor.
Important Points
The restricted maps are supplied to the indentor with certain conditions regarding their
safe custody which an indentor has to abide by till the maps are under his position.
Procedural formalities required to be completed for supply of restricted maps may take
some time. Hence, it would be advisable that indentor should initiate action at least 3
months in advance before the plan formulation exercise is actually taken up.
E.1.80 AERIAL PHOTOG RAPHV
All aerial photography in the country and available in Survey of India Archives are
224. - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi----------------------
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classified. For urban planning purpose, black and white (B&W)/panchromatic
photography on scale ranging from 1 : 4,000 to 1 : 40,000 would be suitable but
photography on scale 1 : 6,000 to 1 : 12,500 is the common preferred scale.
E.1.81 Indent for Existing Aerial Photography
Indentor can obtain from SuNeyor General's office Dehradun or the Directorate of
SuNey (Air) New Delhi the information on available photo cover of their area of
interest, its scale, cost rates and other related information. In case it seNes the
purpose, indentor can obtain the existing photography by following a prescribed
procedure.
a) Mark the area of interest on 1 : 250,000 scale topographical map or an
index on tracing paper and apply to SuNey of India indicating purpose
for which photography is required, type of photography (8 & W, colour,
colour infrared) scale of photography and the photographic product
required (contact prints, enlargements, mosaic, etc.).
b) Scrutiny of indent and processing for scrutiny clearance by SuNey of
India.
c) Cost estimates for meeting the demand in whole or part will be
intimated by SuNey of India to the indentor. On receipt of advance
payment photographic products will be supplied by the SuNey of India
to the indentor.
E.1.82 Indenting Procedure for Fresh Aerial Photography
In case existing photography does not cater to the requirements of indentor he may
go, for fresh aerial photography as per requirements. At present, there are 3 agencies,
namely Indian Air Force (through SuNey of India); National Remote Sensing Agency,
Hyderabad; Air SuNey Co. Calcutta which have the capabilities to fly for fresh aerial
photography. For indenting fresh aerial photography the indentor may approach any
of the flying agencies based on competitive cost estimate by following the prescribed
procedure.
a) Mark the limit of the area to be photographed on 1 : 250,000 scale topo
map if photography is required on scale smaller than 1 : 20,000 and 1
: 50,000 scale topo map if photography is required on scale 1 : 20,000
and larger.
b) Apply to the concerned flying agency along with other details of type of
photography, requirements of photographic products, scale and purpose
of photography.
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c) On receipt of demand it would be scrutinised and processed for security
clearance by the flying agency.
d) After processing, cost estimates will be intimated to indentor and on
receipt of advance payments aerial photography will be executed by the
flying agency between October and March and supply of photographic
products would start from March onwards.
E.1.83 Important Points
a) The existing photography is comparatively much cheaper than fresh
photography, hence, efforts should be made to use the existing
photography to the maximum possible extent.
b) As the process for acquiring aerial photography, particularly fresh
photography, is time consuming the demand for photography, therefore,
needs to be projected well in advance. For fresh photography, it should
be at least 6 months in advance before start of the flying season in
October.
c) Scale of the aerial photography is the most important factor in
increasing the cost estimates of aerial photography which needs to be
considered carefully while placing the orders for aerial photography.
Enlargements of large scale photography by 4 to 5 times can serve the
purpose well. Hence, scale of aerial photography should be decided
accordingly in view of the requirements of mapping. Recommended
scale of aerial photography is 1 : 10,000 with stereo coverage having
60% forward overlap and 25% lateral overlap.
d) Even though flying agencies also provide services for final mapping in
required scale by charging extra cost, it takes more time and may
prolong the plan formulation process. Hence, for urban planning
purpose to have the information quickly it would be advisable to ask for
contact prints, enlargements and controlled mosaics from the flying
agency.
e) Air photos are supplied with certain conditions and every year user has
to submit a certificate of safe custody.
· f) Survey of India plan for fresh aerial photography in every flying season
and , cover substantial area of the country. It would be very cost
effective for the planning agencies if they project their requirements of
fresh aerial photography well in advance so that the same could easily
·be incorporated by .Survey of India in its regular flying programme.
226 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------
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;
-e.1.90 PROCEDURE FOR INDENTING SATELLITE DATA PRODUCTS
National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad is the nodal agency for supply of current
and archived satellite data products from almost all contemporary satellites, namely
IRS-lA, IRS_IB, IRS-P2, Land Sat 5, NOAA Series ERS-1 and SPOT (archived data).
These can be processed to various levels (standard, gee-coded) and supplied on
photographic media with different enlargements or on digital computer compatible
media. After the launch of IRS-IC by the end of 1995, NRSA will also commence
supply of products from this satellite which has better resolution and stereo coverage
facility and useful for urban planning purpose. The satellite data may be acquired from
the NRSA Data Centre, Hyderabad by following the prescribed procedure.
a) Request for the required data products, indicating the area of interest
and type of products, should be sent to NRSA Data Centre.
b) Demand would be processed by the NRSA and cost estimates would
be intimated to the indentor.
c) On receipt of advance payment the required satellite data would be
supplied by the NRSA to the indentor.
E.1.92 Important Points
a) For uran planning purpose IRS-lA and IRS-18, LISS-11 data, SPOT data
particularly panchromatic, IRC-IC data on scale 1 : 25,000 or 1 : 50,000
on photographic media gee-coded (FCC) would normally be useful.
b) In case image analysis facility is available within the planning agency
or with some other supporting agency, satellite data in computer
compatible media may also be taken.
c) Invariably cloud-free coverage should be taken.
d) For analysing the trends of development, change detection over a
period of time, dat9, for 2 different years should be taken .
..
e) Services of State Remote Sensing Application Centres could be
obtained for using the data available in their archives as well as the
required equipments .
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E.2.00 APPLICATION OF INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR PREPARATION OF
BASE MAPS
E.2.1 0 Aerial Photography
Availability of proper base maps will have far-reaching consequences in the entire
system of urban land use planning. In fact, accurate base maps alongwith proper land
records could prove to be useful resources for planning and developing the city as self-
sufficient entity. Large scale aerial photography is increasingly being used for
generation of base maps and other thematic maps for urban areas as it proves to be
cost and time effective technology and reliable data sources. Wealth of information
pertaining to land features, land use, built-up areas, city structure and urban form,
physical aspects of environments, etc. is available in the aerial photography. It is the
skill of the interpreter who can extract the information useful for generation of various
thematic maps and graphic data required for preparation of urban development plan.
E.2.11 Base Map
1. rQ[ preparation of base map the following stages of work are generally involved are
shown -ih Fig. E. 1.
2. The entire process of generation of base maps from acquisition of aerial
photography to preparation of final maps is quite exhaustive and time consuming. It
would also require costly photogrammetric equipments, both analog and digital and
every planning agency may not be in position to have such facility in terms of
equipments and trained personnel. As a user agency and to have the maps quickly
in a reasonable time, it would be advisAble that in the first instance aerial photographs
for stereo viewing, rectified prints of aerial photographs. in appropriate enlargements
or controlled photo mosaics may be obtained from the concerned agencies and use
them for preparation of base maps, line and thematic maps by employing visual
interpretation techniques. For this purpose elementary training in photo interpretation
and simple interpretation equipments would be sufficient. Such training is imparted by
various institutes such as Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun, NRSA,
Hyderabad and Survey of India etc.
E.2.12 Small Format Aerial Photography
As compared to conventional aerial photography of large negative format (23 x 23 em),
acquired from specially designed metric aerial camera mounted on a modified large
aircraft, the small format aerial photography (SFAP) can be executed through 35 mm
or 70 mm cameras held in hand or fixed mode. The regular flying agencies generally
do not undertake SFAP as such technique is yet to be operationalised fully on
commercial scale in India. However, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun has
executed SFAP on experimental basis successfully for Rohini area in Delhi, Haridwar
in U.P. and Kharar town in Punjab, using light, low performance, single engine trainer
air craft. The techniques of small format aerial photography when developed on
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LARGE SCALE CONVENTIONAL
FORMAT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY
I/
GROUND CONTROL SURVEY
w
CONTROL EXTENSION
' I/
RECTIFICATION
/ CONTROLLED PHOTO
.....
MOSAICS
"
/
DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO GENERATION
'
MAP GENERATION
\.
I/
FIELD VERIFICATION
-
1/
FINAL MAPS WIT.H TOPOGRAPHIC DATA
'
/
CREATION OF GRAPHIC DATA
BASE FOR GIS
Fig. E. 1.
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commercial scale would be useful for mapping of smaller areas particularly for
updating of existing . base maps and monitoring of development even at individual
plot/parcel of land. SFAP, with sufficient accuracy, can be developed in the form of
do-it-yourself technique in the near future.
E.2.20 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
Over the past decade, GIS technology has been in vouge in the country and is
increasingly becoming popular in its application. GIS is a computer based system,
capable· of input, storage, manipulation, analysis and geographic data useful for
planning, decision-making and implementation decision. GIS as powerful tool helps the
planners to view different scenario and their outcome so that an optimal strategy can
be chosen for planning and development. It is basically a map processing technique
and not for generation of base maps. Once the spatial and·attribute data are generated
in GIS frame, its application are many and varied. These include resource inventory
and management, planning and monitoring, land records for taxation and ownership
controls, facilities and services management, environment impact assessment, etc.
The PC-based GIS system, compatible to numerous GIS softwares, is available in the
market both in raster and vector mode and data from remote sensing and other
sources can be integrated. Planning agencies can acquire such system to have quick
analysis of gao-referenced data for planning and development.
E.2.30 SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING
Remote sensing data are used to study and monitor land features, natural resources
and dynamic effects of human activities in urban areas. As on today, with the
available resolution of various satellite imageries the. application of remote sensing
data for urban development plan could mainly be for assessment of natural resources,
land use monitoring and planning and map-making. A broad base map of the city and
city-region, indicating physical and cultural features including major road network, may
be prepared quickly with the help of satellite imageries. Although such maps may not
be as detailed as prepared with the help of aerial photography, in the absence of any
base map satellite imagery would be as good as up-to-date base map with broad
features. SPOT Satellite Imagery particularly panchromatic IRS lA, IB LISS-11 and
IRS-IC (to be launched) data would be useful for the purpose of mappi119 of large
areas on small scale. Applications of remote sensing data are numerous and it can
be interpreted or computer aided analysis. Both types of methods require certain
amount of ground support information which should normally be collected by interpreter
to develop a key and generally referred as ground truth. Using the ground truth or
interpretation key the remote sensing data is analysed, interpreted and maps related
to existing features, land use, broad settlement structure, resource analysis could be
generated. Visual interpretation is an easy technique and personnel having elementary
training can make use of remote sensing data for generation of maps. Training
facilities are available at IIRS, Dehradun, NRSA, Hyderabad and State Remote
Sensing Application Centre.
230 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-------------------·---
---------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
E.3.00 NOTATIONS FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN MAPS
1. Maps required for urban development plaos include a variety of data relating to
physical as well as socio-economic aspects. Broadly, these maps could be grouped
under 2 categories.
i) Survey and Study Maps
ii) Development Plan Maps/Proposal Maps
2. It is important that the manner of preparing survey and study maps must be closely
related and in many cases identical to the preparation of proposal maps to facilitate
the quick correlation of proposals with the existing conditions. Therefore, the notations
and symbols used in both sets of maps should be similar as far as possible. Notations
and symbols are languq.ge by themselves and need to be designed properly for easy
understanding. For uniformity of presentation, it is also necessary to establish uniform
practices in regard to the information to be included in these maps. Taking into
consideration the standardisation of notations and information content of the maps,
details of information to be shown on various maps and type of notations to be
adopted, have been indicated in the following Table.
TABLE E.2. DETAILS TO BE SHOWN ON VARIOUS TYPES OF MAPS AND SOURCE
OF INFORMATION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Type of Map
Details to be depicted
Sources of information
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Regional
Setting Map
Base tvJap
Land Use Map
- Location of c<?re city and
surrounding urban and
rural settlements
· Transport network
- Agriculture land and
forest area
- Physical features and
water bodies
- Waste and derelict land
Physical, topological,
cultural features. Built-up
areas, survey numbers, public/
semi-public building, water
bodies, monuments
At Perspective Plan level
Level-l urban lantl use
classification
At Development Plan level -
Level-11 urban land use
Classification
SOl Toposheet
1 : 250,000 Satellite
Imagery Atlas Map
- SOl Toposheet
1 : 50,000 Satellite
Image Photo Mosaic
City Survey Maps
Satellite image photo,
mosaic toposheet,
limited field survey
T opo map aerial
photographh (stereo
pair) limited field
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--,,-----------------------
231
'·'" · ... ·.· .
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-------------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
-----------------------------------...----------------------------------------------------------------------------------:-----
Type of Map
Details to be depicted
Sources of information
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - · - - - - - · - - - - - - - - - - - - : . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - -
Population
Utilities and
Service Maps
Transport and
Communications
Building/
Structure Map
Social Infra-
structure Map
Environmentally
Sensitive
Areas Map
At Action Plan level
Levei-IV urban land use
classification -use premises
Map Wardwise population
distribution, density, occupational
structure, sex-ratio, growth .
of population, etc.
Area served by water mains,
sewers, water main and sewers
both, large reservoirs,
water supply and sewage
disposal works, gas and
electric installation and lines
Major arterial and sub-
arterial roads, arterial and
sub-arterial cycle tracks, local
bus routes, terminals traffic
volumes on main roads,
accidents-prone points,
road parking sites.
railways and rail terminals,
air strip and airports
Old built-up areas, new
built-up areas, building in
dilapidated/bad structural
conditions
Location of educational
health, cultural, recreational
and shopping facilities.
- Slum and squatter areas
-High density populated areas
- Highly mixed land use areas
- Highly polluted areas
- Shopping areas with
deep gradient
- Flood prone areas
- Forest lands
- Derelict areas
-Areas limiting the development
Aerial photo (stereo
pair) city survey sheet,
limited field survey
Census publication,
municipal maps, aerial
photo (stereo pair)
Local development
departmental maps,
municipal maps, limited
field survey
PWD map aerial photograph
(stereo paper) limited
traffic survey
Aerial photo (stereo pair)
limited field survey,
municipal map, old master
plan/development plan
City guide maps,
departmental maps, aerial
photo limited field survey
Aerial Photo, Toposheet,
limited field survey
- - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
232 -- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------------------
.. ' . . ·. . · ~ : -;_ .:.:·.·:: ; . ' -
-----------:---------------.,---UDPFI Guidelines---
TABLE. E.3 NOTATIONS AND COLOUR SPECIFICATIONS FOR
PRESENTATION OF LAND USES IN A PERSPECTIVE
PLAN
CODE
N
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A-N USE ZONE
R RESIDENTIAL
C COMMERCIAL
M MANUFACTURING
PS PUBLIC & SEMI-PUBLIC
p
T
A
s
RECREATION
TRANSPORTATION &
COMMUNICATION
AGRICULTURE
SPECIAL AREA
NOTATION
CJ
[ill]
,. ...... ,
I I
L . - ~
COLOUR
SPECIFICATION
YELLOW
BLUE
PURPLE
RED
GREEN
BLACK
LIGHT GREEN
EDGED IN BLACK,
NO COLOUR
WITH A-N CODE
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------------- 233
'
----------,--------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
.. TABLE. E.4.
NOTATION AND COLOUR SPECIFICATION FOR LAND
USE IN A DEVELOPMENT PLAN

CODE
N
1
11
12
13
2
21
22
23
3
31
32
33
4
41
42
43
NOTATION

USE ZONE
R RESIDENTIAL
R-1 Primary Residential Zone

R-2 Mixed Residential Zone

R-3 Unplanned/Informal Residential Zone

c
C-1
C-2
C-3
M
COMMERCIAL
Retail Shopping Zone
General Business & Commercial
District I Centres
Wholesale, Godowns, Warehousing,
Regulated Markets
MANUFACTURING
M-1 Service & Light Industry
M-2 Extensive & Heavy Industry
M-3 Special Industrial Zone
Hazardous, Chemical & Noxious
PS PUBLIC & SEMI-PUBLIC
PS-1 Govt I Semi Govt I Public Offices
PS-2 Govt Land (Use Undetermined)
PS-3 Educational & Research

ma
E1l
... : M-3 << ·
. . . . ....
111cm111
II

COLOUR
SPECIFICATION
YELLOW
Yellow
Orange-
Brown
BLUE
Blue with
A-N Code
-do-
-do-
PURPLE
Purple with
A-N Code
-do-
-do-
RED
Red with
with A-N Code
-do-
-do-
234 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi------------.:...---------.,.------

L'"'" ,,
.. -.;
~ ' . :...._·" __-...-:: --.:____.:::.:.._":':__""
-----------------..:..__ _____ ..:..__ ______ UDPH Guidelines---
CODE
N A-N USE ZONE
44 PS-4 Medical & Health
45 PS-5 Social, Cultural & Religious
46 PS-6 Utilities & Services
47 PS-7 Cremation & Burial Grounds
5
p
RECREATION
51 P-1 Playgrounds, Stadium, Sports
Complex
52 P-2 Parks & Gardens ( Public
Open Space)
53 P-3 Special Recreational Zone
(Restricted Open Space)
54 P-4 Multipurpose Open Space
(Maidan)
6 T TRANSPORTATION &
COMMUNICATION
61 T-1 Roads
62 T-2 Railways
63 T-3 Airport
64 T-4 Sea Port & Dockyards
NOTATION
lllrt¥i Ill
!!lWD
111$MIII
lli$Mill
I
I I I I I
I
I
[ill
I
I
CHJ
I
COLOUR
SPECIFICATION
Red with
A-N Code
-do-
-do-
-do-
GREEN
Green with
A-N .code
-do-
-do-
-do
BLACK
Black with
A-N Code
-do
-do-
-do-
-- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------,___.:._ _______ _
235
~ r ; ~ & ~ j
... .. ·'·' --·-·.:.:...:......:...:..____:.; ~ - --· .
------------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
236 -- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------------:------'--
--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
TABLE. E-5
POLICY AND OTHER NOTATIONS
S. NO
DESCRIPTION
1.00 POLICIES
1.01 ACTIVITY NODES
1.02
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ZONE
1.03
PROTECTION OF VIEW
1.04
RECLAMATION OF DERELICT LAND
1.05 CONSERVATION ZONE
1.06 REDEVELOPMENT ZONE
1.07 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT AREA
1.08
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ZONE
1.09 PEDESTRIAN ZONE
1.10
LANDSCAPEIMPROVEMENTZONE
1.11 URBAN DESIGN ZONE
NOTATIONS
0
000 00000 0
0 0
Q 0
ooc(Tioo 0
r•••••..,·
I t
a.-[TI-.1
r-----.
• •
...

r-----,
I I
... ffi . .l
cracraaccao

o .. o ..

I' ••\:
o L · ·o·o
r-----.
I I
e.-(QI]-..1
Note 1
Note 2
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi------------------"-----,----- 237
_

... ·.· ·,·,;·:::-J:<········
- ·.·. :···.-··": .. _ .. ,· ..._;-,;.>

---------:--------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
S. NO.
2.00
2.01
2.02
DESCRIPTION
OTHER NOTATIONS
BOUNDARiES
A INTERNATIONAL
B STATE
C DISTRICTS.
D VILLAGE
E PLANNING AREA
F PLANNING AREA
(If different from the administrative
boundary)
G PLANNING UNIT
ROADS
A NATIONAL HIGHWAYS
B STATE HIGHWAYS
C ARTERIAL ROADS
D SUB-ARTERIAL ROADS
E
COLLECTOR ROADS
NOTATIONS
-·-·-·

NH-N
SH-N
AH
238 .- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-----------....;,... __ ,......_ _______ _
...
,. _______ ._ ..• , ....

S. NO. DESCRIPTION NOTATIONS
2.03 RAILWAYS
--
·-
A RAILWAY WITH STATIONS
-ttO+
B MATS WITH STATIONS

2.04 BUS DEPOTS
I
BD
I
2.05 TRUCK TERMINALS
I
TT
I
2.06 FREIGHT COMPLEXES
I
FC
I
NOTES
1. Fill the circle with colour or notation as per the landuse e.g .. commercial for commercial node or industrial
for industrial node. AN- Code may also be written if needed.
2. The row of arrow-heads should point towards the view to be protected.
LEGEND
(for policy indicator shown in the square)
C:
P:
UD:
Conservation
Parking
Urban Design
LEGEND
(for roads)
V:
PO:
View
Pedestrian
R:
L:
NH-N: SH-N: National I State Highway Number (give the number)
Redevelopment
Landscaping
AR: Arterial Road
--- CRDT. ITPI, New Delhi-------------------------------------------------
239
: ' : .
APPENDIX-. F
ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES
------------·-------------UDPFI Guidelines---
APPENDIX- F
ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES
F .1.00 INTRODUCTION
The environmental impacts of industries could be broadly grouped in two categories,
namely, site-independent and site-dependent. Site-independent ones are those. which
are related to raw materials, process technology, intermediate and finished products,
infrastructure requirements like transport etc. Site-dependent impacts are those which
depend on the assimilability of the environment or the quality of the prevalent
environment. It would be possible in a general way to describe all site-independent
impacts and the environmental safeguards needed to contain them. On the other
hand, site-dependent impacts need to be analysed on the basis of background data
and information about the site. The former depends on the process technology and
technology assessment for enabling a proper choice that may help to minimise the
problem. For the latter, a set of siting criteria is therefore required to avoid obviously
unsuitable sites.
This Appendix F provides some guidelines as given by the Ministry of Environment and
Forests, Government of India, relating to areas to be avoided for siting of industries,
precautionary measures to be taken for selecting sites as a ~ s o aspects of
environmental protection which should have been incorporated during the
implementation of the industrial development projects.
F.1.10 ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRIES
F.1.11 Areas to be Avoided
In siting industries, care should be taken to minimise the adverse impact of the
industries on the immediate neighbourhood as well as distant places; the natural life
sustaining systems and some specific land uses that are sensitive to. industrial
impacts. Accordingly, an industrial site shall maintain the following distances from the
areas listed :
a) Ecologically and/or otherwise sensitive areas : at least 25 km;
depending on the geo-climatic conditions the requisite distance shall
have to be increased by the appropriate agency.
b) Coastal areas : at lease 1/2 km from high tide line.
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi------------------,----. 241
·..::.·'···
. -... .:
-------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
c) Flood plain of the riverine systems: at least 1/2 km from flood-plain
or modified flood-plain affected by dan. in the upstream or by flood
control systems.
Note:
F.1;12 Siting Criteria
Ecological· and/or otherwise sensitive areas include (i)
religious and historic places; (ii)
monuments (e.g. identified zone around Taj Mahal); (iii)
scenic areas; (iv) hill resorts; (vii) coastal areas rich in
corals, mangroves
1
breading grounds of specific species;
(viii) estuaries rich in mangroves, breading grounds of
specific species; (ix) gulf areas; (x) biosphere reserves;
(xi) national parks and sanctuaries; (xli) natural lakes,
swamps; (xiii) seismic zones; (xiv) tribal settlements; (xv)
areas of scientific and geological interest; (xvi) defence
installations, specially those of security importance and
sensitive to pollution; (xvii) border areas {international)
and (xviii) airports.
In addition to the economic and social factors, environmental factors must·be taken
into consideration in industrial siting. Proximity of water sources, highway, major
settlements, markets for products and r_aw material resources is desired for economy
of production, but all the above listed systems must be away for environmental
protection. Industries are, therefore, required to be sited, striking a balance between
economic and environmental considerations. In such a selected site, the following
factors must be ·recognised.
a) No forest land shall be converted into non-forest activity for the
sustenance of the industry (Ref: Forest Conservation Act, 1980).
b) . No prime agricultural land shall be converted into industrial site.
c) With the acquired site the industry must locate itself at the lowest
location to remain obscured from general sight.
d) Land acquired shall be sufficiently large to provide space for
appropriate treatment of waste water still left for treatment after
maximum possible reuse and recycle. Reclaimed (treated) wastewater
shall be used to raise green buffer and to create water body for
aesthetics, recreation and if possible, for aquaculture. The green buffer
shall be 1/2 km wide around the battery limit of the industry. For
industry having odour problem it shall be a kilometre wide.
e) The green buffer between two adjoining large scale industries shall be
one kilometre.
i42 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------
. : . ~ · · : :.>·.-.... ' ';'- · ~
--------....,......----------------UDPFI Guidelines---
f) Enough space should be provided for storage of solid wastes so that
these could be available for possible reuse.
g) Layout and form of the industry that may come up in the area must
conform to the landscape of the area without affecting the scenic
features of that place.
h) Associated township of the industry must be created at a space having
physiographic barrier between the industry and the township.
i) Each industry is required to maintain three ambient air quality
measuring stations within 120 degree angle between stations.
F.2.00 ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARENCE
1. According to the notification of the Ministry of Environment and Forests(MEF)
(as amended on 04-05-1994) any new project expansion or modernisation of
any existing industry or project listed below, shall not be undertaken in any part
of India unless it has been accorded environmental clearance from the Central
government:
1) nuclear power and related projects such as heavy water pla'nts, nuclear
fuel complex, rare earths;
2} river valley projects including hydel power, major irrigation and their
combination including flood control;
3} ports, harbours, airports (except minor ports and harbours);
4) petroleum refineries including crude and product pipelines;
5) chemical fertilisers (nitrogenous and phosphatic other than singe
superphosphate;
6) pesticides (technical);
7) petrochemical complexes (both olefinic and aromatic) and
petro-chemical intermediates such as DMT, Caprolactam, LAB etc. and
production of basic plastics such as LDPE, HDPE, PP, PVC;
8} bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals;
9} exploration for oil and gas and their production, transportation and
storage;
10) synthetic rubber;
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi--------------------- 243
,'· :;-:'c':_:·:,·. :· ·:;_,· ,_,
:.: __ · ... ··. '• .' • '. •• ;.
-------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
i 1) asbestos and asbestos products;
12) hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives;
13) a) primary metallurgical industries (such as production :Of iron and
steel, aluminium, copper, zinc, lead and ferro alloys);
b) electric arc furnaces (mini steel plants);
chlor-a!kali industry;
integrated paint complex including manufacture of resins and basic raw
materials required in the manufacture of paints;
viscose staple fibre and filament yarn;
storage batteries integrated with manufacture of cxides of lead and lead
antimony alloy;
all tourism projects between 200m - 500 m of high tide line or at
locations with an elevation of more than 1 000 meters with investment
of more than Rs.50 million;
thermal power plants;
mining projects (major minerals) with leases more than 5 hectares;
highway projects;
tarred roads in Himalayas and/or forest areas;
distilleries;
raw skins and hides;
pulp, paper and newsprint;_
dyes;
cement;
foundaries (individual);
electroplating.
244 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-------__;.··-·---------'------
-------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
2. Suitability .of site clearance from the MEF shall be required for the following projects:
(a) mining;
(b) pit-head thermal P''Wer stations;
(c) hydro-power, major irrigation projects and/or their combination including
flood control;
(d) ports and harbours (excluding minor ports);
(e) prospecting and exploration of major minerals in areas above 500 ha.
F.2.10 REQUISITE INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR SITE CLEARANCE/PROJECT
CLEARANCE
a) Site clearance :
Site clearance will be given for site specific projects as mentioned in para-2 (ii)
of the notification. Project proponents will be required to furnish information
according to the environmental appraisal questionnaires for site clearance, as
may be prescribed by the IAA from time to time. Additional information
whenever required by the IAA will be communicated immediately to the project
proponents who will then be required to furnish the same within the time frame
specified.
b) Project Clearance :
In addition to the application form as mentioned in Schedule II to the
notification, project proponents are required to furnish the following information
for environmental appraisal :
i) EIAIEMP report (20 copies);
ii) Risk Analysis report (20 copies); however, such reports if normally not
required for a particular category of project, project proponents can
state so accordingly, but the IAA's decision in this regard will be final;
iii) NOC from the State Pollution Control Board;
iv) Commitment regarding availability of water and electricity from the
competent authority;
v) Summary of project report/feasibility report (one copy);
- CRDT, ITPI, Neiv Delhi----,------------------- 245
(

---------------------__;_ ___ UDPFI Guidelines---
vi) Filled in questionnaire (as prescribed by the IAA from time to time) for
environmental appraisal of the project;
vii) Comprehensive rehabilitation plan, if more. than 1000 people are likely
to be displaced, otherwise a summary plan would be adequate.
F.3.00 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES
1.The purpose of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is to identify and evaluate
the potential impacts (beneficial and adverse) of development projects on the
environmental system. This exercise should be undertaken early enough in the
planning stage of projects for selection of environmentally compatible sites, process
technologies and such other environmental safeguards.
The projects for which detailed Environmental Impact Assessment could be required
include the following :-
i) Those which can significantly alter the landscape, land use pattern and
lead to concentration of working and service population;
ii) Those which need upstream development activity like assured mineral
and forest products supply or downstream population;
iii) Those involving manufacture, handling and use of. hazardous materials;
iv) Those which are sited near ecologically sensitive area, urban centres,
hill resorts, places of scientific and religious importance; and
v) Industrial estates with constituent units of various types which could
cumulatively cause significant environmental damage.
2. The EIA should address to some of the basic factors listed below :
a) Meteorology and air quality;
b) Hydrology and water quality;
c) Site and its surroundings;
d) Occupational safety and health;
e) Details of the treatment and disposal of effluents (liquid, gaseous and
solid) and the methods of alternative uses;
f) Transportation of raw material and details of material handling;
246 - CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------
.. . . : . ~ : : .
--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
g) Impact on sensitive targets;
h) Control equipment and measures proposed to be adopted;
i) Land requirements;
j) Rehabilitation of displaced population;
k) Impact during construction.
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi---------------------- 247
WES
" '
< ~ .'·' .,
---------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
UDPFI GUIDELINES
STEERING COMMITTEE
ANNEXURE- 1
(vide MUA & E letter No.K-14011/7/95-UD.III dated 19th mAY,1995)
Chairman
Shri M.S.Srinivasan
Joint Secretary
Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment
Members
Shri D.N.Basu,
Economic Adviser (HUD&WS)
Planning Commission
Dr.S.C.Moudgal
Adviser
Ministry of Environment & Forests
Secretary (UD)
Maharashtra
Secretary (UD)
Himachal Pradesh
Vice-Chairman
Bhubaneswar Development Authority
Administrator
Haryana Urban Development Authority
Commissioner
Lucknow Municipal Corporation
Shri D.S.Meshram
Chief Planner, TCPO
Director
Town & Country Planning, Karnataka
Dr.S.K.Kulshrestha,
Director, CRDT, ITPI
Member-Convenor
Dr.P.K.Mohanty,
Director (MUA & E)
- CRDT, ITPI, New Delh1-' ----------------------- 249
--.'-, ,-:-. .- . : . . ·. . - . -
.• _ ". _.
f
--------------------------UDPFI Guidelines---
UDPFI GUIDELINES
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
ANNEXURE-2
(Vide MUA & E letter No.K-14011/7/95-UD.III dated 19th May, 1995)
Chairman
Shri D.S.Meshram,
Chief Planner, TCPO
New Delhi
Members·
Shri K.K.Narang
Deputy Adviser
Planning Commission
Prof .J. H .Ansari
Head, Deptt.of Physical Planning
School of Planning and Architecture
New Delhi
Prof.N.Ranganathan
Head, Department of Transport Planning
School of Planning and Architecture
New Delhi
Shri B.M.Brahambhatt
Consultant Town Planner
Ahmedabad
Shri A.R.Patharkar
Director of Town Planning
Government of Maharashtra
Pune
Shri N.K.Dash
Director of Town Planning
Government of Orissa
Shri S.A.Rizvi
Chief Town Planner
Government of Himachal Pradesh
250 - CRDT, rTPI, New lleiJ"'---------------------
I
. - -.· .-.. ·. __,·-·:. . .·. _ _,-._:..__. __ .
___ -------·--· --
Guidelines---
Shri B.B.Garg
Head
Housing & Planning
. CBRI, Roorkee
Prof.Abhijit Datta,
Consultant,
Local Government Finance,
New Delhi
Dr.P.K.Mohanty,
Director (UD},
Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment
New Delhi
Director (Urban Transport},
Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment
New Delhi
Shri H.R.Suri
President, ITPI
New Delhi
Member-Convenor
.
Dr.S. K.Kulsh restha
Director CRDT, ITPI
New Delhi
CRDT, ITPI, New Delh11-· -----------------------'----
251

j
l
I
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,;_-----------------------UDPFI Guidelines----.,._,.,....
UDPFI GUIDELINES
EXPERT GROUP
Dr.S.K. Kulsh restha
Director CRDT, ITPI and
Project Coordinator, New Delhi
Prof.R.C.Gupta
ANNEXURE- 3
Head, Deptt.of Regional Planning (SPA)
New Delhi
Prof.N.Ranganathan
Head, Deptt.of Transport Planning
SPA, New Delhi
Prof .J. H .Ansari
Head, Deptt.of Physical Planning,
SPA, New Delhi
Dr.P. K.Mohanty
Director (UD)
Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment
New Delhi
Prof.Abhijit Datta
Consultant, Local Government Finance,
liPA, New Delhi
Shri R.G.Gupta
Consultant Town Planner, Delhi
Shri S.C.Gupta
Consultant Town Planner
New Delhi
Shri R.L.P.Sinha
Consultant Town Planner,
New Delhi

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FOREWORD

The National Workshop on Master Plan Approach : Its Efficacy and Alternatives, held at Delhi during February 24-25 discussed the state of the art in urban planning and development process and examined various alternatives. It was generally felt that urban development plans were potent instruments in guiding the growth of a city. However, there was a need to re-examine the urban planning and, development process specifically in the context of making it more dynamic and participatory as well as reflecting the spirit of the Constitution (Seventy-Fourth) Amendment Act 1992 which, among others, aims at devolving the urban planning including town planning function to the elected municipalities. The National Workshop, inter-alia, recommended: (1) Preparation of realistic and eHective urban development plans including spatial development plan; resource mobilisation · plan; institutional mechanism for plan implementation; simplifications of laws and regulations relating . to management/promotion of development; and a participatory approach for planning; (2) Amendments to land use/development control laws and regulations; {3) Formulation of guidelines to provide appropriate advice to concerned agencies. Keeping the recommendations of the National Workshop in view, this research study was awarded to the Institute of Town Planners, India which is the apex professional body in the countty. The objectives of the research study included a) preparation of urban development plans formulation and implementation (UDPFI) guidelines applicable to small and medium size towns and large cities incorporating efficient implementation mechanism and innovative techniques for promotion of planned socio-economic and spatial development of urban centres; b) simplification of development promotion regulations; and c) amending/restructuring of town planning laws. These UDPFI guidelines in two volumes are the culmination of this research study which has evolved an efficient, dynamic and proactive planning system and time-bound plan formulation, approval, monitoring and review process. These guidelines also provide simplifi_ed planning techniques, norms and standards, innovative techniques of resource mobilisation and land assembly, simplified development promotion regulations, and full legal support in the form of Model Urban and Regional Planning,_ and Development Law (Revised) and suggested changes in Town Planning Acts oLMaharashtra and Gujarat consequent to the 74th CAA, the UDPFI guidelines and R·evised Model Law .
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These guidelines, when adopted by the state governments and urban local authorities would ushar in an era of dynamic, participatory and self-sustaining urban planning and development process and contribute in making urban centres generators of economic momentum where the quality of life would be conducive to efficient working and pleasant living. As Chairman of the Steering Committee for the research study, I congratulate the Institute of Town Planners, India for such useful research output.

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Chairman, Steering Committee and Joint Secretary, Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, Government of India

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PREFACE

Planning is a continuous process and the planning system should be such that ensures this continuity. Commencing from 1915, when Bombay Town Planning Act was passed which enabled preparation of land use plan within the city Iimits, town planning practice in India has come a long way. During the early periods planning was piecemeal and such approach continued to be the practice for about four decades. After independence, city planning experienced tremendous changes in its approach due to need for resettlement of displaced persons as a consequence of political changes. Several resettlement colonies were added in existing cities and many new towns with industrial base were developed. Town and Country Planning Laws were enacted by various states and master plans of 879 towns were prepared and plans of some 318 urban centres are currently in different stages of preparation or approvaL Implementation of these plans, however, has generally been poor and they have been criticised to be rigid and static having little regard to investment planning efforts and taking very long time in the process of plan formulation and approvaL The National Workshop on Master Plan Approach : Its Efficacy and Alternatives examined the entire process of urban development planning and implementation and there was a general conclusion that land. use plans are needed to guide development of urban centres but it should not only remain an instrument of control but a tool to promote an orderly development. This workshop recommended, among others, preparation of model guidelines for urban development plan formulation and implementation. As a consequence of this recommendation, the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment awarded a research study to the Institute of Town Planners, India. This report is the ·result of the deliberations of the Expert Group comprising senior urban and regional planners under the policy guidance of the Steering Committee, appointed by the .' Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment for the .study, under the Chairmanship of Shri . M.S.Srinivasan, Joint Secretary and with technical advice of the 12-member Technical Committee of experts from different states and organisations in the country. As Chairman of the Technical Committee, I am pleased with the output of the research study which has evolved a dynamic, participatory and time saving urban planning system and process having full regard to the professional, legal and political considerations. The suggested urban planning system includes a set of four inter-dependent plans: (a) a policy oriented, long term (20-25 years) Perspective Plan; (b) a comprehensive, medium-term (5 years) Development Plan formulated within the framework of the Perspective Plan; (c) An Annual Plan for resource mobilisation and implementation of the Development Plan; and (d) Plans of Projects I Schemes for execution of the Development Plan.

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These· urban development plars f6rm4lation and implementation (UDPFI) guidelines also provide contents of each plan; the planning process and techniques; approval process; the innovative fiscal resource mobilisation and land assembly approaches; manpower requirements; spatial norms and standards; simplified development promotion regulations; and revised model urban and regional planning and developmental law incorporating all the suggested provisions as per these guidelines as well as the Constitution (Seventy Fourth) Amendment Act 1992. Suggested changes are also provided in the Town Planning Acts of Maharashtra and Gujarat. -,tis a trend-setting work and wheri adapted by the states, will promote development of urban centres to enable them to serve as generators of economic momentum, provider of jobs and facilities and services ensuring a good quality of life. There is a need to take further actions in this context as suggested oy the UDPFI Guidelines. I congratulate the Centre for Research, Documentation and Training (CF-:tDT), Institute of Town Planners, India for their commendable work.

August 1996 New Delhi

(Shri D.S.Me~hram) Chairman, Technical Committee and Chief Planner Town'& Country Planning Organisatio~ Government of India

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..Mohanty. specially.. Maharashtra State. I extend my thanks to (Late) Shri D..Krishna Singh.. ITPI. Town Planning. Dr.S. through research input. · Planning Commission. Mrs. In this context I am.. Orissa State and Shri S. Director (UD).N.R..Narang.. Shri A..Basu.. New Delhi at all stages of this research study and I express my thanks to the officers and staff of the organisation for their cooperation. Under Secretary (UD).Dash.. I express my gratitude to Shri D.K.A.. Director.. Director. Deputy Adviser... I take this opportunity to acknowledge with gratitude the role of Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment in giving us the opportunity to contribute.Garg.Srinivasan.. Planning Commission.... - CRDT. MUAE and Chairman of the Steering Committee.U D P J ? I Guidelines--- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Planning is a team work and so is this research study. Shri B. meetings in spite of their busy schedule and provided useful guidance....Patharkar.B. Their contribution has been most valuable in shaping the output of this study. My thanks are due to Shri A. CBRI. Town and Country Planning Department.. Karnataka and all other members of the Steering Committee who attended its . Roorkee and others acknowledged elsewhere.and help. Shri N.Sundaram. who participated in the four marathan meetings each lasting more than 8 hours and provided technical input and guidance to the research study...V. Town Planning. and Mrs. Joint Secretary..K. former Director.. These Urban Development Plans Formulation and implementation (UDPFI) Guidelines are the result of the contribution made by expert urban and regional planners and the advice rendered by the members of Steering Committee and the Technical Committee constituted by the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment (MUAE). to the evolution of a dynamic system of planning and development of urban centres. Head. Himachal Pradesh for their active participation and supply of necessary information pertaining to their respective states which served as a very useful background· material tor this study.S. Government of India for the research study. As Principal Coordinator of --this research study.Meshram.. Chief Town Planner.Chandrakeerthy.. Advisor. MUAE..Rizvi....K.P. MUAE. Government of India.- v . Chairman of the Technical Committee and its members including Shri K... I acknowledge the contribution made by the Town and Country Planning Organisation. Economic Adviser..N. Planning Commission. Housing and Planning. New D e l h i · ..R.. -grateful to Shri M.....

Shri Abdul Ali.Kshirsagar. Finally. Shri S.lkram Khan for accounts keeping and other members of staff for general assistance to this study..Sinha (for Manpower Resources).. Secretary General. .N.Kulshrestha) Principal Co-ordinator of the Research Study and Director. is the result of intense participation of these experts and I am grateful to each one of them. Shri A.P. .U D P F I Guidelines-- I thank Prof. Shri P.Ranganathan (for Traffic and Transportation Survey Techniques and Norms and Standards). .B. Prof.Suri.. Site and ·Situations).Bansal (for Legislative Support and Revision/Modification of the Model Law and Town Planning Acts of Maharashtra and Gujarat). I thank Shri K.. ITPI.R. ITPI. Mr...P.L..K.R. in the form of UDPFI Guidelines.L. and Shri J.G.. . Prof.. Shri R. !TPI. This output..M. President.J. Prof. Shri A..V.K.Brahmbhatt and Shri R.Qaiyum (for Guidelines for Location.Gupta (for Norms and Spatial Standards).Gangadhar Jha (for Innovative Fiscal Resource Mobilisation Measures).. CRDT.H.Shiralkar (for Innovative Land Assembly Systems)..C.Gupta (for Systems of Private Sector Participation}....Ansari (for his contribution to this study in the form of Simplified Planning Techniques).R.Muruganantham and Ms.C. and Mr..Joddar and Shri Abu Nazim for their help in preparation of the report.Paiharkar.. ITPI for extending their full support and making all required facilities of ITPI available for the research study.Chotani (for Presentation Techniques). August.S.. Shri B. New Delhi----~-------------- ...Gupta (for Simplified Development Promotion Regulations).P.. vi - CRDT.Abhijit Datta and Dr. 1996 New Delhi (Dr.. Shri M.Neelam Sharma for their secretarial help. Shri R. My special thanks are due to Shri H.

. URBAN PLANNING THE NEED FOR THE GUIDELINES AWARD OF RESEARCH STUDY 1...20 1..10 1...34 - 11-37 Perspective Plan Development Plan Annual Plan Plans of Schemes I Projects CRDT.. ITPI.40 NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MASTER PLAN APPROACH CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY FOURTH) AMENDMENT ACT. New Delhi-------------~----- vii .72.60 1.90 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT HOW TO USE THE GUIDELINES CHAPTER TWO : URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING SYSTEM AND PROCESSES 2. 1992 AND.50 1......70 The Terms of Research Study 01-10 SELECTION OF STATES FOR CASE STUDY CLASSIFICATION OF TOWNS/CITIES FOR THE STUDY ORGANISATION OF THE RESEARCH STUDY 1. Collaboration Committees 1..33 2..10 2...30 1.UDPFI Guidelines-- TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iii v vii xii xiii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.80 1.....30 AN OVERVIEW RECOMMENDED PLANNING SYSTEM SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF VARIOUS ·URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS 2.71 1.31 2.32 2.20 2...41 1.

.10 3.-~:: :..::_:"·.. '<.61 2.~~--·-~-.63 2.- 2..31 3....-_..56.. 2. 2.55.:".73 Review of Perspective Plans Review of Development Plans Review of Annual Plan 2. : '~._.20 GENERAL CONTENTS OF PERSPECTIVE PLANS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE TOWNS 3. . 2.-12 2.80 2.52.:.71 2.22 3.70 Public Sector Interventions Private Sector Actions Joint Venture REVIEW OF PLANS 2.53 2.UDPH Guidelin_es .23 3.40 2. New Delhi:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ .62 2..:~...50 INTER-RELATiONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS PLANS PLANNING PROCESS 2.54 2. Aims and Objectives Identification of Projected Needs Plan Formulation Decentralisation of Plan Approval Process Approval of Perspective Plan Approval of the Development Plan 2....·_::':~.21 3.. :.90 PEOPLE'S PARTICIPATION MODIFICATIONS 38-44 CHAPTER THREE : CONTENTS OF A PERSPECTIVE PLAN 3.._ .. '·: • .. ITPI.51..' •.~:.33 / Existing Conditions and Policy Issues Projected Requirements Policies and Priorities viii - CRDT.._:___:._..60 IMPLEMENTATiON 2.24 3.....30 Existing Conditions and Developmental Issues Projected Requirements Development Aims and Objectives Policies and Priorities ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF PERSPECTIVE PLANS OF LARGE CITIES 3.32 3.

33 4.23 6..23 Brief Introduction Review of Last Year's Performance The Annual Plan 53-56 CHAPTER SIX : CONTENTS OF PLANS OF PROJECTS / SCHEMES 6.10 4.22 6.....28 4.....31 4. .. .27 Location Site Planning Environmental Impact Assessment Spatial Impact Assessment Financing Plan Project Administration and Organisation Legal Support I Constraints (if any) 57-59 - CRDT....25 4. . 4..23 4.24 4.. .26 6..22 4.. ITPI.27..26 4. ... . . ..30 Introduction Existing Conditions and Developmental Issues Projected Requirements Development Aims and Objectives Development Proposals (formal and informal sector) Resource Mobilisation Implementation Monitoring and Review 45-52 ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS OF LARGE CITIES 4..20 GENERAL CONTENTS OF AN ANNUAL PLAN 5.21 4.24 6. New Delhi ix . .32 4.21 5.20 GENERAL CONTENTS OF A DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN CASE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE TOWNS 4.20 GENERAL CONTENTS OF PLANS OF PROJECTS I SCHEMES 6..21 6..34 Existing Conditions and Development Issues Projected Requirements Development Aims and Objectives Development Proposals CHAPTER FIVE : CONTENTS OF ANNUAL PLANS 5.10 6.22 5.25 6.UDPFI Guidelines-- CHAPTER FOUR : CONTENTS OF A DEVELOPMENT PLAN 4.10 5.

..21 7. ..31 7..... ITPI...32 7.40 MANPOWER RESOURCE 7.- .31 8..42 7.. ·_·..10 EXISTING SCENARIO 8.30 General Fiscal Policies Innovative Approaches for Fiscal Resource Mobilisation 61-81 LAND ASSEMBLY 7..30 SUGGESTED CHANGES IN THE MODEL LAW 8. New D e l h i ' .......21 8....20 INTRODUCTION FISCAL RESOURCE MOBILISATION 7.22 7.44 Introduction Institutional Set-up Policy Options for Manpower Mobilisation General Policy of Manpower Development 83-104 CHAPTER EIGHT: LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT 8.11 8.14 8..43 7.....20 Maharashtra Orissa Himachal Pradesh Model Law Tamil Nadu IMPLICATIONS OF CONSTITUTION (74th) AMENDMENT ACT 1992 8....: .UDPFJ Guidelines-- CHAPTER SEVEN: RESOURCE MOBILISATION 7....34 Land and Planning Interface Land Pooling and Redistribution Scheme Transferable Development Rights Accommodation Reservation : 7.15 8.41 7.·-··-·--·-- --.--~---·-..13 8....40 SUGGESTED CHANGES IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING ACTS OF MAHARASHTRA AND GUJARAT x - CRDT...22 New Role and Functions of State Town and Country Planning Departments Status of Existing Development Authorities I Boards 8.....32 Changes in chapter-! Structure of subsequent chapters.-~- . .33 7...10 7..12 8. 8....

3 : STEERING COMMITTEE MEMBERS TECHNICAL COMMITTEE MEMBERS EXPERT GROUP MEMBERS 249 250 252 - CRDT..1 : ANNEXURE.40 9.53 8.54 Background Simplified Urban Land Use Classification Simplified Land Use Zoning Regulations Development Promotion Regulations i. ANNEXURE ...A : APPENDIX. ITPI. 1966 Gujarat Regional Planning Urban De'l(elopment Act 1973 SIMPLIFIED DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION GUIDELINES 8. New D e l h i .20 BEGINNING OF A PROCESS ADOPTION OF UDPFI GUIDELINES BASE MAPS CENTRAL ASSISTANCE URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING INFORMATION SYSTEM MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT 105-107 9..C : SIMPLIFIED PLANNING TECHNIQUES NORMS AND STANDARDS SIMPLIFIED DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION REGULATIONS ALTERNATIVE MODELS OF PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION PREPARATION OF BASE MAPS AND GRAPHIC PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES 109-144 145-186 187-205 APPENDIX..___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ UDPFI Guidelines-- 8.B : APPENDIX.50 9.F : ANNEXURES ({· F.42 8...60 APPENDICES APPENDIX.n Various Use Zones CHAPTER NINE : FURTHER ACTIONS 9....52 8.50 Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act._ _ _ _ _.- xi .. ~i...41 8...E : 219-239 241-247 APPENDIX.10 9.2 : ANNEXURE ...' ..D : 207-217 APPENDIX.30 9....51 8.

.......... ..... ..... . . . ...... ..UDPF/ Guidelines--- LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ...

.y-Fourth) Amendment Act. municipal town planners........UDPFI Guidelines ........ ITPI.......less than 80.....000 .......... Scope of Study 2....' ...............000 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a) Small Town : b) Medium Town: c) Large City : ----------------------------..................... New D e l h i ......................... the need is felt to assist the administrators..................... the deficiencies in the Master Plan approach as identified during the National Workshop on this subject held at Delhi in 1995 and the current policy of economic liberalisation..- xiii . Orissa (urbanising)... 1992 (74th CAA). and Himachal Pradesh (hill state) were selected as case study areas........- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Need for Guidelines 1............... medium and large size urban centres....00........000 80..... efficient implementation mechanism and innovative techniques for promotion of planned spatia-economic development of urban areas....... and the consultants with guidelines for urban development plans formulation and implementation (UDPFI}..................... planning laws and their amendments/ Case Study Areas 3....................... - CRDT.. and b) c) simplification of town restructuring. ....000 and more less than 50..5... Classification of Urban Centres 4....... For the purpose of this study the urban centres have been classified as: -----------------------------------------------·-----------------------------------------------------------Population Range Classification -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Plain Areas Hill Areas less than 20....00.....· The terms of reference of the study included formulation of guidelines for : a) preparation of spatial development plans and resource mobilisation plans of small.. Taking into account the not so efficient capabilities of the urban local authorities vis-a-vis the provisions of the Constitution (Sevenl....... Three states namely Maharashtra (highly urbanised)..........000 20..000 more than 5.........000 .............000 50...........................

. administrative and political . Variations for hill areas. Urban Development Planning System and Process 6... b) Development Plan : c) Annual Plan : xiv - CRDT. giving details of the suggested planning system. simplified development promotion rules and regulations. New D e l h i .. Part 2 contains suggested changes required in Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law (Volume 2A) and modifications in Town Planning Acts of Maharashtra (Volume 28) and Gujarat (Volume 2C).- . has.- Structure of the Report 5.... land and manpow~r resource mobilisation.... have also been provided... Part 1. The recommended urban development planning system. medium and large urban centres have been provided. legislative support needed and further actions.... . monitoring / and review.. plan approval system. Conceived within the framework of Development Plan. Conceived within the framework of the approved Perspective Plan. taken into account the problems and the expectations as well as the legal.~- ------ _ _____:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ UDPn Guidelines . comprising nine chapters. it is a plan containing the physical and fiscal details of new and ongoing projects that the local authority intends to implement during the respective financial year. planning process.. Accordingly. 7. where applicable. The 74th CAA demands devolution of planning function to local authorities and involvement of people in the planning decision making process. a mid-term comprehensive plan which is further integrated with budgetary process and divided into projects/schemes for implementation. therefore. These chapters are further supported by appendices giving simplified planning techniques. it is a medium-term (generally five years coterminus with the term of the local authority) comprehensive plan of spatio-economic development of the urban centre. ITPI. The specific variations as applicable to small.: . contents of various plans. system in the country. Review' of literature on the subject in India and abroad reveals that each country has evolved a system that suited its specific needs and legal provisions. Perspective Plan : A long term {20-25 years) policy plan of spatio-economic development of the settlement. the recommended urban development planning system consists of a set of the following four inter-related plans : a) 8. and administratively and professionally it is expected that the system should provide for a long-term policy plan..... fiscal.. alternative systems of private sector participation. minimum spatial norms and standards. The UDPFI Guidelines have been organised in two parts. .

state or -central. with the municipal town planner as the member-secretary...... This committee will discuss and advise on development aims and objectives......-----------a. local. priorities and major requirements. . Development Plan Municipal Council/Corporation Municipal Council/Corporation c..- d) Plans of Projects/ Schemes Conceived within the framework of approved Development Plan/Annual Plan.... functioning at the settlement level as members...... Regional Approach 9....... Decentralisation of Plan Approval Process 11... provide input on projections... national and state level plans shall incorporate only those developmental policies a~d programmes that need to be addressed at that level and also those that come under joint responsibilities of centre.. Perspective Plan State government.------ Implementation 12.. these are detailed working layouts for execution by a public or private agency ... and also ensure cooperation of inter-departmental actions. Schemes/Projects Municipal Planner 10 7 31 ·~ ·.. comprising a Chairman and the head of all departments.. Plan Formulation 1o.- XV .UDPFI Guidelines . recommended that the plan approval"proe:ess should be time bound and decentralised as. - CRDT. Similarly. Annual Plan d.. ----------------------------------. -------------··---------------------------~-------------""'-----:.. As a general principle. With a view to ensuring participation and commitment of the various departments.....follows: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Plan Approving Body Maximum Time frame for Approval(months) -----------------·--------------------------------------------------------------------------!... resulting in delays..... The recommeded steps for implementation of various plans include : a) Formu!ation of the projects for implementation within the framework of approved development plan/annual plan. it is suggested that a Development Integration Committee be constituted. it is suggested that plans at the levels higher than the settlements should be regional in nature and contents.)f is'. Following the spirit of the 74th CAA and ·recognising the fact that the current process of approval of urban development l'ja_ns takes a lot of time... New D e l h i .. state and local authorities. ITPI.... through State Chief Town Planner b.

. consumer groups. entertainment tax.. Taxer : Some of the promising new taxes for which powers could be delegated to the local authority are : tax on consumption of electricity {as in Delhi). Resource Mobilisation 14... (ii) Private sector actions. citizens' groups.... c) People's Participation A system of direct and indirect participation of the people has been suggested as under: a.. · Actions for implementation which include : (i) Public-sector interventions. and stamp duty.. neighbourhood groups...... and formulation of land pooling and other schemes and rehablitation/re-development projects that directly affect the people..UDPFI Guidelines ..· .. MuniciJ'N-r1. The direct participation can be through individuals...... This kind of participation has appropriately been provided in the Perspective. a surcharge on petroleum products... NGOs and CBOs can also play a vital role as an intermediate link between the people and the government......- b) Identification of various agencies responsible for : (i) Development Promotion Management ... and {ii) Execution of projects.. and (iii) Joint-venture or public-private partnership. · a tax on advertisement is already a lucrative and popular tax in some states.. Such a participation has been suggested for plan approval..· . For fiscal resource mobilisation the suggested measures include : a..... The suggested indirect participation of the people is ensured through e!ected representatives in the municipal Councii/Coporation and Ward Committees (74th CAA).. b.... The following are promising areas for land based taxation : Vacant developed land cess xvi - CRDT. business groups. b. Development and Annual Plans formulation process...- . New D e l h i . ITPI... and such other groups. Land Based Taur: Urban land is emerging as a potent source for local resource generation.

...... Infrastructure Leasing and Finance Corporation.. NHB.- xvii .- Tax on land value increment due to rise in price or provision/upgradation of infrastructure Change of use of land cess Development impact exaction Development charges Users' charges c.P) Progressive turnover tax (Rajasthan is considering) d.... and (c) Accommodation Reservations are recommended. ITPI... e. it would be advisable to place maximum reliance on Assigned and Shared Taxes as in Kerala and Tamil Nadu.. capital grant will also have to be rationalised. In addition to this....... some practical and effective systems of land assembly like : (a) Land Pooling and Redistribution Scheme. LIC.. among other things. quantum of per head grant with size and resource endowments.. f. Non-Tax Sources: The non-tax sources like remunerative and commercial projects are promising areas for revenue generation.....P) Entry tax on goods. electricity.. and sanitation on the fringe areas could be privatised and contracted out. · Private Sector Finance: Some of the existing municipal functions like water supply. and HDFC for loan.... Effective TaxAdininistration: This could be done by. collection and disposal of solid waste.. As a general purpose grant. (b) Transfer of Development Rights (TOR}. Fiscal Transfers: In the short run..UDPFI Guidelines . grant-in-aid code could be evolved by the state governments on per head basis by relating the .... New D e l h i . The various alternatives to octroi adopted by some states are:Surcharge on sales tax . 15 ... transport. g.. commodities and bus passengers (M.' ... h.... in the context of improving the land delivery situation...... - CRDT. ' Institutional Finance: The municipal bodies now can take recourse to HUDCO.(U.. by introducing a system of incentives for prompt payment and penalities for defaulting..

.. ITPJ.. consultants on (ii) Legislative Support 17.. It incorporates: the role and functions of MPC... approval and implementation functions including monitoring and review. or Award plan formulation work to consultancy basis......UDPFI Guidelines--- 16. 18... DPC and local authorities as provided under 74th CAA..... If the local authority is unable to provide the appropriate planning department...... There is a need to revise the model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law to provide legislative support to the innovative suggestions contained in these UDPFI Guidelines as well as the implications of the 74th CAA..... xviii - CRDT. land assembly and private sector partjcipation~ .. the revised Model Urban and Regional Planning Law has been provided.. implementation and review it is suggested that : (a) All local authorities in large cities should have an appropriate urban planning department.... New D e l h i .- ..: . In Volume 2A.. people's participation in plan formulation and approval including provision for a public meeting to explain highlights of the Development' Plan. Suggested changes in the Town Planning Acts of Maharashtra and Gujarat as a consequence to these guidelines and Model Law (Revised) have also been provided in Volume 28 and 2C respectively...... DPC and local authorities.. All medium and small towns should have at least a municipal planner to look after the various planning. For providing manpower for urban plan formulation. the contents of plans and process of planning... ·innovative approaches to fiscal resource mobilisation. approval. In this respect rational basic units of manpower requirement for urb·an local authorities in small and medium towns and large and metropolitan cities have also been evolved as a guide.. the alternatives are as under : (i) (b) By pooling resources and..... forming an Association of Municipalities a:t state level and provide appropriate set-up for plan formulation. monitoring and review of plans of MPC.

.........UDPFI Guidelines . 1 d.. ITPI.- Further Actions 19. c.... Mechanism for procurement of base maps Central assistance by Planning Commi.... - CRDT..- xi:r ......ssion during the 9th and 1Oth Five Year Plans to local authorities to provide initial fiscal support in formulation of urban Perspective and Development Plans ... · e... New D e l h i ' ........ calling a meeting of Secretaries of Urban Development and State Chief Town Planners/Director Town Planning followed by a meeting of Ministers of Urban Affairs and Local Self Government for adaption of UDPFI Guidelines by the States......... The suggested further actions include: a.. Establishment of Urban and Regional Information System and Identification of Manpower Development Needs b..

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .

...... The Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment.. The major recommendations of this workshop interalia were as follows : a) To develop realistic and effective urban development plans and steps need to be taken to evolve : i) ii) iii) iv) v) spatial development plan. New D e l h i . The Ministry of Urban Development (now Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment) and state governments should take immediate action to develop model guidelines in this regard by constituting Expert Committees to provide appropriate advice to the concerned agencies... 1995 to critically examine various issues related to preparation and implementation of master plans.10 NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MASTER PLAN APPROACH 1.. 2.. tourism and pilgrimage need to be explicitly recognised. The National Workshop concluded that in spite of some deficiencies there is no alternative to land use plans..... and a mechanism to involve the participation of the public.. ITPI. .UDPFI Guidelines--- CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. Government of India organised a NatiOrilclJ Workshop on Master Plan Approach : Its Efficacy and Alternatives during February 24-25. including their alternatives...... It highlighted that the growth potential and special functions performed by urban areas such as marketing... if any. resource mobilisation plan. a set of comprehensive and simplified development management/promotion rules/ regulations which can be easily understood by the public........ institutional mechanism to implement the development plans.women..- I .. non-government and community-based organisations in planning process. .. - - CRDT.. . socially disadvantaged groups.... industrial.especially the poor.. _ ....... . The planning exercises should aim at guiding the activities of public agencies as well as private and the growing informal sectors while keeping the larger interest of the society in view.

... Appropriate management information system (MIS) and data base should be devel0ped by state and Central governments to assist planners in developing realistic plans and programmes..... .. endow the municipalities with such powers and responsibilities subject to such conditions as may be specified therein... New D e l h i .. aerial photography.. - ..... Greater transparency will be in the interest of better public awareness.... Base maps of towns and cities need not be regarded as secret documents... public notification/hearing and approval must be statutorily prescribed in the relevant acts. by law.. transfer of development rights....... The periodic review and revision of plans are essential component of the planning process and mid-term reviews of the plans should be undertaken at regular intervals to impart flexibility to the planning process and necessary statutory provisions need to be made in tile relevant acts in this regard.... Article 243-W of the Constitution (74th) Amendment Act 1992 (74th CAA) envisages... with respect to : a) The preparation of plans for economic development and social justice.riod and the time schedule for plan preparation. ...-.UDPFI Guidelines--- b) The plan formulation exercise must be completed within a specified time pF'.. 1992 (74th CAA) and principles of economic reforms in view. should be explored and the relevant acts/laws may be amended to accommodate such practices while keeping the provisions of the Constitution (Seventy-Fourth) Amendment Act.. the approval of major changes in their development plans should be done at the higher level and within prescribed time period so as to accord a sanctity to the development plans.- .20 CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY FOURTH) AMENDMENT ACT. ITPI.. ..... -··~- . that the legislature of state may....c) d) e) f) g) 1. which are innovative plan implementation techniques. .. accommodation reservation. And 2 - CRDT. among others. Latest techniques and tools like remote sensing... geographic information system (GIS) and others be utilised for preparation of development plans. town planning schemes.. Application of the concepts of land swaps. etc.1992 AND URBAN PLANNING 1... especially in the context of planning for development having been decentralised through the 74th CAA. land pooling. - . Considering the importance of metropolitan cities..

. 2. the extent and type of available resources whether financial or otherwise. the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation........ ii) iii) iv) - CRDT. including coordinated spatial planning of the area.- 3 . Article 243-ZE provides for constitution of a Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC) to prepare a draft development plan for metropolitan area as a whole.. Article 243-ZD provides for constitution of District Planning Committee (DPC) to consolidate the plans prepared by panchayats and the municipalities in the district and to prepare a draft development plan for district as a whole. 3.... in preparing the draft development plan. regulation of land use and construction of buildings.... ii) 4. among others : i) the plans prepared by the municipalities and the panchayats in the metropolitan area...... New D e l h i .. the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation. Every MPC shall.... the overall objectives and priorities set by the Government of India and the government of the state.. ITPI.UDPFI Guidelines--- b) The performance of functions and the implementation of schemes as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matter listed in the Twelfth Schedule... specified by the Governor by public notification. matters of common interest between the municipalities and the panchayats. have regard to.. in preparation of draft development plan. sharing of water and other physical and natural resources........ Jhe first three items of the Twelfth Schedule are: i) ii) iii) urban planning including town planning.... and planning for economic and social development... sharing of water and other physical and natural resources. by 74th CAA.. have regard to. which is defined. among others : i) matters of common interest between the panchayats and the municipalities including spatial planning... It further provides that every DPC shall.. as an area having a population of ten lakh or more comprised in one or more districts and consisting of two or more municipalities or panchayats or other contiguous areas. the extent and nature of investments likely to be made in metropolitan area by agencies of the Government of India and of the government of the state and other available resources whether financial or otherwise..

flexible and efficient. an area in transition from rural to urban in character. rules and regulations that is simple b) c) d) 4 - CRDT. And The municipalities may be assigned by the state government the function of urban planning including town planning. An urban planning process that is less time consuming. all other classification of local authorities shall cease to exist and the appropriate local authority for small and medium size towns shall be a municipal council and for a large city it will be a municipal corporation... And Municipal corporation for a large urban area. b) c) 7. New D e l h i .. As recommended by the National Workshop on Master Plan Approach. that i3 to say. is likely to result in devolution of urban planning functions.. there is a need to evolve: a) An urban planning system that is dynamic. as stated in earlier sections....' . Implementation of the provisions of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act by the state governments.. ITPI. to the elected focal authorities..30 THE NEED FOR THE GUIDELINES 1. Article 243-Q provides for three classes of local bodies as under: a) Nagar panchayat for transitional areas. And A legal support in the form of laws. These local authorities need technical inputs for discharging ......--~--------------------... An implementation mechanism that incorporates innovative ideas of land assembly and fiscal resource mobilisation. the municipalities.- . b) c) 6.. including town planning. this function..UDPF/ Guidelines--- 5. 1. The municipalities will be the local authorities entr-usted with the function of preparation of plans of economic development and social justice. From the above provisions it is implied that : a) Every municipality is supposed to have a spatio-economic development plan which along with other such plans would be consolidated by the DPC and form basis for formulation of the Draft District Development Plan (DDP).. Municipal council for a smaller urban area. that is to say.. By implication.

implementation and maintenance. It will also serve as a guide to streamline urban planning practice across the country in both government and private sectors. Such guidelines would serve as a useful document to the municipal planner and others in formulating and implementing various urban development plans..... the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment awarded this research study on guidelines for preparation of plans for urban planning and development and simplification of town planning laws. the guidelines also examine capacity-building strategies and other actions to be taken during the transition period which could be 10 to 15 years..40 AWARD OF RESEARCH STUDY Following the recommendations (see para 1....UDPFI Guidelines--- and effective. Thereafter. scope. At the same time. form and contents.. /TPI. 2. development and monitoring..... 1. requirement of personnel... the guidelines are flexible as local variations have been kept in view.41 The Terms of Research Study 1. state governments and Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment for : a) - Preparation of spatial development plans and resource mobilisation 5 CRDT.1 0. In the absence of a single document that satisfies the above requirements. New Delhi--------------~------- .2 (a) above) of the National Workshop on Master Plan Approach.. Realising that the task before the local authorities in the coming days is colossal. resource generation and urban development management through inter-departmental coordination and cooperation at the settlement level. approval. it is expected that each local authority will have its own resources developed to take desired actions in urban planning. techniques of implementation of urban development plans including land assembly.. 1. lndia(ITPI).... ways to involve public participation in planning and development process for effective planning. 1995) to the Institute of Town Planners. The terms of reference of the research study include formulation of guidelines in consultation with ITPI Regional Chapters. development and management process as one of the new roles of local authorities is going to be that of a facilitator of development in the current economic liberalisation scenario.... implementation and review.. The guidelines will also help in decision-making by the appropriate authority on matters like process of planning. (Refer MUAE Letter No. The guidelines would provide the details of the entire range of urban development plans. New Delhi.. and ways to inculcate private sector participation in planning. need for guidelines becomes desirable and necessary.K-14011/7/95-UD-111 dated 30th March. their purpose..

simplified development promotion rules and regulations. comprising eight chapters..S. (See Annexure 3 for detail). (See Annexure 1 for details). ITP/... where applicable.. Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment as Member-Convenor to advise and guide the research study from time to time.. 2..P.. approaches to public participation.. Government of India with Dr... resource mobilisation and simplified regulations supported by appendices giving simplified planning techniques. Volume 2A provides Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law (Revised) as a consequence of 74th CAA and UDPFI Guidelines...Meshram.... · 1. The specific variations as applicable to small... Volumes 28 and 2C give the modified Regional and Town Planning Act of Maharashtra and Modified Town Planning and Development Act of Gujarat respectively..S. plan approval system. have also been provided to help the planners and decision-makers to identify the necessary strategies/approaches and techniques of planning urban centres located in such areas.... The UDPFI Guidelines have been organised in two parts. .. innovative approaches for land assembly and resource mobilisation. provision for urban infrastructure and low-cost sanitation.K.. Variations for hill areas. Part-11 has three volumes. medium and large urban centres have been provided. as Chairman and Dr...... and institutional set-up for plan preparation and implementation. contents of various plans.Kulshrestha as Member-Convenor to periodically review the progress of the research study and advise on technical matters. presentation techniques.U D P F I Guidelines--- _~ Secretary. land use-transportation interface and environmental planning principles. provides the details of the innovative planning system.- . New D e l h i ... plan formulation requirements of funding agencies.. . b) Technical Committee: A 15-member Technical Committee under the Chairmanship of Shri D.. planning process..... Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment.. minimum norms and standards.. 3. . supported by appendices which will steer the users through the basic inputs required for plan formulation and implementation.80 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT 1.. Director.. Town and Country Planning Organisation. Part I. . . 8 - CRDT. (See Annexure 2 for detail)... alternative systems of private sector participation.Mohanty..K... c) · Expert Group: An Expert Group of 12 persons to conduct various studies related to this research work. Chief Planner..

....5 & 6 APPENDICES CONTENTS OF THE SELECTED PLAN DOCUMENTS SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUE I NORMS AND STANDARDS.. ITPI.2 SELECTION OF THE TYPE OF PLAN FOR (PERSPECTIVE PLAN.. IMPLEMENTATION OF PLAN. • DECISION TO PREPARE AN URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN BY THE MUNICIPALITY.. DEVELOPMENT PLAN.. DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION RULES AND REGULATIONS CHAPTERS 3.. THE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY J/ CHAPTER...UDPFI Guidelines--- 1..... PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES AND OTHER DETAILS ! .90 HOW TO USE THE GUIDELINES 1.j... MONITORING AND REVIEW I/ [" fiG...1 : USE OF UDPFI GUIDELINES - CRDT. FORMULATION OF PLAN I '-...... I -- I l CHAPTERS 7 & 8 RESOURCE MOBILISATION AND LEGAL SUPPORT. Figure 1.I.. ANNUAL PLAN) OR PROJECT/SCHEME FOR PREPARATION '..4. New Delhi 9 Jt ....._1.1 shows the way of using the UDPFI Guidelines for preparation of various urban development plans.

They are completely free to use these tools and to evolve various alternative planning and design solution pertaining to urban development.. 10 - CRDT..... These guide!ines basically provide the framework. It is highlighted here that the Jbjective of UDPFI guidelines is not to introduce regimentation ·in the planning process. and development promotion rules and regulations needed for formulation and implementation of urban development plans... ITPJ..........__ _ 2.U D P F J Guidelines__. these guidelines are not uniformly applicable to all situations and places hence these may be modified depending upon local conditions.. New D e l h i ......and regional planners.· . the necessary techniques.\rve as an efficient and dynamic instrument to guide spatio-economic development of the planning area..- . Since conditions vary from place to place and even within a settlement there are variations. norms and standards.... felt needs and technological innovations so that the development plan may SE......... intend to limit the freedom of expression of urban . These guidelines provide basic instruments for planning and do not in any way.... resource mobilisation and land assembly approaches...

CHAPTER 2 URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING SYSTEM AND PROCESSES .

are basically formalised in the Five Year Plans which. The urban planning system includes the master plan. These are sectoral and there is hardly any actual inter-sectoral coprdination. the system of economic planning is similar to the one at the national level. Generally the state Town and Country Planning Department/Directorate is responsible for preparation of master/development plans of urban settlements under the respective state Regional and Town Planning Act. are economic and social in nature and contents....... in some states. Spatial or physical planning is generally limited to a few selected urban settlements.. Major deficiencies in the master plan approach are that : 1. ITPI. At the s~ate level... A critical examination of the available literature on the current planning practices in the country indicates that planning objectives. Tlie development authorities. social and economic planning is a joint responsibility of the Central and state governments....- 11 ... losing its effectiven~ss in a fast-changing scenario.the development plans of urban centres are prepared by state Town Planning and Valuation Departments for and on behalf of the municipalities. as an instrument guiding urban development..UDPFI Guidelines--- CHAPTER TWO URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING SYSTEM AND PROCESSES 2. Private sector town planning consultancy firms are also engaged by various organisations to prepare development plan of state capitals.. New D e l h i . The implementation of these plans is generally through development authorities and special function boar_cjs/undertakings. 3.. detailed further through zonal plans. thus... Implementation has generally been "very poor and master plan...... - CRDT. These plans are the major documents which determined the course of national development. In some states provision of an interim general plan is also avai!'able. has been found deficient in many ways requiring necessary redressal.... In Maharashtra and Guja1:at.. policies and strategies at national level. neg-lecting short-term actions and objectives.... 4.... According to the item 20 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India... But this sector has yet to develop to its full potential. new towns and oth~r towns. It provides a ··long-term perspective of development... land being a state subject the role of state governments becomes more pronounced in the implementation process. perform the plann)ng function also. 2. However..........10 AN OVERVIEW 1..

... such as acquisition of land.. 14.. rather it should : 1...U D P F I Guidelines--- 2... It lacks symbiosis of socio-economic dynamism and physical determination of a city...a plan is needed to serve as a guideline to promote urban development. there are frequent changes in land use.. The public participation in the planning process is not effective.... In actual practice.. The norms and standards for land use and provision of facilities and services are generally high and very difficult to be achieved at the time of implementation. Coordination and cooperation among various implementing agencies is also very poor... It lacks integration of physical and fiscal planning efforts. resulting in delays and many avoidable mistakes... 12 - CRDT... 5... Many a time.... 7. In some cases too much political interference is observed which results in some irrational proposals and implementation decisions.. Development management is generally not efficient.. 9. Monitoring and review mechanisms are neither regular nor effective. New D e l h i .... It is rigid and static because it is treated as an end product and not as a continU(•Us process....... It lacks coordination between planning wing on the one hand and decision-making and executive wing on the other. 4. As a consequence.. 11. Town planning and other related laws. It emphasises control rather than promotion of development. 8. It takes a very long time in its preparation and approval. 10. be dynamic. It hardly caters to the demands of informal sector.. 12.. its implementation is held up due to delays in preparation of zonal plans and other detailed plans. Such a plan or the planning system should not have the above shortcomings. techno-economic changes and development needs.- ... are not suitably amended to adjust to changing socio-economic.. 13. 3.. 6. ITPI. making it an out-of-date document even before its implementation. 5..

S. 6.. 7.......A.... administrative and political system in the country itself.. provide effective mandatory monitoring and review mechanisms. administrato~s and experts get opportunity to participate at both the stages of planning and implementation. their representatives. The 74th CAA demands devolution of planning function to local authorities and CRDT. be participatory in nature where people. the Netherlands.. The planning practices in some other countries like U. provide a system that integrates physical and economic planning and development initiatives. New D e l h i ..... A synthesis of the results of this study suggested that each country has evolved a system that suited its specific needs and legal provisions. strive for sustainable urban development... the recommended planning system should therefore: be basically indigenous fulfilling the needs of the people in the country including the urban poor and informal sector.. have an active concern for protection of environment and historical and cultural heritage... and be action oriented with adequate fiscal support and resource mobilisation strategy... 2. U. 8. promote development and provide conducive opportunities for effective private sector participation in implementation process.. where time taken in plan preparation and approval is drastically reduced.. France and China were studied...... and evolve out of the legal.. 9. Poland..-- 2.U D P I ' 1 Guidelines__.. 2... have the desired attributes...K... be expeditious........ 4. 3. Taking into account the problems of existing system of urban development planning in India and keeping in view the attributes of the desired system that are outlined earlier in this chapter. 5. incorporate informal sector and the needs of the urban poor and provide opportunities for creation of jobs in both formal and informal sectors. policy makers. ITPI..13 .... 10.20 RECOMMENDED PLANNING SYSTEM 1..

.... !TPI.- . policies.. supported by illustrations and maps. is a medium tern (generally five years) plan providing to the people the comprehensive proposals for socio-economic and spatial development of the urban centre indicating the manner in whicll the use of land and development therein shall be carried out by the ..3 (a).. a perspective plan is a written document. .. d) Conceived within the framework of approved Development Plan. 4. d.... source of finance and recovery instruments .. ---·~ -~. administratively and professionally it is expected that the system should provide for a long-term policy plan.:-_' -" .. containing spatia-economic development policies. strategies and ·general programmes of the urban local authorit}f'regarding spatia-economic development of the settlement under its governance.... is a plan containing the details of new and ongoing projects that the local authority intends to implement during the respective financial year and for which necessary fiscal re~urces shall be mopilised through plan funds and other sources.for their execution by a public or private agency. New D e l h i . conceived within the framework of development plan. 14 - CRDT. The definition of these plans is as under: a) A Perspective Plan is a long term {Q0-25 years) written document supported by necessary maps and diagrams providing the state government the goals. the recommended urban development planning system consists of a set of four inter-related plans as follows : a.. Considering the above...30 2...U D P f ' J Guidelines--- involvement of people in the planning process.. I.31 SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF VARIOUS URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS Perspective Plan •· 1. Projects I Sch~mes are detailed workiAg layouts with all supporting infrastructure.·..··--·-·-.. monitoring and review...··.. .·:: . 4 • .... >lo· b) c) An Annual Plan._. A Development Plan conceived within the framework of the approved perspective plan...:. 2. local authority and other agencies. - . b. · 3.. Perspective Plan Development Plan Annual Plan and Plans of Projects/Schemes c.20. and documents including cost of development. :... As defined earlier in para 2.:.. ·- ~~:~::.' . a mid-term comprehensive plan further integrated with budgetary process and divided into projects I schemes for implementation.

It also covers long-term policies regarding development of infrastructure and resource mobilisation that are necessary to promote these urban activities. This plan presents to the state govemme11t and people the intentions of the local authority regarding development of ~he urban centre in the next 20-25 years.U D P F I Guidelines--- strategies and general programmes of the local authority. policies and priorities relating to all those urban activities that . coastal area development plan.. agency-wise · (including private sector) schemes/projects. Development plan prepared within the framework of the approved perspective plan is a medium-term (5 years) comprehensive plan of spatio-economic development of the urban centre....· . This will facilitate integration of spatial and economic policy planning initiatives. A local authority cannot adopt a development plan unless it is conceived within the framework of the perspective plan which is approved or is in the process of being approved.. and resource mobilisation plan with particular reference to finance. ec·onomic and spatial development goals.2.1) 2.32 Development Plan 1.. conservation and et:ology... and matters like environment. highway corridor development and such others. The scope of this plan covers social. heritage conservation plan. The objective of a development plan is to provide further necessary details and intended actions in the form of strategies and physical proposals for various policies given in the perspective plan depending upon the economic and social needs and aspiration of the people.. 3... mining sites reclamation plan. These plans could be traffic and transportation plan. The basic purpose of a perspective plan is to provide a policy framework for further detailing and it serves as d guide for urban local authority in preparation of the development plan.. Depending upon the urgency of the needs and priorities requiring special treatment and covering special aerial extant development plans for specific subjects could also be prepared within the framework of the perspective plan and covering the area of jurisdic_tion of the local authority.. land and manpower and provides an efficient system of monitoring and review.1ave spatial implications or..' . Great care is always taken in this plan to minimise the conflict between the environmental protection· and urban development. 2. transportation and land use. years should be so adjusted that it coincides with the term of the National/State Five Year Plans. in other words. that require land for their location'and desired functioning.· . housing and other infrastructure. tourism development plan. priorities and proposals for development of the urban centre including employment generation. 3. A perspective plan should generally be for a period of 20 years and the plan period of 20-25. ITPI. It also contains implementation strategies. The scope of this plan covers an assessment of current issues... economic base. New Delhi--~------------------- 15 .... available resources and priorities.I . - CRDT. 2. development promotion rules. (Fig... prospects.. environmental conservation plan..

. Number of remaining years of a current Five Year Pl. 2..... Pj ..._-"-'--·---'----'--'---·--·----- ~~-· -·---·· _ __ _ ...... n + 5.....- . Pi... j .... n10 ...<1n counted from the base year T. Successive Five Year Plans for five year periods i. n : n5... FIG.. n + 10 . .. New D e l h i ......- .1 :CONTINUOUS PERSPECTIVE PLANS 16 CRDT. ---------'------------------------UDPFI Guidelines--- Five Year Plans Pi Pj Pk PI Pm Pn Po Pp Pq Existing Plan (If any) Preparation & Approval Perspective Plan Period Review ----------------~---·~----·---- ------·~-·--·----~----------~-----·-~·--·--·---~---------~------- T: Base year taken as the year of commencement of the state Urban and Regional Planning (revised) Act whereunder a municipality shall assume the status of a planning and development authority. ITPI.. ....c--...

The purpose of annual plan.33 Annual Plan 1.M LA-i-wllK. 2.. to be prepared by the local authority every year... This authority will implement the plan for three years up to the end of their term.. This also ensures that an elected local authority after assuming office reviews the plan formulated by its predecessors. review and further planning without any break. the elected local authority (LA-i) soon after assuming office takes actions to review the existing plan and prepares the development plan which will be for five years.5--c-Yeacs.and by the time its validity expires.-is-te identify the new schemes/projects....2. 6. Its proposals are precise and definite.. As shown in Fig. the next plan upto the year 12. New D e l h i .. As suggested by these guidelines.. adoption and implementation is ..... which the authority will undertake for implementation during the year taking into account the physical and fiscal CRDT. ~r:!_g the two-:Year p~igQ.: a period_ of 5 years... the facilities and services that are proposed to be provided in near future (next 5 years)..2... priorities and ideology and implements the same up to the end of its term. 8. )he time-frame of 5 years expediently ~its the provisions of 74th Constitution Amendment Act (74th CAA) where.. the duration of municipalities ~ . will be ready. This ensures a continuous process of planning. and it informs the developers about the areas where opportunities for investment will be available...li·=wnr prov1de input Jru__tb_e__p_re_paration oL dev~!..elopmeoLcpJ<:trJ"-. approved and adopted by the local authority for implementation with the help of schemes and projects.... It notifies the property owners the manner in which their properties will be affected..r_e:vmw__ and ___. It makes known publicly the intention of the local authority regarding physicaL social and economic development of the urban centre. acceptable to people and be dynamic as it will have better adaptability to change. 'l.. 7. (Figure 2..QpJil_ent Q!an for the next . LA-j will implement this plan up to end of its term and the process will continue...U D P F J Guidelines--- 4... prepares the developmenfplan following its policies.QL~rnentation of ""'the __de:v.... implementation. A plan and a planning process that provides opportunities to ~·~Inc-orporate tffeneeas of the urban centre and development aspirations of the people through the elected representatives would bedesirable..__ preparation of de\lelopment plan.. A development plan is a statutory plan.2).- 17 . the local au thority for development plan preparation.... The LA-j after assuming office will review the progress of 3 years' im... under article 243U(i). LJ\-j will have an approved plan for implementation ... under the Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law (Revised) each municipality constituted under the municipal act shall be the planning and development authority to prepare development plan for whole or part of the area under its jurisdiction._Qf_. the first three years of which shall be during and up to the end of the term of LA-i and the next two years will fall during the term of the next local authority LA-j.. ITPJ.... 5.

................. 2.....U D P F I Guidelines--- Local Authority <-······--LA Existing Plan (if any) Preparation and Approval Development Plan Review -------------~---·--·-----------------~-------·--·--·-------~---------------·--·--1~----·-..2: CONTINUOUS AND PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT PLANS 18 - CRDT.· ·=·=: '• LA-i.. FIG. j .. New D e l h i ............. LA-j .- .... : Elected Local Authority for the 5 year's term i....... ITPI............

2.. administration and management. the executing agency guided by market forces and government policy interventions. Conceived within the framework of the development plan. or infrastructure development separately or in an integrated manner..34 Plans of Schemes f P~ojects 1. This plan also provides the resource requirements during the year and the sources of funds including those mobilised by the local authority. 3.. serves as an important link with the budgetary process. These could also be for subjects like tourism development.. therefore. private or even individuals. directly or indirectly related to urban development.40 INTER-RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS PLANS 1. educational or health related. urban renewal of central area. The schemes/projects provide all the required planning.. the policies and the proposals contained in the approved development plan... financial and administrative details in drawing and written form for execution.system of continuous annual review of the · performance. 2. architects. development. 2. enjoying maximum freedom of expression in their design within the stipulations of development .. grants. 4. by any agency such as government. The annual plan provides a built-in. environmental improvement.ITf't. 2.· promotion rules and other regulations as applicable. - CllDT. semi-government.. the priorities.. engineers as the case may be. These are to be prepared by the respective executing agencies which could be public or · private.. Ntw Dellti---------------------- 19 . conservation.... aids and project/scheme funds of the state and Central governments. recreation.. Taking into account the entire planning process and also incorporating the suggested planning system.. architectural..3 shows the inter-relationship of the different development plans... Selection of the area subject/project will be determined by the needs and priorities of. ... old or new. and even land pooling. engineering. providing all necessary details for execution including finance. or for any agency prepared by town planners. Figure 2. recreational. These schemes/projects could be for any area. ·This plan.. at various levels ranging from national to a transitional urban area under the jurisdiction of a nagar · panchayat.UDPFI Guidelines-~- pertormance of the preceding year.. schemes/projects are the working layouts supported by written report. any activity or land use like residential... It is thus an important document for resource mobilisation as on its basis the plan funds will be allocated by the funding body.. industrial. actions and initiatives of local authority in implementing development plan. commercial..

. : INTER-RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS DEVELOPMENT PLANS 20 ....3....O.- ....IETRO-CrTY 1' AGGRIGA TION OF PLANS t DISAGGRIGA TION OF PLANS FIG....... 2.N (METROPOUTAN PLANNING COMMITTEE) DISTRICT (DISTRICT PLANNING COMMITTE) ....U D P F I Guidelines--- NATIONAL (PLANNING COMMISSION) STATE (STATE PLANNING BOARD) StATE 5-Year PLAN METROPOUT..................... DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT· PLAN URBAN SETTLEMENT (IIUNCIPALITV) DEVELOPMENT PLAN TRANSITIONAL AREA (NAGAR PANCHAYAD PROJECTS/SCHEMES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------e RELATIONSHIP WITH PLANS OF METRO-AREAA.............. ITPI....CRDT.. New D e l h i .

review and again planning go on as a dynamic process. In this process.. 4.. the metropolitan area development plan or the district development plan serves as a guide for identifying the basic functions and other development initiatives in case of an urban centre located in the district or the metropolitan area. agro-climatic regions. Objectives are specific statements indicating the ways and means of achieving the set aims. provision of incentives and inducements (specific) to industries. the objectives could be : provision of jobs through development of industries/ commerce or trade.U D I ' F I Guidelines--- 2.. As contained in the provisions of the 74th CAA..4... taking into account the potentials.. Policies and development proposals contained in other plans of regions like resource regions. The review of the plan. cyclic process and.. opportunities. ITPJ. aspirations of the people and needs of the community..... and national levels. therefore..2.. 2..... metropolitan area..- 21 .' ... provision of informal sector economic activity sites as part of commercial areas.... the decision to prepare a plan is outside the cycle of planning process.. Fig.... depending upon the results (positive. 'to provide job opportunities for all' is a statement of aims... I.. indicating satisfactory implementation or negative showing faults of varying degrees) generates five possibilities of further action. planning is a continuous.. as well as the state perspective plan should also be appropriately considered and incorporated. The following sections provide more details of various stages of this process. state. as shown in Fig. It -needs to be emphasised here that urban plans should not be conceived in isolation from its region as each urban centre is part of a regional· system of settlements which in turn play their respective role in the process of development of the region as a whole.. 2. programmes and resources.2.. 3. Aims can be defined as broad and general statements indicating the decisions of the policy makers....4. This must be considered and incorporated in the urban development plans.3 also shows the linkages for aggregation of plans' proposals for consolidation and integration of physical and fiscal planning efforts at district. for the aim related to job . It further indicates the pattern of disaggregation of policies.. time-oriented. For example.CRDT.. monitoring..51 Aims and Objectives 1...... implementation.. As shown in Fig. 2. 2.. 2..50 PLANNING PROCESS 1. spatial development planning should be seen and practised as a process where planning. -.. For example. New D e l h i . and such others.

...4 GENERAL PROCESS OF PLANNING 22 - CRDT. AWiae. Review results not satisfactory. New DeU. Revise the goals for the next plan period and continue.. ITPI. 2.......abandon the plan and take decision to prepare the appropriate plan and continue. refine projectjacheme. Review results negative indicating termination of the plan (a condition that may not arise) . 4. REVIEW OF THE PLANS 3. continue further implementation...UDPFI Guidelines--- DECISION TO PREPARE PLAN r DEVELOPMENT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECTED REQUIREMENTS PLAN FORMULATION.i----------------------- .. EVALUATION AND ·APPROVAL ANNUAL REVIEW OF PROJECTS/SCHEMES 1 Review results positive. no change in goals. Review results indicate revision of goals. 5. identify projected needs for the next plan period and continue the process. FIG. R~view results positive. 2.

.... 2. six non-official representatives organisations.... l . This process has not been found effective and potent as it lacks participation and commitment of the relevant department. analysis. heads of relevant Central and state government departments functioning or having jurisdiction over the local planning area.A) should also be such that it is effective but time-saving.- 23 .5 shows the process of identification of projected requirements... The function of this committee is suggested to be to : a) discuss and advise on development aims and objectives. - CRDT. members from amongst the residents and of non-governmental and community-based b) c) d) municipal planner. and formulation of objectives which could be further defined as design objectives and implementation objectives. ITPJ. The choice of technique of surveys..' ..U D P F I Guidelines--- 3. It is this stage of planning process which consumes most of the time. it is emphasised that primary surveys and studies should be rationally chosen so that it saves time and minimises delays in the process.. There is the need to minimise time taken at this stage. identification of aims incorporating the values.. the next stage in the process of planning is identification of projected requirements of various activities.. New D e l h i .... 3.... b) c) d) 2. supporting infrastructure and land as the basic input for plan formulation. it is suggested that a Development Integration Committee be constituted consisting of the following : a) chairperson..2....... After identification of development aims and objectives. Fig.... The ai'ms and objectives formulation exercise comprises the following four steps : a) identification of values cherished by the people.... politicians and other groups of people.52 Identification of Projected Needs 1.. Accordingly. the state Town and Country Planning Departments have been collecting and compiling relevant information from various departments regarding theirfuture plans...... Traditionally. synthesis and projections (Appendix . identification of criteria that further defines each aim to form basis for formulation of objectives...... In this context......member secretary.

.. New D e l h i · ...UDPFI Guidelines--- EXISTING CONDITIONS & ISSUES ~ SYNTHESIS /i'< K:- ANALYSIS I/ ...... INFORMATION FROM SECONDARY SOURCES - PRIMARY SURVEYS AND STUDIES ....- .-- NORMS AND STANDARDS '----- POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES OF CENTRAL AND STATE GOVTS AND DISTRICT/ METROPOLITAN PLANNING COMMITTEE INPUT FROM DEVELOPMENT INTEGRATION COMMITTEE rl '-V SYSTHESIS ')...............5......... PROJECTIONS l I:.......... 2... [/ IL ...... ITPI... IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECTED REQUIREMENTS 24 CRDT....... PRIORITIES IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECTED REQUIREMENTS ' - GOALS AND OBJECTIVES FIG....

U D P F I Guidelines _ _... It is also expected that each participating department/ agency shall spend its own money and manpower if required for discharging its function as member of the Development Integration Committee..... analyse and synthesise it and present results to the Development Integration Committee for further deliberations. 2. - CRDT. environmental and fiscal resd\Jrces.. c) 4. For -the purpose of preparation of various development plans every local authority shall also constitute a Standing Planning Committee. and ensure coordination of inter-departmental interactions and cooperation pertaining to plan formulation and integration. operators and the time-frame. priorities and major programmes of each department to form part of projectE.53 Plan Formulation 1. and urban design quality.retary... This committee shall comprise (a) the chairperson·of the local authority as chairperson. ThisJeads to the selection of a preferred alternative for fur...:.. judicious utilisation of land· resources.2..ld requirements.... chief administrative officer and the municipal planner as the member-see. (b) two members nominated by the local authority from among the elected members.. projections..6).:her detailing as the proposed plan for the settlement (Fig.. ·planning principles/theories. 5..-~--------------'- 25 . This would generate a participatory process of planning and also save time and money in collection of basic data. projected requirements. This plan is further divided into private and public sector · programmes of action classified by priprities.. Each individual department is expected to provide input pertaining to its area of concern and the municipal planner will compile the information. It is followed by a process. 6.. of evaluation of the alternatives having regard to achievement of aims and...... Matters of mutual interest could also be discussed by this committee. planning techniques. New Delhi--~----.. and norms and standards.. 3. The role of municipal planner is very important in this committee. EIPI.... taking into account aims and objectives. objectives.... sustainability. b) proyide input on existing conditions. 2.. Plan formulation consists of drawing up of alterna~ive concepts of planning the settlement.

......... New D e l h i .....___ PLANNING LEGISLATION & DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION RULES . PLAN FORMULATION PROCESS 26 - C'RIJT........ 2......UDPFJ Guidelines--- r-- GOALS AND OBJECTIVES PLANNING PRINCIPLES/THEORY PLANNING TECHNIQUES NORMS AND STANPARDS I I PROJECTED r ... ITPJ...REQUIREMENTS ~ I I PROPOSALS OF DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PLAN/METROPOLIT AN AREA DEVELOPMENT PLAN ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS OF I/ PLANNING THE URBAN CENTRES ['. L r-- INFRASTRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUST AINABILITY rl ' I \..../ PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR.. JOINT SECTOR ACTIONS I PROGRAMME CLASSIFIED BY TIME FRAME. PRIORITIES AND OPERATORS FIG.f-........ I/ SELECTION OF AN ALTERNATIVE FOR FURTHER DETAILING ' / ~ '-V FORMULATION OF THE PLAN k... v EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES k RESOURCES \.....6..- ...

. Time-frame for such modifications and reconsiderations should not exceed 60 days and be appropriately incorporated in Town Planning Law. !Tf_l... Approval of Perspective Plan 1. In cases where there are some specific modifications suggested by the state government. CRD'F. an extra 60 days would be needed to modify the plain {30 days) and to get approved (another 30 days).54 Decentralisation of Plan Approval Process 1.. 'In pursuance of the policy of decentralisation. spirit of the 74th CAA and also recognising the fact that the current process of approval of urban development plans takes a lot of time resulting in delays that. in a fast-changing socio-economic context. The approving authority may approve the plan submitted to it without or with specific modifications and in case there are specific modifications.. 2.. and sent to the state government with necessary recommendations/advice for consideration and approval. It also indicates the agency and the operators who shall take the necessary action at various steps as well as the time period during which the action should be completed.. the local authority or other agency/body or individuals. Perspective plan is to be approved by the state government on the technical advice of the state town and country planning department.. Fig 2... make the planning exercise out-of-date.7 shows step-by-step process of approval of perspective plan.. it is recommended that perspective plans of small and medium size towns be scrutinised by the Divisional Town Planner at the Divisional Office and plans of all large cities be technically scrutinised by the State Chief Town Planner at the headquarters... 2. Following the... New D e l h i .55. ..- 27 .UDPFI Guidelines-~- 2... It is expected that a total of 10 months will be required to complete the approval process.. as the case may be. shall be obliged to modify the plan before taking next step in the approval process.. it is recommended that the pian approval process be decentralised as follows: Plan Perspective Plan Approving Authority State government through the state chief planner Municipal council/corporation Municipal council/corporation Municipal planner Development Plan Annual Plan Schemes/Projects 2..

.- 1 ..... 7 28 - PERSPECTIVE PLAN·APPROVAL PROCESS CRDT. ITPI. New D e l h i .......l ----------------------------UDPF/Guidelines--- s: STEPS a On submission of DPP to the MC for according consent and submission of DPP to URPD and MPC/DPC for concurrence c~nsent....... 2.... MC/MP 01 b c Concurrence for public notification of DPP Public notification of DPP URPD/SCP/DT P/MPC/DPC MC/MP 01 01 d e Public comments and suggestions Public hearing and final DPP formulation & submission to MC for consent Consent on final DPP and submission of the firial DPP to the Government through URPD for approval Approval of the final DPP and communication to MC Notification of Approval · Public SPC : 01 02 f MC 01 g Govt/SCP/DTP 02 h MC/MP TOTAL 01 10 DPP DPC DTP Govt MC MP MPC SCP SPC URPD Draft Perspective Plan District Planning Committee Divisional Town Planner Government Municipal Council/Corporation (as the case may be) Municipal Planner Metropolitan Planning Committee State Chief Planner Standing Planning Committee Urban and Regional Planning Department of the State FIG..

.56.. The various steps for effective implementation include : a) b) Formulation of the annual plan and identification of projects for implementation within the framework of approved development plan.. with or without specitrc modifications. shall examine the draft development plan for its being within the framework of the perspective plan and issue a letter of concurrence. This provision is to ensure an approved plan for development of the settlement which is the right of the people.... Identification of various agencies responsible for : i) Development promotion and management : As a consequence of the 74th CAA. In case of infrastructures like post and telegraph.~m and Country Planning Department as the official agency of the state government. the plan shall be deemed to have been approved. The further details of steps involved in the approval process. With a view to distributing work-load and introduce efficiency and saving of time it is recommended that function of scrutiny of perspective plan and issuing of letter of concurrence on development plan being within the framework of the perspective plan should be devolved as under : a) b) For large cities For small and medium size towns State Chief Planner Divisional Town Planner 2. With a view to introducing efficiency. . the action. approval is not communicated by the state government... seaports.8...2. Approval of the Development Plan 1. deeming ciause is proposed to be incorporated in the revised urban and regional planning law in cases where.. the total time period taken for approval of development plan will be 7 months.. a decentralisation is recommended where the development plans shall be approved by the local authority (municipal council/corporation)..2. telephone. 3.... Following the process of public notification and public hearing the development plan will be finalised and approved by the municipal corporation or municipal council. power supply..- .8. 4.as the · case may be. national and state highways....UDPFI Guidelines--- 2.. Following the spirit of the 74th CCA. ..----------------------~--. 2. 29 - CRDT. the agency and operators responsible for the action and the time period during which the action should be completed are given in Fig. Implementation of development plans is generally through annual plans and projects. New D e l h i . As is clear from fig.. The state To. the local authority will perform this function. airports. JTPI. . . if by the end of the stipulated time.60 IMPLEMENTATION 1.

..... .RATOR . according consent and submission of draft DP to URPD and MPC/DPC for concurrence Confirmation of Draft DP being 'Nithin the framework of approved PP MC/CMC/MP 01 b URPD/SCP/ DTP/MPC/ DPC MP 01 c Public notification and display of the draft DP 01 d Public meeting and public comments and suggestions Public hearing and final draft DP formulation & submission to MC for approval Approval of final draft DP and its notification Public 01 02 e SPC MC 01 07 TOTAL DP DTP DPC MC MP MPC PP SCP SPC URPD Development Plan Divisional Town Planner District Planning Committee Municipal Council/Corporation (as the case may be) Municipal Planner Metropolitan Planning Committee Perspective Plan State Chief Planner Standing Planning Committee Urban and Regional Planning Department of the State FIG.. •········)··············································••• )················?•••• \· .. < < . ActioNs ·.....·.. ·. .. 2. .•· • • ·• <)PE.uidelines ..'-:' _·' ..U I J P F I (.. TIME FRAME > ·. New D e l h i ..· ·• ·(MONTH$)····· a On submission of Draft DP to MC for consent........ 8 DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPROVAL PROCESS 30 - CRDT....- . . AGENCY/< MAXI~lJM . ·._ •...•.•· ACTION F()fi J8E••···········i .. .. ... -·. PROCESS <MC$TA.... -·_ ........ ·· ··········•···• ....······.... .- sTE:J?s ..Ta: ..... ... ITPI. .:· ---~.. ·. . ·• •. •· .... .

62 Private Sector Actions 1. fiscal resource mobilisation. However. non-governmental organisations (NGOs).9 for further action. and international agencies c) Actions for implementation which include : i) ii) iii) Public-sector interventions Private sector actions and Joint venture or public-private partnership 2.9.-------'------~---------------.UDPFI Guidelines--- etc. an affordable project is normally implemented without any difficulty and delays by such societies.1 0 shows private sector actions for implementation of development plans/projects. ITPI. its management and post-project maintenance. ·therefore. Private sector can execute all types of projects provided they are economically viable and remunerative. builders. prioritisation of projects. As a general principle. ii) Execution of action projects and schemes : The agency for this function could be : private individuals. state government departments. And then follow the flow-chart in Fig. classify projects by priority.2. In case of cooperative societies. central government departments. execution of the project. These are self-explanatory. New Delhi 31 . and Deferable fourth priority. needs some more input. Fig. corporations and undertakings. the question of affordability of the· members of the society arises and. local government departments. These actions include formulation of project. groups. CRDT. the agency for this activity may be relevant departments of the Central and state governments. semi-government organisations like various boards. under capital improvement programmes.61 Public Sector Interventions 1. organisations. 2. developers or promoters. · Necessary or second priority. private cooperative societies.2. as shown in Fig. Public sector interventions pertain to legal and non-legal matters and capital improvement programmes. into : a) b) c) d) Essential or top priority. and community-based organisations (CBOs). Acceptable or desirable third priority.2.

....~ BUILDING BYE-LAWS FIG... New Delhi-------------~---------- . IMPROVEMENT HOUSING FOR THE POOR 1 URBAN RENEWAL I "-.9...UDPFI Guidelines--- PUBLIC S~CTOR INTERVENTIONS I J LEGAL l I NON. ASSEMBLY & MANAGEMENT J ENVIRONMENTAL...~.. ITPI.......j_.. PUBLIC SECTOR IMTERVENTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DEVELOPMENT PLAN 32 - CRDT....... I INCENTIVES & INDUCEMENTS ACTION! liNVESTMENT TAX CONCESSIONS ' IGA..1 SUB-DIVISION REGULATIONS I ...l r DIRECT .-- 1 ADVICE! INFORMATIQN l COORD INATION/COOPERATION .1/ DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION RULES AND REGULATIONS I 1 I -.. 2.~TS I T l I INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISiON 1 'FAR' CONCESSIONS 1 L LAND....LEGAL I I l CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME l PRIORITISATION OF PROJECTS & CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS I l FINANCIAL CAPABILITIES OF IMPLEMENTATION AGENCIES FISCAL GAP & IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FUNDS I I -..

......I/ · PROJECT/SCHEME FORMULATION "'I/ FISCAL RESOURCE MOBILISATION "' LAND !/ ASSEMBLY MAINTENANCE OF INFRASTRUCTURE "1/ I I - I J EXECUTION AND MANAGEMENT OF ALL KINDS OF REMUNERATIVE PROJECTS POST PROJECT OPERATION/MAINTENANCE FIG. PRIVATE SECTOR ACTIONS ·-.CRDT......... /TPI.... New Delhi----------------------- 33 .10.. 2.....U D P F I Guidelines--- PRIVATE SECTOR ACTIONS '.......

2. 2.. Role of private sector will. 2. (See Appendix 0 for further details). Joint venture or public-private partnership is yet another system for effective implementation of development plans... recommended... The basic objective of this exE ... New D e l h i . · 2.. preparation of perspective plan and its approval should not exceed four years. 3.. Review is defined as critical examination of the implementation of development plan during the given period of time.71 Review of Perspective Plans 1.70 REVIEW OF PLANS 1. failures and conflicts to guide the future course of action. It is an effective system and can be used to ensure social commitments towards the community and people below the poverty line.. As explained earlier... therefore. This is an important step in the dynamic planning process which hitherto has not been effectively utilised.... it is suggested that a fresh perspective plan for 20-25 years be prepared after incorporating results of the review and the future projected requirements.be increasingly significant and should be effectively utilised.- . Review of perspective plan of 20 years shall be conducted immediately after the expiry of 10 years.... a development plan covers term of two successive elected local authorities in such a way that the first three years fall during and up to the end of the term of the local authority in office and the next two years fall in the beginning 34 - CRDT. The total time taken for review.. It should be followed by usual approval process including public notification and hearing (Chapter 8). Fig.... Under the current liberalisation policy and policy of private sector participation in implementation process..11_ shows the actions of public and private agencies in a joint venture or partnership system. 2...therefore. A maximum time period of two years should be given for this exercise which should be conducted by the local authority for the term in which this year falls..63 Joint Venture 1.UDPFI Guidelines--- 2.2....72 Review of Development Plans 1.... less resources are likely to be made available to the local authorities as plan funds or grants...rcise is to assess the progress of work done so far and identify areas of successes.. A review of all plans is. In order to introduce dynamism and efficiency...... 2... Where possible. It is emphasised here that this exercise is utmost necessary and must be undertaken. It is also emphasised that this activity should be mandatory and be specified in the revised urban and regional planning law and the development plan document as well.. (For details see Appendix 0).. ITPI.. it should be applied..

....... New Delhi.:. . LAND ASSEMBLY ~ PROJECT EXECUTION & ~ MANAGEMENT 1 BUlLT/DEVELOPED SPACES I DEVELOPED INFRASTURCTURE l DISPOSAL OF SPACE I I OPERATION OF MAINTENANCE OF INFRASTRUCTURES RANSFER I FIG. DISPOSAU MAINTENANCE · II' .11 : PUBLIC......1 PROJECT PLANNING & ALLOTMENT OF DEVELOPED BUlL T $PACES TO URBAN POOR FISCAL II RESOURCES I' MOBILSATION 1' 1' If'...r PRIVATE SECTOR ACTIONS --1 DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION THROUGH RULES/ REGULATIONS ....... . . _ ......" ..j/ REGISTRATION .PRIVATE ACTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS AS A JOINT VENTURE - CRDT. TURE & THEIR ... ...·...- 35 . INFRASTRUC.. 2.. . .._ _ ..... ..J/ I IE- ~ SHARING OF DEVELOPED/ BUlL T SPACES.. . ..... JTPI..UDPFI Guidelines-·-- DIVISION OF ACTIONS AND INTER-RELATIONSHIP IN PUBLIC.PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP OR JOINT VENTURE PROGRAMMES I w PUBLIC SECTOR ACTIONS l I X LAND ASSEMBLY AND LEASING OF LAND .

. as contained in the annual plan of the previous year... a system of direct and indirect participation has been suggested as under : • • • • • 36 - Perspective. 3.. Performance of the projects/schemes implemented by the local authority..80 PEOPLE'S PARTICIPATION 1. 2.. People's participation. as the case may be. This exercise should be completed in six months time. Taking into account the interest.annual plan has to be sent to the state Urban and Regional Planning Board and metropolitan planning committee or district planning committee.. shall be re·1iewed in terms of achievements of the physical and fiscal targets. therefore.- . Taking into account the results of the review exercise and the future requirements for the next subsequent plan period of 5 years a fresh development plan should be prepared and further action be taken.73 Review of Annual Plan 1... 2. the time for review and annual plan formulation should be suitably adjusted. development and annual plans formulation Formulation and implementation of land pooling schemes. depending upon the directives from these bodies. redevelopment/ rehabilitation/shelter schemes or any other project/scheme directly affecting the people Plan approval Monitoring Maintenance Indirect Direct Direct Di rect/1 ndirect Di rectiIndirect CRDT.. attitude and behaviours of the people.. New D e l h i . Accordingly.UDPF/ Guidfllines--- of the term of the next ot subsequent local authority. 2.. after expiry of three years from the date of approval of a development plan and immediately after assuming office. the local authority shall review the plan. Since each year the .. is essential and must be introduced at relevant stages in the planning process. therefore. Results of the review should provide input for preparation of next annual plan. ITPI. This would ensure a continuous monitoring and review of actions taken by local authority...-·- ---------~---------------... The monitoring of the plans/schemes should be regular so that time taken in review and formulation of annual plan is minimised.. preparation and approval of development plan should not exceed two years. 2. The total time taken in review...for its approval. 3. There can be no meaningful development in any society if the people themselves are kept out of the planning process..

.. fl'Pl..:pected that need for changes in land use and modifications in the development plan will not normally be felt. NGOs and CBOs can also play a vital role as an intermediate !ink between the people and the government... 3.90 MODIFICATIONS The suggested urban develovnent planning system provides opportunities for review of development plan every three years by the incoming elected local authority and. The board or the state government may approve the modifications with or without variations or even reject the modifications. in special circumstances if modifications are desired necessary in public interest. The direct participation can be through individuals.... N~ V. All land pooling schemes should be formulated witi1 direct active participation of the people and the law should make such provisions. or the state government in case of modifications in the development plan.. · . and such other groups. 4. 2. b) 3.i 37 - . This kind of participation has appropriately bee~ provided in the plan formulation process.. The suggested indirect participation of the people is ensured through elected representatives in the municipal council/corporation and ward committees {74th CAA).... it is e..... . business groups.U.. 2... the local authority may take action to effect the modification at any time in accordance with the following procedures : 1. consumer groups.. citizens groups.. Hear the objections and suggestions of the public and finalise the modifications and submit to the following for approval : a) the state Urban and Regional Planning Board in case of modifications in a perspective plan. therefore.. However.U D P F I Guidelines--2... • - CRDT.... It should be mandatory to present the salient features of a development plan in a public meeting organised by the local authority just after the public notice inviting their comments and suggestion before its approval. Publish draft modifications in at least one local newspaper inviting objections and suggestions from the public. neighbourhood groups.

CHAPTER 3 CONTENTS OF A PERSPECTIVE PLAN .

... ' .... general programmes and priorities.. ITPI. Projected requirements and assessment of deficiencies....UDPFJ Guidelines--- CHArt:»TER THREE CONTENTS OF A PERSPECTIVE PLAN 3. the effort should be to identify policies and programmes for socio-economic development and their implications in setting a trend of spatial development of different components of the town/city. Perspective plan should generally contain the following major heads : a) Existing characteristics and potentials of the town which when synthesised would form the b_9sis for identification of the policy issues.. . ' ... strategies and programmes of spatio-economic development of an urban centre. ··'· -·-- ' . This chapter provides the contents of the written report supported by necessary "'iilaps. b) c) d) 2) Further details regarding sub-heads under each of the above major heads are given in the following sections.... .. It is highlighted here that the perspective plan is a policy document and. CONTENTS OF PERSPECTIVE PLANS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE TOWNS 1.. . therefore..... 2. -~ - CRDT. therefore be avoided which will form part of development plans to be formulated subsequently. --. ..--------..........- 39 . References to the relevant appendices which give further details regarding analytical techniques.. strategies.10 GENERAL 1.. norms and standards and innovative approaches for incorporation in the perspective plan depending upon the developmental needs and aspirations of the local people is recommended.. Development aims and objectives. It provides major heads and sub-heads to serve as a guide for presenting results of the various surveys..... and Policies. their analyses and projections and enunciating policies.... Elaborate and comprehensive details should... charts and diagrams constituting an integral part of a perspective plan. New D e l h i ...- '' ....

.... ITPI... . quarrying.> .'~_:~ .._...=. . Housing and shelter (both formal and informal) 5.. . etc... . Climate. 2.:. .. . 4.. .... ...L~:~.uidelines--- 3. Existing generalised landuse. rail..21. 6. Tertiary : transport and other services...- . Facilities like : a) b) c) d) Education Health care Recreation Religious . Economic base and employment a) Formal sector i) ii) iii) b) Primary : Urban agriculture. water as the case may be.:.. . 40· - CRDT. migration and household characteristics. Informal sector and urban poverty alleviation..:. . .. ... buildings and areas.. . :: :. .:_·~. air. .. He_ritage.. waterways and their interrelationship with major activity nodes.... -~ ::~~ -~· ~:::. . . Transport terminals.. commerce. Network of roads. trade. ... etc... . . .. 3. 1.. Physical characteristics and natural resources a} b) c) d) e) Location and regional setting. Transportation a) b) c) mode of transportation -by road. ..:~. . Environmentally sensitive areas. Secondary : industries. informal trade. Demography a) Existing population.... transport..UDPFI (...:. . ...... Existing Conditions and Developmental Issues . mining. sites.~. ... railways.·. commerce. . New D e l h i ... .... . household industries. : ..·::---~~-~!. .

. both natural and man-made.22 Projected Requirements 1. N. 3.... that is : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Extent of the local planning area Population · Economic base and employment Housing and shelter Transportation Facilities Infrastructure Resources Land Shelter i) Commerce and trade ii) 41 - CRDT. fire protection Cremation and graveyards 8... legal support... sanitation and refuse and solid waste disposal Communication Police protection... The assessment of projected requirements should cover all matters as contained under section 3. Assessment of projected requirements should be for a period of 20-25 years and it should further be classified under periods of 5 years co-terminus with the state Five Year Plan period.... 11... ITPI. Resources a) b) c) Fiscal Manpower Land 10. 9..... Development management Institutional set-up....21 . inter-department cooperation and integration of development efforts... 2. This classification of projected requirement into 5-year terms would help in integrating the spatial planning and economic planning efforts as developmental funds are allocated through the Five Year Plans. Major policy issues..IJJhi .. Any special problem like disasters. Infrastructure a) b) c) d) e) f) Water Energy Drainage.UDPFI Guidelines--- 7.

3. Development of economic base and employment generation covering : formal sector. New D e l h i . projected requirements. growth of the settlement and its components like residential.. ITPI... if any. Environmental protection 6.. like tourism or pilgrimage which result ·in increase of floating population and demand for facilities and infrastructure. Spatial development covering : proposed generalised land use indicating direction.24 Policies and Priorities Taking the existing conditions.22. network of roads. informal sector... drainage.21 and 3.. sewerage. recreation.. Transportation 5. major policy issues and aims and objectives into account write the policies and priorities regarding : 1. 3. and special sectors like tourism and pilgrimage 2. facilities pertaining to education. 42 - CRDT. protection {police. 3. commercial... services like communication (postal and telephone). Infrastructure development covering : utilities like water supply.. fire) and others...31 (if applicable) taking into account the future requirements identified under 3. health..23 Development Aims . open spaces..- . electricity.and Objectives Write development aims and objectives pertaining to each of the major policy issues identified under 3....UDPFI Guidelines--- j) iii) lndustries iv) ?ublic and semi-public facilities Open spaces v) vi) Roads and streets vii) Infrastructure Special activities. industrial areas.. Housing and shelter development 4. refuse collection and disposal..

..31 Existing Conditions and Policy Issues 1.. 4.. 7. Issues related to decentralisation of economic activities.33 Policies and Priorities Additional policies and priorities regarding : - CRDT.. functional specialisation and interdependence.. Issues related to mass transportation and its interface with major activity nodes. if any.... phasing of spatial development...I ..- 43 .. historic sites and monuments and tourism..... ITPI.....city influence region including settlement hierarchy....20 for small and medium size towns. Delineation and assessment of general characteristics of the ... conservation of environmentally sensitive areas.. 3... Implementation and monitoring priorities and monitoring mechanism 8.. · Through policy initiatives the unsustainable activity project should be diverted to the other settlements in the city region where it would be sustainable and the relevant projected figures for the city should be adjusted accordingly.....30 ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF PERSPECTIVE PLANS OF LARGE CITIES In addition to all items listed in section 3." .. Issues related to renewal of old d_ilapidated areas. New D e l h i . 3.... the following additional contents need to be provided for in case of large cities : 3. 3.UDPFI Guidelines--- major activity node... 2.. Capacity building for fiscal manpower and land resource mobilisation 3.32 Projected Requirements As a basic principle the projected population and economic activities in case of large cities should be a function of environmental and infrastructural sustainability of the city..

.. .......... New D e l h i . ITPI. .......- .... Informal residential areas/slums and unauthorised colonies..U D P F I Guidelines--- 1 Economic activities in the context of the city region including dispersal of activities. ...... 2: 3... 4... Intra-city mass transportation system and its interface with land use pattern and location of major activity nodes.... if any............. Renewal/upgradation of old dilapidated formal and informal areas. 44 - CRDT.. ...

4 CONTENTS OF A DEVELOPMENT PLAN .CHAPTER.

norms and standards. a development plan is prepared for a period of 5 years distributed in such a way that its first three years fall during and up to the end of the term of the local authority in office and the next ten years fall during the term of the following or subsequent local authority..2. development promotion rules/regulations.. With desirable cooperation..20 CONTENTS OF A DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN CASE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE TOWNS Introduction 1..- 4. and such other information so that these may be appropriately incorporated in the development plan with suitable. With a view to saving time and also developing a participatory system of spatia-economic planning..-------------------------UDPFl Guidelines--- CHAPTER FOUR ~ CONTENTS OF A DEVELOPMENT PLAN 4..3) becomes very important..53.... . presentation techniques. CRDT. New D e l h i .. as far as practical. 2. chapter 2). it would start an era of participatory development planning of urban centres where inputs from each of these departments would form the basis for formulation of the development plan. modifications depending upon the local conditions is recommended. ··conceived within the framework of the perspective plan.. Reference to the relevant appendices that give further details regarding analytical techniques..2. It provides major heads and sub-heads to serve as a guide for formulation of development plan of an urban centre. and primary surveys should be conducted only when it is unavoidable. In this context. role of the suggested Development Integration Committee (see chapter 2 para 2.. A development plan should contain the following major heads : a. This chapter provides contents of developmentplan document which incorporates the written document as well as the map showing the development plan and other supporting charts and diagrams. general policies and strategies...10 GENERAL 1. 4. necessary information from secondary sources be utilised.. ITPI. (See fig..oExisting conditions and development issues. 2.21 45 .. b.. Projected requirements and assessment of deficiencies.

Economic base and employment a) Formal Sector i) Primary : Urban agriculture.. etc. trade. mining. quarrying.. and natural resources a) b} c) d) e) Location and regional setting.. 3.. transp01t.. Facilities a) b) Education Health care ' C· Mode of transportation . migration and household characteristics. Climate.· . 46 - CRDT.. Housing and shelter (both formal and informal) 5. g.services. b) 4.... commerce. Development aims and ·=-biectives.. waterways and their interrelationship with major activity nodes. household industries.. iii) Tertiary : Transport. railways. 4. Existing land use. ITPJ... commerce.. informal trade... Environmentally and ecologically sensitive areas... · 2. rail..by road. 'fhe details of each of the major sub-heads of a development plan are given in the following sections... Heritage.. Monitoring and review.... Resource mobilisation proposals.UDP/'1 Guidelines--- c. d. Brief history of development of the town. sites.. air.22 Existing Conditions and Developmental Issues 1. government and semi-government service and other. Transportation a) b) c) 6.. Transport terminals. f. ii) Secondary : Industries.. Physical characteristicr. Network of roads..- ... Informal sector and urban poverty alleviation. Implementation. Development proposals. water as the case may be.. Demography a) Existing population. 3. etc. New D e l h i . E::.. buildings and areas..

21 . 9. sanitation and refuse and solid waste disposal Comn. Major development issues 4. Development management Institutional set-up. fire protection Cremation and graveyards 8. ITPI. This annual classification of projected requirement would help in preparation of annual plans and budget.23 Projected Requirements 1. Any special problem areas like disasters (both natural and man-made) prone zones. Infrastructure a) b) c) d) e) f) Watt.-l!DJ'f'l Guidelines--- c) d) e) Recreation Religious Socio-cultural 7. 2. The assessment of projected requirements should cover all matters as contained under section 3.unJcatlon PolicE: pmtectlon.•r Energy Drainage. legal support. inter-departmental cooperation and integration of development efforts. Assessment of projected requirements should be for a period of 5 years and it should further be classified under periods of one year. 11. that is : a) b) c) d) e) f) Population Economic base and employment Housing and shelter Transportation Facilities lnfrastructu re ~ - CRDT. New Delhi 47 . Resources a) b) c) Fiscal Manpower land 10. ~ .

...Govt.lpublic offices . .U D P F I Guidelines--- g) Land requirement for i) Residential Areas .Bus depots/truck terminals and freight complexes ..Mixed residential ...restricted open spaces Multi-purpose open space (maidan) vi) Transport and communication...Unplanned/informal residential ii) Commercial area .Utilities and services .- . -Roads -Railways -Airport ....Transmission and communication 48 - CRDT.Cremation and burial grounds v) Parks.......Social.. ITPI....Medical and health .Extensive and heavy industry .Service and light industry ... cultural and religious ...land (use undetermined) ...Educational and research ...Govt.... godowns.. ..General business and commercial district/centers ..Special industrial. hazardous.... noxious and chemical iv) Public and semi-public .Seaports and dockyards ..Primary residential .. New D e l h i . warehousing/regulated markets iii) Manufacturing area .Wholesale... playgrounds and open spaces Playground/stadium/sports complex Parks & gardens-public open spaces Special recreational ....· .Retail shopping .../semi govt.

. ITPI.Poultry and dairy farming ....... This will particularly be useful for hill towns and pilgrimage towns....Brick kiln and extractive areas ix) x) Water-bodies Special activities.....Rural settlements ..l ! D P F I Guidelines--- vii) Special areas Old built-up (core) area Heritage and conservation areas Scenic value areas Disaster-prone areas viii) Agriculture .26 Concept of hierarchy of planning units and spatial development of various activity nodes. if any.... facility centres and network of roads Commercial activity nodes and corridors Industrial activity nodes Residential Open spaces system Higher order facilities and facility centres Public and semi-public offices Transportation network and transport activity nodes .. Renewal and redevelopment areas Proposed land use Resource Mobilisation a) Proposals for fiscal resource mobilisation including : .Forest ..25 Development Proposals (formal and informal sector) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 4. New D e l h i .. 4..24 Development Aims and Objectives Write the aims and objectives of development of the town covering each of the issues identified under 4... like tourism or pilgrimage which result in increase of floating population and demand for facilities and infrastructure.. ..- ................grants -aids 49 - CRDT.. 4.Agriculture .22 (ii)......

Acquisition of land .land pooling . d. Priorities classify various projects identified as a part of development proposals by priority as under : Essential (top priority) Necessary {2nd priority) Acceptable and desirable (3rd priority) Deferable (4th priority) b.Assembly of land through .27. implementation a.accommodation reservation c) Proposals for manpower resource mobilisation including : -Technical manpower 4.... Phase-11 : (2 years) up to the end of the plan period and to be implemented by the following or subsequently elected local authority.- .. Development promotion rules/regulations..- .market borrowing. Phasing : Phase the development in two phases : Phase-/ : {3 years) up to end of the term of the local authority which formulated the development plan...private sector finance b) Proposals for land resource mobilisation including : ... 50 CRDT.. 4. Identification of projects/schemes by phase and implementing agencies including private.28 Monitoring and Review Monitoring system should provide review of development efforts after three years.institutional finance ..transferable development rights . c.. non-tax sources.-------~-------------------UDPFI r.internal revenue (land-based taxes. ITPI.... and other receipts) .. and ... New D e l h i . cooperative and corporate sectors.uidelines ....

. Dispersal of industries or restriction of specific type of industries considering pollution level. This should also provide areas and uses where modification is needed. Urban poverty and its alleviation. b... goals and objectives. Economic base and employment Hierarchy of commercial areas.. rural-urban relationship and fringe area developments. Population The population projection should be guided by environmental and infrastructure (especially drinking water) sustainability and holding capacity of the city.museum... Housing Informal sector housing. slum upgradation and resettlement strategy d. c.... failures and areas of conflicts for revision...... environmental sustainability. ' b.. Dispersal of economic activity also guide population projection.- 51 .22 Projected Requirements a. if necessary.UDPFI Guidelines--- Review should include examination of the development plan implementation incorporating identification of successes. 4.....30 ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS OF LARGE CITIES A development plan of large city.. New D e l h i ... These would form input to preparation of the development plan for next period........ dispersal of commercial activity and related activities...... Issues related to decentralisation of activities.31 Existing Conditions and Development Issues a.. 4. and priorities.. City influence area and its characteristics· including settlement pattern. . cultural centres - CRJJT. in addition to the above.......... Public facilities Cultural facilities . ITP/. wiU also have the following contents : 4.. of basic issues..

..U D P F I Guidelines--- Specialised hospitals and specialised education and research centres e........... New D e l h i ........ mass transportation and informal activities to be incorporated if not already included.... ITPI.......- ... Mass transportation system and land use interfaces.... seaport (as the case may be) activity 4..... Transportation Mass transportation system and its integration with nodes/facility centres and land use pattern Airport.34 Development Proposals ~a.. environmental and infrastructure sustainability. 52 - CRDT.... 4....... Open spaces Protection of encroachment and misuse of open spaces f..33 Development Aims and Objectives Goals and objectives related to dispersal of activities.

CHAPTERS CONTENTS OF ANNUAL PLANS .

.. The physical target set The status at the end of the annual plan and the level of physical performance by percentage of target achieved The allocations made 53 c...... The annual plan of the local authority will also help in formulation of its annual budget.. are applicable to all small..10 GENERAL 1..... as given in the following sections. The state annual plan after its ·consideration by the state Planning Board and the central Planning Commission will provide the state and central funds for different sectors which finally will result in the allocation of funds to the local authorities. 5....)... The contents of annual p1an of a local authority.- ... ITPI.22.UDPFI Guidelines--- CHAPTER FIVE CONTENTS OF ANNUAL PLANS 5.....22 Review of Last Year's Performance i. a..... medium-size.21 CONTENTS OF AN ANNUAL PLAN Brief Introduction Give a brief introduction to the urban centre as indicated in its development plan (Section 4. It should cover all the components of the development plan as contained in the last year's annual plan ana highlight for each component :...20 5. b.. · '' I 2. - CRDT.... The review of the performance of the last preceding year should include both physical and fiscal achievements...... It is an in1portant document for the local authority as its aggregation at the district planning committee or metropolitan planning committee level will generate the district or metropolitan area annual plan which when further aggregated at state level will form its consolidated annual plan. This chapter presents the contents of an annual plan prepared within the framework of an approved development plan by the local authority.a....... New D e l h i . The objective in writing this introduction is to make the annual plan self-contained and this section should be as brief as possible.. or large urban centres. 5.1 ..

......... Areas where the local authority had a very low degree of performance and reasons for such performance as well as the ways and means to correct the course of action.. 54 - CRDT.... It should include physical and fiscal performance of the projects implemented through funds from : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) Central assistance Central and state assistance State ass. prepare the annual plan...' .private sector joint ventures Private sector funds c.. programmes or priorities Taking the review of the last year's annual plan and the proposals of the development plan into account....- ....... b...... Aims and objectives Finance Capacity and skill upgradation Administrative and legal issues Changes in policies. highlighting : a. d. New D e l h i .. specify the areas or actions which require attention with particular reference to : i) ii) iii) iv) 5.. ITPI. This plan should provide : a) b) Aims and objectives of development during the year....23 The Annual Plan 1...· . And Priorities.... A further analysis of the performance by source of funds should also be presented..... The review should also present an analysis of performance componentwise. The money spent and level of fiscal performance by percentage of money spdnt 2. Finally.... Areas where the local authority had a very high degree of performance..UJJPFI Guidelines--- d..istance National funding agencies International assistance or funding agencies Local authority resources Local authority .

..- 55 .. Institutional financing Market borrowing Private sector State assistance Central-state assistance Central ass is tan ce 4.... Fiscal resource mobilisation plan The resource mobilisation plan should present the manner of mobilisation of resource required for implementation of the annual plan.private sector joint ventures.. specifying the amount of money proposed to be mobilised through : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Local authority resources Local authority ...· . Fiscal requirements and physical targets Such a plan should also provide clearly for implementation of each component of the plan: · a) b) The funds required.. Nt->lv D e l h i ...' ..... And The physical targets to be achieved during the year.. 3...UDPFI Guidelines--- 2... Land assembly Estimate the ~otal land required by the development components and present the manner of assembly of land by the local authority including assembly through : a) b) c) d) e) Land acquisition Land pooling scheme Accommodation reservation Transferable development rights Private sector land pooling schemes - CRDT. 11'Pl.

.. . New Delhi . Capacity building and skill upgradation This should include : a) b) c) d) Appointment of staff.......... both technical and administrative Training of staff Strengthening of the urban plan-ning department Consultancy practice 6.....··' ........ ITPI.U D P F J Guidelines--- 5.. ( 56 CRDT....... Other proposals Depending upon the specific needs and local area requirements provide other proposals also.

CHAPTER 6 CONTENTS OF PLANS OF PROJECTS/SCHEMES .

if not already available. Identification of possible sites...... . Planning and design of infrastructure (water supply. 2.. ... And : a) b) · c) 6. electricity.. ITPI.- 57 .UDPFI Guidelint. The following is the recommended list of contents of plans of projects/schemes for execution on site.21 CONTENTS OF PLANS OF PROJECTS / SCHEMES Location 1..>s--- CHAPTER SIX CONTENTS OF PLANS OF PROJECTS/SCHEMES 6.. drainage... and Physical characteristics of the preferred site. Alternative concepts of layout..20 6...... Selection of preferred location.. · 2.... sewage. - CRDT. their evaluation and selection of a preferred concept.. . .. small. .10 GENERAL 1..... Layout based upon the preferred concept. Location and other physical characteristics of the site if it is already available.' .. 6... Depending upon the local requirements or requirements of the approving or funding agency. these may be modified if necessary.... Aims and objectives and schedule of area requirements as per provision of the development plan.. . 2.. 3. These contents are applicable to all plans of projects and schemes for all sizes of settlements.22 Site Planning Evaluation of alternative location....' .. road network and arbori-culture). 4.... .... medium or large. New D e l h i . 1.

....... ITPI.. provide spatial impact assessment of the project or scheme.... roads. Cost recovery strategy 2..25 · Financing Plan 1. f) 6..... Impact on city level facilities.. electricity generation and supply.... Such an assessment should include : a) Impact of the project on additional demand for housing with specific reference to EWS & LIG sections of the society who would squat near the project site if no proper care is taken in this context....- . assessment of the project/scheme... New D e l h i .UDI'FI Guidelines--- 6...23 Environmental Impact Assessment As per Department of Environment Guidelines. Financing plan Sources of finance Proportion.24 Spatial Impact Assessment In case of large projects/schemes.. water supply... form and nature of funds Proportion..... . forms and nature of financing participating agencies and local authority Interest rates and terms for borrowed funds Cash flow and repayment schedule by various 58 - CRDT.. sewage treatment plant... Impact on the commercial and other ancillary industrial activities. . Financing terms 3. Impact on resettlement of population acquisition.......... transportation system.. provide environment impact 6. Impact on the direction of growth of the settlement. due to compulsory land b)' c) d) e) Impact on city level infrastructure. especially. bridges..

.. Land assembly laws.. Land tenure laws. Executing agency 6... Major administrative requirements Advertisement Processing of application Collection of dues System of allotment of plots/units Supervision Monitoring General management 3..27 Legal Support f Constraints (if any)* 1. - CRDT.. ITPJ. Project administration agency 2... Development promotion laws/regulations.- 59 ....\'--- 6.. Requirement of personnel 4.. 2..--------~------------------ U/Jl'FI Guideline.. New D e l h i .. 3. * These sections may not form part of the documents needed at the time of approval of private sector project/schemes by the local authority....26 Project Administration and Organisation* 1..

CHAPTER 7 RESOURCE MOBILISATION .

.. - CRIJT..20 7...... depending upon the potential of the ... As a general fiscal policy on · resource mobilisation. While formulating perspective plan..... This chapter focuses on the fiscal. both playing a symbiotic role in such a way that the public infrastructure programme is implemented through budgetary sources and marketed urban infrastructure and facilities are provided through private sector while a joint venture could also be explored where practical.. Money. it would be desirable to have a proper mix of public and private sectors participation.. land and manpower resource mobilisation strategies in general and it is expected that the local authorities will select the most· appropriate system depending upon local needs and potential. As a basic principle. and utilised in plan implementation.· urban centre.. allocation of this resource among various competing land uses must be such that it helps in achieving a high level of economic efficiency..... investment in development of urban centres........ land is limited and its availability differs from place to place.... Private sector resources should also be appropriately mobilised for . 3. The role of private sector in the development process should be duly recognised...... Perspective Plans 1. the government should not always be expected to spend money. In the pursuit of spatial development... 2... ITPJ.....- 61 . New D e l h i .21 FISCAL RESOURCE MOBILISATION General Fiscal Policies A. Among these resources. it is necessary to make realistic assessment of the impact of economic liberalisation on the method of financing urban development In particular.U l J i > f J Guidelines·--- CHAPTER SEVEN RESOURCE MOBILISATION 7. three aspects are to be considered : a) alternative methods of plan-finance in view of the gradual abolition of the system of directed credit. manpower and land are the three main resources for planning and development of urban centres.10 INTRODUCTION i. or participate directly in building activities and development programmes. 7....

c) 2.------------~------ UDPFI (. c) d) e) B.. so that local-level fiscal coordination for urban development plan implementation would be mainly through fiscal incentives and disincentives. need to be resolved: 62 - CRDT. Development Plans 1. the directional role of the public sector would be replaced by the promotional role. While municipal financial policy would be influenced in future by the working of the State Finance Commissions (SFCs)... rather than through direct allocation of public resources.issues... they must be transparent through explicit and identifiable entries in government budget$. or the core local authority in the designated area may act as ·the nodal agency.. 3. There could be two options for such a nodal agency in the context of the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (74th CAA) : a) the Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC) and the District Planning Committee (DPC) may undertake this task themselves... they must be pre-determined rather than being open-ended.. in so far as its interaction with the private sector is concerned.... The involved local authorities and other public agencies for urban development would have to utilise their tax power and pricing system efficiently and equitably. in particular. there is no such guideline applied on the urban parastatals to improve their financial performance. they must have in-built incentives/penalities for promoting local resource mobilisation and good pertormance. For inter-governmental transfer.. b) 2.... Two. New D e l h i ..- .----~-----.. ITPI.. and alternative methods of land assembly by public agencies for undertaking non-marketed urban development. they must imply a hard budget constraint for the municipalities and there should be no soft option at the margin..- b) limiting public sector activities to financially non-viable community facilities. For implementing a medium~term urban development plan it is necessary first to identify a nodal agency for inter-authority dialogue and the resultant financial commitments to realise the plan proposals. the following principles should be adopted: a) b) the quantum and frequency of such transfers must be predictable..uidelines .. As a result of the economic liberalisation.

.

64 CR/J1~ ITPI.tet se -functional allocation of funds are determined by the local authorities in terms o·f political choice. Among the various urban project proposals the f'nai choice would be guided by the results of the appropriate project appraisal methods for non-market facilities (cost effectiveness).. 5. the choice of project out of alternative proposals.. and a partially marketed facility may turn out to be a non-marketed facility (primary education or health care).. New D e l h i . for partially marketed facilities (cost-benefit) and for market-oriented facilities (discounted cash flow). At the higher governmental levels the objectives of employment.. At the stage of urban projects/schemes the implementing local authority starts with a given size of funds or budget constraint. 6. and the assumed losses due to risk and uncertainity. Ideally.. The non-market facilities are to be created through tax revenues (budget surplus or revenue hypothecation) while the market facilities are to be created on the strength of appropriate user charges.... while in the case of urban parastatals these are confined within single functional areas. water supply). capacitY utilisation of sunk investment. and conservation of foreign exchange WOUld also weigh in deciding abOlJt the degree of subsidisation of urban services providing the local urban authorities ... c) 2. Within the budget constraint.. There is a case for state assistance to provide for subsidised urban services in order to make these financially viable both in terms of facility creation and their subsequent service delivery. there should be a capital budget for the development plan within which individual action agency capital budgets would be identified. 3. The requirements of subsidised provision of urban services would result in reducing the revenue stream or enhancing the expenditure stream.... But this assumes the existence of a nodal urban development agency for each urban centre which may not materialise. The urban project financial reporting system would be concerned with specification of revenue and expenditure targets.. The budget period is dfliermined by the time covered by investment flows within the capital budget cycle that coincides with the medium-term urban development plan.- . and a system of reporting financial performance for mid-course correction in terms of size of investment or pay-back arrangements.. The partially marketed facilities would have the mixed financing characteristics of the non-market and market-oriented facilities.. such that a supposedly market-oriented facility in fact becomes a partially marketed one (e . g.UDPFI Guidelines--- 1.. there would be alternative project proposals under various functional areas.. the choice of discount rate. The financial plan for development projects requires : a) b) the cost recovery strategy. The ~E. 4.both municipal and parastatals....

The traditional system of funding. the New Economic Policy.. are handicapped by a fragile fiscal base which has been CRDT.U D P F I Guidelines--- 7. This should be done annually for each project and at the time of review of the urban development plan. in the existing local fiscal situation..... These bodies.. or non-realisation of the assumed financing parameters.. ITPI... Subsidies will have to be rationalised and urban development plans and projects shall have to be placed on a commercial format by designing commercially viable urban infrastructure.. the extent of utilising land profits for urban development. has to be reduced and ultimately withdrawn due to fiscal deficit compulsions... at present. The local authorities would need to increasingly innovate new fiscal instruments and ways to mobilise financial resources.... there would be a case for taking correctives. As discussed earlier... Finance happens to be a critical variable in any scheme of development. Urban areas have to be physically and economically rejuvenated to make them much more attractive for the new investments flowing in the wake of liberalisation of industrial investments to take place there.. New D e l h i ... Such a review should result in a recasting of investment size.. especially through its fiscal adjustment.. As macro-economic policies have urban implications.... Availability of funds for implementing urban development plans and services delivery system wili not be easy.... financial sector reforms and emphasis on transforming the role of government from provider to enabler has made the mobilisation of financial resources a complex task. The implications for urban development financing will require innovative approach in terms of: a) b) enhanced municipal tax revenues.... Implementation of development plan and augmentation of urban services require massive financial investments which.. and there does not exist any short-cut to mobilise it. This would make the consumer response market-oriented so that disfunction a! objectives are met through state level budgetary policies.. In case t~e actual experience of revenue inflows and expenditure outflows exceeding the target.. Fee-based urban services would be optimally utilised only through market competition among the providers which may result ·in their private supply. in the pay-back period.. 8. services and area development projects..22 Innovative Approaches for Fiscal Resource Mobilisation 1... 7. 2. 9.. urban economies have equally important implications for the success of macro-economic policies. looks quite a complex task. This has implications for tile local authorities to devise innovative methods of resource mobilisation through fiscal instruments and accessing the market... and the cost recovery strategy..- 65 . based on plan and budgetary allocations... The new macro-economic policy for its success itself will require to give strong urban infrastructure support to it... 3.

. at the state and local levels.both tax and non-tax-are delegated to them under these laws as obligatory and discretionary taxes. have been delegated to use about 15 kinds of taxes.... for example... Thus. 3.. The sources of revenue .. increasing use of non-tax sources. The municipal entities derive their tax powers from the laws enacted by the state legislatures..... even the municipal bodies are at liberty to levy a tax and may not exercise the delegated tax powers with respect to urban taxes and rates.. it has become a policy imperative to: a) b) devolve additional tax powers to them... they are at present using only six of them. therefore.. The municipal authorities in Gujarat......... effective administration of existing taxes. ' 4.... Public intervention for enhancing fiscal capabilities of local authorities at the state level has first to address to the existing mismatch between functions and the revenue devolved to the municipal bodies.... New D e l h i .. A.. system for fiscal transfer. 2. The mismatch between availability of financial resources and the demand for municipal services requires enhancing their fiscal capabilities by restoring a proper match between functions and sources of revenue by giving additional tax authority. At the local level.UDPFI Guidelines--- declining... efficient pricing of all the directly chargeable urban services. and provide for transfer of new functions to them as proposed in the XII Schedule along with the funds presently being used in performance of such functions by the state government departments. Some of the promising new taxes for which powers could be delegated to the local authority are: 66 - CRDT.. private involvement in performance of some of the municipal functions...- . and access of municipal bodies to market borrowing.. increasing use of land as the resource and land based non-property taxes. Resour~e mobilisation efforts. In order to match the functional domain of the municipal bodies with tax powers. access of municipal bodies to institutional finance.. have to consist of a number of policy intervention:.. ITPI.. the policy intervention has to addiess to: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) devolution of additional tax powers ... refurbishing of major taxes.... Ttuer 1..

.. Such taxes have especially been profitably used in North and Latin America and elsewhere as well.. There are... d) B.UDPFI Guidelines _ _.. though levied by only a few urban local authorities. C. ITPI.__ a) b) c) tax on consumption of electricity (as in Delhi). There exist already innovative examples of generation of substantial funds by using urban land in Maharashtra (CIDCO) and Delhi (DDA). However.. however..in some states... If properly used. Tax on Land Value increment : It is a commqn phenomenon that land values keep on increasing over the years not because of any individual 67 b) - CRDT. Now.. Non-Property Taxes 1....... New D e l h i .. urban land is emerging as a new area for local resource generation... they should use land as a resource for mobilisation of funds....:.. the tax on vacant developed land could be· profitably used to speed up the development of urban land besides helping in mobilisation of additional financial resource needed badly for implementation of development plans... Besides the above traditional areas of taxation.. a surcharge on petroleum products...... Land as a Resource 1. In the states where this tax is not used at the moment.. These taxes.. and stamp duty are elastic sources of revenue in some of the states at the local level...... This adversely affects implementation of urban development plans by delaying the use of land.... besides acting as an instrument of resource generation at the local level. especially in the metropolitan cities in India.. are also used to regulate land and development and promote other important urban development objectives. These are discussed below: a) Vacant Developed Land Tax : Tax on vacant developed land.- . too much preoccupation with this also leads to certain social and economic distortions as was witnessed in Delhi. where a large proportion of total developed land went to the high income groups much against the plan objective...... has not been in vogue extensively. entertainment tax. since the local auttwrities have to be involved in urban planning and local planned economic development initiative... a number of land based (non-property) taxes which could be devolved to the local authorities for mobilisation of financial resources. the property tax system provides an incentive for not building upon the vacant developed land thus providing an incentive for speculation in land. · a tax on advertisemnt is already a lucrative and popular tax .

is to recover the project cost from the beneficiaries of the project.3 beneficiaries of service upgradation.UDPFI Guidelines--- effcrt but due to implementation of development schemes. The levy is thus a fiscal _instrument to generate funds by recouping the land value increments which are not due to any Individual effort. charging for off-site infrastructure from the developers is a very crude approximation of the North American DIE.. In the Indian situation... Korea. New D e l h i . DIE is primarily used to generate revenues for financing the augmentation of municipal facilities and services necessitated by the new development.. sewer extensions and other similar services through a system of taxation by which the cost of public works is allocated to affected properties in proportion to the benefits conferred.. it has been constrained by problems. The properties located within SAD are charged a special betterment assessment in conjunction with the standard property tax. SAD may be used by providing for this in the urban and regional planning legislations in the states through the instrument of development scheme in a given area and to recover the costs of improvement.... Such a tax is widely used in several countries like Israel. Special Assessment Districts : Special Assessment District (SAD) is widely practised in USA for recovering the cost of upgrading services in a given area within a city from th.- . .. Maryland and taxes to finance highway construction of direct benefit to the properties. Valorisation is basically concerned with recovery of project costs. Colorado... Australia. The impacts of new development are measured in terms of pre-determined standards of services. Valorisation Charges : Valorisation charges have been used to finance schemes like street improvements... SAD had been used in California.... However. c) Betterment Levy: The objective of the betterment levy. The basic objective of land value incrementtaxes (LVIT) is to capture some of this increase for the benefit of the community. ITPI.. Development Impact Exaction : The Development Impact Exaction (DIE) is assessed on a developer for financing additional city level facilities and services. imposed on the beneficiaries of the improvement projects.. Italy. DIE tries to take care of mobilisation of funds which could be used to finance the augmentation of services and thus mitigate the adverse impact of development on the community. Malaysia. Land value increment may also be due to economic phenomenon of rise in general prices... SAD allows imposition of additional charges based on assessed value of properties which have directly benefited from tile improvement. Canada and New Zealand.. While the Indian practice is limited and restrictive and is charged as a nominal proportion of the d) e) f) 68 - CRDT.

. introducing a system of incentives for prompt payment and penalties for defaulting and improving the collection efficiency. there has been systematic encroachment on the legi~imate sources of local revenue.. Even with the existing tax authority..the Model Rent Control Act. the recovery is very poor. more importantly. management and by linking planning with capital improvement programme... . Effective Tax Administration ·. E. 2. .... With the result the taxes devolved to them are... which is not at all related to the cost of service provision. Whatever taxes are administered by them. DIE is a widely used technique based on actual measurement of the nexus between new development and its impact on total service system. the municipal bodies are not effectively administering the taxes. by providing for a new basis for lrban planning.provides for refurbishing of standard rent and its periodical revision. 1. still untapped.U D P F I Guidelines--- total development cost. A new enactment for Delhi state by the Indian Parliament . .. a) Property Tax : Reforming the Property Tax (PT} will require to bring about amendment in the Rent Control Laws (RCL) either (i) for delinking its present depressing effect on rental value or (ii) for permitting legally the periodical revision of standard rent.. . will go a long 69 - CRDT. In addition to these innovative practices. This.... The land based non-property taxes practised abroad could be profitably used in India to generate funds. Refurbishing of Major Taxes 1.nission had revealed that about 47 per cent of the sample municipal authorities were collecting only up to 50 per cent of the property tax demand. DIE needs to be put into the urban and regional planning legislation and. This could be done by. D. In Gujarat. 2. A study for the Ninth Finance Comr. there exist others like planning permission.. if adopted by all the state governments.. g) Development Charge : The development charge is used to recover the cost of providing new services and infrastructure in an area.. capitalisation of development cost besides the innovative Land Pooling Scheme. '1 . the development authorities levy development charge on the basis of per unit area. . ITPI.. This needs to be rationalised and refurbished.. The State Finance Commissions constituted in states need to provide for devolving of new tax sources and the measures needed to prevent encroachment on them.. New Delhi . by and large. Such a grim situation demands to devise measures for enhancing efficiency of tax administration machinery. Even though the Acts provide for various taxes and levies..... among other things..

only the assessment is transformed from barrier based to accounts based.. 'J l i !i J j l 1. Conceptually.. Substitute of octroi like entry tax surcharge on sales tax have been tried.... Even if it forms part of the consolidated rate.~~ ----- _. Charging for water. as above in several states... an entry tax should be able to yield sufficient revenue as the base continues to remain the same.the user charge concept is applied only with respect to water and hardly one-third of the user charge is presently recovered. the tax amount could be manoeuvered to recoup the cost.. as octroi has to go. The consumers of such municipal services as are termed as .'public goods" can be excluded from consuming them if they do not pay for it.. This will have serious financial implications both for the local authorities and also for the state governments. The non-tax sources like remunerative and commercial projects. one has to look for a combination of entry tax and turnover tax and even a surcharge on the sales tax.... These are water supply.l I ~ .. There is a consensus .... Non-Tax Sources The traditionally known sources of local revenue are becoming increasingly exhaustive and do not seem to be sufficient to yield sufficient revenue... However. Pricing of Directly Chargeable Sen~fces F.. ~ '• --~-·. urban transport and even solid waste collection and disposal and parks.. however...::_~··. alternative sources of revenue will have to be identified so that the burden of state finances could be minimised. the remaining goes as the subsidy . Presently. Effi~ .even to those who do not need it. - · .. Fiscal·Tmnsfen 1. G. The fiscal transfers to the local authorities are ad-hoc and chaotic as there does not 70 CRDT... The user charges could be levied separately for separate services with proper relationship with the cost of service provision but not as a consolidated rate alongwith property tax..transport and electricity (wherever it is a municipal function) could be relatively easier and straightforward on the basis of meter and the unit cost.... the proceeds from an effective administration of entry tax do not yield sufficient revenue... ------ ...- . H. but the revenues generated have not been sufficient to compensate it.. sewerage.. impact fees are promising areas for revenue generation and should be exploited by the local authorities....to remove it from the statute book. development charges.. has certain good attributes. These are suitable for the imposition of user charges to be directly recovered from the consumers... b) Octroi : Octroi.U D P £ 1 Guidelines--way in restoring the base of this tax with some relationship with the market value... New D e l h i .. ITPJ. Through this user charge even the operating cost is not recovered. besides constituting a fairly high proportion of the total revenue.. !f. licence fee..

.. profession tax. it would be advisable to give maximum reliance on assigned and shared taxes as in Kerala and Tamil Nadu... I. 5. Now as constitutional obligation after the 73rd and 74th Constitution Amendments... Local authorities need substantial funds for capital development programme..... The fiscal relationship between the state government and the local authorities is. 2. The CRDT. It provides an independent source of revenue as the tax structure and the tax rates could be varied within certain limits by the municipal authorities in line with their requirements and the local control over tax improves predictability of receipt. Whereas the ·transfers between the Central and the state governments are not only provided for in the Constitution of India. Therefore.. Institutional Finance 1.. however... In Kerala.. As the 74th CAA provides for urban planning and its consolidation with state plans. a duty on transfer of property and motor vehicles could be assigned to them. profession tax and the duty on transfer of property are assigned to the municipal authorities who administer these taxes and retain the entire proceeds from these taxes. New Delhi-------------'---------- 71 . Financing of capital projects will need to be integrated with plan financing at the state and Central levels... 4... shapeless. However. In Tamil Nadu... 6. In addition to the general purpose revenue grants. the proceeds from entertainment tax and the duty on transfer of property which are administered by the state government. This will call for preparation of capital development plans by the local authorities and their integration with state plans so that it could be brought within the ambit of devolution of plan funds.. the state governments have constituted Finance Commissions which are to be constituted every five years... Ta. Specific purpose grants could be in the form of patterned grant on the lines of Centrally Sponsored Schemes on matching contribution basis. it is periodically reviewed and updated through' the system of Finance Commission.. some element of incentive for better performance will have to be built into the grant system for enhancing work efficiency. capital grant will also have to be rationalised. It will enable integration of muni. grant-in-aid code could be evolved by the state governments on per head basis by relating the quantum of per head grant with size and resources endowments.. are shared by the municipal authorities. 3. As a general purpose grant. entertainment tax. entertainment tax.cipal finance with the state finances and hence automatically with the central finances through the committed expenditure mechanism of the state governments.UDPFI Guidelines--- exist any rational system for transfers in a large number of states and there exist too many grants for specific purposes. It goes very well with local autonomy. plan allocation funds will hopefully flow to the city governments as well. In the short run. This will have to be supplemented by institutional finance.X assignment seems to be advisable on many counts. ITPI.

Build-oiJI.·... Planning the use of land leads to socio-economic and physical development of urban and rural areas. - --------------------~----.:_ :_.. After the New Economic Policy. ITPI.1gaged even in performance of health (curative) functions by managing hospitals and even medical colleges (Gujarat. Tamil Nadu. this will promote a new system of financing urban infrastructure by accessing the debt market.. 2.. '' .~:~ ·-~~~::. the financial institutions have to rigorously insist on full cost recovery. Land is the medium on which the entire superstructure of human settlement is created and under which quite a lot of infrastructure find their place. to develop a new system of financing urban infrastructure has become an imperative which has to be based on accessing the debt market by devising debt instruments. This will provide much needed financial resources for provision of municipal and urban services and infrastructure. States like Kerala. however.. However. At present..In-Transfer (BOT} are emerging variations of such partnership arrangements which need to be explored. if the new finance system based on accessing the financial institutions and the debt market has to be a success... they are er.: '::.- .30 7. sanitation in the fringe areas could be privatised and contracted out.. Public-Private Pal"tnerships 1. within the purview of financing under FIRE's (Financial Institutions Reform and Expansion) debt component programme.>.h J .... The municipal bodies now can take recourse to these sources for loan.-'~ .... Hopefully. Water supply. Already some headway has been made in this regard.. New D e 1 h .. a scarce commodity as its supply is limited and it cannot be created. Even the maintenance of street lighting could be contracted out to private sector. for example). J.. a large number of potential projects are being examined for structuring them on commercial format.. transport and electricity (wherever these are performed by them).. ... 72 - CRDT.... Some of the existing municipal functions like water supply.~:~..31 LAND ASSEMBLY Land and Planning Interface 1.. Financial institutions and the debt market as well will need to be tapped for this purpose.. ' . These are in the nature of state functions and need to be transferred back to the state governments so that it has some cushioning effect on municipal finances. collection of solid waste.. Build-own-Operate (BOO}. Karnataka have constituted their own financial institutions to finance urban infrastructure.. One of the ways to enhance fiscal capabilities of the municipal authorities is to shed some of their functions and evolve alternative institutional arrangement for the performance of such functions. ama development and solid waste disposal are included. sewerage.. 7.UDPFI Guidelines--- scope for institutional finance has now improved with the coming into being of Urban Infrastructure Window of HUDCO and the Infrastructure Leasing and Finance Corporation. In some of the states. Land is. The local authorities should not have any problem in financing land development by accessing the debt market. Other state governments need to follow suit. if they are vested with the responsibility of implementing development plans and are vested with land.

planners and urban economists have often been urging that urban land should be treated as an asset and be planned accordingly..... including roads and amenities with active participation of the land owners. As a result.. most essential to ensure that utilisation of the available land . The Planning Commission has also advocated this approach to urban development.- 73 ..... mechanism of transfer of development rights... Implementation of the plan proposals requires procurement of land either by way of private negotiation or through the Land Acquisition Acts. Land value depends on demand and supply and it increases as the demand exceeds the supply.. A Town Planning (TP) Scheme under the Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act. and redistribution of 'final' plots after charging betterment contribution and paying compensation for the land used for public purposes and transferred to the local authority. New D e l h i . Land procurement through such means naturally requires huge capital investment which is beyond ·the fiscal capabilities· of many of the local authorities..is judicious and in the best interest of the community through the instrument of development plans.... c) 2. 2... The local authority.. ITPI..U D P F I Guidelines-It is. and system of accommodation reservatiorr. 1966 is a land development technique undertaken by the land owners who pool their land to secure a good layout thereof. processes it for approval by the state government and is responsible for its execution......32 Land Pooling and Redistribution Scheme (Town Planning Scheme) i.. In the context of making the development schemes self-financing.. prepares the layout.. some practical and effective system of land assembly have been evolved by states like Maharashtra and Gujarat. There is a growing consciousness that urban development should be self-financing with minimum burden on local authorities and the central and state governments.. therefore... In the whole process the land is developed as per the plan and without any land acquisition... several plans remain only on paper.. which is also a party to the TP Scheme. b) c) 7.... The TP Scheme is basically a legal procedure for allowing : a) b) pooling of land by different owners... Due to these characteristics. It is this feature of the Town Planning Scheme which distinguishes it from CRDT... These techniques of land assembly/land procurement can be grouped as : a) land pooling and redistribution scheme popularly known as town planning scheme..... formulation and approval of the layout showing the 'original' as well as the 'final' plots.

..... approval.- .... where the scheme is first prepared by the local authority and then it is modified by an Arbitrator. New D e l h i .ers in the form of developed plots according to an equitable formula and the development expenses are alsq shared in a similar manner.. arbitration and implementation mainly due to litigation related to compensation receivable by the owners on account of reduction of the land area.. execution of such part of the peripheral and bulk services as may be considered reasonable. 3. if any... three-fourth of all sums payable as compensation for land reserved for public purpose........ To save delays in planning... This procedure thus provides for smooth vesting of lands..P.. While an appeal could be filed to the Tribunal for Land Pooling Scheme by the aggrieved person against the decisions contained in the financial part.. The only drawback with this scheme is that there are very long delays in the process of preparation. After approval by the state government the planning part should be treated as final and binding on all concerned parties. This will ensure speedy implementation of the scheme.. Town Planning Scheme is therefore rightly called "land acquisition without tears"....-- other modes of land assembly like bul~ acquisition or acquisition of selected lands required for public amenities. utilised for roads and other public amenities. with the local authorities and the usual opposition to acquisition from owners of the concerned lands is non-existent... The contribution which is based upon the estimated value of land assuming full development as per the scheme should be replaced by estimated cost of the scheme which should include : i) ii) iii) iv) v) cost of making the scheme. for public purposes... it is suggested that : a) The scheme be divided into two parts (i) planning part and (ii) the financial part.. b) c) 74 - CRDT...UDPFI Guidelines---.....Schemes.... the land so carved out for public purposes vests in the local authority free from all encumbrances and remaining land is distributed amongst the own.. When a Town Planning Scheme is finalised. a Project Planner should be appointed who would prepare the scheme in active consultation with the original plot holders by calling two meetings to discuss the draft and final proposals and serve the functions of both the planner and the arbitrator. This scheme has been successfully tried in case of large cities and with the help of public awareness programmes it can be successful in small and medium towns also. incurred by local authority. ITPJ..... execution of the scheme. After considering various causes and alternative solutions to folve the problem of delays in implementing the T. legal expenses.

New D e l h i . d) If the original plot holders so agree. if any. This would save time taken in appointing such a Tribunal for each land pooling scheme. e) f) g) 7.. Under the provisions of the rules....... Concept of Transferable Development Right (TOR) is a recent innovative land assembly technique introduced by Maharashtra state for cities having 2 lakh and above population.. This suggestion would make the financial part of the scheme more acceptable as the various development costs shall be calculated as per the local schedule of rates.. ITPI. This would reduce number of disputes. or transfer the same in full or in parts to any other person at any time.---------. 3. wherei11 participation of the land-owner is sought for the purpose of implementation of the planning proposals. plot-owners of land reserved for public purposes are eligible for TDR and also for receiving the Development Right Certificate (DRC)... To reflect the nature and purpose of the scheme. The purchaser of area under DRC would be CRDT. According to the Development Control Rules of Greater Bombay Municipal Corpo'lation. utilities and services can compulsorily be acquired by granting TDR in lieu of compensation. The DRC allows the plot-owner to use himself the FAR/FSI on the area of plot surrendered to the local authority for public purpose. There should be a permanent Tribunal for Land Pooling Scheme. guided by the Floor Space Index (FSI) or Floor Area Ratio (FAR). Land pooling schemes should be prepared only for the areas included in the current development plan and be within its framework... 4.----~-------------UDPFI Guidelines--- vi) variation.. it should be called as Land Pooling Scheme instead of Town Planning Scheme as it is popularly known in Gujarat and Maharashtra. In the TOR concept. has been separated from the land itself and made available to the land owner in the form of Transferable Development Right (TOR) to be utilised by him from an inner-zone (originating area) to an outer-zone (receiving area) specified by regulations.. 2.. This would drastically reduce the time taken during the process of approval. in the estimated value of the original plot and the final plot due to locational advantages without reference to improvements contemplated in the scheme.33 Transferable Development Right 1.. This would reduce the number of appeals.. Transferable Development Right may be given in lieu of compensation payable by the local authority. land reserved for public amenities.- 75 . the potential of a plot of land identified as intensity of built-space..

monitoring and review of various plans by the local authority depends upon the extent -and nature of work and the institutional set-up required to perform the assigned function.:__. __ -____. implementation. therefore.41 MANPOWER RESOURCE Introduction 1.-. This section. Reservations such as retail markets. etc. The manpower needed for preparation. industrial estates. the local authority can grant additional Floor Space Index on 100 per cent of the area required for road widening or for construction of new roads proposed under the development plan. Government of Maharashtra has recently directed all the remaining municipal corporations and municipal councils in the state to incorporate this provision of Accommodation Reservation in their Development Control Regulations. Realising its positive effect in implementing the development plan proposals.:. provided the owner surrenders the land for widening or construction of new roads to the local authority free of all encumbrances and accept the additional FAR/FSI as the compensation in lieu thereof. The remaining shops are allowed to be taken care of by the land owner. dispensaries.40 7. 7. New Delhi-------------~-------- .. on payment of cost of construction. this new system is also now followed by all the local authorities in the state for the purpose of executing the sanctioned development plans. The concept of Accommodation Reservation allows the land owners to develop the sites reserved for an amenity in the development plan using full permissible FSI/FAR on the plot subject to agreeing to entrust and hand over the built-up area of such amenity to the local authority free of all encumbrances and accept the full FSI/FAR as compensation in lieu thereof._ . ITPI.. Accordingly. deals with : 76 - CRDT. The area utilised for the amenity shall not form part of FAR/FS! calculation. In case of reservations like shopping centres.~----~ ___ . This mechanism has considerably relieved the local authorities from incurring huge expenses for the purpose of acquisition of such lands. 2. 4.. The concept of Accommodation Reservation has already been introduced in Bombay by incorporating it in the Development Control Rules of Bombay Municipal Corporation. etc.-. the owner can be allowed to develop them on his agreeing to give at least up to 25 per cent of the shops to the local authority for the purpose of rehabilitation of tt e displaced persons from sites reserved for public purposes or amenities in the development plan... 7. In case of road wide'ning and construction of new roads. can be implemented by this way wherein local authority is not required to acquire the land by incurring expenditure on payment of compensation.. 3.·~ :_.:~- UDPFI Guidelines--- allowed touse it in addition to the permissible FSI or FAR.:. The DRC thus becomes marketable instrument s:Jbject to market forces.34 Accommodation Reservation 1.

. creates an undesirable situation where neither the development control can be exercised effectively nor the interpretation of the master plan can be done properly.. the plan formulation. 4. the plan preparation agency at local level should be the enforcement agency. policy options for manpower mobilisation. Collection of data through conventional means and manual processing is not only time consuming but also prone to certain inherent inaccuracies. New D e l h i . 2... These agencies should have the necessary legal status and powers to undertake plan preparation. c.. differ and existence of two separate agencies. may be undertaken by other specialised agencies functioning at local.. plan processing and after approval enforcing the plan.. development promotion (enforcement) and implementation. Set~up 7. the Institutional set-up. plan detailing. setting up of the Development Integration Committee. Planning function. and general policy for manpower development. The planning agency should have competent personnel to carry out the task of preparing the various plans... implementation..42 Institutional 1.. monitoring and review exercises must be statutorily prescribed in the relevant acts and completed within the specified time-frame and schedule.· · .' .... however. Preparation of plan so far. plan review and then next plan formulation and thus the process continues.. Provision in the state town and country planning acts. as suggested under chapter two (Section .UDPFJ Guidelines---!-- a. b. where an agency at sub-state level for areas comprising the city and its influence zone is required..52 para 2) would be most desirable to introduce efficiency. In this context. plan enforcement. levels but the planning authority should be responsible for overall coordination of the work of the implementing agencies and function as facilitator of development. In the context of these requirements institutional set-up has a vital role to play. was a time consuming and arduous task. This would enable the plan preparation agency to be in touch with day to day probiems of implementation and remove the shortcomings by constant monitoring and review. firstly there has to be a planning agency entrusted with the task of preparing the plan and implementing it. plan implementation. To carry out the planning function.. The execution of the specialised schemes. as mentioned earlier. - CRDT.. 3. working out the details of development schemes for execution and subsequently to take note of the changing conditions in the planning area and appropriately incorporate them in the development plan. participation and reduction of time in the process of plan formulation. Generally. ITPI. metropolitan or state. one for plan preparation and another for development control. is a continuous process and the planning department work continues from plan preparation to plan processing... as conceived in the plan.. For cities/towns such agencies exist normally at local level except in case of metro-cities. Variety of data on physical and human resources and economic aspects are needed for plan preparation.2. As discussed in chapter II earlier...- 77 ..

.... Geographic Information System (GIS).. application of modern technology has also been given due· weightage. the involvement of sectoral experts in providing required input through the Development Integration Committee for formulation of the plan. While suggesting the number of sub-professional and administrative staff. The staffing pattern as suggested by the few studies conducted by organisations (TCPO) and individuals (Pandya. The application of modem technique in the preparation of the plans has direct bearing on future staffing pattern. economist and others as per need to avail their services on Consultancy basis. which should provide some guidelines for setting up an organisation for different sizes of towns.. That is. CAM.. provision has been made for specialists such as demographer....5 sub-professionals and 1..... . and their revision etc~ It would be necessary to take advantage of the new technology and assess its implication on the type of trained personnel required for preparation of development plan. 9. Kulshrestha) so far takes into account the planning function in manual and conventional work environment..- '· . data entry operators and investigators.. It may be noted that except in few cases..... Gattani. who are unable to look after even the day to day work..5 for every professional has been applied from Unit B onwards. Besides this... the time required to prepare the plan and type of personnel required have been evaluated... ITPI. New D e l h i . depending upon given situation and requirements. The experience of last four decades of planning and development in India has shown that planning agency wherever exists has generally been provided with only a limited number of planning personnel. GIS. For small towns a bare minimum set-up is provided which can effectively perform the planning and enforcement function.. factors such as existing and anticipated population.. research assistants.. planning draughtsmen with knowledge of CAD... Introduction of computers in data base management and statistical applications as an aid to planning. The staff for administration. monitoring and review of the various plans of small and medium towns and large cities is indicated in Table 1. its capability by linking spatial data with attribute data management of map data... and other analytical softwares. depending upon the specific requirements. 8. may include 78 CRDT.. and such other persons... Due consideration has also been given to the suggested changes in planning system. area covered by the plan. While suggesting the proposed organisational set-up for the preparation of plan. Besides. power of spatial analysis and production of cartographic quality_ maps has placed it as one of the best tools for preparation of various plans. 10. working out of the requirement of personnel was based on conventional and manual work environment. a ratio of 1..5 staff under administration. The sub-professionals....should include planning assistants. implementation....U D P F I Guidelines--- 5.... 7. for every professional there would be 1. no attempt has been made to evolve such an organisational structure since the inception of plan formulation exercises four decades ago. has made impact in terms of speed and quality of analysis and decision support.. So far. The proposed staff pattern for preparation. 6.

Municipal Planner 2. Professional Chief Municipal Planner Senior Municipal Planner Municipal Planner Dy.. ITPI.--------I..D. Sub-professionals 3. accountant. Sub-professionals 3. Administration IV.000) 1..------------------. Municipal Planner Asstt. New 79 .C. typists. Sub-pmfessional I Planning Assistant Planning D'man 3.. UNIT-A : For Small Towns (Census population up to 50.~UDPFIGuidelines--- head clerk. L.UNIT-D : For Metro-Cities(Census population upto 50 lakh) 1. cleaner. Professional Senior Municipal Planner Municipal Planner Dy. of posts 2 2 4 2 6 6 1 2 2 5 15 15 4 4 8 12 45 45 4 5 5 10 15 60 60 -----------------------------------·------------------------------------------------------------------------------Delhi----------~------------- - CRDT.---------------·--------------------------------------------------------··--------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.Municipal Planner Assistant Municipal Planner 2. Administration II.D.Municipal Planner Assistant Municipal Planner 2. Sub-professionals 3.UNIT-C : For Large Cities (Census population of less than 10 lakh) 1. Sub-professionals 3.Municipal Planner Assistant Municipal Planner 2.. Professional · Municipal Planner Dy. steno-typists.UNIT-E : For Mega-Cities (Census population above 50 lakh) 1. etc. Administration III. peon... Administration Designation No. driver. gardener.. Administration V. Professional Assistant Municipal Planner 2.UNIT-B : For Medium Towns (Census population upto 5 lakh) 1. TABLE-1: STAFF PATTERN FOR PREPARATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PLAN FOR DIFFERENT CITIES AND TOWNS ----------·-------------------. Professional Municipal Planner -in-Chief Chief Municipal Planner Senior Municipal Planner Municipal Planner Dy.C. U. daftry.------------.

. For mobilising manpower for plan preparation.. With a view to dealing with the situation where a municipal planner appointed by a local authority will stagnate for want of promotional avenues.. Accordingly. the municipalities of medium towns may also join this Association of Municipalities. 7. it is recorQmended that a town planner setving a local authority be designated as municipal planner.~e towns should have. In cases where it is deficient. it is suggested that all local authorities of·: a.... it is suggested that there should be a cadre of municipal planners at the state level.... ii) · 80 . ITPI..... Large cities and medium si. pool resources and provide an appropriate set-up... for plan formulation.nner Assistant Municipal Planner Engineer-in-Chief Chief Engineer Superintending Engineer Executive Engineer Assistant Engineer(Ciass-1) Assistant Engineer( Class. For clarity the equivalent designation in civil engineering are as under : Municipal Planner-in-Chief Chief Municipal Planner Senior Municipal Planner Municipal Planner Dy.. monitoring and review. review functions shall be taken care by the assistant municipal planner..Municipal Plf.CRDT.- ....· ... the set-up as suggested in Table 1...... and administrative staff may be shared with such staff of the municipality.. the designations in Tabie 1 are shown.....43 Policy Options for Manpower Mobilisation 1. Appropriate legal support for this should be provided in the Town and Country Planning Act... the alternatives are as under : i) b. supported by necessary sub-professionals.... monitoring. The approval process and enforcement... Since different states have different designations of urban and regional planner.. New D e l h i .. if not already existing. depending upon level of work.. Award plan formulation work to consultants on Consultancy basis. In cases where it is difficult to provide the sub-professionals to the assistant municipal planner... Small towns should at least have the assistant municipal planner.UDPFI Guidelines--- 1 i.... enforcement. If necessary.. as suggested.II) 12. This system will also mitigate to a great extent problems related to exploitation and misappropriations.. necessary action should be taken to strengthen the set--up.. Form an Association of Municipalities at state level.

.__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ UDPFI Guidelines--- c..000 urban and regional planners in .. Appropriate funds be provided by the state governments to provide . It will generally be self-financing and in many cases revenue generating department through various developmental changes as suggested earlier' in this chapter. ITPI. Currently there are only about 2.. b) c) d) - CRDT. According to an estimate.. Amritsar.. _grants to institutions and facilitate in-service training programmes. It is highlighted here that the urban planning department should not be a burden on the local authority..000 urban and regional planners will be required to perform the function of planning and development at metropolitan area. New Delhi and Guru Nanak Dev University._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____. Planning and Architecture. In-service education and training programme and refresher courses be organised by all institutions teaching urban and regional planning in the country..... urban management.._ _ .- 81 . about 8.. 7. New D e l h i . This call for an appropriate action. district planning (with emphasis on rural planning and· development) and such other areas.. India and adopted by School of . district and local area levels.. _ .. • In this context it is suggested that : a) Under-graduate course in urban and regional planning be introduced in more universities and institutions on the pattern of the one developed by the Institute of Town Planners. Post-graduate courses may be re-oriented to fulfil the demand from the field especially pertaining to development management. I the country and the output from all 'the institutions teaching the subject is only about 200 per year..' ..44 General Policy of Manpower Development 1..

CHAPTER 8 LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT .

. Karnataka. 2.. As of February 1995. Pun. Haryana.. it would be desirable to have a general appraisal of the basic provisions of the town and country planning laws of the three selected states for this research study as well as the Model Regional and Urban Planning Law..11 Maharashtra 1. Himachal Pradesh.... Gujarat. 8. Orissa. Maharashtra. Such states are Goa.10 EXISTING SCENARIO 1..l l / J P F I Uuidelines--- CHAPTER EIGHT LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT 8. no separate 1 . 3. Meghalaya. Assam..... Jammu and Kashmir. d. Some states have comprehensive town and country planning legislation which provides for urban planning and development in a regional perspective beyond the city limits and coordinated with the overall framework of economic development. Urban and regional planning legislation controls the planning and development activity in a state. Mizoram. Tripura and Uttar Pradesh. Before discussing the legal support required for the various suggestions contained in the UDPFI Guidelines.... master plans or development plan. e.. Manipur. Arunachal Pradesh.. and supplemental or miscellaneous provisions. Rajasthan. include Andhra Pradesh. namely. Madhya Pradesh. Nagaland. an existing town or a new town. Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.. In view of this. the town and country planning bill in five states. b. and town planning schemes. constitution of state town and country planning board:constitution of various planning and development authorities for designated planning area which could be regional or urban.· . States where town and country planning legislation is not comprehensive as defined above. Bihar. plan enforcement mechanism. preparation of various plans including regional plans.· and in some cases a special area. Kerala. Rajasthan and Sikkim was under consideration. town planning is a statutory function of all municipal authorities even before the Constitution (74th) Amendment Act. In Maharashtra... A comprehensive town and country planning legislation generally provides for : a..iab. priorities and resource availabilities.. c...

.... income. the alternatives to compulsory land acquisition in the form of Transferable Development Rights (TOR) and Accommodation Reservation have been tried in Maharashtra under the Development Control Rules of Greater Bombay.. household characteristics. opposition to compulsory . 4. etc. . This aspect generally prompts the land owners to agree to accept transferable development rights in lieu of the cost of land as it is more profitable to them. compulsory acquisition of land was regarded as a pre-requisite under the Land Acquisition Act.__------------------l!DPFI Guidelines--provtsion was considereJ necessary by the state government to amend the Act.g out the developm~nt. New D e l h i .. The Act prescribes specific time period for various steps in the plan preparation process but the time prescribed is invariably extended from time to time by invoking the expression.. 1915 laid down the initial legal framework for the technique which was replaced by the Bombay Town Planning Act. including designation of land for public purposes.. However.. . In fact. transport and communication.. The Town Planning Scheme (TPS) as an alternative modei for urban land development has been provided in the MRTP Act as one of the tools for implementing the proposals contained in the development plan and has been used most extensively in the state of Maharashtra. With the result the entire process of plan preparation becomes indefinite and..-. envimnment.. land acquisition by land owners.. reservation of land for community facilities and services. 1894.. the local authority reserves its right to compulsorily acquire the land if the land owner does not come forward... has compelled the authorities to explore collaborative · approacl1es within the existing legal framework. ---------. ·. 3. - .. . ITPI. . 1966 as amended upto 5th August. ~- .~··-:. 5. The development· plan provides for allocation of land for various p1Jrposes.~.. These measures are particularly relevant and are likely to succeed where land . is generally collected but detailed land use planning and plan sanction is a very time consuming process. 2.. etc. As a statutory requirement...' - ' . As a result.. the TPS preparation is divided into two stages. . it is to be conceded that these alternatives may not prove to be very successful where land prices are less than the construction cost.. 1954. 1966. accommodation reservation and transferable development rights.. It has been subsequently superseded by the Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act. the plan document becomes out-dated. public utilities and services and regulations and procedures for controlling development. ' .. Maharashtra is a pioneer in the field of TPS and the Bombay Town Planning Act.e. only the existing land use survey is carried out and detailed information on employment.- i l l . the draft scheme 84 CRDT. .. The Maharashtra Regional md Town Planning (MRTP) Act. 1992 is a comprehensive act and provides that the development plan prepared under the Act shall indicate the manner in which the use of land. In view of the exorbitant market rates of land to be paid tor compensation. 'not later than such further time as the state government may from time to time extend'.. as mentioned in the Act. in the area of planning authority shall be regulated as also the manner for carryin.Prices are prohibitive and higher than the construction cost.. more often than not. For implementation of the plan proposals. . In both these cases i.. firstly.... As per this Act.

appointed to decide all matters referred to them under the Act including the values of the original and final plots. therefore.. The Act has not laid down any strict time schedule for the preparation and approval of the master plans and.~- ::-::: :· . The arbitrator:is required to make corrections in the records of the scheme as per the decision of the Tribunal and the scheme is finally submitted to the state government for sanction. The implementation and enforcement of the development plans is to be done by.- 85 .. The Orissa Development Authority Act. etc. compensation cost on account of allotment of land for public purposes. As regards valuation matters. After the scheme is approved by the state government... The final scheme is published in the Gazette and the sanctioned scheme comes into effect.. The draft scheme is prepared by the planning authority and finalisatiori of development scheme is done by the Arbitrator/Assistant Director of Town Planning from Town Planning and Valuation Department. either approve the plan without modifications or with such modifications as it may consider necessary or reject the development plan with · direction to the authority to prepare a fresh· development plan on the lines indicated CRDT. . for the whole or any part of a municipality or other areas are required to conduct a civic survey within 2 years from the date of notification and within 4 years submit. planning authorities by formulating improvement schemes within the framework of the approved plan. 1956 and the Orissa Development Authority Act.. 7. The Improvement Trust Act does not contain any provision for execution of master pl9ns through town planning schemes.:-" :.. The Authority is to prepare the plan and submit to the government for approval who may. the aggrieved parties may appeal to the Tribunal of Appeal..... Pune. development and expansion of towns in the state. New D e l h i . VDI'FI Guidelines--- and then the final scheme. in its absence.. the arbitrators are·.. in Orissa....12 Orissa 1. etc. have since been taken up in Maharashtra. 8. which may sanction it or make such modifications as it may consider necessary. ITPI. Director of Town Planning. in consultation with the Director of Tpwn Planning. The scheme is then submitted to the government for approval. More than 114 schemes in Bombay.: ·_. the . there is a need to simplify the procedure.. The first Act provides for the improvement.. 1982 contains provisions for the preparation and approval of interim/zonal development plans.. The procedure of TPS formulation and approval is time consuming and with litigations it takes more than 10 years implementing such a scheme and. town planning is governed under the Orissa Town Planning and Improvement Trust Act. After the final scheme becomes operative. 2. Nasik. through the. 6. cost of the scheme. The planning authorities set up by the state under th1s Act.. the lands designated for public purposes vest with the local authority absolutely in it free from all encumbrances and the final plots are handed over to the owners to whom they are allotted in the final scheme.... 1982. The decision of the arbitrator is communicated to the parties. the planning process is not time bound and results in inordinate delays. a draft master plan of the area to the state government for approval.

The Act also contains provisions for the constitution of town and country development authorities for preparation of town . 1977 is in force. JTP/.. The provisions are largely based on the Maharashtra Regional and Town ·Planning Act.11 these objections and suggestions within a period of 90 days from the date of publication and make necessary modifications and submit to the state government within 6 months of the publication of draft development plan. approve it with or without modifications..- 1 .. 3... 2.13 Himachal P. The legislation also provides for levy of development charges.radesh 1. Chapter VI of the Development Authority Act. 1982 contains provisions for town planning schemes but their execution is reported to be very cumbersome and time consuming.. The state government notifies the interim development plan in the official gazette as approved by it and the local authorities are required to follow the plan.. 1966 and the Gujarat Regional and Town Planning Act.. There are also provisions for the constitution 0f special areas 86 CRDT. zonal plans and prescribes controls on development and use of land. The development plan which is detailed in nature and contents is prepared and notified for public objections. -~---------:-------------------UIJPFI Guidelines--- by the government... Six urban development authorities and five special area development authorities have been set up under the Act.. urban area plans. It is a comprehensive planning and development act and provides for the preparation of regional plans.. suggestions and the Director of Town Planning is required to consider 8... the plan is notified and comes into operation from the date of notification.. The state government may approve the development plan with or without modifications and the fact of approval is notified in the official gazette and the development plan finally comes into operation and it is binding on all development authorities and the local authorities functioning within the planning area. 1976. Under the Act. The Act also contains provisions for undertaking a rev1ew and evaluation of the development plan and the sectoral plan. -· ''-····. New D e l h i .. The interim development plan is submitted to the state government. It also envisages preparation of town development schemes by the development authorities const!tuted under this Act. who may.. the planning areas are constituted and the Director of Town Planning is entrusted with the task of preparation of interim/development plan and development plans to be followed by sectoral plans in consultation with the local authorities concerned.· ... This Act is also not applicable to small and medium towns. 8... 3. the Himachal Prad esh Town and Country Planning Act. The development plan is further followed up by the preparation of sectoral plans by the Director of Town Planning. The planning process is laid down in the Act but no time limit whatsoever has been prescribed to complete this process. development schemes. After its approval by the state government. A separate legislation on Land Pooling and Readjustment of Plot Boundaries Bill had been drafted by the state Town Planning Department by taking note of the existing provisions of the Development Authority Act and the experience gained in the execution of such schemes and submitted to the state government. In Himachal Pradesh.

the process of plan preparation...... regional and area plans by the metropolit~n.14 Model law 1.. of a regional and town planning board at the apex for the purpose of advising on delineation of regions for planned development and directing the preparation of metropolitan. with such changes as to suit the individual requirements.. CRDT. approval and implem·~ntation through town development schemes does not have a statutory time frame-within which this exercise must be completed.... The implementation of a plan involves a large number of different types of schemes and a number of state and local agencies drawing funds from different sources for preparation and execution of such schemes. l1'Pl.... covers comprehensive regional.. . plan approval. are to enable the authority to undertake development when there is no development agency in the planning area or existing agencies are unable to undertake development of the type envisaged by the planning and development authority. approval followed by enforcement and implementation.... An area planning and development authority may be a local authority or an authority set up separately for the purpose of undertaking plan preparation.. plan enforcement and plan implementation. removal of non-conforming uses. The Model Law contains detailed prov1s1ons for the preparation of regional/development plans and their procedure for statutory approval. 3. . New D e l h i . preparation of detailed development schemes and their execution.. While the planning function is an obligatory function of the planning and development authority envisaged under the Model Law. 4....l J I J P F J Guidelines--- and special area development authorities for the preparation of development plan for such areas.. 8. The Model Law provides for constitution. 2. entrusted to the planning and development authorities under the Model Law. Planning here includes plan preparation...... The Model Law formulated by the central Town and Country Planning Organisation and commended to the states for adoption. The plan is published and notified in the gazette for public objections within 3 months from the date of publication which are considered and the final regional plan is submitted..... The regional plan is to be prepared by the regional planning and development authority and is to be submitted to the state town planning board who may approve the draft plan for publication with such modifications in the plan as it thinks fit.- 87 .... regional and area planning and development authorities. local and metropolitan planning.. The developmental functions..... plan enforcement and implementation includes promotion and control of development according to plan. It is not conceivable for one agency to undertake all types of development... the object of the inclusion of development functions in the Act is not to replace the existing developmental agencies already operating in the planning area or agencies which may be subsequently set up to undertake large scale development works.. by the state government.. 4.. Even though the state town planning act is quite comprehensive.. The government may...

.- .. However.. the Act envisages the constitution of regional. master plan.. The Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act... new town and detailed development plans.mum time frame must be laid down within which the process shoulrl be completed... town planning officer and 5 other members . The Town and Country !...... a planning committee comprising a chairman. the outline/ comprehensive development plan is to be prepared by the planning and development authority and it passes through the 'due process of law' before they are statutorily enforceable.. · powers and responsibilities as given to a standing committee appointed under the Act under which the local authority is set up. there is a proposal to enact a separate legislation 'tor MMDA 88 CRDT.... 7.. . Besides. the state governments are required to bestow by law necessary powers and authority to the municipalities to enable them to function as institutions of self-government and undertake functions relating to urban planning and development as provided in the newly added Twelfth Schedule. in fact... 5.. rnax.. The town planning officer shall be the chief executive officer of the planning committee.. New D e l h i .. 1971 is currently in force in the state. yet it has to be made specific and not left to the discretion of the state government which may extend the time for various steps as it may consider necessary and. approve the plan with or without modifications. local and new town planning · authorities and a town and country planning board at tha apex clothed with implementation powers... 1971 had been amended so as to have separate provisions for the constitution of Madras Metropolitan Development Authority and preparation and implementation of Master Plan for the Madras Metropolitan Planning Area... ITPI. 8..UDPFI Guidelines--- in consultation with the board...to be appointed by the government. Section 21 of the Model Law provides for the constitution of area planning and development authorities and it has been specifically provided that the local authorities may be designated as the planning and development authority in the first instance.. shal! assist the local authority in performing the functions of planning and development authority.. This committee shall have the status. The Model law has prescribed time limits for the planning process of preparation and approval of plans. The legislation was brought in after repealing the Town Planning Act. 1920. The Model law provides for review of the regional plan once in every 10 years by carrying out fresh surveys as may be considered necessary... With the 74th Constitution Amendment. It is a comprehensive piece of legislation and contains provisions for the preparation of regional.. In case local authority is designated as the planning and development authority..' ....>Ianning Act. metropolitan..15 Tamil Nadu i. Similarly... 6. There are detailed provisions for the preparation of development schemes for implementing the proposals contained in the development plan which are ari improvement over the provisions of the TP Schemes in the Maharashtra and Gujara~ Acts taking into account the experience of working of the provisions of these acts.. The Model Law already has for this provision.. 2...

. defining the limits of the area and within two months of the notification. the area is finally notified... 6......- ... There is provision for review of master plan by the local planning authorities once in every 5 years and submit the modified master plan to the government for approval. In case of Tamil Nadu. the Town Planning Scheme (TPS) of Maharashtra or Gujarat has been redesignated as detailed development plans under the Act.. The scheme of the Act is that the planning process starts with the decentralisation of regional planning area and local planning area under Section 10 of the Act. the detailed development plan is submitted to the Director for approval who may again suggest some modifications and after the modifications are carried out. It has been specially provided in the Act that in case a declared local planning area falls under the jurisdiction of a single local authority as the local planning authority the master plan is then prepared by the appropriate planning authority but no time frame for the preparation of the plan has been specified. are carried out by the planning authority and the plan is published inviting objections and suggestions for which the period shall not be less than 2 months from the date of publication of the notice. New D e l h i ..... the regional plan and the master plan after their approval by the government are published and come into operation...... therefore. the detailed development plan is approved by the Director which is subsequently notified in official gazette. the plan is submitted to the government. Similarly. After the plan is prepared and submitted to the government... necessary that the Act must lay qown a specific time schedule for various steps in plan preparation and approval to give a certain finality to the process... 5.. It is. 3.. 4. with the result it leads to uncertainties and inordinate delays in the process.. CRDT..U D P F I Guidelines--to meet the grow_ing demands of the metropolitan area. unfortunately.. The Act has laid down the procedure for plan preparation and approval but.... The government may approve the plan with or without modifications for which no specific time frame is prescribed under the Act....... After this. After considering the objections and suggestions.. there is no time frame within which this planning process should be completed. ITPI. any inhabitant or any local authority may submit any objeCtions or suggestions with regard to the notification and after considering these objections and consulting the Director oJ Town and Country Planning and the regional planning authorities and local planning authorities.. 89 .. the detailed development plan is published for public objections and suggestions. the town and country planning authorities are constituted in consultation with the Director of Town Planning for performing the functions of preparing a regional plan/master plan and detailed development plan. The modifications. After considering all the objections and suggestions. After preparation of the detailed development plan modifications have been carried out. These are prepared in respect of any land located in the planning area.. if any... 7.which is notified in the gazette. it may give its consent to the planning authority to the publication of a notice of the preparation of the plan with or without modifications.....

there is no reference to municipalities except by way of Entry No.. The 74th CAA has bestowed the planning function to the rural and urban local bodies at the grass-root level by providing for the preparation of plans by the panchayats and the municipalities. These are illustrative and many more such aspects would require an overall view of development of the district and. a pointer to the determination of the state to bestow power to the people to plan for themselves and participate in the decision-making process.lie outside the limit o1 the town and the disposal of waste as well.. It also provides for integration of the municipal plans with district plans and through them with the state and national plans.. certain important questions concerning rural-urban interface may arise.... ........ ushered in a new era in the history of urban local government in the country.. ... Similarly.. In this connection.. With the result there was no constitutional obligation for local self-government in urban areas. It is _a first serious attempt to ensure adequate constitutional obligation so that democracy in the municipal government is stabilised. Even though there is reference to village panchayats in the Directive Principles of State Policy... The 74th CAA is. ...allocation of investments between rural and urban institutions at the level of a district as a whole.5 in the State List as the subject of local self government is the function of the state. A close study of this Article provides a reasonable inference that each municipality. in addition to planning and conflict resolutions. in fact. the source of drinking water for the town may. This committee at the district level (DPC) would provide interaction with the municipal bodies and panchayati raj institutions... certain district roads maintained by zilla parishad may be passing through the municipal area. by whatever name called. Likewise. indeed...UDPFI Guidelines--- 8. 2.. is expected to prepare a plan for its area and undertake the task of urban planning including town planning.. in fact. Constitution (74th) Amendment Act (74th CAA) has.. The spatial and environmental planning in the planning system has also been envisaged by this Act at various levels right from nagar panchayat to a metropolitan area.20 IMPLICATIONS OF CONSTITUTION (74th) AMENDMENT ACT 1992 1. regulate land uses and construction of buildings and phasing of the programme for economic and soci&l development as envisaged in the Twelfth Schedule. like the fringe area of a town where urbanisation is taking place which may lie within the purview of panchayati raj institutions. ... Article 243-ZB of this amendment has provided for constitution of District Planning Committee (DPC) in every district to consolidate the plans prepared by the panchayats and municipalities and prepare a draft development plan for the district as a whole.

.......... The state governments are expected to amend the relevant acts to incorporate the provisions of 74th CAA. Scrutiny of the perspective plans of urban centres prepared by local authorities for approval of the state govevernment. spatio-economic development strategy and proposals of relevant planning region cov~ring the district or the metropolitan area.. taking into account the provisions of the district I metropolitan area development plan of the area where the urban centre is located.....21..... Initiation of action pertaining to provision of legal support in relevant Acts to spatial planning and development process as a consequence of 74th CAA and the suggested urban development planning system...V D P F I Guidelines--- 4. Division of the state into various planning regions taking into account the physical. New D e l h i .... Constitution of MPCs and DPCs has also not been generally provided... comprised in one or more districts and consisting of two or more municipalities or panchayats.- 91 ..... JTPI.... amorig others.. The constitution of municipalities and the election procedure and other related matters have generally been provided by all states by amending their respective municipal acts.... But assignment of urban planning function has not been generally provided to the amended acts. Assistance to the state Urban and Regional Planning Board in formulation of the state perspective plan and strategy of spatiaeconomic development of the state having regard to proposals contained in district and metropolitan area development plans. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) - CRDT. taking into account the state perspective plan... socio-cultural.. include : (a) Advice and technical assistance to the state government on matters pertaining to spatial planning and development as well as implementation of state programmes. economic and climatic considerations and formulation of plans of their spatio-economic development to serve as a guide for resolving inter-district developmental issues and provide basis for inter-district cooperation and coordination with a view to making district development plans more harmonious. Scrutiny of the district and metropolitan area development plans for approval of state government.. New Role and Functions of State Town and Country Planning Departments The new role of Town and Country Planning Departments that emerges out of the provisions of the 74th· CAA shall.. 8.. 5... Article 243-ZD of the 74th CAA provides for constitution of a Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC) for planning a metropolitan area having a population of 10 lakh or more..

. strategies.. Technical assistance to local authorities if so requested at the cost of the concerned body.:. Considering this and also that an established institution need not be demolished. The current planning role and function of Metropolitan Regional Planning and Development Authorities and Boards constituted for planning and development of metro-regions may be in conflict with the role and functions of Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC) when constituted as m--._:_~ ·.._._. these bodies should be merged with the municipalities. regulations and rules pertaining to urban and re~ional planning and development matters. --·· ..._- _:_. laws. norms...- . if so directed by the state government..ndatory requirement of the provisions of the 74th CAA...:.. It is ~uggested that.. '.. Provision of manpower training facilities... Status of Existing Development Authorities 1Boards (a) Existing state Regional and Town Planning Board..--"--·- ----·.. --------.. it is suggested that these bodies be reorganised to serve as the MPC itself as per 74th CAA or alternatively serve as technical arm of MPC. taking into consideration the spirit of 74th·CAA. and Establishment of an Urban and Regional Information System and dissemination of information. at the cost of the concerned planning body. This merger should be without retrenchment of its staff which should be redeployed by the (b) (c) - CRDT.... The Area Planning and Development Authorities constituted to prepare and enforce development plans of urban centres under the state Town and Country Planning Act or other Acts shall have a conflict of role and functions with the urban local authorities constituted under modified state Municipalities Act as per provisions of the 74th CAA and as suggested by the Model Law (Revised) (See volume 2A Chapter V).. New D e l h i .-----------~------UDPFI Guidelines--- (g) EnsurinrJ that the urban development plans prepared by local authorittes are within the framework of the approved perspective plan of the settlement. constituted under state Town Planning Act may continue. district planning committee or the metropolitan planning committee. standards. __ ~-~. Provision of necessary research input directly or through the help of consultants in formulation of policies. (h) (i) U) (k) (i) 8... Preparation of development plan in case of default by the local authority. ITPI..22.

. Electricity Board. The MPC and DPC As a consequence to the 74th CAA..--------~----------------l!DPFI Guideiines--- state government in consultation with the Chief Town Planner I Director Town and Country Planning. Special Area. Projects and Schemes. these bodies should prepare long-term perspective plan and medium-term development plan which is a constitutional obligation also.Ill and IV.. Accordingly. prepared by TCPQ.. if so required by the council of the local authority. 8.. Perspective Plan... District Development. as per UDPFI Guidelines. New Delhi will require a complete revision and restructuring. Local Planning Area.30 SUGGESTED CHANGES IN THE MODEL LAW · As a consequence to the 74th CAA and the UDPFI Guidelines. Accommodation Reservation. ITPI. The existing sing:_... etc.. the Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law. Annual Plan.. chapter ..32 Structure of Subsequent Chapters It is suggested that the subsequent chapters should be restructured as : a. Promoter. two new chapters. 8. Nt->w D e l h i . Incorporate definitions of the new terms like Metropolitan Area. which were constituted under various Acts for the purpose of discharging the specifically assigned function. (d) . to the various urban local authorities..93 . should include : CRDT... Metropolitan Area Development Plan. the new scheme of the Model Law is as suggested in the following sections. Transferable Development Right. Accordingly.... it would be desirable to constitute the Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC) and the District Planning Committees (DPCs) under the Urban and Regional Planning and Development (URPD) Act aAd.. Development Plan. Refuse Collection and Disposal Board.. Planning and Development Authority. Transport Corporation I Undertaking. may continue.. function boards I undertakings like Housing Board..31 Changes in chapter I Chapter I should be modified as : i) The title of the Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law should be changed to : MODEL URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT U W (REf/ISED) ii) iii) Revise preamble to reflect implications of 74th CAA. 8.

. Since...:. . the standing planning committee and development integration committee. and their contents.... Orissa as well as the Model RTPD Law. Time-bound and suggested decentralised process for approval of perspective plans and development plans with provision of public participation through a public meeting to explain the salient features of · 94 CRDT.. b. Functions and powers of MPC and DPC. Composition of Metropolitan Area Development Integration Committee and District Development Integration Committee their function as per UDPFI Guidelines. ITPI....... ... .. incorporating the declaration of local authorities as planning and development authorities and their function..·-·--·~~ ....:_--~·-"·--·-'"'~ -·-·. according to the Town and Country Planning Acts of Maharashtra. development plans... long-term perspective plans and medium-term development plans.. .U D P F I Guidelines--- Composition of the MPC and DPC each one of which should include. contents of each plan.... if any. Manner of preparation and approval of the perspective plan and development plan of the metropolitan area and the district respectively....~. Time-bound and participatory manner of formulation of perspective plans.. Review.. a municipality may be declared as planning and development authority to formulate.... Planning and Development Authorities As per the 12th Schedule of the 74th CAA. it would be desirable that urban planning including town planning function be assigned to a local authority under suggested Model URPD Law. execute and implement the development plan for the planning area.. their composition and functions... each local authority may be assigned the function of urban planning including town planning. but most of the municipal acts have either not provided this function or have just mentioned that such function may be provided as and when felt necessary by the state government... Accordingly a new chapter V should be added. interalia a full-time urban and regional planning member to be known as Metropolitan Planning Member and District Planning Member respectively...- .. of the perspective plan and development plans of metropolitan areas and districts. revision and modifications. ..... Duties and functions of the Metropolitan Planning Member and District Planning Member. •• 0 _ .. A new chapter is necessary as it has to include the suggested : System of planning. New D e l h i .

as the cr 2e may be.... Innovative systems of resource mobilisation should also be provided with ---· CRDT. Innovative Systems of Land Assembly The chapter on Assembly of Land {Chapter XI) _should include enabling provisions for suggested innovative systems such as transferable development right.. accommodation reservation...... This should also include the deeming clause to introduce efficiency and also a provision to permit the planning and development authority to proceed with further approval process for the portion where no specific modifications are suggested by state Chief'Pianner or MPC or DPC.. etc.idelines including preparation of the scheme with full participation of original plot holders by a project planner..... commercial centres. Innovative Systems of Resource Mobilisation 1. It should also provide for a process of approval of such schemes.... public transportation...- 95 .. heritage zones. and negotiated settlement. conservation of ecologically sensitive areas. TTPI. simplified land pooling scheme should be provided as a technique for assembling land for planning and development and should be dealt with in a separate chapter (Chapter IX) and should not be termed as Town Planning Scheme (as in case of Gujarat and Maharashtra) or Development Scheme (as in Model RTPD Law)... items to be considered for calculation of cost of schemes. d. renewal areas..U D P H Guidelines--- the development plan for better understanding of the plan by the people. as a land pooling scheme may be a town planning or development scheme but all town planning or development schemes are not land pooling schemes..... New D e l h i . Procedure for modifications made in the perspective or development plan in public interest c.. provision of transferable development right as a mode of payment in lieu of cost of land transferred to planning and development authority. division of the land pooling scheme in two parts . As a result. The chapter on Land Pooling Scheme should include all the suggestions of UDPFI Gu. Land Pooling and Development Schemes 1.. 2.... provision of infrastructure. a separate chapter for development scheme (Chapter VIII) should be added to provide legal support to schemes like industrial estates.the planning part and the finance part. rehabilitation and upgradation of slums... This is to avoid possible delays due to some conflicts. e... new town. Time-bound review... permanent tribunal for land pooling scheme... redevelopment.. tourist centres.. revision and preparation of next perspective or development plans... As suggested by UDPFI Guidelines...

.. The proportionate cost of provision or augmentation. 3. 0..of city level infrastructure made necessary due to any development in the form of development impact exaction....... ii) iii) 0 2. seNices or amenities and in this context provision be made where users' charges may be levied by the local authority. It will save conditions where funds assigned for planning and development are spent on non-planning and development activities.. Provision should be made to establish a Planning and Development Fund where all money received from various sources. ITPJ..U D P F J Guidelines--- appropriate legal support to improve resources of the local authority. 5. the chapter on Levy.. This charge could be collected from the user of the land or premises..... the MPC and DPC... as given above.. and also from other specified sources...5 per cent to 'the MPC or DPC in whose jurisdiction the local authority falls 96 - CRDT.. New D e l h i ... Cess on vacant developed land in an area if left vacant and unbuilt beyond a reasonable limit to be specified under rules... include provisions for levy of charges on the following as suggested by UDPFI Guidelines : i) Increase in value of land or building due to development plan. In this context the planning and development authority should periodically fix land and building values in different wards of the local planning area.. it is suggested that every local authority should pay the following percentage of total money credited in their planning and development fund during the last preceding year. on the amount secured by the instrument and transfer the amount to the planning and development authority after deducting incidental expenses.. if any. 4.......' . Accordingly..... A provision in this respect be provided in law.. These value could be-different for different wards and even vary within a ward depending upon the use and intensity of development.- . Provision be made to recover cost of provision and maintenance of new utilities.. should be deposited and all expenses pertaining to planning and development activities be met from this fund.. facilities..5 per cent to the Board.case of an usufructuary mortgage. it is suggested that the stamp duty in respect of any deed of transfer of immovable property located within its jurisdiction be increased by 3 per cent of the value of property transferred or in . The cess in this case should be multiple (say 2 to 3 times) of the property tax payable assuming the area to be fully built upon as per allowable FAR. To augment the resources of the local authority. To provide funds to the urban and regional planning board. 1........ Assessment and Recovery of Developmental Charges (Chapter XII) should in addition to the usual charges on change of land use or building and for carrying out any development.

on 'Private and Joint Sector Participation in Development'. Private Sector Participation The current policies of economic liberalisation in the country and the emphasis on private sector participation in planning and development process should be provided with be appropriate legal support.40 SUGGESTED CHANGES IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING ACTS OF MAHARASHTRA AND GUJARAT For demonstrating the adaption of the Model Urban and Regional Planning Law (Revised) which takes into account the implications of both 74th CAA and the UDPFI Guidelines...41 Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act.U D P F I Guidelitws--- 1 d.... e.... as far as urban and regional planning is concerned.. 1966 The scheme of the suggested changes in Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966 should be as follows : Chapter I (a) (b) Replace the Preamble Add new definitions of terms used in the Act Chapter II .. the Acts of two most advanced states..... New D e l h i ...... Delete Chapter II and add new Chapter IIA under the title : State Urban and Regional Planning Board and State Perspective Plan - CRIJT..... a new chapter (Chapter x) be ad4ed .......... Accordingly.... The revised law is presented in Volume 2A of this study.. 8. ITPI. have been taken and the suggested changes in this context are presented in the following sections.. Revision of Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law All the suggestions given in this section have been appropriately incorporated in the Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law (Revised).... 8.- 97 .......

.~-·---··--~..~-·.............. ITPI. New D e l h i .......- ......_i.-~---'-~-------·--- ..............--~:..UDPFI Guidelines--- Chapter Ill Delete Chapter !II and add new chapters as under: (a) Chapter Ill A under the title Metropolitan Planning Committee and Plans for Metropolitan Area Development (b) Chapter Ill B under the title District Planning Committee and Pla..e Special Area Planning and Development Authmity and Plans for Special Area Development " Chapter IV Modify the Chapter IV with changed title as under Control of Development and Use of Land Chapter V (a) Modify this Chapter V with changed title as under Land Pooling Scheme (b) Add a new Chapter VA L!nder the title Development Schemes Chapter VI (a) Modify this Chapter VI on Finance in the light of the following chapters of the Revised Model Law: (i) 98 - Land Pooling Scheme (Chapter IX) CRDT...i....ozs for District Planning Area Development (c) Chapter Ill C under the title Planning and Development Authorities and Plans for Local Planning Area Development (d) Chapter Ill D under the titl..

.. New D e l h i ... Assembly and Disposal of Land Chapter VIII Modify this Chapter VIII titled Miscellaneous as per the Revised Model Law The suggested changes in the Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act...... 8.... Assessment and Recovery of Developmental Charges (b) Add new Chapter VIlA under the title : Acquisition...42 Gujarat Regional Planning and Urban Development Act 1973 The scheme of the suggested changes in Gujarat Regional Planning and Urban Development Act 1973 should be as follows : Chapter I (a) (b) Chapter II Replace the Preamble Add new definitions of terms used in the......... Accounts and Audit {Chapter XIII) (b) Add a new Chapter VIA under the title : Private and Joint Sector Participation in Development Chapter VII (a) Modify this Chapter VII under changed title : Levy.......... 1966 are given in Volume 28 of this study....... Act.. (a) Substitute this chapter as Chapter II under this title : State Urban and Regional Planning Board and State Perspective Plan (b) Add a new Chapter IIA under the title : Metropolitan Planning Committee and Plans for Metropolitan Area Development - CRDT.......- 99 ..U D P £ 1 Guidelines--- (ii) Finance. ITPI..

. Add a new Chapter liB under the title District P._...- ..:_...anning Committee and Plans for District Planning Area Development Chapter Ill (a) Delete Chapter Ill and add a new Chapter IliA as under the title : Planning and Development Authorities and Plans for Local Planning Area Development (d) Add a new Chapter 1118 under the title : _ Special Area Planning and Development Authority and Plans for Special Area Development Chapter IV (a) Substitute this chapter with a new Chapter IV under the title : Control of Development and Use of Land Chapter V (a) Substitute this chapter with a new Chapter V under the title : Development Schemes (b) Add a new Chapter VA under the title : Land Pooling Schemes Chapter VI (a) Substitute this chapter with a new Chapter VI under the title : Private and Joint Sector Pa~ticipation in Development Chapter VIA Delete this chapter and add a new Chapter VIC under the title : Levy...~-~~~-: · ._::~_...~. New D e l h i .:i..... Assessment and Recovery of Developmental Charges 100 - CRDT..~-~~~:::..:...~_·--::...:_~·.......UDPFI Guidelines--- (c) ....:~--:~i..... ITPI.. -~......:_:.......

50 8. Assembly and Disposal of Land {b) Delete sections 130 to 134 and add a new Chapter VIII under the title: Finance. 2.. such uses are designated as 'non-conforming . These are to be gradually eliminated without inflicting unreasonable hardship on the property owners/users....uses'..... New D e l h i ....51 SIMPLIFIED DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION GUIDELINES Background 1... 4. The main purpose of the land use Zoning is to provide regulations for development of a particular area to serve the desired purpose efficiently and to preserve its ch·aracter.. Audit and Accounts {c) Delete sections 135 to 165 and add a new Chapter IX under the title: Supplemental and Miscellaneous Provisions The suggested changes in Gujarat Regional Planning and Urban Development Act. commercial.- Chapter VII {a) Delete this chapter and add new Chapter VII under the title : Acquisition. it is necessary to apply reasonable limitations on use of lands and buildings... These regulations also improve the quality of life in an urban centre. In order to promote a healthy and balanced development. industrial.. 3.. 8. welfare and safety.·. CRDT. 1973 are given in Volume 2C of this study. the city is divided into a number of 'use zones' such as residential. Further. If such uses are contrary to regulations in a particular 'use zone' and are not to be allowed.. Zoning regulations are legal tools for guiding the use of land and protection of public health. Development plan provides a legal framework within which development of an area of city/town takes place and land use zoning and development promotion/control regulations serve as legal instruments for planning and executing proposals contained in the plan. size and type of buildings that are constructed or occupy the land. Zoning protects residential areas from harmful invasions of other uses like industrial use and commercial use. For desirable development. Such regulations also include provisions for the use of premises/property and limitations upon shape.101 . ITPI.. it does not prohibit use of lands and buildings that are lawfully established prior to coming into effect of such zoning regulations. It also provides for the kind of buildings to be constructed..UDPI:'1 Guidelitzes . these provide both horizontal as well as vertical use of land.. However.

. For each zone. ITPI. S) has also been 102 CRDT. cloth or electronics or vegetables..... need not show very many details of a specific land use and may only show the main use which could be.... say. simplified land use zoning regulations. 6. which is a comprehensive plan indicating use of each parcel of land.. say. It has to indicate for the land designated as. say.... indicating which/block of retail commercial is for.. very complex and difficult to comprehend and enforce.. commercial. or for wholesale trade or for godowns.... a need to have simplified regulations so that these are adoptable and enforceable within the changing socio-economic and phy~ical development in various cities and towns. which is a policy document. At level-11. The development promotion/control regulations deal with the extent of the physical development in various use zones... Simplification of the system of classification of urban land uses is based upon the requirements of the various plans as suggested by UDPFI Guidelines.. a perspective plan. only Ievei-I and level-11 glassification is presented in Appendix C1.... . the further details as to which land is for retail co·mmercial....00. c..- . A single set of regulations cannot be applied for the whole city. In the case of layouts of projects of a shopping centre further details shall be necessary.. For example. A new category of special areas (8. R-3) have been added. It includes 8 main categories of land uses at Ievel-I and 35 categories at level-11.. etc. 3.. specific reguiations are provided for.. numerical and alpha-numerical codes have also been given. 7. it is suggested that there should be three levels in land use classification as shown under : Levell Level II Level Ill For Perspective Plans For Development Plans For Layouts of Projects/Schemes 2. therefore.. New D e l h i ... These regulations are mainly to specify the quantum of construction... development promotion/control regulations.. The zoning and development promotion regulations are generally too many.. specific location of the structure in various use zones for the activities to be developed/provided. b. 5.U D P F I Guidelines--- recreational. Considering 1this. mixed residential zone (12.. In the case of a development plan. R-2) and unplanned/informal residential zone (13. Since level-Ill details are a function of the requirements of a project/scheme and would vary from project to project.. Simplified zoning and development promotion regulations include : a. 8..... there is a need to show more details of a specific land use...-v· I . simplified urban land use classification. residential or commercial.. In the context of computerisation as well as for presentation of maps..52 SimpHfied Urban Land Use Classification 1. There is.

it may be worthwhile to plan mixed residential and non-residential activities right at the time of preparation of general layout plan/schemes.. regulations known .. medium and small).. To regulate development within the framework of a development plan. 4. The suggested list of uses/activities for various use zones has deliberately been kept quite comprehensive..... permissible on an application to the Competent Authority and prohibited... contained in a development plan.53 Simplified Land Use Zoning Regulations 1. household industries.54 Development Promotion Regulations in Various Use Zones 1. The location of mixed use plots should be carefully selected and kept reserved for intended mixed uses such as shops... professional activities and the residences.... These govern the coverage. Development promotion/control regulations are generally provided as part of the development plan report.. there is a need to list out various uses and activities that are permitted. this list could be further enhanced or reduced. keeping in mind the local and special characteristics of various sizes of settlements {large........103 . Depending upon the specific situation... number of dwelling units.. These regulations also deal with various controls to be exercised for designing of comprehensive schemes and buildings for various use zones and use premises... For implementation and enforcement of proposals under each land use category. In case of new developments.. medium and small. S-2) etc.have to be prescribed as part of the development plan report. 8...... these regulations could be adopted as development promotion/control regulations independently under the urban and regional planning legislation formulated by the state government. 2..... parking norms. open spaces. It could also be used to classify the land uses at level-Ill.. Alternatively.UDPFI Guidelines--- added to cater to old built-up areas (81.. 8. The development promotion regulations deal with designated use zones and use premises..00 provides the suggested land use zoning regulations.. 2. S-1) or heritage and conservation areas {82.l~ . The basic purpose of such regJllations is to promote quality of life of people by organising the most appropriate development of land in accordance with the developmental policies and the land use proposals contained therein. 3. Appendix C. Land use zoning regulations precisely provide this list for various use zones. etc. height.... as the case may be. - CRDT.2. setbacks. FAR. ITPI. institutions. Nt!w D e l h i ..as development promotion regulations . Important development promotion/control regulations for various use zones are given in the form of the guidelines and could be adopted with suitable modifications for various sizes of cities/towns such as large..

~-:~~---~--~-------·---~·--··- . It is advisable that for the plots above 2 ha in area a landscape plan... indicating parking.. including designing and construction of buildings. a circulation plan. G.. The size of the plots is normally determined in the layout plans when formulated.rking and for landscaping need to be counted in FAR.....00 provides the suggested development promotion regulations separately for both plain areas and hill areas.. height of the building.t may be allowed in setback lines to be used for parking and for AC plant. Basemen. telephone exchange and other services and amenities and may not be counted in FAR.... Buildings defined as multistoried buildings (above 15 m in height}. vehicular and pedestrian movement based on traffic... is based on development promotion regulations and the building bye-laws... Subsequent development..." .. based on density pattern... parking requirements and others.·:. municipal and social infrastructures requirements are worked out and provided for. 6.r-~-·....· .. 7. the controls applicable for plain area shall apply.. ITPI. FAR.... New D e l h i . 9.. Accordingly. Efforts should be made to have permanent external finish..l ! D P F I Guidelines--- 5... 11. Appendix C.. Stilt areas used for pr-..· : . 104 - CRDT.... In the development plan proposals or development control/promotion rules if there are proposais to increase the FAR in any use zone/use premises...3. .. there should be a provision to charge appropriate development charges from the beneficiary at the rate of notified land rates of that area from time to time.- . electric sub-station... 10. impact study and an urban design scheme be prepared to form part of the project.-... In case where no controls are given for hill areas..

CHAPTER9 FURTHER ACTIONS ..

20 ADOPTION OF UDPFI GUIDELINES With a view to considering the suggested UDPFI Guidelines and the revised Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law.10 BEGINNING OF A PROCESS The formulation of the UDPFI Guidelines.....U D P £ 1 Guidelines--- CHAPTER NINE FURTHER ACTIONS 9. This process should not stop at. c. NRSA. is just the beginning of a process of translating the spirit of the 74th CAA which envisages local authorities emerging as dynamic and vibrant planning and development agencies at local level. Urban mapping efforts by the MUAE be further strengthened and TCPO needs to be provided with an appropriate infrastructure to serve as a nodal agency in this respect.. it is suggested that a meeting of state Secretaries of Urban Development and Chief Town and Country Planners/Directors of Town Planning may be organised by the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment.. Hyderabad needs to participate in the urban planning process and provide all necessary support for making available satellite imagery of urban centres at appropriate scale to help preparation of base maps..30 BASE MAPS Base maps are the backbone of all planning exercises.. certain actions are necessary and need to be taken. 9... These further actions are identified in the following sections for consideration of the government........ b. To keep this process going and finally resulting into a dynamic urban planning and development system... Survey of India needs to consider production of ungrided maps of urban centres to serve as base maps.. This meeting may be followed by another meeting of the State Ministers of Urban Development and Local Self-Government for consideration of these guidelines and the Model Law and adaptation in their respective states. as presented in this study... The security implications in releasing such maps can be met in this manner... 9.... in this context it is suggested that: a.this stage. - CRDT..................105 . New D e l h i . ITPI..

--'------'---'-----------------------'--UDPFJ·Guidelines - - -

d.

Revenue department may also. be appropriatly •~upported to provide rev·Jriue maps of qrban ·centres. To deliberate further and eviove a workabfe solution to the problem of·· base maps, it .is suggested that an inter-ministerial urban mapping committ~e be constituted. under -the chairmanship_ of the Secretary MUAE· and. heads of all agencies. involved in urban. mapping as members. The Chief Planner,_ TCPO. may be the member-se~retary.

e.

9.40

CENTRAL ASSISTANCE
.

.

·a)

To provide initial· fiscal support in. formulation of urban development plans, locaJ authC?rities need to be given appropriate centraf assistance . by Planning Commission during the 9th and. 10th Five Year Plans. ·The allocation for urban mapping should be increased-to.cover the cosi. of base maps of all urban centres in the next ·1 0 yl3ars period during the ·. . 9th and 1.0th Five Year Plans.
. .

b)

. .

9.50

URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING INFORMATION SYSTEM
1. To provide . relevant . data, a networking of data generating·. agencies is recommended. It is also re.cotnmended that.:. a. TCPO be· designated as nodal agency for Urban and Regional _Information System {URIS). · . Ao .UHIS CQmmittee be constituted by the MUAE with members from · . TCPO, NrC, Census Office and such other. agenCies to ·examine the prospect of networking to provide data .to loc-ql authorities for plan formulation. . · ·

b.

.

.

.

It is also. suggested that a researc!l project on urban development indicators be ·· · .initiqted to harmonise <;Jata collection, minimise the duplication and check the tendency of excessive data collection which is costly and time consuming. This will also help URIS.
. .

2-:

9.60

MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT.
.

.

.

.

a)

To. take further necessary action to meet the manpower needs for urban development planning and implementation, an Urban andRegiohal Planning·· ·Education Committee be ·constituted with members from AICTE,· Ministr1 of · Human Resource Development, TCPO, state Town and Count!)~ Planning Departments, academic in_stitution and ITPI. ·

106

-

CRDT, ITPI, New

Delhi------------------'---'----,--,---~

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - U D P F I Guidelines--b) This committee should : assess the education and training needs in the field of urban and regional planning; suggest education and training policy and programme in the field of urban and regional planning; and suggest other measures to improve the quality of manpower in the field of urban and regional planning. c) Funds may be provided during the 9th and 10th Five Year Plans to open new courses in urban and regional planning in various universities and institutions.

-

CRDT, ITPI, New

Delhi----------~------------

107

APPENDIX-

A

SIMPLIFIED . PLANNING TECHNIQUES

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . , - - - - - - - - UDPFI Guidelines---

APPENDIX-A

SIMPLIFIED PLANNING TECHNIQUES
A.1.00 GUIDELINES FOR THE STUDY ON LOCATION AND REGIONAL SETTING A.1.1 0 LOCATION, SITE AND SITUATION
1. Location, site and situation as factors contributing in localising, growth in size and function of a town are important. Location can be stated quite tersely and precisely in terms of latitude and longitude, or distance and direction from other established points. But this gives only one aspect of the total sphere of a town. In order to know the milieu of towns, other aspects which are equally important, rather more, in the development of a town are site, the ground upon which a town stands, the area of earth it actually occupies and its situation in relation to the surroundings. 2. The urban character, both in respect of size and function, emerges by growth and accretion around a pre-urban nucleus. In each case, however, it is the conditions of site which have special importance in localising the original function at a particular spot, fixing there the nucleus.Any appraisal of the value and importance of a particular site must involve a knowledge of its historical past, that is, when the nucleus was etablished. 3. In the hilly and mountainous regions towns occupy six types of site :
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Ridges Valleys River terraces Confluences Entrance to specific hill region Major transportation routes

4. Another factor in the siting of towns is the tendency for certain kinds of specialised settlements to cluster together. These clusters tend to grow around some localised physical resource; and often manufacturing is a dominant occupation. The growth of clusters of urban settlements is more frequently found around large metropolises and results in what are sometimes called "city region". Often these are made up of small towns and villages which have been drawn into the ambit of a major city and have been enormously expanded as a result of national policy on dispersal of economic activities away from the metropolises as in the case of the National Capital Region, and other metropolitan regions of the country. The small and medium towns in these city regions are related to one another by the functions which they perform.
CRDT, ITPI, New D e l h i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ ; _ - 109

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - - - U D P F J Guidelines---

5. A factor of greater importance than 'site' in the subsequent growth in size of a town and enhancement of its function is its wider setting or situation. A town may achieve great size and prosperity because of the endowment of its situation, although its site may have little to commend it and may even be a persistent handicap. Great towns have arisen in many places in spite of serious drawbacks of site, because the situations demanded the presence of urban functions, and, as it were called towns into being. Calcutta and Madras which have developed to a metropolitan scale are good examples.· 6. Although situation may thus be a compelling influence that overrides the deficiencies of site, more usually it simply provides the stimulus for a degree of urban development somewhere within a more or less confined area in which the situation can be exploited. Local site advantages or even historical accident fix the precise spots but it is the situation which governs their growth. 7. Among the factors that decide the fortune of towns none are more sudden and striking in their effects than political changes that radically alter the territorial frame of reference. This is especially evident in respect of towns that discharge administrative, commercial and cultural functions. No town, however, is independent of the effect of changes in the cultural situation upon which the value of its physical setting depends. Moreover, towns are the fixtures of civilization, which cannot readily be improvised but which are built up by patient effort, thus they are so persistent and capable of continued growth. 8. Keeping the above factors in mind, the Guidelines for the study on location, site and situation are as under :

A.1.11 location
a. Express the location of the city/town in absolute terms of latitude and longitude; also distance and direction from other established points; Establish the nodal significance of the city/town in the national or regional infrastructure of transport and communication, power, and in an agricultural area, irrigation network, agricultural extension services, agricultural produce collection and distribution centre, agro-industries linked to local markets; Establish the status that the city/town occupies in the urban hierarchy involved; Establish the role and status of the city/town in the national delivery systems of social services; Study the relative significance of locations of city/town in proximity to a metropolis : · i)
110 -

b.

c. d.

e.

nodal significance

CRDT, ITPI, New D e l h i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

UDPFI Guidelines--- ii) iii) A. on.. vi) aro. direction). variations .· on daily life. v) in the areas. mining settlements. ·vii) historica! towns (whim . namely. when the nucleus was established. . i) ii) · · iii) physical configuration route patterns . or dry land. .. ·Study the di111ate and its· influence.flat.or canal ·side. · Analyse the factors responsible for determining the . · · ·..site: i) .regions.--------:--------------~-.in.1~2 pre$ence of high productive economic activities presence of large sc~le market Site· . slope. .und large metropolises. the . · ii) in hilly and mountainous regions. resort · towns. A. f. on building the homes. iii) in arid.gentle slope.. ·rainy and winter seasons.· · · Analyse the :climate type. d. manufacturing towris.and chance urban location) E?tC.. the extent of the territory to which the urban functions are related. :iv) in the areas· of territorial rulership. · undulating . also study its. a._ ____. . situation (wider ·setting) for the subsequent growth in size of ·the city/towri and for the enhancement of its fun~o~. .. Study the conditions of site . ·how the city activities have modified · the ·natur~l climate. in alluvial plain·s. steep. moden1te slope. rar:Jge of crops a city-region cari produce. b. · e.13~ :Situation a. study the climat~ with reference to sum.: swamp. Wit~in the.and . . historical past. around.mer. (in which . . wind velocity and wind · directions in "different parts of the city. · .analyse the ·endowment of .nce ·. town . sloping. temperature. Study the limiting and the favourable factors of the site in the spread and · . a river . ridge. Have an appraisal of the value and importa. the. . bank . sonie localised physical resources. · Study the important and interrelated aspects of situation. c. b. low-lying._. . that ·is.of the site. growth of the city/town. pa-rticularly in th~ built-up area. Study .

.~ ... The area influenced by a town is a two-dimensional feature. For that matter.·. the analysis of the hinterlands of metropolitan cities has implications for the general study of urban region.. ... An urban centre. The larger the city.... "Umland". As smaller towns fall within the areas served by larger cities. very large cities extend a particularly intensive influence over the areas around them.: ~ ·-·:... the large city surrounded by a series of hinterlands. ' : ·.. .. ::.20 HINTER LAND 1.. ''Urban Field".-._. or "Catchment Area". As a result.. value of the site and situation... nor does it necessarily form a continuous zone. not a sphere. which reflect the varying levels of specialisation exhibited by its shops. rather than one being a tributary to the other.. :_ .. Studies of individual towns usually rest upon laborious personal field-work... It is also conceivable that the city can be an instrument not merely for effectively utilising the existing potential of its hinterland but also of increasing the hinterland's potential itself.- . 2..._. Finally. ::...uideline. - ..... the more complicated are its relations w1th its surroundings. The area linked socially and economically to an urban settlement has been given various names. Therefore.l ! I J I ' f l / (.. for example. can establish a mutually interacting relationship with its hinterland if it has a variety and extent of natural resources that the hinterland possesses in terms of both agricultural and mining potentials. An analysis of the rural area served by a market town gives some Indication of the · relations between town and the rural area. . Thus.c. . such as "Hinterland".. . 4. ''Tributary Area". considerable attention should be given to the delimitation of the areas joined by social and economic bonds to a particular urban settlement.. so much so that they can be said to organise their hinterlands. goods and services flow both into and out of a town : most modern urban settlements and their hinterlands are economically interdependent.. The precise term used matters little........._ .. industries and institutions. One commonly adopted method is to 112 CRJJT. whiCh IS of practical application in examining the provision of goods and services in an urban centre... Suggest measures to retard or even overcome the weakening of the original.. both rural and urban. ~~-- ... A. :. but it also provides the services of a major town and a village for progressively more restricted areas..... thus forming functional regions.. 3. In examining zones of influence one is immediately brought up against the practical difficulty of obtaining readily available information.. since not only does a large city provide certain characteristic services for its region. 111'1..... ~-:.1. The development of the regional economy helps the growth of small towns which in the process become the main serv1ce centres for the1r hinterlands.. A city's growth may be consistent and stable mainly because its economic base is closely linked with that of its hinterland...' .. The endowment of the hinterland is another factor on which tl1e growth of an urban centre rests. "Sphere of Influence". "Zones of Influence".. tl1e delimitation of urban zones of influence also sheds light on the manner in which a city at a particular level in the urban hierarchy provides specialist services for the surrounding population. New D e l h i . More important are the reasons for delimiting zones of influence at all..

Wholesale and retail trade. cultural... settlement pattern... educational. At a higher level in the urban hierarchy the criteria used reflect the more sp!. 6.. -·-· CRDT.113 ... Owing to this complexity. an intrusive industrial town may well not have the full range of urban services appropriate to its size. it is rare for such a town not to build up some relationships with its immediate· surroundings. Further complications arise in heavily industrialized regions... health services... Human settlements primarily serve as the organisational framework for providing economic and social seryices for the people at different levels. . which are typical of a town at that level of specialisation. The different functional systems that may exist in any area may be listed as below : a) Administrative function like police. New D e l h i . parts and spares of machines. traffic flow... specially in consumer and luxury goods. .. As a result.U D P F I Guidelines--establish on a map the areas served by employment. which has grown as a market centre.. which may be considered are land use ratio of non-agricultural to agricultural population. A study of the settlements should be made in regard to the functions they presently perform and any possible hierarchy that may exist in the performance of such functions... thus making its zone of influence less clearly defined. the circulation of its daily newspapers... although most . . .. entertainment. .. . Other reflective elements. It will be clear that the analysis of urban zones of influence is most appropriate for those cities whose dominant role is that of serving as a central place. journey-towork. . the boundary of its zone of influence cannot be easily marked with mathematical accuracy like political boundary.. Clearly. become very complex.. recreational elements... These missing functions will be supplied from other centres. Natural or transitional zones occur though not with the well-defined boundary of buffer states. postal services.. judiciary and revenue. banking and insurance facilities. settlements of any reasonable size will have this among their various functions... its tributary area will be much more restricted than that of a town of equal size. a number of short-cuts may be devised to gather information about the limits of urban zones of influence like a large city.. . mainly the local delivery areas and postal zones. growth of built-up areas and pattern of communication. 7. education.. where towns have been established for purposes other than providing for the nearby rural population.. In practice. density trends in population growth.. therefore. security services such as police and fire brigades. intensity and speed of movement should be taken into consideration..... gas supply and telephone. shopping. While a service centre which has grown to serve the rural population will dominate a relatively clearly defined areas. .. 8.... health services and so on. 5...!cialised nature of the distinctive functions of larger settlements and employ information like the area served by the city's services and amenities like water supply. Its patterns of influence.. but the circumstances of the town's industrial origins are likely to affect the nature of its zone of influence. .. in particular is the focus of areas of different extent according to the different functions it serves.. This method of analysis is applicable to cities and towns at all levels in the urban hierarchy. ITPI.. electricity..

Distributary services for both goods and services. Transport and communications. It is seen to combine at least three elements : the location of a place within a region (in general. etc...__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ UDPFI Guidelines--- b) Developmental function of the state government through block development offices.. etc.30 ACCESSIBILITY 1... and the locations within the area of the activities : access to employment opportunities.. Urban settler:nents tend to grow on transport routes only at 114 CRDT.. Analyse and establish the nature and degree of interdependency and linkages between the crty/town and its hinterland. Specialised skills and services. access to population..1.... access to educational or health facilities.. Collection and marketing of agricultural products. education.... resort town.. A. ITPI. Industrial productron. The Guidelines for study of hinterland are as under : a) Study and analyse the variety and extent of natural resoures that the hinterland of the city/town possesses in terms of both agricultural and mining potentials.-·· ·----·· _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.. h) 9. Social services like health. growth and functions of urban centres. 2.. recreation. mining town. the form of the transport system.. etc.....- .. Transport routes are mo~Unfluential in governing the location of cities which link regions to external areas... centrally located places are more accessible). Based on established criteria delimit the zone of influence of the city/town : i) ii) delimitation of central place delimitation of manufacturing town. New D e l h i . c) d) e) f) g) .. b) c) d) Determine the hierarchy of the city/town and other urban settlements in the region on the basis of population size and the functions they presently perform. Accessibility is the dominant factor influencing the location.

easy access trorn many areas and by different modes.. good mobility within city/town (construction of a bridge or tunnel results· 1n the development of new areas with commercial.1/5 . Hence settlements whose locations are guided by transport routes are tound not only at the end of these routes. as well as projections and analysis of future requirements in respect of various activities within the town. Establish the role of : i) Long-distance transportation in determining the locations of the city/town: both the long distance as well as local and intra-urban transportation in the growth of size of the city/town: intra-urban transportation in affecting the urban form (shape of urban area and its basic transportation network) and urban structure (distribution of land uses and population densities).. but also along them..... implementation and monitoring stages of the planning process.. where one form of transport is changed for another.2.T .. New / J e l h i .' . the pace of development of towns has speeded up so much that planners have begun to feel the necessity of simplified and quick techniques tor analysis and plan preparation. Today.. 3.. A substantial proportion of these techniques are highly elaborate and demand intensive data inputs.... planning.. These techniques may relate to surveys for collection of data.· ..1 0 INTRODUCTION 1.. This section briefly describes the most useful and.. at the same time..2. ii) iii) IV) v) A......U/Jl'Fl (iuidelines--/ specific places: particularly at junctions and break-of-bulk points.... analysis. assessment of existing conditions in a town.. The guidelines for the study of accessibility are as under : a.. What is important is not the number ot routes wh1ch come together at a particular point... which leads to population increases in the entire urban area). 3..CR/J1'.. 2. Town planners use a variety of techniques at various stages of the planning process.. but the degree to which passengers and goods are interchanged there..... Considerble time is lost in collecting the required data and long delays occur in the plan preparation process... FFPT.00 TECHNIQUES OF ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENTS OF VARIOUS ACTIVITIES A. industrial and residential activities... the most simplified techniques for survey.. ..........

... Precisely..... be considered as substitutes to specialist investigations and are commended to have a quick access to information for rapid decision-making... of a perspective or a development plan of a settlement..._'- I I ' ~~ . It is not a list of questions.. rapid survey techniques make liberal use of proxy indicators to trace rankings. and that the available data are invariably incomplete as compared to what is required for ensuring perfectness in decision-making... observation.. The process begins with the preparation of an initial checklist.. Tl1ese rapid methods must not. The next stage is to define the method of acquiring ·information about each sub-topic in the list.20 IDENTIFYING DATA NEEDS AND SURVEYS 1... each will be used for the analysis.- . proxy observation and dialogue.... If this contains brief notes of the reasons for significant changes and/or enlargements of tl1e checklist topics....... 1. The following sections present various simplified techniques for studies and surveys needed for preparatior.2.. trends and shifts.2.. Tl1is presumption implies that decision-making most often involves an element of guess-work. and a good decision-maker is one who makes intelligent use of imaginative guesses with the help of the data collected 1n good time throug11 t11e application of s1mplified and sustainable survey tec11niques. The basic presumption of simplified information gathering methodologies is that tl1ere is always a certain amount of uncertainty attacl1ed to any set of data. / A. however.. They rely mostly on direct observation. Ideally.... The checklist may be modified as it is used and made accessible to all team members. Due to the difficulties of measuring much of socio-economic information directly. 3.. The methods used are: documentation... seek several views of any one "fact" (cross-checking) and make use of checklists and semi-structured dialogues instead of lengthy and often costly questionnaire-based surveys.. 2. it can help to explain the method of investigation in the report 4.30 CHECKLIST The checklist is a precise and exhaustive listing of topics/issues and sub-topics/issues related to information need.U D P / : 1 Guidelines--- 4. The checklist approach is flexible and allows the surveyor to adapt and improvise in the field.. A. it can be helpful to keep copies of checklists in a logbook as they evolve. the steps involved in the preparation of the checklist are as follows: a) Listmajor information need~ and indicate how.... New D e l h i ... Development of the subsidiary checklists can be reported in team briefing/debriefing sessions. · 2... Methods of rapid information collection institutionalise existing good practices and even common sense. 116 - CRDT. ITPI. A flexible and intelligent use of these methods may sometimes be more helpful in learning about the existing levels of development in an area.

.2.. Identify selected areas for further investigation. house type. diagramming and dialogue. A..41 Visual Surveys 1.. use of bicycles may be advisable and in the inner city areas pedestrian mode may be preferred..UIJI'FI (. or d1o1ogue A.2.42 Key Indicators 1. depending upon the type of the area being surveyed.- b) c) d) List topics and agree about their priority. Give initial impressions of the physical and human state of an area. For instance. Key indicators are generated through the checklist. A KIS.. documentation. b) c) d) A. 2.. it is advisable that survey teams use fast moving vehicles in the peripheral areas ot the city being surveyed... An initial survey.. key indicator surveys... They relate to sub-topics which are identified as important.. And Spark ideas for development of checklists.117 .. And Indicate the likely Hormation sources such as i) ii) iii) iv) document observation proxy. traffic condition or incidences of encroachments. riding a bicycle or Just walking..40 SURVEY TYPES Simplified survey types can be categorised into visual surveys... environmental conditions.. it can: a) Familiarise all the team members with the city or area. density. N~w D e l h i .. such as land use. This type of survey can be used in tile initial stages of the investigation. for intermediate areas.uidelines . However. These are direct inspection _surveys which are performed by survey teams moving in an automobile. also relies on visual information and can be undertaken on foot. ITPI.. Break down each topic into suo-topics. For the purpose of speed and the necessity of covering the ent1re area. - CRJJT.. bicycle. often conducted immediately after the preparation of the initial checklist can pertorm a variety of fuctions.. however.2.. or riding in a fast-moving vehicle. The findings of the initial survey can then be substantiatep with the help of Key Indicator Surveys (KIS) which are specific to the objectives of the analysis.

. Often. A proxy is something that can inform the investigator about a variable but which is easier to investigate than the variable itself.. ... For example.... ITPI....... planners often need information about household income for purposes such as identifying areas for 118 CRDT. bicycle or riding an automobile or a combination of all modes.l ! D P F I Guidelines--- 3. instead of getting direct information on key indicators. surveyors rely on observing approximations to them such as proxies. Decisions will have to be taken about the type of survey whether on foot..TABLE A.... Proxy is thus used where observation of the key indicator itself is very difficult....- . ...1 : POSSIBLE PROXY INDICATORS Topic Possible Proxy Add your own Proxies Economic Growth Housing Construction Dwelling Extensions Electricity Consumption (KWHS) Sale of New BikesNehicles Number of Petrol Pumps Sale of Furnishings Roof Type (Tile Corrugationffhatch) Chain Stores Number of Standpipes Private Water Carriers Electricity Supply (KW) Use of Public Latrines On-Street Garbange Differing New House Construction Private Car Ownership Imported Goods Consumption Hand Portage of Water Ratio of Girls in 12 + Education Frequency of Garbage Removal Street Lights Prosperity Service Levels Wealth Distribution Women's Participation Municipal Efficiency 5.... New D e l h i ... How would various teams undertake the survey? How would the team members take notes? And. .. ... how and about what points would they be debriefed? All these issues regarding the methodology of the survey would need to be settled before proceeding to the field......... A certain amount of preparation is required before these two types of surveys are carried out in the field.. 4...........

. know about the past and present conditions.. and the best are-those which can be observed. Many respondents.liat are prone to major errors.g. Generating proxies also requires knowledge about the relationship between the proxy and the variable it is trying to assess. Examples:.. land ownership. For this kind of a variable. '•" ·~ ··-·.. 2... : . People tend to hide information about their income..43 Diagramming 1.. Hence.. But this relationship is often area-specific. ... but they reflect the way the investigator (rather than the respondent) perceives the environment. 7. . and the method of developing them have been described below: a.. Table A..). . density.. .1 lists proxy indicators. ITPI.. These maps can be supplemented with photographs to highlight specific attributes.g.. etc. . . people of the area should be associated with the process of proxy generation. Even the data contained in a household income survey is generated from samples and often with questionnaire methods . . They can be used as a substitute for dialogue to elicit information from respondents.. New Delhi 119 b. Some diagrams (e.. however. .fuels used CRDT. sketches and maps) can be prepared without the assistance of informants. do not have the time to spend on diagramming. ..: . In such instances. Maps can be drawn from a high vantage point or walking around the area..: ' '.. Diagrams can structure and present information in a readily understandable visual form. 6. social composition. even rough information woulg suffice but'the documentary statistics tend to be very aggregative or outdated... Generating proxies required imagination..... '. or both. ------. .... proxies can often be misleading and must be used with care.' ' . However. This participatory diagramming is a process which asks respondents to share information visually. With the help of people who . infrastructure.UDPFI Guidelines--- targeting basic services or designing a cost recovery scheme or assessing the results of an income generating scheme. . . . their usefulness. There are many types of diagrams and their potential number and variety are limitless. only a few illustrative diagrams. hence this method can be practised only in situations where respondents are willing participants in the investigative activity. Mapping is one of the most powerful techniques of representing the physical and socio-economic attributes of an area (e. and more reliable than asking them what it is. changes and trends which matter to the people can be discussed and diagrammed. Good proxies are those Which can be easily investigated.2.. . A.. . Observing what people do with their income may be easier (asset-based indicators). r:0 I . land use. . . ..J-·· ' . it may thus be advisable to use a proxy approach to assessment. However.

. Semi-structured dialogue is a flexible two-way process where only some initial topics are investigated. attitude and body postures... or preferences can b.number of bicycles/shoes/clothing scooters/cars c..roofing material .__~- . plot location. particularly the aspects listed below.credit sources. what will ·be bought next if additional income accrues to the household). A.~.. . Priority ranking can be most useful in revealing people's preferences (e..~·..... These topics can be revised as the practitioner gains insight in the area as information flows in from respondents..-. Semi-structured dialogue is thus an informal process but it needs to be managed expertly. the resulting possessions can be used as proxy indicator for wealth or income. Non-verbal communication is important to any dialogue..number of radios .....) or in establishing possessional priorities (i. but also through change in tone.'L'•":.type of cooking pot/chair . what will be bought next if additional income accrues to the household): the resulting possessional priorities (i. Certain strict behavioural guidelines should be observed to minimize the impact of the investigator's behaviour on the answers given by the respondents.~·::..g. . New ---- .2~44 Dialogue 1..e. house construction.e brought out through participatory diagramming procedures..... etc.number of latrines .. These are:a) b) c) d) e) f) 120 - Maintain a comfortable social distance Do not sit at a level above that of the observer Do not distaste/disapproval about surrounding conditions Do not indic'ate contempt or disbelief in the answers given Do not refuse local hospitality Do not look and act too official Delhi----------------~ CRDT. ITPI. Due attention should be given to messages coming from not only what is said.·. in service type.. · a) b) c} d) e) f) g) h) Behavioural factors Questioning Probing answers Judging responses Cross-checking Managing the conversation Recording the interview and Avoiding errors and biases 2..e... interest rates .. ..UIJPFI Guidelines--- . modulation of the voice. Priorities.0'-:.

.. loaded and ambiguous questions should not be asked....50 ANAL VTICAL TECHNIQUES 1.. while recording. Concreteness Bias -tendency to generalise from the particulars without probig or cross-checking sufficiently.. correlates.............. Contradictions and argCJments should be avoided..tendency to focus selectively on information and ideas which conform to the preconceived hypotheses. Analysis breaks down complex phenomena into simple elements..121 .the reliability of the answers being given. illuminates. And Consistency Bias -tendency to search prematurely for coherence in the information collected. While listening to the answers.U D P F I Guidelines--- 3. Similarly.. assumptions and beliefs of the inteNiewer. The investigator should be alert about ... in order to be able to draw meaningful conclusions as quickl'y as possible...the tendency to give more weight to the answers of the educated. There are four common biases in conducting inteNiews. it is always wise to keep the conversation on track.... the settlements and their physical and soci-economic attributes. b) c) d) A.' .. It organises. technological directions.. particularly if only a limited / number of inteNiews are conducted and the inteNiewer is not familiar with the area.. Probing is an impression to the informant that he/she is being cross-examined.' .2.. Try and classify the information given into the following categories: \.. Various analytical tools are available today which perform one or several of these tasks and which town planners use to study the state of the society.. classifies. The biases are: a) Elite Bias .. care should be taken that a proper noting is made to distinguish between what was actually said by the informant and what was felt and interpreted by the investigator.. environmental condition and the CRDT.. The dialogue should be recorded immediately after it and. Hypothesis Confirmation Bias ... 5... With a view to managing the dialogue.. The information obtained through one inteNiew should always be cross-checked with other information and discrepancies should be explained.... the investigator should always adopt a posture which would convey the feeling to the respondent that he/she is being listened to intently... displays and resolves.' a) b) c) d) Fact Option Hearsay and Rumour 4. New D e l h i . ITPJ..

This is a relatively open-ended process whereby insights are gained over several sessions of discussions. policy guidelines or design directions related to problems/issues under investigation._ .. 122 - CRDT.1 ). and arriving at conclusions. observing trends.. taking notes of diverse information in a sketch form and developing the sketch further for analytical purposes by using connectors between informations that appear to be logically inter-connected (see Fig. correlating and inferring. Most important requirement of a report is that it must be formated properly. Judicious use of tables. the planners carve out short-term and long-term scenarios of the future and then design schedules of inter-connected interventions to steer development towards a desired future state. New D e l h i ... e.- . 5. with a view to arriving at insights.. 3.. the effectiveness of the report lies in how it is displayed. 4. identifying patterns... conclusions. graphs and maps is other essential aspect... or presentation of cross-sectional characteristics of an area like density. more elaborate statistical methodologies may be adopted.. The first golden principle in this regard is that of brevity -try to keep the report as short as possible but still illuminative. evaluating alternatives and deriving conclusions and recommendations. 2.. scope and limitation of the study. A.... classifying.. and clearly describe the methodology used in _collecting information and conducting analyses for arriving at alternatives.. This section describes some of the most simplified and rapid analytical "modes of which the most commonly used is that of Simplified Reporting.. Based on the understanding of the existing condition and the trends •)f change.... It should introduce the contents at the very beginning.... " of reporting........ connect and highlight the important results. This can often ease the most complex process of sifting and sorting the information in order to classify. Maps and diagrams are very effective in describing organisational ·structuring of institutions... and socio-economic variations over space and time.. A report can summarise or else be a detailed description of the studied phenomenon. state the objectives. repeated formulation and reformulation of ideas. Rating the information by grouping it and giving different weights and noting it in an ordered sequence is also part of the analytical process. These could be in the form of simple logical reasoning... ITPI.. 2. air pollution.. land use pattern.. In specific situations where time and resources permit....U D P F I Guidelines--- changes that occur over a period of time. Finally..51 Simplified Reporting 1. _ .2. organisation and pressntation do help perform the tasks of analysis which relate to putting the information in an ordered format. cross-checking...g. A. A report may rely on simple deductive techniqes for arriving at conclusions. Its structuring.

. Hence. services or facilities. maps or diagrams. A. graphs. and arithmatic progression is involved. the figures can be plotted on a plain paper (conventionally with y = population and x = time) and the resulting straight line extrapolated to give the projected estimate.. these methods should be used for projecting up to 10 years in stable situations and 5 years where population change is more volatile. Employment Method: This method assumed that there is a very strong inter-relationship between population and employment and indicators such as workers' population can be correlated with total population to yield extrapolated information. This is a simple technique to study changes in a system over a period of time. for anticipating future which is a necessary step in the planning process. however.. Where past data suggests that the population has been changing by constant absolute amounts.U D P F I (iuideiines--- A.. only those techniques will be dealt with which aim at 'simple projections' and operate on limited data. population changes approximate to a geometric progression. particularly when demographic changes show stable trends. Mathematical and Direct Methods: These are simple or direct methods since they operate with past population records.. be it for land use. the change in unit time is a constant proportion of the preceding figure..... as the name implies..52 Trend Analysis 1. Planners are invariably most concerned with population projections which form the basic framework for setting targets expected to be achieved within a specified time-frame. i. . a 'best fit' straight line equation can be derived by the method of least square and extended to provide the projection.. in this case semi-logarithmic paper should be used to yield a straight line for extrapolation.. Here. More usually..... Availability of time series data at least for three points of time is a basic requirement for its application. If the past data do not seem to follow a definite progression.. The analysis can be displayed in the form of tables.2...e. · This technique is popularly used in study and analysis of change in urban economy. A.. Few of the population projection methods are briefly explained below: a. b... These techniques are used.... demographic pattern and physical form and pattern.60 PROJECTION TECHNIQUES 1..61 Population Projection 1. Graphical methods are most useful for short-term projections.2.2..

a The following sections briefly describe some of the methods of economic projections. value added by manufacture etc . it is assumed that these relationships change rout slowly over time.. the population of the second largest area (e...62 Economic Projections 1. are discussed here. used in physical planning context. which itself is a function of that of the nation.. This method has the great benefit <?f simplicity and the use of readily available data. graphical or other method and extrapolated to estimate the projected value of the present arE·a for the target year. As with other projection techniques described above. volume or value of production.. the region) is plotted against the population of tne largest area (say... these are weake:: for longer periods and smaller areas. and the broad relationships between these activities and the scale and timing of migration (entrepreneurs and workers and dependent population) into and out of the area. planners are concerned with the likely demands of land development for various types of economic activities (broadly within various sectors of activities). schools and other social facilities.. A curve is tt"1en fitted to the points thus obtained by least square.. Simple techniques of economic projection. These are most useful for quick and cheap forecasting tor the middle range (say 10-15 years) for areas not less than a whole metropolitan area or a city region.. the population of a city is held to be a function ofthat of the region.....U D P F I (.. there are certain forces at work in nations. .. .. the nation). Simple Extrapo/ption: Measures of economic activity ... In the ratio method. ITP/... However.2...... These projections are ultimately relevant for calculating demand for housing... and so on. Further.. hospitals.uidelines--- The reliability of this method is certainly no greater than those already discussed and the method should not be used for long range forecast:ng.. Fundamentally.. regions.e . this does not directly exam~...... .. The requirements of such projections are time series of informations for the areas to be used in the analysis and a forecast or a set of forecasts for the largest area.g.CRJJT... c.. the possible location of these activities within city or city region... may 124 . New D e l h i . Thus. A.....- .. Ratio Methods: This family of methods rests on the assumption that changes in any geographical area are a tunct1on of those experienced in Wider areas...employment.e the components of change which are subsumed in the centml assurnptio i... a.. and suo-regio% wl11ch make for pattern and order in the proportionate share wh1ch the latter have in the former.

... therefore. In the simplest and crudest case.125 . The projection is accomplished by obtaining from some reliable source an estimate of future production or output and a projection of productivity.. the land requirements for different kinds of manufacturing. curve-fitting and so on. The methods have the advantage of simplicity.. Projection by Sectors of Economy: It is more valuable to have estimates of the tutu re levels of output or employment in the various sectors of the economy .. the more unreliable the pro. Output Output 1 --------- = workers Worker or. by a means of hrs choosing.. the smaller the area considered and the longer the projection period... It postulate·$ that growth in an area's economy comes from the expansion - CRDT. This is simply measured as 'output per worker'. ITPI.iections may be.graphical.. the forecaster simply extrapolates. The methods used will be broadly similar to those defined earlier in the sections on simple population projection . Again.. the past trend in each sector of the economy. output divided by productivity yields an estimate of workers.for example. This simpre form is suitable for planners to whom employment is the most useful measure.. New D e l h i .. c. this method has advantages over the simple manipulation of employment data since it enables us to examine separately and. mathematical....... But since these methods do not attempt to look behind the data to reveal the possible causes_ or influences upon it. in other words. Productivity Metlwd: The variables of ·production' or ·output' on the one hand and employment' on the other are linked by the variable 'productivity'. the floor space needed for wholesaling and retailing and office type employment. d. more clearly the future trends in output or production and these tn the productivity of labour.~--- be ordered in time--series from published or other sources and extrapolated in a variety of ways. can rely on readily available data (especially on employment) and do not require ariy high level of skill. b.... these are likely to be unreliable as anything more than a very general guide. Economic Base 4fetlwd: Perhaps no method of economic analysis and projection h'as seen such widespread use in planning offices. ~ence. Clearly.--~------------------------- UDPFI Guideline. to estimate the possible amount of secondary activity.

.. 3.UJJI'FI· (.. If the number of houses so arrived at is 126 CRDT.... whereas demand would be additionally affected by affordability and future housing needs.. town planners' major pre-occupation is to determine the levels of demand for housing and other facilities in a town.. That is.. While dealing with housing. that the basic/non-basic ratio is a suspect measure even at a point in time. projection of basic activities. The shortcomings of the economic base method are. -...2.·.. -:: · ·'• -· .. a sector at a time.: . demand is an economic concept whnrein standard and amount of housing demand is related to household's income and ability to pay..:. ~ _ .. . The method involves. local levels ot economic act1vity (either in total or sector by sector) bear proportional relationships to levels of economic activity in successively larger geographical areas. Whereas. need refers to inadequacy of existing provisions when compared with socially acceptable norms..... by way of an extrapolation of the past trend in the basicinon-basic ratio.:.... Both housing need and demand are affected by factors such as housing shortage and rate of obsolescence.70 ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENTS OF HOUSING 1. firstly. second. dwellings from the existing housing stock.. ~-. it is first necessary to clearly distinguish between housing need and demand.~ ... 2. Ratio Method: Generally 'sl(eaking. The remaining activities are referred to as the 'service' or 'non-basic' activities. The first step in estimating housing need is to subtract the number of unsuitable .uidelines--- of the economic base which is defined as all those ... The chief practical problem associated with this method is the definition of the 'local area' and the identification of the basic sector of the economy itself. ~. . \. basic' activities which produce for export beyond the boundaries of the local area and wh!ch increase its wealth and 1ts ability to pay for imports. estimates for the local area may be derived. the nation).i. given a set of forecasts for the largest geographical unit (e. The ratio method also implies that these relationships may be studied as they change over time and extrapolated so that. these methods make use of a similar rationale to those described earlier in population studies. New Delhi-----------------~------ . that the reliance on employment as a measure ignores the possible effects of change in productivity. Based on projections of population and economic activities. and has been shown to be highly unstable over time.. first.g . .• ·. A. the forecasts of basic employment are expanded to total employment estimate.. by the use of ratios of local to national trends: then. 17J>f. e... ...

. and cost of maintenance. Similarly.. namely. A. Finally. large cities may produce much larger amounts of solid waste per capita and may also need to transport the wastes to longer distances for disposal. As with all other projections.2. of course. 4. repair and management.. there is always the danger that estimates of housing need and demand can be quite off the mark. public uses. the level of facilities may be graded according to city size. drainage and sewerage facilities are the basic needs of human life. 3. For example.... vary according to climatic.:. Yet the degree of accuracy required in forecasting housing needs is not very high. " 1.. An indication of the order of the magnitude will suffice 1n most of the cases. is more. initial capital cost of the housing units. It is necessary to evolve suitable norms based on which the dificiencies can be rationally analysed and steps taken to rectify the associated problems.. The annual economic rent can be further analysed based on the information on amortisation rates. economic and other conditions. The first step in rationalising the procedure of assessment of infrastructure requirement would be to appraise the existing norms with a view to setting them up realisticaJiy in conformity with community's affordability levels.__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ UJJJ'FI Guideline.. This can be done be simultaneously looking at three factors. A simple way of doing this is to estimate the future population of the city and divide it by the expected household size at the date.. etc... Adequate water.. However. planners have to carefully analyse the affordability criterion.. particularly if the base data are unrealistic or inadequate or if the projections are made too far al1ead in time. - CR1)1~ ITP/. standard of urban growth the deficiencies in infrastructure will become more apparent. ostensibly with prospective increases in the standard of living and affordability levels of the people. for identifying demand component of housing need.. Towns of smaller sizes do not need the same level of facilities that a big city will need. There is also a need to look at the differentials in standards of provision of infrastructure in different communities and try to reduce its inequitable spatial distribution within town or city.80 ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENT FOR PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE .. interest rates.127 . In India. 5.. total annual household income' and annual economic rent.\·--- compared with the existing number of housing units... 6. Future housing need can be estimated from the projected number of additional households there will be in the city at a given date in the future. the housing need can be established. power. These norms should also be perspectively graded to allow for incremental upgradation with time._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __. in big cities the use of water for industries. 2... Their standards. New D e l h i ..

U/JPFI Guidelines--- 4. A. ITP/.:. quantity and quality of service. the market analysis helps to meQ.90 MARKET RESEARCH TECHNIQUES 1.. e.:~.~-~~-. existing gaps and future requirements based on assumption of rising levels of standards of provisions on and services. If the site 1s tound suitable. g. Essentially. then the analysis helps in determining whether the site is ~uitable. f..: ~~::·. Market research technique is thus a useful tool which planners use for establishing economically justifiable development targets for various facilities.:~~:· ~~.. This kind of policy would invariably result in a different kind of tariff structure for pricing of services.. financial sustamability: demand levels related to a pricing mechanism that eliminates all kinds .:. both present population and future additions in population. Today. c. A differential pricing structure and a hike in charges for use of services on the cost of provision basis would also affect the level of demand and will have to be incorporated in the assessment methodology for physical infrastructure. .-~~.:.2. it is possible that varying standards in provision of infrastructure and the levels of services are adopted in different areas based on the ability of the area to financially sustain particular levels of provision of infrastructure and service. analysis helps in deciding that how much of it should be acquired and developed.sure the local housing supply in kind and quantity. If so. If the issue is housing facilities. 128 - CRDT. d. b. then the . market research techniques help the planner in analysing how much should be built and produced in respect of various facilities which can be economically justified. 5. It also reveals the demand for riew units and the pace at which supply may satisfy demand. The market an?lysis techniques for housing and market'centres are described below. Similarly. ~ --~-·---. the assessment of requirements for infrastructure would vary from area to area within a town or city.. of subsidies and thus truly reflects the cost of provision. --------~-----------------.. if the market research is required to analyse the feasibility of a shopping centre project.. The assessment of infrastructure has to take into account: a. in the context of economic liberalisation policies and encourging of services.. 6. minimum affordable standards: and incremental improvement in the quality of services.: :. New Delhi-----------·----~------- .

The data useful for market research for housing in the market research include urbanisation pattern. These studies when compared with the location of places of employment and correlated with transportation facilities. With definite information about the local market for houses and apartment units.\'--- A.. and availability of housing finance. the first decision to be made is whether the project is feasible.. The steps and stages which a shopping centre project must go through before the ingredients are ready for the construction and pre-opening stages start with the market analysis. The market analysis for a new shopping centre becomes a problem like the chicken or egg :' which came first? Two types of market analyses must be made.91 Housing 1.. the centre on the less desirable site would most likely suffer from over-competition. occupation and income levels of the people presently living and likely to be resident in the area. highway routes (both existing and proposed). age composition of the population.-----------. Even before a site is selected. 3. 2. Tile study should clearly come out with whether new facilities will answer a need growing out of mcreased population and purchasing power. the number of children they have. New D e l h i . the developer is in a position to establish the kind. Such site location study should show relation to regional physical features. It can also be used in negotiations with tile tenants and financial insti tuti ons. size... their preferences.. Also to be ·included in the analysis is the information about the direction or segment of tile area in which building activity is taking place. and woulp reveal relationship to competing sites and to the entire urban area. a careful analysis of the supporting evidence must be made.2.uideline.. a developer has to lay hands on certain facts: the prospective home buyers or the tenants.. affordability of households for housing. The market analysis or shopping centre is used to discover economic facts about the sales volume. Before starting a project. /TP/... To justify the project. population growth of the entire study area.. 2. housing inventory.. or would merely compete with ex1sting retaii outlets. The first CR/JT. scope and timing of a project. topography and zoning will help to evaluate quickly the locational characteristics of any contemplated site.. The analysis preliminaries tell the investor-developer whether there is a demand for additional shopping facilities. family size. If the site is already owned by the developer then the site must first be analysed for its suitability as a shopping centre. The site should not be developed for shopping centre it it is not found to be tl1e best site for the purpose because otherw1se the best site would be developed too.. A. use. Ultimately.. leading to over-development.---------------UIJI'FJ(. land....129 .2. potential of the location and to uncover how the project may fit the prospective market. facilities and proposals.... 4..92 Shopping Centres 1... their levels of income..

. An analysis of the spendable income against the total volume of business done in existing retail areas will help determine the level of the purchasing power that would become available to the new shopping centre. Speed and Delay Studies. The age-groups and other socio-economic characteristics of the population living or likely to• reside in the trade area have a strong bearing upon deciding on the type of shopping centre. i} A. The scope and degree of the required investigation is indicated by the following factors: population. 2. such as shoppers' buying habits and preferences..00 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION SURVEYS The following traffic and transportation surveys and studies are generally carried out for preparation of a transport plan: 1.... 3...2.. then a market analysis must be made to determino the number and types of customers who will be brought to the centre. .... . purchasing power.. 6. The type of retail outlets needed or wanted will stem from study of the supporting population's income and composition.. recognising the importance and the extent of the drawing power that will be built into the centre. The expected trade area of the proposed competitive centres. .. . New D e l h i . 8.. . After the key bnants are firmed up or committed.. Terminal Studies. Classified Traffic Volume Counts at cordon and screen lines.. 10. and study of the access roads with the limits are set by factors of distance and travel time. ' 5....... The character of the prospective trade will indicate the quality level at which to aim the tone of the development.. income. competitive facilites.U D P F I Guidelines--- one would be made to interest the key tenants to get anchored to the prospective centre._ _ _ . . 130 - CRDT.. Public Transport System Study. Origin and Destination Surveys at cordon points.. Household Survey. and Activity Place Survey. ITPI. . 4. 7. . 2.... . . Inventory of Road Network System... This estimation will point to the size of the operation to plan for.3..93 Methodology of Market Analysis for Shopping Centre 1. and access to the site.. The proportion of this spending to be drawn to the centre will depend upon the customer pull to be created. Para Transit Study. 9... Traffic Accident Study... 11.. 3.. .. There are other related considerations. _ _ _ _ __ . A. Parking Surveys..

3.10 OBJECTIVES OF SURVEYS The objectives of each of the above s'urveys are briefly described in the following sections: 1. d. c. to appreciate the physical characteristics of the identified roac network in terms of right-of-way. to obtain the travel time matrix for all the 0-D pairs. Origin and Destination Survey a. number o~ access points.uidelines--- A. 2. abutting land use. New Delhi 131 . to appreciate traffic characteristics in terms of size composition and variation .3. b. to elicit the journey and running speed along the road network. to quantify delays and identify factors causing delays. c. b. surface type. b._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____:. and to appreciate traffic management measures presently adopted along the identified road network.directional and temporal. to assess the capacity potential of the identified road network._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ UIJPFI (. 4. etc. Road Network Inventory a. d. carriage-way. to appreciate the spatial distribution of traffic. c. to appreciate the traffic characteristics. ITPI. and to establish the level of service on the road network system. to appreciate the traffic. to identify the bottleneck points. Speed and Delay Survey a. Classified Traffic Volume Survey a. to identify physical constraints and bottleneck points along the Identified road network. desired patterns of passenger and goods - CRDT. b.

... purpose of trips...... and to use in model validation.. etc.. to appreciate the user characteristics (in case of passenger terminal) regarding their origin. etc.... to elicit socio-economic. Public Transport System Study a... to assess the parking characteristics in terms of parking duration and accumulation by mode.. c. space usage.. Terminal Studies "'·. Parking Survey a. b. mode used.. trip length... ('(PI...... I I. etq.. 6..). New D e l h i . 132 - CRDT. d. destination.. to assess future levels of demand.- ... mode used.nd the probable areas of improvement.. b. trip length.. and to develop a parking policy. 8. b. to appreciate system and operational characteristics. to appreciate physical CQaracteristics of the terminal regarding size. 7. characteristics of the household.. c. c. to assess the intensity of through and destined traffic.. a........ and to appreciate the performance and economic characteristics... to elicit travel characteristics of the household (total trips. to appreciate desire pattern of traffic.. 5... and to elicit opinion (of the residents of study area) regarding general transport problems of the city 3. b...U I J P F I Guidelines--- c. to appreciate the operational characteristics in terms of flow of vehicles/goods/people to and from the terminal.... Household Travel Survey a. d.. trip origin and destination.

to identify the accident prone areas.. Activity Place Survey a... e.. b. constraints and potentials for expansion of the terminal activity. d.... of traffic safety... c. to appreciate the employment levels by type of activity. c. to appreciate the activity pattern in terms of type and intensity.. 11... to develop relationship between floor space and employment. to appreciate the system characteristics of paratransit... to appreciate the trip and other characteristics of employees. b.. and to identify planning and management measures for improvement....... 10. to appreciate the role and function of paratransit.... ITPI. - CRDT..UDPFI Guidelines--- d. e.133 .... 9.. to appreciate the parking characteristics in the terminal. Traff!c Accident Study a.. to appreciate the temporal and spatial variation of accidents...... New D e l h i ... to appreciate the trends of accidents in the study area... b... and to appreciate characteristics paratansit users... d. and to develop trip production and attraction rates by type and intensity of activities.. c....' ... and to appreciate the problems.... Para transit Study a.

..3. 2. Household Characteristics i.000 A.... 11. and Distribution of trips by mode by trip length 134 - CRIJT.00.. and Household expenditure on travel by mode groups by area.000 . 4. 3.10.000 50.. 10.000 . Sectorwise distribution of trips by purpose.5. Distribution of trips by prupose by trip length. Distribution ot trips by trip length.1 . Educational level by area..00. 9.21 Sample Size The Sample size o..00.22 The Outputs Proposed to be Derived are : a. Household expenditure pattern by income groups by area. Distribution of households by size.00. Distribution of trips by purpose.20 HOUSEHOLD TRAVEL SURVEY A.000 3. 7. 7. Distribution of households (HH) by income group by HH size. b. 9. Distribution of trips by purpose by mode.000 5.000 > 10.- . Distribution of population by age and sex by area. 10. Distribution of trips by income group and trip length. 8. Distribution _of trips by purpose by income group. 4. 8.00.. 3. Trip Characteristics 1..3. 5.. Occupation pattern by area...ution of population by age group. Trip generation zonewise.3..---~----------------------UDPFI Guidelines--- A. Distribution of trips by mode. 6.000 < Sampling Rate 1 in 5 1 in 8 1 in 10 1 in 15 1 in 20 1 in 25 .50.an be based on· following criteria: Population 50. 6.. 2. ITPI..000 1 .50..00. Household distribution by area. Household size by income group.000 .f households c.3. New D e l h i . Distribution of trips by income groups. 5.. Distribution of households by income groups. Distrib.. 11.

3. User rating of service by mode. of education trips by area. 2.. of work trips by area.. After having obtained an estimate of the trips generated from and attracted to the various zones.. Some of the factors influencing trip generation are : 1... by and amongst traffic zones.3...... Distribution Distribution Distribution Distributk . ITPI... This land use. New D e l h i .... A. The next phase is the analysis of the data so collected and building models to describe the mathematical relationships that can be discerned in the trip making behaviour (trip generation). 3. Lastly... the person trips are separated by the mode of travel (modal split).... 4. they are projected to the horizon year to provide estimates of the total amount and kind of travel demand.135 ...UDPFI (. of trips by slow vehicles... 4.. 5.. it is necessary to determine the direction of travel (trip distribution). Movement Pattern 1.31 Trip Generation The trip generation stage of the transportation planning process is concerned with the prediction of future levels of person or vehicular travel.. Further... 2. The rate of trip making within an area depends primarily on land use of the area. tic User Perception 1. A brief description of each of these stages is presented in following section. Other factors type and intensity of use size. 3. Once the significant land use... User perception of service by mode... vehicle ownership income degree of urbanisation.. quality of transport facility. data collection and inventory. population and transport characteristics influencing travel demand have been identified. by trips by walk by area.30 TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING PROCESS The first phase of the transportation planning process deals with surveys.uidelines--- c. in conjunction with socio-economic characteristics of population has been found to be closely related to the demand that area places on transportation system. Users suggestions for improvement of service by mode.. Land use factors 2...... Household factors 3..~ Distribution pattern pattern pattern pattern pattern of all trips by area...... the trip interchanges are allocated to different parts of the network forming the transportation system (traffic assignment)... level of accessibility and socio-economic characteristics of population - CRDT..

'" .·-."' . The regression coefficients are estimated using least square technique... The households are categorised based on number of persons... Category analysis A brief description of each type of models is presented below : (a) Regression Models Zonal regression and household analysis are the two approaches in trip generation analysis.64 X1 . .... c....003 X2 + 0...0.-. ITPI. Thus by knowing the generation rate for each category of household and the number of such households for some future date.. 136 - CRDT. ·•• '... In a typical regression analysis the given data relates to the present day values of dependent variable and independent variables (X1 to Xn) for all the zones {households) of the study area..·1~·.007X3 + 0.95 X4 where X1 =family size X2 = residential density X3 = total family income X4 = cars/household (b) Trip Rate Analysis This method refers to determination of average trip production/attraction rates associated with important trip generators within study area. estimates of future trip generations are derived. (c) Category Analysis This method is based on the assumption that trip generation rates for different categories of household will remain constant in the future.U D P F I Guidelines--- · The main trip generation models are : a. Regression models b...21 X2 where X1 = population in zone X2 = number of vehicle in zone ii) Household Regression Total trips/household= 12 + 0. -···"--'--._cc ...... · Trip rate analysis c...·~~~. New Delhi-------------~-------- ..3 + 0. Some of the examples of models developed are : · i) Zonal Regression House-based work trips = 4353...10 X1 + 2.

" number of. 137 . vehicles . CRDT. IT-PI.. etc. iii) iv) ~rder of their development are: Uniform factor · . primarily of two types : a) Growth Factor Metho. Average factor · Fratar ... ·incQ.__ _ _ _ _ _. from zone ito zone J.....:. E = growth factor · The tour growth factor methods in chronological i) ·· ii} · .. . A. T and E = t where Tij =future number of trips from zone ito zone j · tij = present number of trips for zone i to zone j T = total future number of trips in area under studyt =total present number of trips in area und.2 Trip Distri...ds ._-__:. Detroit i) Uitiform Factor : A single growth factor is calculated for the entire area ·u"n.bution.:___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ..i" E where Tij = tutu re number of trips from zone i to zone ·j . E..mber of travel destinations located within the other zones of the area..---.der study and this is used to multiply· all existing inter-zonal movements to produce estimates of future· infer-zonal movements. New Delhi-----_:..er"study . Methods· · a) Growth Factor Methods This group of methods can be represented in general terms by -formula Tij = ti. Trip distribution refers to the given number of travel origins from every zone of area under stud_y to the mi.owned. Tij= tij.3.. · ·tij"= existing number of trips.-~---. number of employed persons._ _ _ _~-:--.. b) Synthetic·.3.··.---- UIJPFI Guidelines-·-- .me. Trip distribution methods are.. Mathematically.----'-----..

.....UDPFI Guidelines--- Due to its own demerits.... tij (Ei + Ej) Tij = ----------------2 Ti Tj Ej ti Ei where = = ---tj Tij =future number of trips from zone i to zone j tij = present number of trips from zone i to zone j Ei & Ej = growth factors for zones i & j Ti.......~- - ~ ~ .. ....-.. Ej 138 - CRDT.... New D e l h i ... Ei .- 'it ..... ..... Tj = future movements originating in i or destined for j ti. lj = locational factors & Pi li = L tij......... lj = present movements originating in i or destined for J It is an iterative process and if number of iterations required is large the results may be seriously affected.' - . ITPJ. The mathematical expression for the future year trip interchanges is : (li + lj)/2 Tij where = tij ..... the method is now only used to update the recent 0-D tables in area where intensity and pattern efland use are relatively stable. iii) Fratar Method: This method considers the effects of zonal locations in the study area. Ej li.. .... .. ii) Average Factor : It utilises a growth factor for each zone within study area" Mathematically.

.. New D e l h i . Ej Tij = E b) Synthetic Methods: Gravity Model These methods were based on the assumption that : i..VDPFI Guidelines--- This method is not sensitive to changes in properties of transport network or changes in behaviour of trip makers. The most important synthetic method is the gravity model. Fij .. Aj ... Kij = number of trips from zone i to zone j = total number of trips produced in zone i = total number of trips attracted to zone j = empirically derived travel time factors =specific zone to zone adjustment factors to account for social and economic factors - CRDT..... tij . Mathematically. Kij Tij == ------------------------------- n L j=1 where Tij Pi Aj Fij Kij Aj ..... ii.139 i L ..... It is based on the assumption that trip interchanges between zones is directly proportional to the relative attraction of each zone and inversely proportional to some function of spatial separation between them. Fij ....... the causal relationship of trip making pattern can be understood if they are considered to be similar to certain laws of physical behaviour. Ei ............. Mathematically it can be expressed as : Pi ... iv) Detroit Method : It is an attempt to overcome the shortcomings of simple growth factors and at the same time to reduce the number of interactions required for Fratar Method.... ITPI.... It is normally used for estimating intraurban trip interchanges for small cities or cities in which significant changes in urban structure are not expected... the underlying causes of movement must first be understood.. before future travel patterns can be predicted.

.... _ _ ___:___ _ _ _ _ _ _ UDPFI Guidelines--- The travel time factors are the measure~ of trip making ·probability at each chosen increment of time and are derived empiric_ally. model whic~ allocate portions of given trip movements resulting from trip distribution to the competing modes of transport. through a trial and error process. . New D e l h i .... ii. _ _ _ _ _ __ ..40 TRAFFIC ASSIGNMENT Traffic assignment is the process of allocating a given set of trip interchanges to a specific transportation system.. . . ... These are often referred as trip interchange modal split models... 140 - To assess the deficiencies in the existing transportation system by CRDT.3. . ITPI.33 -Modal Split Modal split is defined as the· proportionate division of the total number of person trips between different methods or ll)Odes of traveJ.." ... ·It can be expressed numerically as a fraction' ratio or percentage of the total number of trips. A. ..:.·---.. ~ Modal split models can be classified into two broad categories : i.... Characteristics of transportation system i) ii) iii) iv) relative travel time relative travel cost relative of service accessibility indices A.. The purposes of traffic assignment are broadly : a. These are known as trip end modal split models. The factors influencing modal choice are : a. Characteristics of trip i) ii) b. trip length trip purpose Characteristics of the traveller income ii) vehicle ownership iii) density of residential development iv) other socio-economic factors i) c...3.-------~:------. models whi~h are applied prior to the trip distribution stage of the process and allocate a portion of total travel demand to different modes available. .. ..

Of the three methods.. The basic procedure of this method involves : a. and the degree of sophistication required in the output..3. They are : i) ii) iii) A. Determination of minimum path time from each zone with originating traffic to all other zones. ITPI. ~f .41 General Procedure all or nothing assignment diversion curve assignment capacity restraint assignment The procedure is based on the selection of a minimum time path over an actual route between zones. The assignment of all traffic flows from each zone to every other zone by appropriate minimum path and aggregation of total flows on each link in the network. The next stage in the process is to assign the zone to zone trips to the links on the minimum path routes between the various zones. d. The minimum time path is the shortest route from one zone centroid to another. One major drawl:tclck of this technique is that it takes no account of increasing CRDT. To develop construction priorities by assigning estimated future trips for intermediate years to the transportation system proposed for these years. Jt~~. ·. To test alternative transportation systems proposals by systematic and readily repeatable procedures. The choice of assignment procedure to be adopted in any particular transportation study depends largely on the purpose of that study. c. Repeat the process untill all nodes have been reached.' · To evaluate the effects of limited improvements and extension to the existing transportation system by assigning estimated future trips to the network which inr'ude these improvements. There are three major alternative procedures for assigning future trips to a transportation system. b. the most widely used is the 'all or nothing' assignment. b. The description and coding of network into links and nodes. New Delhi 141 ] . d.. c.-------------'--~-------------l!DPFI Guidelines--- assigning estimated future trips to the existing system.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ljDPFJ Guidelines---

congestion associated with increased volumes. A 'capacity restraint' assignment is an alternative method of dealing with overloaded links in the network wherein the new set of minimum time,paths between zones are derived using a set of adjusted travel times automatically wh-enever traffic loads on individual links are in excess of capacity.

A.4.00 PARTICIPATORY TECHNIQUES IN PLANNING
1. There can be no meaningful development in any society if the people themselves are kept out of the development process. In fact, they must be at· the centre of it. People can participate in the development process in the following senses: a. participation in decision-making development priorities; such as the identification of

b.

participation in implementation of development programmes and priorities; participation and monitoring programmes and project; and and evaluation of development

c.

d.

participation and sharing the benefits of development, managing the assets, etc.

2. The various techniques presently in use for soliciting people's participation are as · follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. I. Public opinion polls and other surveys; Referenda; Ballot box; Public hearings; Advocacy planning; Letters to editors or public officials; Representations of pressure groups; Protests and demonstration; · Court action; Public meetings; Workshops or seminar; and Task force.

A.4.1 0 CHOICE OF TECHNIQUE
1. Choice of specific technique for use in a particular situation would vary much, depending upon the stage of the planning process to which the situation corresponds to. During the pre-planning stage (e.g., collection of data and conduct of surveys}, local leaders of the community, teachers, students and others may be associated, both
142 CRDT, ITPI, New D e l h i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - - - - - -

- . . . , . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - UDPFI Guidelines---

to facilitate the task as well as the means of contacting the local community through locally knowl!l people so as to reduce any pos~ible resistance from the public. 2. At the scheme formulation stage, meaningful public participation would require: a. interaction with people in the community or with representative organisation for ascertaining felt needs of people and perceptions of their problems and priorities, adoption of strategies and schemes. and identification of beneficiaries; purposeful consultation with beneficiary groups in respect of the relevance and efficiency of on-going programmes; consultations with various categories of people such as landless labourers, tribals, schedule castes and artisans engaged in different trades; consultations with age and gender specific groups of people to ascertain their point of views.

b.

c.

d.

3. At this participatory stage, the technocrat should learn to adjust their images of a desirable environment to what people say, rather than trying to impose their (planners') view on the people. 4. At the stage of determination of schemes and priorities, people may be consulted in open forum. This would greatly assist the planner in identifying the felt needs of the people and fixing priorities. 5. Certain aspects of decision-making, particularly those relating to land use policy and location of various community schemes like drinking water. school, construction of health centre, etc., would be facilitated through discussion in open local level assemblies and meetings, direct representation or resident welfare associations or the like. 6. Local people can be encouraged to participate in the implementation aspects of a project in three principal ways, by : a. b. c. making contribution of resources in the form of labour, cash, materials, goods, information, etc.; assisting in administration and coordination efforts; and enlisting themselves in the programme activities for public benefits.

7. People's involvement can also be secured in monitoring and evaluation of projects and programmes. This will help to identify not only that how many but also who benefits from a particular investment and whether any leakages or corruption has been noted. The information provided by the people on the progress of the project could
CRDT, ITPI, New D e l h i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 143

·--~

···-

·------------- - - - -·-

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--------'-~---"-------- ------~-----UIJPFI

Guidelines---'--'--

also help in identifying the problems and constraints.. in implementation. B. People's involvement may be secured with great .advantage ih running, maintenance and managerrient of various completed projec.ts by con$tituting suitable organisations of the people. · It will not only. give them certain .Pridl:l of ownership but wi!l ·also· contribute to wi~e management.· · · · ·

A.4.20 INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM
1. From the discussion above,. the need for .people's .involvement in .the planning process is clearly highlighted.· Planners realise that it is their duty to not only inform the people ab'out their development plans and how it would" inform' the people about' their development plans" arid how it would affect them, but ~ls"o ,to keep people fully involved while accomplishing the various· stages of plannin·g .process. bn.the other hand, people have to shed their apathetic approach 'towards the planning process and come out of their shibboleths to guide-and influence the planners and decision-makers. . . . ..
·;
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2. To achiev.e the oqjectives ot' peopie•s· pa,rticipation .. it i~ necessary to lay down suitable institutional_ mechanisms through which people's pa:rtidpa~ion can be ensured. 3 .. First and foremost of these mechan'ismsis the institution of citizen groups: In USA, for instance, there are numerous groups like the Citizen.Apviso.ryCorruTiittee. Citizen · '',-Planning Committee, Community-wide .Housin-g .and.· Pl~nning ·counci.ls; Special Purpose P~anning Groups and Inter-community Regional and f\lational Orgailisations. There are host of functions which these· citizen groups handle, ranging from advising the plal")nfng council, reviewing major elements of a loca! ·planning programme to being 'watchdog' in the public .interest.. These growps al~3o fil,l in the much rieeed role of disbursing public information arid.educ'ation 8:mong the people. Notable among special purpose groups are neighbourhood groups ~in conservation and rehabi_litation area. central busirless district groups, industrial· development organisations. anticpoverty groups and urban design beautification and open space groups_ A particular mention needs to be made of the anti-poverty groups which are formed assist the lowest income people through a variety ofprogretmmes r~;:mging from. education and welfare · to neighboljrhood planning activities.·.

to

4; The National Commission on Urbanisation (NCU) in its report that came out ,in 1988 have strongly recommended for setting up of National Urban· Council for Citizen Action (NUCCA)., State l)rban CounCil for Citizen Action (SUCCA) in each state, and Forums for Citizen. Action {FCA) at the clty level to enable non-governrriental promotional, educational, advisory and innovative roles, to act[vate the· citizens: participation in the field of urban development . At. the same time, it. niay ·be' added here, that neighbourhood level groups of people may be energised, to start with, which should comprise women, eminent persons and 'representatives of different interest groups to guide planners in. detailing o"ut local area layout plans in accordance· with people's aspirations. · · · ·

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144 - · CRDT, ITPI, New Delhi-.----.·--·----:-·--~~c--~·-____,--.,..-'--'--~

APPENDIX-

B

NORMS AND STANDARDS

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- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - U D P / ' 1 Guidelines---

APPENDIX-B

NORMS AND STANDARDS

8.1.00 THE BASIC- FRAMEWORK
1. The basic objective of suggesting various norms_ and standards for urban development plans formulation is to provide a basis for taking decisio-n: The suggested norms and standards are indicative and can be suitably modified depending upon the local conditions. Variations in the norms and standards, as applicable to small and medium towns and large cities as classified by UDPFI Guidelines, have been given. Variations in respect of urban centres located in hill areas have also been provided at appropriate level. 2. Table 8.1 gives the classification of urban centres by population size and location in plains and hill areas. 3. Norms and standards have been provided for : a. b. Distribution of land use, Infrastructure, further ·classified as : i) Physical infrastructure including : Water supply Sewerage Drainage Electricity. and Solid waste ii) Social Infrastructure covering : Education Health Socio-cultural Facilities including : Religious Sites Community Room Community Hall and Library Recreation Club Music, Dance and Drama Centre Meditation and Spiritual Centre Socio-cultural Centre Museum and Art Gallery
CRDT, ITPI, New D e l h i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 145

_ _ _ ____;__ _ _- - : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - UDP/<7 Guidelines---

Cinema/Theatre Distributive Services including : Petrol Pump fviilk Booth, and LPG Godown Miscellaneous Facilities including : Dt10bi Ghat Cremation Ground Taxi Ground, and Bus Stops Other Facilities and Services including : Communication Postal Service Security Service, and Fire Protection Service iii) Commercial Facilities covering : CBD Sub-city Business District District Centre Local Shopping Centre Convenient Shopping Centre Informal Shopping and Weekly Markets, and Service Centres iv) Recreational Facilities covering : Parks and Open Spaces Sports Centre and Play Grounds Botanical and Zoological Parks Water Bodies/Other Natural Features, and Places of Tourist Interest c. Traffic and Transportation

8.2.00 DISTRIBUTION OF LAND USE
The land use distribution norms are dependent upon the following basic norms for densities and work force :

146

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CRDT, ITPI, New D e l h i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

.....2..10 DEVELOPED AREA AVERAGE DENSITIES -----------------------------------------------------. Industrial workers density 8. Industrial workers as percentage of total work force : Small and mediu111 town Large cities 20 25 100 pph to 125 pph c.20 WORK FORCE a......90 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------·--------------------- 8..... ----------------------------------------------- 100 100 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------._...----------------------. Nc:w D e l h i .... BAlance --------------------------..........-------------------------....--------------------------100 --.-------------------- - CRDT.2..UIJPFI Guidelines--- 8..... Work force participation 33% of total population b..147 ..& Semi6-8 Public 12-14 Recreational Transport & Communicat 1on 10-12 Agriculture & Balance Water Bodies Total Developed Area 100 40-45 3-4 8-10 1(Ji12 1&:~ \.... 35-40 4"5 10-12 12-14 18-20 12-14 Balance ......-----------------------------------------------Persons per hectare(pph) in Settlement Type Plain Areas Smali Towns Medium Towns Large Cities Metro Cities Hill Areas ' ------------------------------------------------------75100 100125 125 150 150 175 45-75 60. ITPI..:-·.----------------"'!--...2..30 PROPOSED LAND USE STRUCTURE OF URBAN CENTRES IN PLAIN AREAS ------.--------------------------Small --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45-50 Residential 2-3 Commercial 8-10 Industrial Pub.90 60.. 35-40 4-5 12-14 14-16 20-25 15-18 Balance 1%:14 r-:tc... ·--- ---------------------------------------------------------------------Percentage of Developed Area Medium Large Cities Metro Cities Land use Category --------.

....1 _· Large Cities 45. Infrastructure is the· basic requirement of urban life.U / J l ' F I Guidelines--- 8. 8:3.50 4. The extent. Ecological 50. .1(' 15 .. . 3 ...10 PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE The standards are applicable for hill as well as non-hill.10 8. local natural resources: state/regional differentials in ·the resource availability and the policies. 3.2. Commercial lndustnal Public & Sem1-Public Recreational Transport & Commn..40 PROPOSED LAND USE STRUCTURE IN HILL TOWNS Land Use Percentage of Developed Area Small Towns Residential .10 B. 2. . norms arid standards for different components of infrastructure with respect to their hierarchy. New Delhi------~--------------'---- . ... geographical conditions. /48 - :cRDT. towns/Cities.."!G Medium Towns 48.... socio-economic compatibility and manageability. Thus..18 5-6 8. affordability. SoCial amenities and infrastructure fall under the social welfare objectives of the urban development programme.3.5 5 5-T 12 .52 2 -... this is an effort to suggest the. 166815 20 8 10 ·15 .. and its adequacv and accessibility are two important ingredients and key contributors in the upgradation and enrichment of quality of urban life· which is the primary objective of any planned ·development effort. locational and spatial attributes~...' . resource base of local authorities and several such factors directly or indirectly affecting the population of cities/towns.. ITP/.18 5-6 8.. as distinct from economic development objectives and especially in context of the rapidly developing liberalised and competitive economic scenario... The city planners..55 2. urban managers and administrators are required to make special efforts to devise innovative strategies in order to ensure their wider coverage and equitable distribution for the society as a whole and the vulnerable sections of the urban society in specific.... and the nature of problems faced by different towns vary by size.3 3 -· 4 8.00 INFRASTRUCTURE 1.

U J J P F I f. 12. ..-------.. every individual household shall get at least the -minimum including those· living in squatters... .' ..... Cross-subsidisation for weaker sections .----------------------.--------------Standard::. Involvement of community to develop their own systems of supply .......--------. JTl'l..... The contingency provision of 15-20% to be made to account for the losses..-netro c1t1es 1ncome areas the standards to lpcd ii) Desirable 100 lpcd 135-150 lpcd ----------. Efforts should be made to reduce the water losses in transmission and d_istribution..-.3.---------------------------------!.-·· -. ··.. .'' .---------.-...--------------------------------· b\ ~:JrrcDomestic "i'"ier Table 8.11 Water Supply ----.. ------------------..-------------------------.uidelines .- 8. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------..---..-----.--.-. ... i 0...~ 5 lpcd 20-25 lpcd 30-35 lpcd Suggested Policy Interventions · Involvement of NGO's for awareness programme on optimal utilisation ana· saving water...distribution.....000\ Medium ..-------. ---.149 ....---------..-.3....000 135 lpcd it can be reduced up to 70 lpcd 150-200 lpcd Upper limits for .iii) 1'~'~otal demand Fire l-ighting iv) --· ---. ----------------------------------.:::.-----.---------...Equitable..---------------------------Size of Town .--------------------------S. 13 industrial ii) ·...-·. (> 50. 70c 100 Upper limit above 100.3._.---.._. · ·~-~~~·itutionai i} t: :::ier ·r o. a) Domestic i) Absolute Mm.-----------.:--.000) Large and Metro 1 >10 lakh ) ----------------.. -.---------------.-----.-----..---.No..r....------:-----... . Aspect Small (<50..--..-----------:---------------. ---------------------------------- Public Purpos.--. .... CRDT..·: _ : _ ..---. .ble 8...----------------------.------------. 70 lp(. New D e l h i .-------.

.... CPHEEO. ITPI. ISO .. 10. .5.. Hospitai (including iaundry) a..... Day schools/colleges Offices Factories 45 45 45 (could be reduced to 30 where no" bathing rooms are required to be provided 12.. No. 14.... No. 6.. 70 70 9............. New D e l h i .12 Water Requirements for Institutional Buildings Sl. Government of India... 45 45 (could be reduced to 25 where bathing facilities are not provided) 11.........UDPFI Guidelines--- 8. 8. No. Hostels Nurses' homes & medical quarters Boarding schools/ colleges Restaurants Airports & seaports Junction stations & intermediate stations where mail or express stoppage (both railway and bus stations) is provided Terminal stations Intermediate stations (excluding mail and express stops) 135 135 135 70 (per seat) 4.of beds not exceeding 100 Hotels 450 (per bed) 340 (per bed) 180 (per bed) 3.- . 7..........3... Institutions 'Litres per head per day 1. 13. concert halls and theatres 15 Source : Manual on Water Supply.. Cinema...CRDT.....of beds exceeding 100 b..

....s in actual implementation of such programmes... New D e l h i . the waste from industries also needs attention.14 Sewerage 1...... The sewerage is estimated at the rate of 80% of the water supply in any area.... Besides the sewerage from households.......quality paper Straw Board Petroleum Refinery Steel Sugar Textile Vehicle Kilolitre(proot alcohol) Tonne 100 Kg (tanned) Tonne Tonne Tonne Tonne (Crude) Tonne Tonne (cane crushed) 100 kg (goods) 40 122-170 80-200 4 200-400 400-1000 75-100 1-2 200-250 1-2 8-14 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Source: Manual on Water Supply....... 8...13 Water Requirements for Industrial Units ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------· Industry Unit of Production Water Requirement in Kiloliters per unit ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Automobile D1stil!ery Fertilisers Leather Paper Spl. Government of India.....15 Drainage The drainage system for any city/town is governed mainly by natural drainage course and topography.3. the individual households or a group of households may be encouraged for adoption of low-cost sanitation systems.....151 .. The squatter settlements may be provided with a facility of 1 toilet for 4 to 5 families based on the concept of low cost and low water consumption.. the maintenance of such community toilets to be looked after by the community and the voluntary organisations together.. The treatment of sewerage is essential to check the decay in the environment as well as to provide hygienic conditions for the population. The small and medium towns may be encouraged for adopting low-cost sanitation technologies with the technical assistance by the local bodies and involvement of NGO.. Besides on the impact of region level of development.... its climate and hydrological consideration.... ITP/.. the discharge is calculated that guides the requirement for provision of additional drain as well as upgradation of existing drains. - CRDT. The newly developed areas shall be considered for the provision of community level septic tanks based on economic and environmental considerations with a flexibility in planning for the extension of regular sewerage faCility in long term. For the existing developed areas without sewerage network. 8.U D P F I Guidelines--- 8.. 2..3. CPHEEO. The large and metro cities shall be provided with regular sewerage treatment facilities at zonal/city level.3..' .

20 SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE 1.. medium size towns cater to small towns and villages and so on in the hierarchy of settlements in the region for the higher level facilities. commercial development.17 Solid Waste Disposal The production of solid waste in an urban centre is a function of the socio-economic profile of the population and activities in the area. It is imperative to encourage local community participation in management of local level facility units. The provision of one electnc sub-station of 11_ KV for a population ot 15. In order to efficientiy cater to the city and regional demands.152 - CRDT. estimation ot power requirements can be made bas~d on the industrial development (type and extent). This affects the general level of satisfaction and further strains the facility infrastructure. alternatives which could be considered may be to provide : a. 8. the consumption works out to be about 2 KW per household at the city level and includes domestic.... ITPI. commercial.. 8. Especially in case of large and metro cities... It is common knowledge that the local level facilities once provided at considerable cost..... lack of funds for upkeep.--------------~--.3....~-~------ll/JPFI Guideline1· --···-····· 8..3.. encroachments and at times misuse.2. .. The garbage is removed by the mumcipai bodies and dumped at the sanitary landfill or in some cases it is converted to compost especially in small towns . The generation of waste varies from about over a quarter of kilogram in sn~all towns to ·about half a kilogram per capita in large and metro cities. certain apex level facilities significantly cater to regional demand in addition to the city demand.- ..3. even if created fully or partly by public funds. The provision of these amenities in any size town/city shall consider the regional bearings as small towns cater to the requirements of surrounding villages. New D e l h i . · The actual . The insufficient conservancy services in most of the urban centres tend to leave the garbage spread on the road sides or open spaces leading to unhygienic living conditions. 2. or Exclude such apex level facilities from the total estimated ·needs provision. The idea is that the user community should have a stake in proper functioning and maintenance of the facility . industrial and other requirements.000 !S recommended as a general standard tor all categories of towns/cities.. Amenities for 25% additional population overail as a cushion.. 3. inefficient management. tend to lose their efficiency owing to neglect.16 Electricity Based on the estimated requirements of pow_er supply as per the Master Plan for Delhi. domestic and other requirements. b..

Pre-primary to Seconcftlry Education a... In some cases depending upon the regional requirements.. a higher-order facility becomes necessary in a lower order settlement.60 ha - CRDT.. that is.schools.20 ha 0.. nursery and primary .. No attempt has been made to classify them by size of town.4 ha 0. 5.UIJPFI Guidelines--- 4........... small.. The possibilities for multiple use of social amenities may also be considered especially for the areas with deficiencies of certain facilities depending upon the compatibility of the activities and acceptance of the society.......3....21 Educational Facilities A.60 ha 1.. 6... 500 students 0.. nursery school 1 for 2500 population Area for school Pre primary/nursery school to be located near a park Primary school (class I to V) Strength of the school Area per school School building area Play field area with a minimum of 18m x 36 m to be ensured for effective play Senior secondary school (VI to XII) 1 for 7. The potential of such practices shall be assessed to find out the actual needs.08 ha b.. medium town or large city.20 ha c... population plays the guiding role and. Pre-primary..) may be allowed to operate from residential use premises on condition that specific controls and guidelines are.. 7. ITPI. New D e l h i .60 ha 0.. local level facilities only (viz.. dispensary.. In distribution of infrastructure..adhered to... 8. as also for providing adequate number of sites for such facility units. therefore. etc.. It is also observed that a number of lower level social amenity units particularly in regard to education and health infrastructure are operating in private residential premises due to both non-availability as well as deficiency in number of designated sites. indication of population served by a facility or service has been given.500 population Strength of the school Area per school School building area Play field area with a minimum of 68m x 126m to. In residential areas where exclusive sites for social amenities units are not available. be ensured for effective play 0.. which shall be reliable input for arriving at realistic norms.. 1000 students 1..153 ...

..I I ! . Higher Education . . New D e l h i ......70 ha 2. _ _ - ..30 ha 0..000-1 lakh population Strength of the school Area per school School building area Play field area Parking area I 1500 students 3.General g) College 1 for 1 .00 ha 1.90 ha 0.80 ha 0. d......000 pop.UDPFI Guidelines--- I I I .40 ha h) 10..80 ha 1.000 . Integrated school without hostel facility (Class 1·-XII) 1 for 90.70 ha 2.25 lakh population Student strength of the college Area per college College building area Play field area Residential including hostel area University campus Area of the university campus New University Area 1000-1500 students 4.20 ha 0..30 ha B..50 ha 0.50 ha 0...100..00 ha i) 60. Strength of the school Area per school School building area Play field area 400 0.50 ha 0.....000 population Strength of the school Area per school School building area Play field area Parking area Residential hostel area 1000 students 3.00 ha /54 - CRDT. /TPI.40 ha f) School for handicapped 1 for 45..50 ha 0.30 ha e) Integrated school with hostel facility 1 for 90....

This includes space for specialised general hospital 8..40 ha k) 4..5 lakh population capacity Initially the provision may be tor 300 beds Area for hospital · Area for residential accommodation Total area Intermediate hospital (Category-A) 1 hospital for 1 lakh population capacity initally the provision may be for 100 beds Area for hospital Area for residential accommodation Total area 500 beds 4.....155 ..70 ha 1.. ITPI.." ' .0 ha 1...00 ha n) 2 sites of 15 ha each in urbqn extension...l ! D P F I Guidelines--C....70 ha - CRDT.... .60 ha 2.00 ha 6......00 ha 2..00 ha 200 beds b) 2. Technical Education j) Technical education centre (A) 1 such centre provided for every 10 fakh population to include one industrial training institute and one polytechnic Strength of the polytechnic Area per centre Area per ITI Area for polytechnic Technical centre (B) 1 provided for 1 0 lakh population to include 1 ITI 1 Technicai centre and 1 coaching centre Area per centre Area per technical centre Area for ITI Area for coaching centre 500 students 400 students 4..00 ha 2.... New D e l h i .22 Health Care Facilities a) General hospital Hospital for 2......40 ha 0. Professional Education m) New engineering college 2 numbers to be provided in urban extension Strength of the college Area per college New medical college 1500-1700 students · 60.10 ha 1.. ...' .00 ha 3...3.....30 ha D.._ _ : _ ...

..000 sq... b) 2. .. child welfare and maternity centre 1 for 0.15 lakh population Area 25 to 30 beds 0...l\ ..... ....12 ha 8.000 sq.- . f) 156 - CRDT.. New D e l h i ....000 sq..0 lakh population Area 0.20 to 0._ .. ...000 population Area Community hall and library One for 15.._..m..m e) 5.. dance and drama centre One for 1 lakh population Area Meditation and spritual centre One for 1 lakh population Area Socio-cultural centre 660 sq..60 ha 0....30 ha e) Nursing home.m... . ITPI.00 ha d) 0.000 sq.23 Socio-Cultural Facilities a) Community room One for 5.40 ha 1..08 to 0......m c) 10...m : i d) 1....000 population Area Recreational club One for 1 lakh population Area Music..45 to 1 lakh population Capacity Area Dispensary 1 for 0....UIJPFI Guidelines--- c) Intermediate hospital (Category-B) 1 hospital for 1 lakh population capacity 80 beds initally the provision may be for 50 including 20 maternity beds Area for hospital Area for residential accommodation Total area Poly-clinic with some observation beds 1 for 1..20 to 0.....30 ha 0 0....3.

...5 lakh population (not seNed by a police station) Area inclusive of essential residential accommodation 0. 8...000 population Area inclusive of essential residential accommodation 0... c) ..... The standard recommended as per the Delhi Master Plan is adequate.157 ..... of gross industrial area pumps in each freight complex pumps in each district qentre pump in each community centre b) Milk distribution One milk booth for 5.... LPG godowns One gas godown for 40-50 thousand population is sufficient for any size of town. civil defence· and home guards and fire shall be as under: Police \ a) Police station 1 for 90.... New D e l h i ..24 Distribution Services a) Petrol pump One petrol use zone One petrol Two petrol Two petrol One petrol pump for 150 ha...000 population.... 8.......3..U D P F / Guidelines--- One for 10 lakh population Area 15 ha.4 to 0.16 ha - CRDT. The major concern for its storage and distribution is the location which shall be away from the residential areas... riPJ.......05 ha additional to be provided for civil defence and home guards b) Police post 1..5 ha 1 for 0.25 Police Planning norms for police...3... of gross residential areas in residential pump for 40 ha.

00 ha 0.3..4000 Cluster Centre 5000 .--------------.100000 Community Centre 125000 .4....80 ha 4..00 ha District jail 1 for 10 lakh population Area Civil defence and home guards 1 for 10 lakh population Area 10..-------------------------------------Planning Unit Class of Settlement S Housing cluster Sector Community District Sub-city City M L Popn. New D e l h 1 ' .50 lakh Sub-city Centre 50 lakh + City Centre Hierarchy of Commercial Centre -------------------------------------------------------------..ding upon its· size : ------------··-------------..500000 District Centre 25 lakh ... Normally an urban centre has some or all of the following.10 HIERARCHY OF COMMERCIAL CENTRES Hierarchy of commercial centres is a function of tl1e hierarchy of planning units in an urban centre...----------------------------------------....00 ha f) 2.r sub-fire station within 1 to 3 km to be provided for 2 lakh population Area for fire station with essential residential accommodation Area for sub-fire-station with essential residential accommodation 1....... served -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000 .ad ha d) Police line 1 for 20 lakh population e) 4.60 ha 8.... ITPI....00 COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY 8........:..20000 Sector Centre 25000 ...U D P f 1 Guidelines--c) District office and battalion 1 for Area Area Total 1 0 lakh population for district office for battalion area 0..- 158 - ..26 Fire 1 fire station . CRDT... depen.00 ha 8..-------------------------------------------S : Small towns I M : Medium towns L : Large cities * Indicates the availability of the planning unit and the hierarchy of the commercial centres...00 ha 4..00 to 6.------------..4.

20 AREA OF COMMERCIAL CENTRES _______ ...... for small and medium size towns one of the community centres or district· centres....of shops 1 for 11 0 persons 1 for 200 persons 1 for 200 persons 1 for 300 persons 880 8... ______________________________ . ITPI........ 8. 40 30 110 88 Sector 55 35 Cluster 24 16 6 13 22 14 3 5 13 8 Service & Repairs Total shops (formal and informal) 9 5 ' 3 1620 475 77 37 - CRDT......... Cluster centre Sector centre Community centre District centre 220 300 500 No.....30 DISTRIBUTION OF SHOPS BY TYPE ~ Type of Shops Formal Shops(total} General Retail Fruit & Vegetables Service & Repa1rs Informal Shops General Retail Fruit & Vegetables District 1250 1200 Not specified included in general retail 50 370 355 Not specified included general retail 15 Community 365 295 .. as the case may be. will serve the function of the town centre.m...... Area per 1000 persons sq.....159 ....UDPFI Guidelines--- Since every settlement has a town/city centre.. ________________________________________ ___________________ _ ......4.......4... New D e l h i ...

.. Telephone Exchange 20. * * * Activities to be provided in the commercial centre. Service Industries 10. Limited wholesale 3.... Hotel 7.. ITPI.Bus Terminal ·.. .. Fire Station 18.Police 19.. Petrol Pump 23.. Shopping (retail service.... ... Nursing Home 9. Residential 3 4 5 * * * * ...UDPFI Guidelines--- 8. .4.Local Govt. . Conve niencE?s 24.... Electric Sub-station 21..Weekly Markets(on close days) 15.. Auditorium 11. . .. . 8..- . New D e l h i ....of informal commercial units i) Retail Trade Central Business District Sub-central Business District District Centre Community Centre Convenience Shopping Centre · ii) Government and Commercial Offices 3 to 4 units per 10 formal shops as specified. Commercial Offices 5... . ......in the norms separately 5 to 6 units per 1000 employees 160 - CRDT... Informal shopping 4..Library 13. Guest House 8.. .Museum 12..... repair) 2. Post and Telegraph 22.Offices 16. Cinema 6... 17..40 Distribution of Activities Activities Hierarchy of Commercial Centre City and subcity centre District centre Community Sector centre centre Cluster centre 6 2 1.. Science Cent res ..50 NORMS FOR INFORMAL SECTOR ACTIVITIES No.ArVCraft/ Music/Dance School 14...4.

For the general retail shopping requirements...4. thereby _affecting the smooth flow of traffic and increasing probability of accidents... where vehicular movement is permitted to a limited extent (i.e.. the_ concept of street/roadside commercial activity shall be accepted as a policy with certain specific controls such as no commercial activity along the NH/SH or any major district road. The open spaces within residential areas or certain streets with completely controlled traffic on specific day can be made available for weekly markets to shop-keepers....5 m without vehicular . ITPJ..movement may be permitted for road/street side commercial activities........... the minimum width of the street to be 12 m.... - CRDT. It has been generally observed that the service and repair shops emerge along the major roads and the activities are extended upto the roads in most cases.U D P F I Guidelines--iii) Wholesale Trade and Freight Complexes iv) Hospital v) Bus Terminal vi) Schools Primary Secondary/Senior Secondary/! ntegrated vii) Parks Regional/District Parks Neighbourhood Parks viii) Residential ix) Industrial x) Railway Terminus 3-4 units per 10 formal shops 3-4 units per 100 beds 1 unit per two bus bays 3-4 units 5-6 units a~ 10 units at each major entry 2-3 units 1 unit/1 000 population 5-6 units per 1000 employees To be based on surveys at the time of preparation of the project 8..... New D e l h i .... 2. only up to 2 wheelers or rickshaw) and the streets with a minimum width of 4.60 VARIATIONS IN NORMS AND STANDARDS BY SIZE OF SETTLEMENT B..........4.6'1.Small Towns 1....... The weekly markets tend to generate more waste and thus effort should be made to ensure that the cleaning of the area is arranged by the cooperation of shopkeepers..161 .

The function based commercial requirements such as mandi (vegetables/grains/fruits).U D P P 1 Guidelines---.... 5. 4..2 . cattle markets or any other such specialised markets are to be planned as per the case specific requirements based on the study of the area.. The growth of towns from small to medium sized town through transition phases (50..32 ha/1 000 persons on an average.. As already dealt in the previous section on land use.. '· ' 162 - CRDT. in fact. based on the proposed landuse which is governed by the · functional character of the town. the service requirements of the villages in the surrounding areas. For the newly planned schemes in small towns also... villages falling in the influence zone of the towns or..--- 3. small towns and villages falling'iq.62 Medium Size Towns i.... 7....' . The exact requirement of the area for service centre will be guided by the following factors : vehicular population.. The requirements for whole~ale trade will be governed by the following factors : location of the town with respect to large/metro cities.... lTPI... New D e l h i .0. in other words. the area requirements for commercial activities in medium sized towns works out to be about 0...4.000) changes the requirements of commercial activities gradually and for a town exceeding a population of 1 lakh. the policy of mixed land use shall be considered as accepted practice to suit the behavioural pattern of t~e society. 6.... 2.. is governed by the functional character of the town and the regional imperatives mentioned above. the area requirements for commercial activities in small sized towns works out to be about 0..24-0. As already dealt in the previous section on landuse. based on the prQposed land use which.25 ha/1 000 persons on an average...- ..000-1 00.. Thus... The other important aspect that requires a serious thought is the quantum of commercial activities to be proposed but in light of the suggested policy.........the direct influence zone of the town for which it has to act as a distribution centre. it is envisaged that the control shall be restricted to locational attributes and the local need based emergence in its natural growth be permitted.. the extensions starts developing in pockets of well-defined economic strata of the people and thus it is suggested that the areas predominantly planned for upper income groups shall be provided with the planned commercial centres (with adequate inbuilt provisior) for informal commercial activities with the commercial centres) at the rate of 4-5 formal shops and 2-3 informal shops · per 1000 persons.. it is suggested that the service centres shall be provided as a planned component and the sites near the petrol pumps shall be considered. 8...

sports complex..5..... The requirements of hotels and restaurants can be worked out only on the basis of the data on tourists and their growth trends. Similar requirements have also been observed in case of metro cities: which are located in the influence zone of mega cities. per person 3-4 local parks and playgrounds 3-4 local park and playgrounds 2-3 community level park and open space 1 district level park and sports centre. the average land requirement for commercial activities under this category works out to be about 0... ITPI. The provision of commercial facilities in tourist centres is to be reviewe6 for two major aspects. traffic parks etc. 70 VARIATIONS FOR HILL TOWNS 1. The hill areas can be broadly classified into two categories. The requirements of commercial activities in hilly areas are mainly limited to retail activities and that too are mainly catered by small shops in the residence in non~ tourist centres.. tourist centres and non-tourist centres.00 RECREATIONAL FACIUTIES The norms for parks.4 ha per 1000 persons in a range of 0. play fields and other open space such as specified park.00 sq... The informal activities at the tourist spots are mainly informal eating places and other general shops selling local specialities. 8.. i.2 to 0.e.. botanical/zoological garden . 2... are as under : Planning Unit Housing Cluster Sector Community District Sub-city centre Area in sq. 8.m. maidan...3 ha/1 000 persons. maidan 1 city level park.63 Large and Metro Cities The average land requirements for commercial activities (based on a sample of 14 large cities) work out to be 0. m. but it shall be ensured that these activities do not spoil the environment around the tourist spots.6 ha/1 000 persons depending on the location of these large cities with respect to metro cities.... per person ---------------------------------------------------------------------------~---------------------~------------------------- Overall town/city level - CRDT. New Delhi---~------------------ 163 . amusement park. the boarding and lodging requirements of the tourists and second the informal activities near tourist spots.. a multi-purpose open space..4.U D P F I Guidelines--- 8. botanical garden and zoological parks.maidan 10 sq..12...4.. First....m.

4 ha/1 000 persons. depending on the land availability. children parks and amusement parks.. with the assistance of NGO's in the area.. The suggested standards for open spaces in large and metro cities are 1.. 8. 2. Merely the prescription of norms for the provision of socio-cultural facilities is not enough as there are certain vital issues involved with their provision which are as follows: a....5..UDPFI Guidelines--- 8.00 SOCIO-CULTURAL FACILITIES 1.000 is not enough. 8.. Secondly.6.5. It is not to say that the area is inadequate but effort should be made by the development agencies. Large and metro cities shall at least be provided with the recreational facilities as per the standards given in the Master Plan of Delhi.......... can be merged with the open spaces to suit their social requirements.. It has generally been observed that the religious buildings come up on encroached sites and especially· those meant for open spaces...2 .... just the provision of 400 sq.12 Medium Towns The recreational open spaces shall be provided at the rate of 1.. ITPI..5. The lower income areas shall be provided with more open spaces and the area under facilities like community halls etc.11 Small Towns i 1.. 2..m. In light of the standards recommended by various bodies.1 0 VARIATIONS BY SIZE OF SETILEMENT 8.1.10... area for a population of 5.5... New D e l h i .. the older parts of large cities have normally been found highly deficient with respect to the availability of recreational spaces. 8. provisions shall also be made for city level special parks such as botanical and zoological parks.13 large and Metro Cities 1. As already mentioned. thus additional provisions in the new developments to take care for the existing deficiencies also to be made... etc.. the open spaces are to be developed with the other socio-cultural and commercial facilities so that they can serve multiple purpose.- 164 - .. .4 .000 . it is suggested to provide 1.... picnic huts.6 ha/1 000 persons as per the hierarchy recommended in the Master Plan for Delhi.0 to 1.000... In fact.· ..2 ha per 1000 persons for town level recreational facilities (excluding the open spaces in residential pockets) which can be distributed for different residential pockets uniformly for a population of 8.. to ensure that the places of worship come up as planned with the participation and preferences of the CRDT. .... For the large and metro cities.1..

As a general basis. etc.000 population.In the congested 1areas....000 population. b. JTPI. Space for extra-mural activities) Recreation Club : Sector Level c. can be organised in such spaces besides the facility of reading room...000 sq. c. can be considered as an option.. Further.000 population 0. for lower income areas the use of such facilities shall be planned and designed for multipurpose activities which can ensure optimal utilisation... Thus.. etc.000 population) may be provided so that places of worship do not get established on encroached sites as is invariably happening. the schools are used for various social functions in non-teaching hours which in fact is a practice in small or even in medium sized towns.. The activities such as adult education. the maintenance and management of formal community. One for 50. compared to lower income areas where open spaces/streets are preferred for such functions.. Music. New D e l h i .. d. b.165 .5 ha One for 100.OOO population - CRDT. child and family welfare programmes. Community hall(multi-purpose): House Cluster Level The small parks/open spaces should also be developed with the community hall to suit the cultural and behavioural needs of the society. training programmes for economic generation activities. the norms for socio-cultural facilities may be considered as under: a... community hall and library shall be given following considerations : Socio-economic profile and behavioural pattern of the beneficiaries as for the areas with lower income group population.--· UDPFI Guidelines--- community itself. buildings is not an easy task and even it does not match with their behavioural pattern... Drama Center One for 5Q...0 ha d. Library. 1. 2.Dance. . 2. One for 15. The provision of housing cluster and sector level socio-cultural facilities such as community room. Local Community Center (Hall. separate religious sites (2 for 15....m. The community halls for middle and higher income areas are utilised more often for various functions.

.UDPFI Guidelines--- e.. CRDT.40 OTHER FACILITIES AND SERVICES 8.. It may be advisable to provide one electric crematorium for large size towns besides the provision of at least 2 sites for 5 lakh population. Meditation and Spiritual ·Center Socio-cultural Center One for 50. The existing standards for these services are as under : a. The communication sector is getting lot of priorities due to its increasing importance in the economic development and thus immaterial of the size of town...7... the maximum distance of such facilities should not exceed 0... 8..30 TAXI STANDS/BUS STOPS/RICKSHAW STANDS The taxi stands/bus stops shall be provided with the following considerations: these should not be located near the road intersections... postal are derived from the departmental norms which are governed by the national/state level policies.one fire station for 2 lakh population within 1 to 3 km distance...7..000 population One for 5 lakh population 3.5 km from the farthest point in any residential area.. 8. 8. security.... Fire ... 7... 166 - Communication ... creating more avenues for socio-cultural interactions and enriching ..00 MISCELLANEOUS FACILITIES B.7.7... fire..41 Telecommunication The norms for other facilities and services listed under communication.. Increased provision of space for socio-cultural facilities is essential in view of the increasing demand of such sites for diverse needs.....- .. 8.10 lines per 100 population. ITPI..20 DHOBI GHAT It is suggested to provide one site for 1 lakh population with appropriate arrangements for water and drainage facilities and it shall be ensured that the water bodies are not polluted as a result of such activities.... the quality of built environment at neighbourhood and community levels.7.. f. It is hoped that the standards as well as level of service will be improved in time to come.10 CREMATION/BURIAL-GROUND The sites for cremation grounds shall be identified in locations which are not proximo us to residential areas.. New D e l h i .. b...

.. in view of ground realities and other constraints..167 1· ~ I. 2. 8.... c....... It has been observed that the fringe areas.U D P F I Guidelines--c.. ITPI.One post office for 10-15 thousand population... it is often observed that problems arise in implementing these norms in existing built-up areas. It is proposed that while Unit Norms (facility per unit size of population) of local level facilities should be kept uni