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An organisational change occurs when there is a move from one position toanother (Ford and Ford, 1995 cited

in Rollinson, 2008, p630). The need for changecan be provoked by many different triggers either internal or external. Nowadays,organisations need to make radical changes whereas it used to be only incrementalalterations in the past (Peters, 1987 cited in Rollinson, 2008, p630). For this reason,organisational survival will essentially depend on their ability to handle the change process (Kanter, 1995 cited in Rollinson, 2008, p630) and mainly employeesresistance (OConnor 1993). First we will try to try to identify why change is resistedand finally we will look at the tactics which can be used to overcome it.Organisations are formed by individuals and that is why it is difficult tochange the organisation without involving individual change (Band, 1995 in Boveyand Hede) although this may be true, managers still look in a technical point withoutinvolving, recognising the human importance (Arendt et al., 1995 cited in Bovey andHede, 2001, p 535). People perceived change as a threat because it implies destructionof the familiar (Coghlan et al., 1993 in Bovey and Hede, 2001, p 534).Resistance may be related to the stability of the organisation structure because it hasin-built streak of conservatism (Hall, 1987 cited in Rollinson, 2008, p637).However, resistance is mostly an individual level phenomenon and Bedeian andZammuto (1991, cited in Rollinson, 2008, p639) propose four main reasons. One of them is that we seek to keep and protect our status quo with which we are happy,naturally it required time to build it. Another point is that incomplete and distortedinformation about the change result in uncertainty, rumours (Buchanan et al, 1994cited in Van Dam et al, 2008, p 328). Uncertainty is classically about the impacts for the individual employee (Buono and Bowditch, 1993 cited in Elving, 2005, p132). For instance, job insecurity is one of the major concern (de Witte et al.,1991 cited inElving, 2005, p133) and it can be extremely stressful for the individual (Mack et al.,1998 cited in Tiong, n.d, p27). Those leading change are more likely to focus only onwhat they perceive as positive but forget that individual assessment and responsediffer (Darlington and Carnall, 1986 cited in Bovey and Hede, 2001, p 539). If changechallenge peoples abilities, consequently people will start doubting themselves.Resistance is a natural part of the change process and therefore inevitable(Steinburg et al., 1992 cited in Bovey and Hede, 2001, p 5340. Just the thought of change gives people pain and frustration (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004, p689).There is no single method to deal with resistance (Rollinson). Kotter et al (1986, citedin Rollinson, 2008, p640) suggests some common tactics but emphasize that their contingency approach should be carefully used in the most appropriate way accordingthe reasons why change has appeared. Communication and training are fundamentaland should be an integrative part of change to implement it successfully (Tiong, n.d).Giving the opportunity to participate (Heracleous, 2002 cited in Elving, 2005, p 132)is another key factor. Managers intentionally play down the disadvantages or emphasize the benefits (Hultman, & New and Singer, 1983 in Bovey and Hede, 2001, p 535). Techniques such as manipulation or coercion can speed the implementation of change in contrast to communication, negotiation (Kotter et al; 1986 cited inRollinson, 2008, p640). Others focus on the constructional phases of change (Elving,2005) or encouraging

staff by rewarding them (Tony Eccles, 1994 cited in Buchananand Huczynski, 2004, p692).The need for organisations to change is greater than ever, in order to survive ina competitive market. The major problem those leading change have to face isresistance to change. According to Beer and Nohria (2000 in Vakola et al, 2004, p95),resistance is one of the reason why seventy per cent of change programs fail. Despitethe benefits (new experience), change are commonly resisted because it involvesdiscontinuity. However resistance will be largely avoided if organisations anticipateit. The way in which change is introduced can thus be resisted, rather than the changeitself. Or maybe people are just tired of constant changes as suggest Buchanan andHuczynski (2004)? References Bovey, W.H. and Hede A. (2001) `Resistance to organisational change: the role of defence mechanisms Journal of managerial psychology, [ Online]16(7), pp.534-548Buchanan, D & Huczynski, A (2004) Organizational behaviour, an introductory text.5 th edn. England: Pearson Education LimitedElving, W.J.L. (2005) `The role of communication in organisational change Corporate communications: an international journal, [ Online]10(2), pp.129-138Vakola, M & Tsaousis, I & Nikolaou, I (2004) ` The role of emotional intelligenceand personality variables on attitudes toward organisational change Journal of Managerial Psychology, [ Online]19(2), pp. 88-110.OConnor, C.A. (1993) `Resistance: the repercussions of change, Leadership and Organization Development Journal , 14 (6) pp.30-36Rollinson, D. (2008) Organisational behaviour an analysis, an integrated approach. 4 th

edn. England: Pearson Education LimitedTiong, T.N. (n.d.)`Maximising Human Resource Potential in the Midst of Organisational Change Singapore management review

[ Online]27(2), pp.25-35.Van Dam, K. & Oreg, S. & Schyns, B. (2008) `Daily work contexts and resistance toorganisational change: The role of leadermember exchange, development climate,and change process characteristics Applied psychology Online]57(2), pp.313334