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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

1. Evolution of Wireless Technologies


At the beginning of 2001, more than one out of 10 people in the world had a mobile telephone. The end-user equipment size, weight, and costs have dropped over 20% per year over the past 15 years. This incredible growth in the industry is due to the development of wireless communication technologies. The first generation wireless communication system was the analog advanced mobile phone system (AMPS), developed primarily by AT & T. This system used a 30 kHz channel spacing while narrowband AMPS (N-AMPS), which was developed by Motorola, worked within a 10 kHz channel spacing thus increasing the AMPS capacity. The frequency division multiple access (FDMA) systems divide a wide frequency band into smaller frequency bands that are assigned to specific users allowing different users to communicate at the same time. These first generation systems had capacity limitations since each spectral channel could be allocated to only one user. Because of the capacity limitations of the FDMA based analog cellular systems, the first digital cellular systems were based on time division multiple access (TDMA). TDMA systems divide their signals into shorter time slots thus allowing several mobile telephones to communicate on a single radio carrier frequency. The digital AMPS (D-AMPS) was developed in the late 1980s which was followed by the first Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) deployments. Today, it is estimated that there are over 800 million GSM subscribers across the 190 countries of the world. These TDMA systems come under the second generation cellular systems. Figure shows the evolution of wireless technologies in various stages. Spread spectrum technology, which was initially used in military applications, is another approach to achieve multiple access. In it, a narrowband signal is spread over a wide frequency band for transmission using code division multiple access (CDMA); it is also called spread spectrum multiple access (SSMA).

Figure1.1 Evolution of Wireless Technologies CDMA was pioneered and commercially developed by QUALCOMM in 1995. In it, multiple users can share the radio channel at the same time. The frequency reuse limitations in FDMA and TDMA are less in CDMA and so CDMA is an attractive alternative to GSM.

Figure 1.2 Various Multiple Access Technologies The international telecommunications union (ITU) undertook the international mobile telephony-2000 (IMT-2000) project and developed the third generation systems. The primary third generation technologies which were approved by ITU in 1998 were : Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA), developed by the European telecommunication standardization institute (ETSI). Cdma2000, developed by the telecommunications industry association (TIA). EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) which was co-sponsored by ETSI and the TIA. As the wireless personal communications field has grown over the last few years, the method of communication known as spread spectrum has gained a great deal of prominence. Spread spectrum involves spreading the desired signal over a bandwidth much larger than the minimum bandwidth necessary to send the signal. It was originally developed by the military as a method of communications that is less sensitive to intentional interference or jamming by third parties, but has become very popular in the realm of personal communications recently. Spread spectrum methods can be combined with Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) methods to create multi-user communications systems with very good interference performance.

Chapter 2: Spread Spectrum Communication Systems


2.1 Introduction
Spread spectrum signals for digital communications were originally developed and used for military communications either (l) to provide resistance to hostile jamming, (2) to hide the signal by transmitting it at low power and, thus, making it difficult for an unintended listener to detect its presence in noise, or (3) to make it possible for multiple users to communicate through the same channel. Today, however, spread spectrum signals are being used to provide reliable communications in a variety of commercial applications, including mobile vehicular communications and interoffice wireless communications. As stated before, spread spectrum systems afford protection against jamming (intentional interference) and interference from other users in the same band as well as noise by spreading the signal to be transmitted and performing the reverse de-spread operation on the received signal at the receiver. This de-spreading operation in turn spreads those signals which are not properly spread when transmitted, decreasing the effect that spurious signals will have on the desired signal. Spread Spectrum systems can be thought of as having two general properties: first, they spread the desired signal over a bandwidth much larger than the minimum bandwidth needed to send the signal, and secondly, this spreading is carried out using a pseudorandom noise (PN) sequence. In a general sense, we will see that the increase in bandwidth above the minimum bandwidth in a spread spectrum system can be thought of as applying gain to the desired signal with respect to the undesirable signals. We can now define the processing gain GP as

GP =

BWRF BWinf o

Where BWRF is the bandwidth that the signal has been increased, and BWinfo is the minimum bandwidth necessary to transmit the information or data signal. Processing gain can be thought of

as the improvement over conventional communication schemes due to the spreading done on the signal. Often, a better measure of this gain is given by the jamming margin,

MJ ( d B = )

GP ( d B m i n S N R )

Which indicates the amount of interference protection offered before the signal is corrupted. The spreading function is achieved through the use of a pseudorandom noise sequence (PN sequence). The data signal is combined with the PN sequence such that each data bit is encoded with several if not all the bits in the PN sequence. In order to achieve the same data rate as was desired before spreading, the new data must be sent at a rate equal to the original rate multiplied by the number of PN sequence bits used to encode each bit of data. This increase in bandwidth is the processing gain, which is a measure of the noise and interference immunity of this method of transmission. To see how the spreading process helps protect the signal from outside interference, let us look at the types of interference that are possible. The three major types of interference that can arise when using wireless networks are: (1) noise, (2) intentional interference from a jammer or other source trying to disrupt communications, and (3) unintentional interference from other users of the same frequency band. Noise can be considered as background white Gaussian noise (WGN), and can be said to have power spectral density N0. Since the noise is white, the spreading of the bandwidth does not have much of an effect here. The noise power is constant over the entire bandwidth, so increasing the bandwidth actually lets more noise into the system, which might be seen as detrimental. However, we will see that this is not really a problem. Intentional interference comes from sources who are actively trying to corrupt the data transmission by sending power transmissions in the same band as the intended transmission. The big difference between intentional interference and noise is that intentional interference is, by its very nature, a finite power signal, since it must be transmitted from a real source. Thus the spreading performed on the data signal allows the signal to hide itself in a larger bandwidth, forcing the jamming signal to distribute its power over this new much larger bandwidth, and thus intuitively diminishing the effect that the jamming signal has on the data signal.

The third major source of signal corruption comes from unintentional interference due to other users using the same frequency band, and here, the system uses the PN sequence and the technique of CDMA to combat this type of interference. In a wireless communications network, all the signals propagate through the air by way of electromagnetic waves, thus there is no way to ensure that one user will receive only the signal he or she desires; that user will receive all the signals being sent in that band. By giving each of the signals to be transmitted in the frequency band its own code (CDMA) which is orthogonal to the other codes used in that band, the effect of these other signals will effectively be zero at the receiver (when the receiver correlates the input signal it receives with the code of the transmission it wants to receive, only the desired signal will Remain). The following sections will analyze and derive the specifics of the two major types of spread spectrum systems, Direct Sequence and Frequency Hop. Since the mechanisms by which the above advantages are achieved vary between the two methods, the analysis has been left until those sections. The basic elements of a spread spectrum digital communication system are illustrated in Figure 2.1. We observe that the channel encoder and decoder and the modulator and demodulator are the basic elements of a conventional digital communication system' In addition to these elements, a spread spectrum system employs two identical pseudorandom sequence generators, one of which interfaces with the modulator at the transmitting end and the second of which interfaces with the demodulator at the receiving end' These two generators produce a pseudorandom or pseudo noise(PN) binary-valued sequence that is used to spread the transmitted signal in frequency at the Inoculators to dispread the received signal at the demodulator. Time synchronization of the PN sequence generated at the receiver with the PN sequence Contained in the received signal is required to properly dispread the received spreads spectrum signal. In a practical system, synchronization is established prior to the transmission of information by transmitting a fixed PN bit pattern that is designed so that the receiver will detect it with high probability in the presence of interference. After time synchronization of the PN sequence generators is established, the transmission of information commences. In the data mode, the communication system usually tracks the timing of the incoming Received signal and keeps the PN sequence generator in synchronism.

Figure 2.1 spread spectrum digital communication system There are two basic types of spread spectrum signals for digital communications namely direct sequence (DS) spread spectrum and frequency_ hopped (FH) spread spectrum

2.2 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum


In telecommunications, direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) is a modulation technique. As with other spread spectrum technologies, the transmitted signal takes up more bandwidth than the information signal that is being modulated. The name 'spread spectrum' comes from the fact that the carrier signals occur over the full bandwidth (spectrum) of a device's transmitting frequency.

2.2.1 Features
It phase-modulates a sine wave pseudo randomly with a continuous string of pseudo noise (PN) code symbols called "chips", each of which has a much shorter duration than an information bit. That is, each information bit is modulated by a sequence of much faster chips. Therefore, the chip rate is much higher than the information signal bit rate. It uses a signal structure in which the sequence of chips produced by the transmitter is known a priori by the receiver. The receiver can then use the same PN sequence to counteract the effect of the PN sequence on the received signal in order to reconstruct the information signal.

2.2.2 Transmission method for DSSS


Direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmissions multiply the data being transmitted by a "noise" signal. This noise signal is a pseudorandom sequence of 1 and 1 values, at a frequency

much higher than that of the original signal, thereby spreading the energy of the original signal into a much wider band as shown in figure 2.2. The resulting signal resembles white noise, like an audio recording of "static". However, this noise-like signal can be used to exactly reconstruct the original data at the receiving end, by multiplying it by the same pseudorandom sequence (because 1 1 = 1, and 1 1 = 1). This process, known as "de-spreading" as shown in figure 2.3, mathematically constitutes a correlation of the transmitted PN sequence with the PN sequence that the receiver believes the transmitter is using. For de-spreading to work correctly, the transmit and receive sequences must be synchronized. This requires the receiver to synchronize its sequence with the transmitter's sequence via some sort of timing search process. However, this apparent drawback can be a significant benefit: if the sequences of multiple transmitters are synchronized with each other, the relative synchronizations the receiver must make between them can be used to determine relative timing, which, in turn, can be used to calculate the receiver's position if the transmitters' positions are known. This is the basis for many satellite navigation systems.

Figure 2.2 Generation of Spreading Sequences

The resulting effect of enhancing signal to noise ratio on the channel is called process gain. This effect can be made larger by employing a longer PN sequence and more chips per bit, but physical devices used to generate the PN sequence impose practical limits on attainable processing gain.

Figure 2.3 Generation of De-spreading Sequences If an undesired transmitter transmits on the same channel but with a different PN sequence (or no sequence at all), the de-spreading process results in no processing gain for that signal. This effect is the basis for the code division multiple access (CDMA) property of DSSS, which allows multiple transmitters to share the same channel within the limits of the cross-correlation properties of their PN sequences.

Systems using DS-SS require more bandwidth and this contradicts the concept of bandwidth conservation. However, many advantages exist to using such a system. The development of DS-SS was conducted for the military, so the most advantageous facet is the inherent security of the system. The PN sequence encodes the data making it difficult to intercept and decode the signal without knowing the coded sequence used. The spreading process also makes jamming the signal difficult because the jamming signal is spread during the despreading process. Thus reducing its effect on the transmitted signal. Because each signal is encoded with a unique PN sequence, multiple signals can be transmitted within the same frequency band. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) uses spread spectrum technology and each transmitter uses a different spreading code to allow for multiple transmissions over the same channel. This property of the CDMA method of transmission has increased the popularity of this type of wireless communication. The CDMA method is widely used in current wireless systems and its use in next generation systems is anticipated. In GPS, each satellite transmits data that has been spread by a PN sequence. All satellites transmit independently using different spreading codes in the same frequency band so the system is classified as CDMA.

2.3 Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum


Frequency hopping is one of two basic modulation techniques used in spread spectrum signal transmission. In frequency hopped spread spectrum the available channel bandwidth W is subdivided into a large number of non-overlapping frequency slots. In any signaling interval the transmitted signal occupies one or more of the available frequency slots. The selection of the frequency slot in each signal interval is made pseudo randomly according to the output from a PN generator. It is the repeated switching of frequencies during radio transmission, often to minimize the effectiveness of "electronic warfare" - that is, the unauthorized interception or jamming of telecommunications. It also is known as frequency- hopping code division multiple access (FHCDMA). Spread spectrum modulation techniques have become more common in recent years. Spread spectrum enables a signal to be transmitted across a frequency band that is much wider than the minimum bandwidth required by the information signal. The transmitter "spreads" the energy, originally concentrated in narrowband, across a number of frequency band channels on a wider

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electromagnetic spectrum. Benefits include improved privacy, decreased narrowband interference, and increased signal capacity. In an FH-CDMA system, a transmitter "hops" between available frequencies according to a specified algorithm, which can be either random or preplanned. The transmitter operates in synchronization with a receiver, which remains tuned to the same center frequency as the transmitter. A short burst of data is transmitted on a narrowband. Then, the transmitter tunes to another frequency and transmits again. The receiver thus is capable of hopping its frequency over a given bandwidth several times a second, transmitting on one frequency for a certain period of time, then hopping to another frequency and transmitting again. Frequency hopping requires a much wider bandwidth than is needed to transmit the same information using only one carrier frequency. The spread spectrum approach that is an alternative to FH-CDMA is direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA), which chops the data into small pieces and spreads them across the frequency domain. FH-CDMA devices use less power and are generally cheaper, but the performance of DS-CDMA systems is usually better and more reliable. The biggest advantage of frequency hopping lies in the coexistence of several access points in the same area, something not possible with direct sequence. Certain rules govern how frequency-hopping devices are used. In North America, the Industrial, Scientific, and Medial (ISM) waveband is divided into 75 hopping channels, with power transmission not to exceed 1 watt on each channel. These restrictions ensure that a single device does not consume too much bandwidth or linger too long on a single frequency.

2.3.1 Features
FHSS is one of two types of spread spectrum radio, the other being direct-sequence spread spectrum. FHSS is a transmission technology used in wireless transmissions where the data signal is modulated with a narrowband carrier signal that "hops" in a random but predictable sequence from frequency to frequency as a function of time over a wide band of frequencies. The signal energy is spread in time domain rather than chopping each bit into small pieces in the frequency domain. This technique reduces interference because a signal from a narrowband system will only affect the spread spectrum signal if both are transmitting at the same frequency at the same time. If

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synchronized properly, a single logical channel is maintained. The transmission frequencies are determined by a spreading, or hopping, code. The receiver must be set to the same hopping code and must listen to the incoming signal at the right time and correct frequency in order to properly receive the signal. Current FCC regulations require manufacturers to use 75 or more frequencies per transmission channel with a maximum dwell time (the time spent at a particular frequency during any single hop) of 400 ms. The overall bandwidth required for frequency hopping is much wider than that required to transmit the same information using only one carrier frequency. However, because transmission occurs only on a small portion of this bandwidth at any given time, the effective interference bandwidth is really the same. Whilst providing no extra protection against wideband thermal noise, the frequency-hopping approach does reduce the degradation caused by narrowband interferers. One of the challenges of frequency-hopping systems is to synchronize the transmitter and receiver. One approach is to have a guarantee that the transmitter will use all the channels in a fixed period of time. The receiver can then find the transmitter by picking a random channel and listening for valid data on that channel. The transmitter's data is identified by a special sequence of data that is unlikely to occur over the segment of data for this channel and the segment can have a checksum for integrity and further identification.

2.3.2 Transmission method for FHSS


A block diagram of the transmitter and receiver for a FH spread spectrum system is shown in Figure 2.4 The modulation is either binary or M-ary FSK. For example if binary FSK is employed, the modulator selects one of two frequencies, f0 or f1 corresponding to the transmission of a0 for a1. The resulting binary FSK signal is translated in frequency by an amount that is determined by the output sequence from PN generator which is used to select a frequency fc that is synthesized by the frequency synthesizer. This frequency-translated signal is transmitted over the channel. For example, by taking m bit form the PN generator, we may specify possible carrier frequencies. At the receiver, there is an identical PN sequence generator, synchronized with the received signal, which is used to control the output of the frequency synthesizer. Thus the pseudorandom frequency translation introduced at the transmitter is removed at the demodulator by mixing the

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synthesizer output with the received signal. The resultant signal is then demodulated by means of an FSK demodulator, a signal for maintaining synchronism of the PN sequence generator with the FH received signal is usually extractor form the received signal.

Figure 2.4 frequency hopped spread spectrum system Although binary PSK modulation generally yield better performance than FSK , it is difficult to maintain phase coherence in the synthesis of the frequencies used in the hopping pattern and, also, in the propagation of the signal over the channel as the signal is hopped from one frequency to another over a wide bandwidth. Consequently, FSK modulation with non-coherent demodulation is usually employed in FH spread spectrum systems. The frequency hopping rate, denoted as Rh, may be selected to be either equal to the symbol rate, lower than the symbol rate, or higher than the symbol rate. If Rh is equal to lower part at the symbol rate, the FH system is called a slow hopping system. If Rh is higher that symbol rate, the FH system is called a fast hopping system

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2.4 CDMA Time division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency division multiple access (FDMA) are commonly used multiple access communications systems. TDMA communications use the entire bandwidth to which it is assigned and separates each user by assigning a repetitive time interval. The user can only communicate in the assigned time slots. This TDMA approach is inefficient because, during idle times, communications do not use that portion of the fixed timeslot for operation. In FDMA communications, each user is assigned a frequency slot in the communication bandwidth in which to communicate. This FDMA approach is inefficient because, during idle times, communications do not require that portion of the bandwidth for operation. TDMA also requires synchronization overhead to maintain the operational performance of the system. In the FDMA system, imperfect band-pass filters exist, requiring frequency slots to be separated by guard bands to prevent interference from adjacent frequency slots. The enhancement in performance obtained from a DS spread spectrum signal through the processing gain and the coding gain can be used to enable many DS spread spectrum signals to occupy the same channel bandwidth, provided that each signal has its own pseudorandom sequence, thus it is possible to have several users transmit message simultaneously over the same channel bandwidth. This type of digital communication, in which each transmitter/receiver user pair has its own distinct signature code for transmitting over a common channel bandwidth, is called code division multiple access. In digital cellular communications, a base station transmits signal to number of mobile receivers using orthogonal PN sequence, one for each intended receiver, these signals are perfectly synchronized at transmission, so that they arrive at each mobile receiver in synchronism. Consequently, due to the orthogonality of the number of PN sequence, each intended receiver can demodulate its own signal without interference from the other transmitted signals that share the same bandwidth. However, this type of synchronism cannot be maintained in the signals transmitted from the mobile transmitters to the base station. In the demodulation of each DS spread spectrum signal at the base station, the signals from the other simultaneous users of the channel appear as additive interference. Let us determine the number of simultaneous signals that can be

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accommodated in a CDMA system. We assume that all signals have identical average powers at the base station. In many practical system the received signals power level from each user is monitored at the base station, and power control is exercised over all simultaneous users by use of a a control channel that instructs the users on whether to increase or decrease their power levels. The advantage of the CDMA method over the other methods is that instead of isolating each user, all users share the channel resources. Each user is assigned a unique PN sequence with which to encode and decode the data. They all transmit on the same carrier frequency with approximately the same power level that is below the background noise level. The PN sequences used in the system have low cross-correlations with each other, and therefore, interference with other signals is low. GPS uses a PN sequence called Gold Sequences, which are a class of low cross-correlation codes. This approach makes each user seem as though they are operating alone within a channel of high background noise. This allows systems using CDMA to accommodate a large number of users within the same bandwidth and no part of the system is reserved for idling users. The receiver will synchronize with the desired signal bringing the power of that data signal above the background noise. This process works despite the fact that the signals all transmit on the same bandwidth and at approximately the same power level. GPS signals utilize CDMA communications using direct sequence bi-phase modulation of the carrier frequency. From any location on the surface of the earth, five to twelve GPS satellites are typically visible at any given time. Demodulation of the CDMA signals transmitted provides a spreading gain that renders the power level of the signal above that of the background noise level.

Chapter 3: PN-sequences
3.1 Generation of PN sequences

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On the basis of what has been said of the DS spread-spectrum system that is the core of the CDMA system, we can state that CDMA is an MA technique that uses spread-spectrum modulation by each accessing party with its own unique spreading code, with all accessing parties sharing the same spectrum. It is also clear now that spread-spectrum modulation is accomplished by means of PN codes. The narrowband information signal or information sequence is modulated (multiplied) by the wideband spreading signal (sequence), thereby spreading the information signal spectrum to a substantially greater bandwidth prior to transmission. It is important to recognize that CDMA can only be accomplished by spread-spectrum modulation, while spread-spectrum modulation does not mean CDMA. Pseudorandom or pseudonoise (PN) sequences are used in data scrambling in the IS-95 system as well as for spread-spectrum modulation. Data scrambling is achieved by changing the data sequence "randomly" or in a noise-like fashion before transmission. At the receiver, the scrambled sequence is "changed back" to the original data sequence. The two concepts, "randomness" and "changing back," are the key ideas involved in understanding the CDMA system. If the generated sequence were completely random, the receiver would have no way to change back. On the other hand, if the receiver knows how to change back, the sequence cannot be completely random. Consider the following sequences: Data sequence Random sequence 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1... 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0...

Transmitted sequence 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1... The transmitted sequence is a scrambled version of the data sequence obtained by the bitby-bit modulo-2 addition of the data sequence and a random sequence. At the receiver, an identical "random" sequence is added to the received sequence, which in the absence of noise is the transmitted sequence: Transmitted sequence 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 I... Random sequence Data sequence 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0.. . 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1.. .

This illustration reveals two fundamental requirements on the random sequence:

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It must be reproducible at the receiver; It must be reproduced in synchronism with the scrambling sequence at the transmitter.

These two requirements make it virtually impossible to use a completely random sequence and hence, in practice, we use a sequence that has sufficient randomness to be unrecognizable to unintended receivers and yet is deterministic to make it relatively easy to generate and to synchronize at the receiver. The most important method of generating such binary sequences is by means of a linear feedback shift register (LFSR). For an LFSR sequence generator with n stages, the output sequence will always be periodic because, whatever the initial conditions of the shift register, after a finite number of clock pulses, the initial conditions must eventually be reproduced. Because the maximum number of different combinations of n binary digits is 2n , the period cannot exceed 2n . Because the all-zero condition, if reached, remains in the same state forever, it cannot appear in the shift register if the initial condition (initial loading or state) is not all zeros. Therefore, the maximum number of possible states is 2n 1 . A shift register output sequence with the period 2n 1 is called a "maximal length sequence" or "m-sequence" for short. M-sequences are also referred to as "pseudorandom sequences" or PN sequences. When PN sequences clocked at very high rates are modulated (multiplied) with data sequences in a communications system, such as the IS-95 system, it is a spread spectrum system that provides 10 log (RN/Rb ) dB of "processing gain," where RN is the PN sequence rate and Rb is the data rate. The generation of PN sequences is accomplished using a linear feedback shift register (LFSR)as shown in figure 2.5. In either case, the shift register generator is a finite-state machine mechanized by a polynomial given in the form of g ( D) = D n + sn 1 Dn 1 + + s2 D2 + s1 D1 + 1 (1.1)

The polynomial (1.1) is a special type of polynomial, well tabulated in the literature, called an generator polynomial, which specifies a set of nonzero coefficients {si), where si = 1 denotes a connection and = 0 denotes the lack of a connection in the mechanization of the LFSR

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configuration. The sequences generated by such an LFSR with an initial loading of nonzero ntuples in the n stages, are periodic sequences with length N = 2n 1 , and there are P different sequences of length P that are shifted versions of the given initial sequence of length P. The sequences generated in this way are the ones used. There are three most important properties associated with a PN sequence, aside from the basic property that it has the maximal length of 2n 1 , where n is the number of stages of the LFSR. Two of the three remaining properties have to do with the randomness of the sequence, but the one we wish to mention here is the correlation property. What it means is that if a complete sequence of length 2n 1 is compared, bit by bit, with any shift of itself (one of 2n 1 remaining sequences), the number of agreements differs from the number of disagreements by at most 1. This means that when two identical sequences are compared, bit by bit, the number of agreements minus the number of disagreements is equal to the number of agreements, which is 2n 1 . We generate the m-sequence using a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR). The LFSR is implemented in the modular format as shown below in Figure 3.1.

Figure3.1 Linear Feedback Shift Register The modular format is suited for efficient hardware implementation and is faster compared to a simple format. The initial load of the register, r = [rn 1 , rn 2 , rn3 , , r1 , r0 ] cannot be in the all zero

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state and the generator polynomial taps g = [ g n , g n 1 , g n 2 , gn 3 , , g1 , g0 ] should be such that g0 and g n are non zero. If the initial load is the all-zero state, the register r cannot update to any other state and will result in zero output all the time. The elements of g and r are from the binary set {0,1}. In Figure 1, the tap g0 =1 and represents the connection from the LSB r0 of the register to all other generator taps. During a clock tick, the value in r0 is clocked out as the first output bit d. In hardware implementation, the binary value in g determines the presence or absence of a modulo 2 multiplier. In MATLAB implementation, we AND (modulo 2 multiply) r0 with g n through g1 to obtain s = [ sn , sn 1 , sn 2 , sn 3 , , s1 ] as shown in Figure 3.1. Next we update the register r. We XOR (modulo 2 addition) the vectors [ sn 1, sn 2 , sn3 , , s1 ] and [rn 1, rn 2 , rn 3 , , r1 ] and store the result in [rn 2, rn 3 , rn 4 , , r0 ] . Finally, the MSB of the register r, rn 1 , is updated with the value of sn . The register r is now next state and during the next clock cycle, the LSB r0 is clocked out as next output of the m-sequence and the process continues. Here, n denotes the size of the linear feedback shift register. The length of generated m-sequence is N= 2n 1 and it repeats with period N.

3.2 Properties of Maximal Length PN Sequences


The maximal length PN sequences or m-sequences generated have many of the same properties of a truly random sequence. A truly random sequence has an equal probability of a 1 or a 0 occurring and the PN sequences come close to that property. The properties of m-sequences are: 1. The Balance Property: The number of 1s in the sequence is always one greater than the number of 0s. 2. The Shift and Add Property: The Modulo-2 addition of an m-sequence with a time-shifted version of the same m-sequence yields a second time-shifted version of the same m-sequence. 3. The Correlation Property: When a full period of an m-sequence is compared with a time-shifted version of itself, the number of mismatched chips will exceed the number of matched chips by one.

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3.3 The Cross-Correlation Problem


The cross-correlation function between two distinct pseudorandom sequences is a very important consideration in MA communications systems where each user terminal (access terminal) is assigned a PN generator whose polynomial is distinct from all other user terminals. In fact, this is the type of CDMA spread-spectrum system used by the military. A distinction between the military type of CDMA system and the nonmilitary type such as IS-95 is that, in the former, the communications channel condition does not permit a phase coherent PN code MA system, as opposed to the more controllable channel conditions of cellular or PCS applications in which mobilility is not a panicular concern. In a military or high-mobility environment, where the carrier phase tracking is of insurmountable difficulty, a CDMA system based on a single PN code generator, such as the IS-95 system, is not possible. The problem of assigning code generators with low cross-correlation peaks is an important consideration. For CDMA applications, m-sequences are not optimal. The m-sequences have excellent autocorrelation properties but their cross-correlation properties do not follow any particular rules and typically exhibit undesirably high values. For CDMA, we need to construct a family of spreading sequences, one for each which, in which the codes have well-defined cross-correlation properties. In general, m-sequences do not satisfy the criterion. One popular set of sequences that does are the Gold sequences. Gold sequences are attractive because only simple circuitry is needed to generate a large number of unique codes. A Gold sequence is constructed by the XOR of two msequences with the same clocking. Gold sequences are generated from two equal length msequences that form a so called preferred pair. To achieve increased capacity, at an expense of altering the correlation properties slightly, a pair of m-sequences may be used to generate a set of Gold sequence. To overcome the cross-correlation problem, Gold considers the bit-by- bit modulo-2 sum of two pseudorandom sequences of the same length but generated by two distinct primitive polynomials. If the length of the two PN sequences is P = 2n 1 , then the resultant sequence also repeats itself after P bits. Further, if one sequence is kept fixed and the second sequence is shifted in time, a different resultant sequence is generated. In this way, P different sequences can be

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generated, one for each different time shift of the second sequence. Joining the two original PN sequences, altogether 2n + 1 different sequences can be generated with one pair of primitive polynomials. These sequences are referred to as Gold sequences or Gold codes; they are not maximal except for the two original PN sequences.

Chapter 4: Gold Code Sequences


4.1Gold Code Generation

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The usefulness of the pseudorandom sequences in a spread-spectrum system depends in large part on their ideal autocorrelation properties. One of the randomness properties of the pseudorandom sequence is the correlation property; that is, if a complete sequence is compared, bit by bit, with any shift of itself, the number of agreements differs from the number of disagreements by at most one. The cross-correlation function between two different pseudorandom sequences of the same length is, however, an entirely different matter. It can have high peaks; and to make the matter worse, there is no simple method available to calculate the cross-correlation function between two pseudorandom sequences except by brute force calculation and simulation. For long sequences, this is not possible even with the fastest computers. The cross correlation properties are as important in communication systems as autocorrelation properties. Cross correlation is a measure of agreement between the two different codes. The periodic cross correlation between any pair of m-sequences is very high. Such high values of cross correlation are undesirable in CDMA communications. For CDMA applications, m-sequences are not optimal. For CDMA, we need to construct a family of spreading sequences, one for each which, in which the codes have well-defined cross-correlation properties. In general, m-sequences do not satisfy the criterion. One popular set of sequences that does are the Gold sequences. Gold sequences are attractive because only simple circuitry is needed to generate a large number of unique codes. Gold sequences have been proposed by Gold in 1967 and 1968. These are constructed by EXOR-ing two PN sequences of the same length with each other. Gold developed new sequences with better cross correlation properties called Gold sequences. Gold sequences are defined using a pair of preferred sequences. Gold sequences of length N can be constructed from a preferred-pair of PN-sequences. This two PN sequences are XORed (modulo-2 addition) together to generate Gold code sequences. The result is a new period sequences with the period N = 2n 1 . To achieve increased capacity, at an expense of altering the correlation properties slightly, a pair of m-sequences may be used to generate a set of Gold sequence, which have the property that the cross-correlation is always equal to 1, when the phase offset is zero. Non-zero phase offset produces a correlation value from one of the three possible values. In this work a pair of specially selected m-sequences (where m = 5) is taken, and performing the modulo2 sum of the two sequences for each of the L=2n-1 cyclically shifted version of one sequence relative to the other sequence.

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The Configuration for the generation of the Gold code sequences from the modulo 2 addition of two same length PN sequences as shown in figure 4.1.

Figure.4.1 Generation of the Gold Code sequences

Chapter 5: Simulation Results


5.1 Simulation results for PN sequences
Suppose the generator taps are g = [ g 0 , g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 ] =[1 0 1 0 1] and the corresponding generator polynomial is, g ( D) = 1 + D 2 + D 4 then the result will be displayed as given bellow:

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Enter the size of the Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) = 4 Initial State of the LFSR = 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 15 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 The generator (gm) =

Status of Register after the 1 clock is : Status of Register after the 2 clock is : Status of Register after the 3 clock is : Status of Register after the 4 clock is : Status of Register after the 5 clock is : Status of Register after the 6 clock is : Status of Register after the 7 clock is : Status of Register after the 8 clock is : Status of Register after the 9 clock is : Status of Register after the 10 clock is : Status of Register after the 11 clock is : Status of Register after the 12 clock is : Status of Register after the 13 clock is : Status of Register after the 14 clock is : Status of Register after the 15 clock is : The number of bits in PN-sequence = Generated PN-sequence is : 1 0

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1 0 . 9 0 . 8 0 . 7 0 . 6 0 . 5 0 . 4 0 . 3 0 . 2 0 . 1 0 0

1 0

1 5

Figure 5.1 PN sequences(m-sequences) for N=4


1

0 .9

0 .8

0 .7

0 .6

0 .5

0 .4

0 .3

0 .2

0 .1

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Figure 5.2 PN sequences(m-sequences) for N=10 The number of bits in PN-sequence = 1023

25

5.2 Simulation Results for Gold Code Sequences


Suppose the first generator taps are g = [ g 0 , g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 ] =[1
0 1 0 1] and the

corresponding generator polynomial is, g ( D) = 1 + D 2 + D 4 . And second generator taps are g = [ g 0 , g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 ] =[1 1 0 0 1] and the corresponding generator polynomial is, g ( D) = 1 + D1 + D 4 then the result will be displayed as given bellow: Enter the size of the Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR)1 = 4 Enter the size of the Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR)2 = 4 Enter the first Generator polynomial = [1 0 1 0 1] Enter the second Generator polynomial = [1 1 0 0 1] Status of Register after the 1 clock is : Status of Register after the 2 clock is : Status of Register after the 3 clock is : Status of Register after the 4 clock is : Status of Register after the 5 clock is : Status of Register after the 6 clock is : Status of Register after the 7 clock is : Status of Register after the 8 clock is : Status of Register after the 9 clock is : Status of Register after the 10 clock is : Status of Register after the 11 clock is : Status of Register after the 12 clock is : Status of Register after the 13 clock is : Status of Register after the 14 clock is : Status of Register after the 15 clock is : The number of bits in PN1-sequence = 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 15 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

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Status of Register after the 1 clock is : Status of Register after the 2 clock is : Status of Register after the 3 clock is : Status of Register after the 4 clock is : Status of Register after the 5 clock is : Status of Register after the 6 clock is : Status of Register after the 7 clock is : Status of Register after the 8 clock is : Status of Register after the 9 clock is : Status of Register after the 10 clock is : Status of Register after the 11 clock is : Status of Register after the 12 clock is : Status of Register after the 13 clock is : Status of Register after the 14 clock is : Status of Register after the 15 clock is : The number of bits in PN2-sequence = Generated PN1-sequence is : 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1

15

Generated PN2-sequence is : 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

Generated gold-sequence is : 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1

27

The simulation results for N=4


The first generator polynomial for PN sequence 1 is [1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 ] The first generator polynomial for PN sequence 2 is [1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 ] As shown in figure 5.3,the generated PN sequences 1 for N=4,the total number of bits in these sequences are N= 2n 1 =15 bits As shown in figure 5.4,the generated PN sequences 2 for N=4,the total number of bits in these sequences are N= 2n 1 =15 bits. As shown in figure 5.5,the generated Gold Code sequences for N=4,the total number of bits in these sequences are N= 2n 1 =15 bits.These Gold code sequences aer generated by XORing the PN sequences 1 and PN sequences 2.

n 2 Generated m -s equenc e1 of length1-1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2

8 10 Chip Index (k 1)

12

14

28

Figure 5.3 First PN Sequences for N=4

G rt d -eeeo nh e a mqn2fl g 2 n e s uc et e

2 1

0 . 8

0 . 6

0 . 4

0 . 2

-. 0 2

8 C Id (2 h nx ) i ek p

1 0

1 2

1 4

Figure 5.4 Second PN Sequences for N=4

Gn r te g lds q e c o le g 2 e ea d o - e u n e f n th

n21 -

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

- .2 0

8 CipIn e ( ) h dx k

1 0

1 2

1 4

29

Figure 5.5 Generated Gold Code Sequences for N=4

The simulation results for N=10


The first generator polynomial for PN sequence 1 is [1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 ] The first generator polynomial for PN sequence 2 is [1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 ] As shown in figure 5.6,the generated PN sequences 1 for N=10,the total number of bits in these sequences are N= 2n 1 =1023 bits As shown in figure 5.7,the generated PN sequences 2 for N=10,the total number of bits in these sequences are N= 2n 1 =1023 bits. As shown in figure 5.8,the generated Gold Code sequences for N=10,the total number of bits in these sequences are N= 2n 1 =1023 bits.These Gold code sequences aer generated by XORing the PN sequences 1 and PN sequences 2.

G enerated m -sequence1 of length 2

n1-1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2

100

200

300

400 500 600 C Index (k1) hip

700

800

900

1000

Figure 5.6 Generated PN Code 1 Sequences for N=10

30

Gn r te m e u n e o le g 2 e ea d - q e c 2 f n th s

n21 -

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

- .2 0

10 0

20 0

30 0

40 0 50 0 60 0 CipI d x( 2 h ne k )

70 0

80 0

90 0

10 00

Figure 5.7 Generated PN Code 2 Sequences for N=10

G enera go ted ld-sequen of le th 2 ce ng

n2-1

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

-0.2

100

20 0

300

4 00 500 60 0 C ip In h dex (k)

700

8 00

900

1000

Figure 5.8 Generated Gold Code Sequences for N=10

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5.3 Conclusion
From the above results and Graphs we can safely conclude the following : 1) I have successfully generated a PN sequences and Gold Code sequences. We can generate PN sequences and Gold Code sequences of any bit length and modulate a message signal. This signal is called spreaded signal. We have also successfully demodulate the spreaded signal using the same Gold Code sequence to produce the original message signal. 2) Better Auto correlation of the Gold Codes over the PN sequences, thus proving that Gold Code is more suitable for modulation and spreading of a message signal than the Pseudo Noise sequences.

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REFERENCES
[1] Raymond L. Pickholtz, Donald L. Schilling, Laurence B. Milstein. Theory of Spread Spectrum Communications -- A Tutorial, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM30, May 1982, pp. 855-884. [2] Robert C. Dixon. Spread Spectrum Communications, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1984. [3] Edward A. Lee, David G. Messerchmitt, Digital Communications, Second Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA, 1994. [4] Marcus C. Wlden, Roger D. Pollard. On the Processing Gain and Pulse Compression Ratio of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Waveforms, IEEE National Telesystems Conference Proceedings, 1993, pp. 215-219. [5] T.S.D. Tsui, T.G. Clarkson. Spread Spectrum Communication Techniques, Electronics and Communication Engineering Journal, Februaru 1994. [6] Laurence B. Milstein, Donal L. Schilling. The Effect of Frequency-Selective Fading on a Noncoherent FH-FSK System Operating with partial Band Tone Interference, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-30, May 1982, pp. 904-912. [7] G. Mandyam and J. Lai, Third- Generation cdma systems for enhanced data services, Academic Press, 2002. [8] B. Lee, B. Kim, Scrambling Techniques for CDMA Communications, New York Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002. [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudorandom_binary_sequencehttp:// micromouse.cannock.ac.uk [10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DSSS [11] www.mathworks.com/

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APPENDIX
Abbreviations:
AMPS N-AMPS D-AMPS EDGE TIA CDMA DS ERBF ETSI FDMA FECC FH GSM IMT 2000 ICI ISI IS-95 ITU MSC MUD PG PN SS TDMA TH UMTS WCDMA analog advanced mobile phone system narrowband AMPS digital AMPS Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution telecommunications industry association code division multiple access direct sequence radial basis function with Euclidean distance measure European Telecommunications Standards Institute frequency division multiple access forward error correction coding frequency hopping Global System for Mobile International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 inter chip interference inter symbol interference interim standard-95 International Telecommunication Union mobile switching centre multiuser detector processing gain pseudo-noise or pseudo-random spread spectrum time division multiple access time hopping Universal Mobile Telecommunication Standard wideband CDMA

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