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1 Geodynamo modeling: successes and challenges
Ulrich Christensen Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany In the past ten years self-consistent numerical simulations of the geodynamo had a remarkable success. In many of these models the magnetic ﬁeld properties closely match those of the geomagnetic ﬁeld in terms of spatial spectra and magnetic ﬁeld morphology, or the time scales and amplitudes of secular variation. Some models exhibit dipole reversals whose temporal behaviour agrees with what is known for geomagnetic reversals from the paleomagnetic record. Scientists progressively use dynamo models as a tool to explain speciﬁc properties of the geomagnetic ﬁeld or to study second order eﬀects, for example those arising from the coupling between the Earth’s mantle and core. While the recent geodynamo models rely only on the fundamental laws of magnetohydrodynamics, some conditions diﬀer strongly from those in the Earth’s core. In all models the viscosity is ﬁxed to values far in excess of realistic ones in order to suppress small-scale turbulence of the ﬂow, which cannot be resolved with present computational means. Whether this seriously corrupts the essential physics of the dynamo process is an open question. Also, diﬀerent models with similar structure of the external (observable) ﬁeld may diﬀer signiﬁcantly in their internal ﬁeld structure. It is not fully understood why the magnetic ﬁeld is dipole-dominated in some models and not in others, but recent results suggest that the relative importance of inertial forces on the ﬂow plays a major role. A well-founded theory that explains the variability in strength and morphology of diﬀerent planetary magnetic ﬁelds in the solar system is still missing. One attempt for improving this situation consist of pushing the model parameters in the direction of Earth values and to use the results of systematic parameter studies to quantify the dependence of key properties of the dynamo solution, e.g. the mean velocity and mean magnetic ﬁeld strength, on the control parameters. The ﬁrst results for such scaling laws are promising and indicate that the dynamo properties depend mainly on the buoyancy ﬂux (or power) driving the system and are at most weakly dependent on the viscosity and the diﬀusivities, whose correct values cannot be used in numerical simulations. The predictions of these scaling laws for Earth and Jupiter agree well with the internal magnetic ﬁeld strength inferred from the dipole moment. The next generation of laboratory dynamos working with a free turbulent ﬂow of liquid sodium will play an important role for testing the extrapolation of model-based scaling laws to core conditions.
S7.2 Geodynamo simulation using ﬁnite element method– and sub-grid scale modeling
Hiroaki Matsui Department of Geophysical Sciences, the University of Chicago, USA In the last ten years, a number of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation in a rotating spherical shell have successfully reproduced some basic characteristics of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. Most of these dynamo simulations were performed using a spherical harmonics expansion of the ﬁelds. The spherical harmonics expansion has advantages in accuracy and in the implementation of the magnetic boundary condition. However, the spherical harmonics expansion requires signiﬁcant number of computations for Legendre transform and communications for the global computations. We have developed a simulation code for MHD dynamo in a rotating spherical shell using the ﬁniteelement method (FEM). An advantage of FEM is that it is suitable for parallel computation because the method consists of local operations. In addition, we can adapt the model to diﬀerent geometries by simply modifying the ﬁnite element mesh. However, to solve the geodynamo problem using the ﬁnite element method, we have to solve two diﬃculties. One is the boundary condition at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and another is the divergence free condition for the magnetic ﬁeld. The magnetic ﬁeld in the conductive ﬂuid must be continued into the electrical insulator at CMB and that the potential magnetic ﬁeld must also be determined simultaneously. To solve the magnetic ﬁeld external of the shell, the simulation domain is extended beyond the ﬂuid shell to a distance of 5 to 8 Earth radii. The vector potential of the magnetic ﬁeld with the Coulomb gauge is chosen for time integrations to satisfy
the boundary condition and to obtain magnetic ﬁeld. We tested the present scheme by the dynamo benchmark test, and we performed a MHD simulations with a grid which has 5 × 10 6 elements in the simulation domain in the highest resolution case, and obtain magnetic ﬁelds which have an intense dipole component like other dynamo simulations using spherical harmonic expansion. The Sub-grid scale (SGS) modeling is required for the geodynamo simulations because the convection of the Earth’s outer core is supposed to have small scale components which cannot be resolved in numerical simulations. By using the FEM framework, we can apply the same SGS model to diﬀerent geometries. We can verify the SGS model using a simpler model or compare with the experimental studies. The SGS modeling in the present study is based on ﬁltering approach to eliminate unresolved ﬁeld. Considering the ﬁltering operation for the basic equations, we need additional terms. For the geodynamo simulation, we should model the inﬂuence of sub-grid scale motion for the momentum and heat ﬂux, the Lorentz force, and the induction term. We model the SGS terms using the nonlinear gradient model by Leonard (1974), which is a form of the scale similarity model. We modify the SGS model to correct the commutation error, which arises when the order of ﬁltering by spatial dependent ﬁlter and spatial diﬀerentiation operation is changed, speciﬁcally for the nonlinear gradient model. To test the present SGS model, we use a rotating plane layer model to verify the SGS model by comparing with the direct simulation without SGS terms in a ﬁner resolution mesh. The results show that the SGS terms approximate the inﬂuence of the small-scale ﬁelds in fully resolved calculations.
S7.3 Geomagnetic observations and dynamo simulations
Gauthier Hulot Equipe de G´omagn´tisme, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, France e e The past decade has seen considerable progress in numerical simulations of dynamos. In parallel, substantial eﬀorts have been put in acquiring, analysing and making available large data sets to assess the exact nature and behaviour of the magnetic ﬁeld produced by the geodynamo. Those exciting progress have already prompted several attempts to compare results from numerical simulations to those derived from observations. This however is no easy task for a variety of reasons. One is that dynamo simulations still cannot reach the parameter ranges we think are relevant to the Earth. Another is that the data we have at hand have many limitations. All we can observe is the ﬁeld that escapes from the core and reaches the Earth’s surface. In addition, both the time and spatial resolution of the ﬁeld we can actually reconstruct from the data is very limited and highly dependent on the type of data being used. By far the most detailed ”movie” of the geomagnetic ﬁeld we currently have is that covering the most recent years, thanks to the advent of magnetic ﬁeld observations from space (MAGSAT, 1980, followed by Oersted in 1999, Champ and SAC-C in 2000). Next comes the somewhat less detailed, but much longer ”movie” derived from ground based historical measurements, and covering the past four centuries. Looking at the ﬁeld further back in time is possible, but requires that we rely on archeomagnetic, complemented by recent volcanic and lake sediment data. This makes it possible to infer the behaviour of the ﬁeld up to maybe 7000 years ago but introduces further limitations, with even lower spatial resolution and some very signiﬁcant loss of temporal resolution. Finally, additional and extremely useful information can also be derived from paleomagnetic data and sea-surface magnetic proﬁles. But in that case, no more accurate synchronisation between the various data sets can easily be achieved, making it diﬃcult to build any further global ”movies” of the ﬁeld. Nevertheless, this data can still give access to some important characteristics of the ancient ﬁeld, such as time series of the global relative ﬁeld intensity and of the sequence of ﬁeld reversals, the likely morphology of the average ﬁeld and of its variability at times of stable polarity, and the way the ﬁeld tends to reverse. All these data can then in principle be used, and have often been used, not only to try and characterise the present and past behaviour of the geomagnetic ﬁeld, but also to compare this behaviour to that of the ﬁeld produced from currently available dynamo simulations, possibly subjected to inhomogeneous boundary conditions. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss, through a few speciﬁc examples, the usefulness and limitations of such an approach for both assessing the ”Earthly” nature of dynamo simulations, and better understanding the actual behaviour of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld.
S7.4 The ﬂow in the Earth’s core in the inviscid limit
5 Inside a geomagnetic polarity reversal with DMFI Julien Aubert Equipe de Dynamique des Syst`mes G´ologiques. J.: From stable dipolar to reversing numerical dynamos. changing the magnetic and the Archimedean forces.. 131 (2002). C. it is the Taylor State. Then substitution of (2) into (1) in the leading and the next approximations yields: rb ·V(0) (rb ) = 0 rb ·V(1) (rb ) = γ(rb )[2zb ωb − rb · ×V(0) (rb )] (3) (4) One can assume that the leading approximation deﬁnes the ﬂow and the next approximation gives small corrections to it. V a = 1φ V φ . On the boundaries this ﬂow is deﬁned by the Ekman suction into the boundary layer: √ rb ·V(rb ) = Eγ(rb )[2zb ωb − rb · ×V(rb )] γ(rb ) = 4 2 cos2 ϑ + Br (rb ) − Br (rb ) 2 ϑ + B 4 (r )) 2(cos r b (1) where rb is the coordinate on the boundary and ωb is its angular velocity. and a model powered by chemical convection (Kutzner and Christensen 2002) is performed. 802-805 3 . the pressure. The zonal ﬂow has a decisive role for the destruction of the dipole in one polarity. Bulgaria The magnetic ﬁeld and the temperature distribution evolve together with the ﬂow. DMFI allows to investigate complex problems such as the mechanisms of polarity reversals in numerical dynamo models. Both conditions (3) and (4). Phys. Corrections to √ the leading approximation are of order of E. In this case the momentum equation converts into the balance of the Coriolis.Alexander Anufriev Geophysical Institute. Kutzner. L. and Guyodo. France e e This poster presents the new dynamical magnetic ﬁeldline imaging technique (DMFI). Bulgarian Academy of Sciencies. deﬁning the ﬂow in the leading approximation. E → 0. 29-4 Valet. before reconstruction of the opposite polarity. Soﬁa.e. However it is not true! It follows from our analysis that the leading approximation deﬁnes only the non-axisymmetric part of the ﬂow and the meridional component of its axisymmetric part provided. Y. i. that the Taylor constraint is satisﬁed. S7. . That is why the study of the ﬂow in the Earth’s core in the inviscid limit. can be carried out assuming that the force moving the ﬂuid does not change during ﬁtting of the ﬂow to them. the Lorentz and the buoyancy forces. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. .R. Respectively the leading approximation of this ﬂow is independent of E.: Geomagnetic dipole strength and reversal rate over the past two million years. The conditions (1) have to be satisﬁed at any value of E. That is why we search the solution in a form of expansion: √ (2) V(r) = V(0) (r) + EV(1) (r) + EV(2) (r) + . (0) (0) The azimuthal part of the axisymmetric ﬂow. do not include E. However the process of adjusting of the ﬂow in the bulk of the Earth’s core is much faster than that of changing of the ﬁeld and the temperature. This statement deﬁnes the role of the Taylor constraint. Nature 435 (2005). Meynadier. Earth Planet. This statement can be checked by numerical simulations. I investigate the reasons why the latter model produces more Earth-like reversals (with a signiﬁcant dipolar ﬁeld between inversions). Int. al 2005). and Christensen. Applying the results to palaeomagnetic records gives a possible explanation of the asymmetric character of polarity decay versus polarity recovery (Valet et. is deﬁned in the next approximation together with the small corrections to the ﬂow of the leading approximation. U.-P. A comparison of reversals in a model heated by temperature diﬀerence at the boundaries.
We aim ﬁrstly to use core ﬂows to predict the SV more precisely than previous methods (such as non-linear extrapolation). We have also found that the dynamo eﬃciency depends on the relative magnitude of the non-diagonal term with respect to the diagonal terms. theoretical and experimental work on anisotropic α 2 dynamos has reproduced a dipole ﬁeld with the axis perpendicular to the columns (equatorial dipole). Germany b Lab. As in the ﬁrst case. however.6 Boundary eﬀects on anisotropic α2 dynamos a ´˜ R. The associated mechanisms of generation corresponds to an α − Ω or an α 2 dynamo with an anisotropic α eﬀect. As in the other cases we have varied the cylinder height but in this case the solutions are oscillatory and the dominant ﬁeld is always an equatorial dipole. The question of which physical assumptions apply in the core is still under debate. lead to similar ﬂow velocity maps. F. However. S7. UK Modelling of the ﬂow at the top of the outer core generating the observed secular variation (SV) on the surface of the Earth is open to considerable ambiguity. France e It is generally assumed that the ﬂow in Earth’s outer core is structured in helical columns and generates the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld which is mainly a dipole aligned with rotation axis (axial dipole). The dynamo solutions were obtained for several cylinder heights. They were derived from a ﬂow described by a ring of stationary helical columns which are z-independent. Grenoble. This means that all the αiz elements are zero. 4 . Dresden. However. We have also considered more complex structures of α.7 Applying Diﬀerent Normalisation Models to Improve Core Flow Inversion a Ciaran Beggan a . We use a method for directly inverting the observed secular variation from observatories and repeat stations. Xu a . Edinburgh. This kind of α cannot generate currents from the interaction between the velocity ﬁeld and the axial magnetic ﬁeld. Equally. The magnitude of diagonal terms are almost negligible with respect to the other terms. they are needed in order to ﬁnd dynamo solutions. then the diagonal terms are negative above this plane and positive below this one. The non-diagonal term is positive along this direction. M. Finally we have computed dynamo solutions with an α derived from a time dependent quasi-geostrophic ﬂow at very low Ekman numbers. Gerbeth a and F. On the other side. The resulting dynamo ﬁeld is also an equatorial dipole. Methods adopting diﬀerent physical assumptions do. G. First we have considered the geometry of the Karlsruhe dynamo experiment: its excited ﬁeld is well described by diagonal but anisotropic α2 dynamo with αxx = αyy = α and αzz = 0.S7. Now the αzθ element appears and all components become dependent on the radial direction. rather than through the use of spherical harmonic models. University of Edinburgh. Kathy Whaler a and Susan Macmillan b School of Geosciences. the geophysical evidence for poloidal ﬂow in the upper part of the outer core is ambiguous. we have calculated dynamo solutions for several cylinder heights. only stationary solutions were found and the axial dipole becomes dominant below a critical cylinder height. Avalos-Zuniga a . All of these solutions are stationary and when the original height is reduced by 10% the axial dipole becomes dominant. it has been shown that this equatorial dipole changes its orientation to an axial dipole by enhancing magnetic diﬀusion due to a large scale ﬂow (α2 − Ω dynamos) or even due to a small scale ﬂow (α2 dynamo with anisotropic β-eﬀect). We investigate the use of diﬀerent ‘best-ﬁt’ or ‘minimisation’ methods in core ﬂow modelling based on past records of SV. For example. the assumption of a steady ﬂow remains under scrutiny. The last considered α proﬁle results from adding some harmonic dependence in the axial direction. In this work we show examples of anisotropic α2 dynamos in cylindrical geometry which result in a dominant axial dipole only due to geometrical eﬀects (boundary eﬀects).e. Direct numerical simulations of Earth’s dynamo have successfully reproduced many features of this ﬁeld. With this new α structure. Plunian b Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. des Ecoulements G´ophysiques et Industriels. We have ﬁxed the neutral plane at the half of the cylinder. UK b British Geological Survey. Stefani a . in order to produce a better prediction of the time evolution of the ﬁeld over the short term (i.
as suggested by their uniform spatial distribution over the whole investigated period. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris..5-10 years). we compute stacks of anomaly proﬁles from diﬀerent areas in the Indian and Paciﬁc oceans. we aim to re-examine the hypothesis of whether ﬂow at the top of the outer core can be assumed purely toriodal. of Mathematics. The tiny wiggles are uniformly distributed within chrons. Hyderabad.. A high resolution record of these ﬂuctuations is obtained by selecting and stacking proﬁles from areas with the highest spreading rates. . To this end. Asymptotic analysis is applied using large values of dimensionless numbers. as examples. keeping isotropy in horizontal directions. Comenius University. Gallet c and G. as well as for the cases of small anisotropy. Slovakia b Dept. α = O(1) . Instabilities arise due to unstable stratiﬁcation of the planar horizontal layer. ) are studied in e cases of various types of anisotropic diﬀusive coeﬃcients. the number of detected tiny wiggles clearly depends on the spreading rate. is also considered in asymptotic limits for the ocean and atmospheric types of anisotropy. Hulot a a Equipe de G´omagn´tisme. Osmania University. S7. i. 5 . ﬂows generated using the dataset modelled by Wardinski (2005) in conjunction with both GUFM and IGRF main ﬁeld models. Most tiny wiggles probably represent a ﬁltered record of a uniform secular variation regime. respectively. Using a simple method based on upward continuation. Bratislava. of Math. J. They are therefore conﬁdently ascribed to past ﬂuctuations of the geomagnetic dipole moment. rotating convection.g. The anisotropic parameter.e. α 1 and α 1. S7. and Inf. Moreover. These results support geomagnetic intensity ﬂuctuations as being the cause of most tiny wiggles. the ratio of diﬀusivities in horizontal and vertical directions.9 The inﬂuence of anisotropic viscosity and thermal diﬀusivity on convection in a ﬂuid planar layer ´ ´ ´s ˇ Jozef Brestensky a . Physics of the Earth and Meteorology. nor enhanced before. France e c Equipe de Pal´omagn´tisme. We investigate whether models using toroidal and poloidal ﬂows improve the ﬁt to the observations of the secular variation. The thermal diﬀusivity and viscosity of the ﬂuid layer are anisotropic in the sense that their values in the vertical direction are diﬀerent from the values in the horizontal directions. We show. In this study. Phys. a reversal beyond a ”blind” zone of about 10 km (corresponding to 80 to 250 kyr depending on the spreading rate) for which the anomalies due to reversals prevent the detection of tiny wiggles. we investigate the nature and distribution of these tiny wiggles on oceanic crust formed during the ∼42 Myr-long period following the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. France e e b Equipe de G´osciences Marines. Taylor and Chandrasekhar number. we demonstrate that. of Astronomy.8 Geomagnetic ﬁeld variations between chrons 33r and 19r (83-41 Ma) from sea-surface magnetic anomaly proﬁles C. Tomaˇ Soltis a and Yadhagiri Rameshwar b a Dept. the tiny wiggles are consistent worldwide although their patterns exhibit diﬀerent resolutions at diﬀerent spreading rates. India Basic types of convection (B´nard convection. We have tested iterative one-norm minimisation models and ﬁnd that they better describe the secular variation than the current two-norm models using the steady ﬂow assumption. Secondly. Fac. Y. . Dyment b . Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. indicating that paleointensity ﬂuctuations are neither inhibited after. Bouligand a . Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. . Modeling the micro-anomalies as short magnetic polarity intervals yields durations for these intervals generally shorter than 10 kyr. α. France e e Sea-surface magnetic proﬁles exhibit coherent short wavelength ”micro-anomalies” (or ”tiny wiggles”) superimposed to the main anomalies due to reversals. e. magnetoconvection. In the rotating convection and in the magnetoconvection the axis of rotation as well as imposed homogeneous magnetic ﬁeld are in the vertical direction. Alexandra Marsenic a .. as also suggested by recent magnetostratigraphic data. likely too short to be indeed ”true” subchrons.
the Brunhes-Matuyama (BM). Finlay a . John Shaw and Richard Holme Geomagnetism Laboratory. Switzerland u u b Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics. ETH Z¨rich. however. Tahiti (French Polynesia).Anisotropic diﬀusive coeﬃcients inﬂuence the arising convection in all investigated problems in the sense. the palaeointensity results from this project should provide valuable data for modelling the last ﬁeld reversal. Martin Gratton. University of Leeds. We have used the 14GHz Microwave system to determine palaeointensity and a combination of published directional data and our own directional results from stepwise thermal demagnetisations to deﬁne the full vector of the ﬁeld during the reversal. There are seven well documented lava sequences that traverse the BM boundary: Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Maui (Hawaii). Linear stability studies are advanced into the weakly nonlinear analysis. Simple models of the reversal process suggest that intensity variations may be much better correlated between diﬀerent locations than direction variations. Iceland and La Palma. University of Liverpool.11 An updated version of the historical ﬁeld model gufm1 Christopher C. lavas are the preferred recorder of the ﬁeld as they can yield both directional and absolute intensity values. Too strong atmospheric anisotropy type (α 1) eﬀectivelly suppresses inhibiting role of rotation in the case of rotating convection and magnetic ﬁeld in the case of magnetoconvection. and La Palma (Canary Islands). 2000). we know very little about the changes in strength and direction of the ﬁeld during reversals. This project aims to better determine their behavioural aspects. Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences.12 Building ﬂow models at the Core-Mantle boundary with a maximium entropy regularisation 6 . at geomagnetic observatories and most recently by satellites. UK From studying ancient magnetic minerals contained in lavas and sediments we know that the Earths magnetic ﬁeld has reversed many times throughout geological history. that ocean (atmospheric) anisotropy inhibit (facilitate) convection and make the sizes of convecting cells greater (smaller) in comparison with isotropic case (α = 1) . land and marine surveys. but only relative palaeointensity values. these provide constraints on ﬂuid motions in Earth’s core and on core-mantle coupling. Time-dependent models of the internally generated part of the geomagnetic ﬁeld can be constructed from this dataset. The new model spans the interval 1590 to 2005 and includes updated observatory and survey records. We will present an updated version of the time-dependent geomagnetic ﬁeld model gufm1 (Jackson et al. The results are interpreted into the conditions in the Earth’s core. a revised treatment of 20th century repeat station observations. CHAMP and SAC-C satellites as well as archeomagnetic intensity data that constrain the axial dipole moment prior to 1840. Andrew Jackson a and Nicolas Gillet b Institut f¨r Geophysik. S7. School of Earth and Environment. Therefore. Model results derived using both conventional quadratic and maximum entropy regularisation techniques will be presented. Chile.10 Observations of the Geomagnetic Field during the last Field Reversal Maxwell Brown. We look at the most recent and globally observed reversal. Iceland. Therefore. data from the Ørsted. on completion. Sedimentary cores provide detailed directional data of this reversal. UK a Observations of Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld have been carried out over the past 400 years during maritime voyages. S7. China. We present completed work from Chile and results from our on-going studies of Guadeloupe. which occurred at approximately 780 ka. S7. A vast dataset of such measurements has now been collated and contains a wealth of information concerning the geomagnetic ﬁeld and its evolution. Future reﬁnements of the modelling technique and applications of the model in testing mechanisms of core dynamics will be discussed.
The self-exciting dynamically consistent dynamo problem is governed by the momentum. The main check on the validity of these ﬂows has been observed changes in length of day. University of Leeds. Switzerland u u a Building ﬂow models at the surface of the core requires two steps: ﬁrst one inverts the magnetic data to obtain a model of the radial magnetic ﬁeld and its secular variations at the core-mantle boundary. J. with a minimum of a priori about their structure. This study aims to test the ﬂuid ﬂow inversion more rigorously by using synthetic data of main ﬁeld. From these ﬁeld models we proceeded to core-ﬂow invertions using both quadratic and maximum entropy dampings. The amount of ﬂow. We have instead integrated the maximum entropy method (MEM) into the process of modeling ﬁrst the radial ﬁeld. We compare the ﬁeld models obtained with the MEM and the usual quadratic regularisation. The usual quadratic dampings lead to underestimate the power at large wave numbers. to reduce non-uniqueness. and imply a loss of contrast in the reconstructed picture. magnetic induction and heat 7 . ETH Z¨rich. Ivers School of Mathematics and Statistics. and applied it to model the ﬁeld over the interval 1740-1990 from the compilation of historical observations that lead to the gufm1 model (Jackson et al.14 Nonlinear stability of the Geodynamo D.13 Core ﬂow modelling: constraints from dynamo theory a Edward Horncastle a . The dynamo magnetic data are inverted and comparisons made with the true dynamo ﬂow. UK In recent history our understanding of the magnetic ﬁeld and the generating motions of the molten iron in the Earths core have increased dramatically. through the induction equation. Forward models of full advection and diﬀusion. The two major approaches to investigate ﬂuid ﬂow have been core surface ﬂow modelling from magnetic data inversion and modelling of the dynamo itself. Australia The nonlinear stability of the geodynamo is investigated using energy-like estimates. Richard Holme a and Chris Jones b University of Liverpool. one usually minimises a compromise between the misﬁt to the data and a regularisation function – or damping. ). from which a second invertion is performed to deduce the ﬂow at the surface of the core. S7. Core ﬂow modelling involves downward continuing of the magnetic ﬁeld to the core mantle boundary (CMB) then adopting the frozen ﬂux approximation (advection dominates diﬀusion) plus added assumptions e. to obtained ﬂuid ﬂow at the surface of the core. which cannot be modelled by the inversion has been calculated. UK b Institut f¨r Geophysik. The study has also checked the validity of a new assumption called helical ﬂow S7. It provides sharper models. University of Sydney. Sydney. Particular attention has been given to the Polar regions within the tangential cylinder. Implications for the Earth’s outer core dynamics are discussed.g. we introduced this technique into the time-dependant problem. School of Earth and Environment. In order to decrease the unconstrained eﬀect of the small scales in the process of inverting the data. tangential geostrophy (force balance is between coriolis and pressure gradients). We compare the obtained ﬂow maps and detail the modiﬁcations induced by our new method.Nicolas Gillet a and Andrew Jackson b Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics. and then the core ﬂow. UK b University of Leeds. Following Jackson  who had previously adapted the MEM to build snapshots of B r . from the dynamo data have been calculated to compare contributions to the secular variation. SV and ﬂuid ﬂow from a self-consistent convection driven ”dipole dominated” dynamo. including invisible ﬂow (ﬂow in the null space) and the contribution to the ﬂow by the small scale magnetic ﬁeld which is masked the crust.
Ivers a and C. 117 209-223) derived expressions for the turbulent anisotropic thermal and viscous diﬀusion tensors Dκ and Dν with preferred directions given by the rotation Ω. Sydney. The Euler-Lagrange equations of the variational problem are derived in the case of an electrically insulating exterior for no-slip and stress-free boundary conditions. The numerical solution of the Euler-Lagrange equations is discussed in the spherical case.16 Convection and dynamics of the polar vortex in the Earth’s core Chris Jones a and Binod Sreenivasan b Dept. The numerical programming package of the present work is designed to use the vector spherical harmonic derivation of the anisotropic diﬀusion given by · (FG · Θ ) where F and G are arbitrary vector ﬁelds. and Meytlis. S7. κ is the (here uniform) thermal diﬀusivity. If the Lorentz forces are strong enough to make inertia negligible. the mean magnetic ﬁeld B and the mean temperature gradient Θ. (2000 Phys. University of Sydney. v is the velocity ﬁeld. To investigate this convection pattern a fully three-dimensional model where no longitudinal symmetry is 8 . Australia Estimates of the thermal and viscous diﬀusion along with fully dynamical numerical solutions of interactions within the Earth’s core exhibit small scale structure for the velocity. we ﬁnd anticyclonic thermal winds as observed in the Earth’s polar regions. where Dκ = κI I + κAni 1z 1z (1z the unit vector in the direction of constant rotation). D. J. From the energy-like estimates a variational problem is derived. S7.I. Earth Planet. 55 71-87) use a stability analysis to argue that the turbulent values of the thermal and viscous diﬀusion are strongly anisotropic. University of Sydney. J. 1999). Bounds are found in the spherical case which give weak conditions for stability. The non-dimensionalised temperature and velocity ﬁelds are split into basic state or mean components and ﬂuctuating components given by ΘN D = Θ0 +Θ and vN D = v0 +v respectively. ρ is the density and c p is the speciﬁc heat capacity. ∂ t Θ = κ 2 Θ − v · Θ + Q/(ρcp ). the inertially-driven azimuthal winds are cyclonic. temperature and magnetic ﬁelds even for elevated values of thermal and viscous diﬀusivities. These polar vortices are here investigated using a spherical convection-driven dynamo model. and Ivers D.J. G. UK b Dept. University of Leeds. The project is extended to thermally driven convection by inclusion of the momentum equation. Braginsky. University of Leeds. The most common is the magnetic mode of convection.P. Int. 46 (E) C854-C870) where it is demonstrated that the equivalent free decay problem in an oblate or prolate spheroid results in such an anisotropic diﬀusion in the direction of the minor or major axis of the spheroids. The code is constructed in such a manner that the anisotropic thermal diﬀusion is incorporated by the inclusion of one subroutine and minor modiﬁcations. When inertial forces are not negligible in the equation of motion. Astrophys.15 Spherical Rapidly Rotating Anisotropic Thermal Diﬀusion Models for the Earth’s Core D. The decay rates for given values of κ I and κAni compare with the (independently produced) numerical solutions of Ivers. Phillips b a School of Mathematics and Statistics. We consider the thermal free decay problem given by the heat equation with advection. Fluid Dynam. whose solution establishes suﬃcient conditions for stability and necessary conditions for instability. Two patterns of convection in the polar region of the core are found. (Anziam J. V. Australia b Mathematics Learning Centre. Phillips C. Sydney. where generally there is one large coherent upwelling plume oﬀset from the rotation axis by typically 10 ◦ .G. of Earth Sciences. where Θ is the temperature distribution. By neglecting heat production and the velocity ﬁeld we solve the free decay linear stability problem with anisotropic thermal diﬀusion in the direction of Ω given by ∂t Θ = · (Dκ · Θ ) in a sphere. Q is the heat production. S. UK a Observations of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld suggest that there are anticyclonic polar vortices in the core (Olson and Aurnou. (1990 Geophys. The solution of this particular anisotropic diﬀusion free decay problem provides a benchmark check. of Applied Mathematics.equations.
with many tall thin columns in the polar regions. leaves substantial residuals unexplained.. Russia b Equipe de G´omagn´tisme. Moscow. Hulot b and C. A unifying ”scaling bridge” (a logperiodically spaced sequence of characteristic timescales) predicts observed phenomena from short-period secular variation to superchrons. Analysis of remaining residuals lends additional support to the hypothesis of a single underlying process driving ﬂuctuations on all four observed timescales. but drifts generally westward. S7. Simulations show that the method can usefully discriminate which GGP model best explains a given data set. which. A powerful feature of this approach is its potential predictive power above and below the observed range.18 Testing statistical paleomagnetic ﬁeld models against directional data aﬀected by measurement errors A. Applying the method to test six published GGP models against a test Bruhnes stable polarity data set extracted from the Quidelleur et al. (2001) introduced a method to test the compatibility of so-called ”Giant Gaussian Process” (GGP) statistical models of the paleomagnetic ﬁeld against any paleosecular variation (PSV) database. As the convection inside the tangent cylinder becomes stronger and the magnetic ﬁeld increases. Korte & Cosntable. ﬂuctuations in virtual axial dipole moment over the last 2 Ma (SINT2000 dipole excursions. the dominant low density upwelling plume gives rise to a thermal wind which drives the anticyclonic motion. University of Liverpool. This method did not take measurement errors into account. however. DSI betrays its presence in empirical data by a log-periodic modulation of the underlying power law. Bouligand b International Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics 79.2 (5000 BC to 1950 AD. we remedy this and generalise the method to account for measurement errors in a way consistent with both the assumptions underlying the GGP approach and the nature of those errors. Jackson et al 2000). The oﬀ-axis plume does not remain stationary in longitude. though the drift speed can be signiﬁcantly lower than the speeds reached inside the vortex plume itself. Gradstein & Ogg 1996). In the magnetic mode of convection. This second pattern forms when the ﬁeld inside the tangent cylinder is weak. UK The novel technique of bootstrapped discrete scale invariance (DSI) enables quantiﬁcation of a) individual preferred timescales of a studied process and b) communal scale-free characteristics. the large vortex plume starts to intensify and shrink. The method is implemented to test GGP models against any directional data set aﬀected by Fisherian errors. It therefore lacked practical usefulness. Khokhlov a. consistent with Chandrasekhar’s (1961) theory of linear convection. G. it is found that all but one model (that of Quidelleur and Courtillot (1996)) should be rejected. Four independent datasets were examined to look for signatures of DSI in the above manner: the sequence of dipole reversal intervals from the Mesozoic to the present day (161-0 Ma. 2005) and historical ﬁeld map gufm1 (1590-1990 A. S7. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. Valet. In the present study. (1994) data base. The second pattern is a viscous mode of convection. allowing datasets spanning diﬀerent timescales to be compared directly. The strong upwelling associated with the magnetic mode of convection leads to a weakening of the normal magnetic ﬂux at the core-mantle boundary and can even create weak reversed ﬂux patches. This technique has been applied to geomagnetic data. excursions.b . which can occur in models with stress-free boundaries. Not only does each set exhibit a significant DSI signature. Meynadier and Guyodo 2005). Both patterns give rise to an anticyclonic polar vortex.17 Characteristic geomagnetic timescales A. of Earth & Ocean Sciences.imposed is required. and secular variation as represented in archae/paleomagnetic ﬁeld map CALS7K. France e e a In a previous paper. but the recorded characteristic scales of reversals.D. Although 9 . Jonkers Dept. and this creates most of the axial vorticity forming the polar vortex. The Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld has recently been shown to exhibit scale-invariance. and secular variation (individually) are predicted fairly accurately by each of the other datasets. Khokhlov et al.
spatial resolution. This ”forward” testing method could ultimately be used to design an ”inverse” approach to GGP modelling of the paleomagnetic ﬁeld.19 Magnetic poles and dipole tilt variation over the past decades to millennia M. USA b JCET UMBC. a strong acceleration of the north magnetic pole in the last decades. This research requires not only sophisticated models for dynamo action. (1994) data base to infer their model). Mandea GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. Here we present and discuss the movement of the diﬀerent pole positions from 5000 BC until today. Weiyuan Jiang b . the assimilation model and the geomagnetic ﬁeld model are the three key components.21 Paleomagnetic ﬁeld properties within the southern hemisphere tangent cylinder 10 . In this framework.and paleomagnetic data. MD 20771. Don Liu b and Zhibin Sun c a NASA GSFC. Such tests help us understanding several key questions to the geomagnetic data assimilation: how the errors evolve over time. (Quidelleur and Courtillot (1996) precisely used the Quidelleur et al. The assimilation component is based on two sequential algorithms: the optimal interpolation algorithm and the ensemble Kalman ﬁlter approach. and a correlation between geomagnetic jerks and dip pole velocity changes. We are testing the framework with synthetic data derived from numerical dynamo solutions of diﬀerent parameters. Germany The mechanism in the Earth’s core causing geomagnetic secular variation is not completely understood. this shows that in practice also. and is modiﬁed for both local. UMBC. and with the data bases currently available. MD 21250. The movements of magnetic and geomagnetic poles could oﬀer valuable insight to gain a better understanding of the underlying processes. and observable variables). Currently we focus on the dynamo the assimilation components. MD 21250. USA One challenge in understanding the origin of the geomagnetism (and in more general sense the planetary magnetism) is to assimilate surface geomagnetic observations to the numerical dynamo models. so that better physical approximations can be identiﬁed or introduced to numerical modeling. the dynamo model. Korte and M. we have been working intensively on several founding elements leading to a framework for geomagnetic data assimilation.this result should be taken with some care and does not necessarily imply that this model is superior to other models. but also appropriate assimilation algorithms to maximize the use of scarce observational data (in time coverage. and how the model responds to the observational constraint S7. and heterogeneous computing systems connected via network (grid-computing). Over the past two years. the method can discriminate various candidate GGP models. S7. Andrew Tangborn b . Important results include signiﬁcant diﬀerences in direction of movement and velocity of the north and south magnetic pole respectively. stand-alone distributive computing systems (clusters). Spherical harmonic geomagnetic ﬁeld models make it possible to study variations of both position of the magnetic (dip) poles and tilt of the dipole axis. Math & Statistcs. highly detailed satellite measurements and century scale observatory and historical observations of the ﬁeld to models of the past millennia based on archeo. It also shows that the statistical behaviour of the geomagnetic ﬁeld at times of stable polarity can indeed be described in a consistent way in terms of a GGP model. USA c Dept. S7. The dynamo model is the MoSST core dynamics model developed over the past decade.20 MoSSTDAS : The ﬁrst generation geomagnetic data assimilation framework Weijia Kuang a . Such models now cover time spans from the recent.
La Jolla CA. which indicate a persistently lower VADM prior to the Bruhnes.23 Magnetic and thermal instabilities in the model of horizontal plane layer 11 . In conjunction with similar studies on output from numerical dynamo simulations they may lead to some insight about TC ﬁeld dynamics. Our new data will allow us to investigate any variations in VADM over the last ﬁve million years and compare them to mid-to-low latitude paleointensity results. Germany Recent studies have identiﬁed distinct patches of reversed magnetic ﬂux at the poles and below Africa. the axisymmetric cylinder tangent to the inner core at the equator that is believed to separate diﬀerent convective regimes in the outer core. The data span the interval 0-5 Ma with uniform sampling during the Brunhes and Matuyama polarity chrons and reduced sampling frequency from 2. while inside thermal winds are expected to be enhanced by the presence of the magnetic ﬁeld. and Hubert Staudigel Scripps Institution of Oceanography. USA We examine high latitude paleomagnetic sites in Antarctica to study long-term geomagnetic ﬁeld behavior within the tangent cylinder (TC). Hulot et al. This region of active variations can be a key parameter in providing new constraints on the intricate dynamics of the core. generating polar vortices and associated three-dimensional convection. which has been suggested to eventually be the state through which the geodynamo could go before reversing. although the overall geographic variations in S B may be quite complicated. combined with previous ﬁndings from Tauxe et al. How to understand these unique features of the geomagnetic ﬁeld is the key question we will address. average paleointensity and its associated virtual axial dipole moment (VADM). and are identiﬁed in some numerical geodynamo simulations (Sreenivasan and Jones. the distribution and evolution of the radial magnetic ﬁeld component at the core-mantle boundary during the last century is presented and discussed. Published paleointensity results from Antarctica indicate that the ﬁeld intensity is lower when directions lie far from the directions expected for a dipolar ﬁeld. The average VADM in Antarctica during the current Brunhes normal polarity interval is approximately 2/3 of the modern value in overall agreement with the average value inferred for 0-160 Ma..Kristin Lawrence. Cathy Constable. The McMurdo Volcanic Province in Antarctica provides an excellent opportunity to improve high latitude sampling of lava ﬂows suitable for studying the time-averaged paleomagnetic ﬁeld and its paleosecular variation. 2005). 2002). Korte GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. Mandea and M. Lisa Tauxe. Outside the TC columnar convection dominates. (2004). These distinct convection regimes have been inferred from recent magnetic ﬁeld observations (Olson and Arnou. yields approximately 100 sites with directional measurements of which about a third have associated paleointensity results. Our new study. This location provides essentially the only high latitude measurement of VGP dispersion for 0-5 Ma. 1999. and their respective time-varying characteristics. We examine the secular variation using dispersion of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) directions. The most prominent feature in this respect is the growing patch of reverse magnetic polarity beneath the Southern African Continent. To give an indication of the recent changes. S7. S7. UCSD. Our goal is to determine whether they generate observable diﬀerences in properties of the paleoﬁeld at Earth’s surface. the Southern African growing patch might also be associated with the present rapid decrease of the dipole ﬁeld. Another unique feature of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld in this region is the weakness of the ﬁeld in the Southern Atlantic hemisphere. Moreover. Although the paleomagnetic data cannot be used to provide dynamical constraints on features like the polar vortex they will provide useful constraints on statistical models for PSV. The gufm1 model used here shows under the Southern African Continent a region of reversed ﬁeld direction.22 Changing magnetic ﬁeld across Southern African Continent: a unique behavior M. VGP dispersion (SB ) is often used as a proxy for secular variation and is generally assumed to increase with latitude.5 to 5 Ma.
which arises when the order of ﬁltering by spatial dependent ﬁlter and spatial diﬀerentiation operation is changed. 2005). Slovakia A model of a horizontal stratiﬁed plane layer ﬁlled by electrically conducting Boussinesq ﬂuid rotating with constant angular velocity Ω = Ωˆ under a vertical gravitational ﬁeld g = −gˆ and a non uniform z z basic magnetic ﬁeld will be investigated. In the second case the magnetic ﬁeld is antisymmetric with respect to the central plane of the layer. Especially. the Lorentz force. Second model of the ﬁeld we have proposed the following form of the basic magnetic ﬁeld: B0 = B0 B0 (z)ˆ. speciﬁcally for the nonlinear gradient model. The simulation results are compared with the resolved direct simulation (resolved DNS) on 96 3 grid. First model consists of an azimuthal part radially growing from the rotation axis (quadrupole parity) ˆ and an uniform vertical part (dipole parity) in the form B0 = B0 (sϕ + V ˆ). of Astronomy. We refer to this as a quadrupole parity of the magnetic ﬁeld.ˇ ˇık ´ A. Jackson Institut f¨r Geophysik. y Linear stability of the layer will be examinated. Bratislava. Comparisons are based on the time-averaged kinetic and magnetic energies. In our study we will emphasize the second case of symmetry of the basic magnetic ﬁeld. In the present study. and the induction term using the nonlinear gradient model by Leonard (1974). ETH Z¨rich. It is supposed that the dipole parity ﬁelds are less stable than the ones of quadrupole parity. and LES using the nonlinear gradient model without the commutation error correction. S7. The correction term and dynamic model are used to performed a large eddy simulation (LES) of a convective dynamo in a rotating plane layer on a 32 3 grid. Physics of the Earth and Meteorology. and Inf. Two kinds of symmetries of the basic magnetic ﬁeld can be considered. which is a form of the scale similarity model (Matsui and Buﬀett. we modify the SGS model to correct the commutation error. Switzerland u u 12 . of Math.24 Large eddy dynamo simulation in a rotating plane layer model using dynamic sub-grid scale model Hiroaki Matsui and Bruce A.. Pinheiro and A. of the Geophysical Sciences. For example. Chicago. To this possibility we refer as a dipole parity of the magnetic ﬁeld.. unresolved direct simulation on 643 and 323 grid (unresolved DNS). USA The Sub-grid scale modeling is required for the geodynamo simulations because the ﬂuid motion and the magnetic ﬁeld in the Earth’s outer core have small scale components which cannot be resolved in numerical simulations. University of Chicago.. Elsasser and Roberts numbers). Fac. We have previously modeled the inﬂuence of sub-grid scale motion for the momentum and heat ﬂux. Phys. the magnetic energy on the unresolved DNS (323 grid) is 8% larger than the resolved DNS case.25 Geomagnetic jerks and mantle conductivity K. Instabilities will be sought in the form of stationary convection or periodic instability in dependence of dimensionless parameters (Rayleigh. Sevc´ Dept. By comparison. This modiﬁcation is speciﬁcally developed for the nonlinear gradient model. and on the behavior of the large-scale magnetic ﬁeld. Buffett Dept. S7. the time-averaged kinetic energy on the dynamic LES (323 grid) is 3% larger than the resolved DNS (963 grid). First case is when the basic magnetic ﬁeld is symmetric with respect to the central plane of the layer. for the ﬁrst model it will be examinated the stability of the azimuthal part of the magnetic ﬁeld with respect to the strenght of the vertical part. In the second model also magnetic instabilities will be investigated for the layer without thermal stratiﬁcation. We also implement a dynamic scheme to evaluate time-dependent coeﬃcients for the SGS models as a function of vertical position. Comenius University. Such model can roughly z represent the toroidal and poloidal part of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. Marsenic and S.
Germany u u There is no doubt that geodynamo simulations are not only the best way for understanding of the processes inside the liquid core but they are also a challenge to the development of new numerical methods in magnetohydrodynamics. dividing intervals of approximately linear secular variation. a natural tools for the development of the turbulent geodynamo models are rather grid methods then spectral methods traditionally used in geodynamo. One of the general limitations when studying jerks is the non-uniform distribution of observatories. The key point is that the mantle ﬁlter is diﬀerent for each harmonic degree. mainly in places where there are few observatories. Conductivity values are based on information given by high pressure experiments simulating the conditions of the deep mantle and on estimatives of the D” thickness. as each point at the CMB represents a diﬀerent mixing of harmonics there will be distinct time delays in diﬀerent locations. specially when one compares diﬀerential time delays in diﬀerent locations. It follows at least from that fact that usually in the spectral methods after exclusion of the pressure one has to deal with the 4th order diﬀerential equations which have many additional terms for the nonhomogeneous media with the turbulent transport coeﬃcients. At the Earth’s surface jerks manifest as changes in the slope of the ﬁrst time derivative.Geomagnetic jerks are abrupt temporal variations of the magnetic ﬁeld believed to be due to motions in the ﬂuid core. causal and time-invariant ﬁlter. what complicates application of this method for the problems with compressibility. Likewise. Prague. For these reasons we have developed the control volume approach for the magnetohydrodynamics in the sphere. even with a uniform conducting mantle. Russian Acad. In order to solve the problem one needs additional information on the subgrid processes what is a subject of semi-empirical models of turbulence. Czech Republic c Central Institute for Applied Mathematics (ZAM) of Forschungszentrum J¨lich. Their occurrence is not uniformly distributed at the surface. so that the geomagnetic ﬁeld observed at the surface will correspond to a ﬁltered version of the original ﬁeld generated at the core-mantle boundary. J¨lich. That is why it appears attractive to use original physical variables and to work in the physical space which makes the code better scalable for the parallelization at modern computers.27 Onset of geomagnetic reversals Jon Rotvig 13 . in 1969 and 1978. The last decade gave rise to a plenty of direct numerical simulations (DNS) that helped us to understand the basic features of the geostrophic and magnetostrophic convection in the core. Sci. its scalability and present the ﬁrst benchmark solution for this method. in some observatories they are not detected while in other cases it can occur only locally. Consequently. we calculated for each harmonic degree the transfer function in the frequency domain and the impulse response function in the time domain. Russia b Geophysical Institute. On the other hand. S7. Some applications of the model to the turbulent regimes are presented as well. We consider a uniform and radial mantle conductivity model acting as linear. Acad. Hejda b . DNS can resolve only a very moderate part of the whole spectra of the ﬁelds.26 Application of the control volumes to the geodynamo simulations ˇ M. We consider advantages and disadvantages of the multiprocessors code. decomposition to the poloidal and toroidal parts used in the spectral models requires introduction of the new solenoidal variables. J. are worldwide and show an intriguing temporalspatial pattern: a ﬁrst arrival in the Northern hemisphere followed by a delayed arrival in the Southern hemisphere of about 2 years. Steffen c a Institute of the Physics of the Earth. P. Geomagnetic data obtained by satellites can contribute with a better data coverage and consequent improvement of the resolution of the ﬁeld morphology. The jerk is simulated as an impulse in time at the CMB and the core magnetic ﬁeld morphology approximated by using the gufm1 model for the time when jerks occurred. Reshetnyak a .. In order to estimate the time delays in diﬀerent observatories. Simkanin b and B. S7. Satellite measurements can also provide a better distinction between magnetic sources and contribute to answer the fundamental question of whether jerks are entirely of internal origin or whether they have some external inﬂuence. Moscow. Although the most well known jerks. Sci. One way to explain this temporal pattern is to consider the Earth’s mantle as a conductor. However.
and possesses short term memory. inside or outside the tangent cylinder. UK b Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering. The present work is making use of the fact that reversing dynamos tend to have a relatively weak Lorentz force. For ﬁxed background temperature proﬁle. The Pencil-Code code uses sixth-order explicit ﬁnite diﬀerences.g. In the non-magnetic case. Graeme R. the onset of this convection component is less abrupt than the general onset of convection. York University. is still not clearly understood. the most fundamental question. but in a severely truncated and highly supercritical model. University of Newcastle. Newcastle. our model produces a range of reversal behaviours similar to the observed ﬁeld: e. Toronto. Obtaining sequences of many reversals remains beyond the scope of detailed geodynamo simulations. no other low order model investigated reproduces this feature as well. applied to ‘pencils’ (array sections) in one direction in a cache-eﬃcient way. it is helpful to ﬁlter out various components of the ﬂow. “Why does the dipole reverse at all?”.28 Low order geodynamo models and reversal interval statistics David A. hence making non-magnetic convection relevant. The eﬀects of convection inside the tangent cylinder were already noted by Sarson and Jones (1999). University of Newcastle.) Thus. Sarson and Anvar Shukurov School of Mathematics and Statistics. The limited inter-processor communication required with this explicit 14 . McMillan b and Apichat Neamvonk a School of Mathematics and Statistics. Time-stepping is via an explicit third-order Runge–Kutta scheme. in the full dynamo problem. Ryan. it exhibits subchrons.Department of Geophysics. Only rarely does a rising plume inside the tangent cylinder lead to an immediate reversal. ETH-H¨nggerberg. Several authors have proposed that the observed sequence of reversal intervals may have the Poisson or Gamma distribution (with corresponding implications for whether or not the underlying process possesses short-term memory). suggests that they are better approximated by lognormal or loglogistic distributions (which. I investigate to which extent convection inside the tangent cylinder is aﬀecting reversals. S7. with the communication of boundary elements being handled by Message Passing Interface (MPI). The infrequency of these events has forced geodynamo modellers to use extreme parameter values. Kutzner and Christensen (2002) obtained some remarkable diagrams showing a marked separation in terms of the forcing strength between stable and reversing dynamos.g. whereas the onset inside the tangent cylinder is strongly inﬂuenced by these boundary conditions. like the Gamma distribution. the latter being responsible for the alpha-eﬀect.. However.29 Geodynamo calculations using a Cartesian magnetohydrodynamics code a Graeme R. UK The statistics of geomagnetic reversals has been the topic of some debate. In the present work. David G. A parallel decomposition of the spatial domain is made in the two orthogonal directions. (In comparison. S7. carried out with a high order Cartesian magnetohydrodynamics code — the Pencil-Code — are reported. CH-8093 Z¨rich o u Reversals of the CMB dipole ﬁeld is a remarkable feature of the geodynamo. in an attempt to identify ﬂow components important to reversals. Sarson a . e. but such sequences can be obtained for ‘low order’ geodynamo models. the general onset is only weakly dependent on the thermal boundary conditions. however. chrons and superchrons. Our analysis of reversals from the Cenozoic and late Mesozoic (up to 160 Ma). like high Ekman and magnetic Prandtl numbers. possess short-term memory). We consider a new model which couples a low order dynamo model of mean ﬁeld (alpha omega) type with a Gledzer–Ohkitani–Yamada (GOY) shell model of turbulence. reversal frequencies. The synthetic reversal intervals obtained from this model are reasonably well approximated by lognormal and loglogistic distributions. to obtain good statistics when determining. Finally. Canada Calculations motivated by the geodynamo problem. Newcastle.
Radler b . While the ﬁrst one is fully numerical and does not use speciﬁc approximations. the second one is based on analytic results derived in the ﬁrst–order smoothing approximation. K. We ignore diﬀusion eﬀects and assume that the ﬂow is geostrophic. S7. For the simple geodynamo model. is achieved by working with a compressible ﬂuid (an ideal gas). France e e Thanks to high quality geomagnetic data from the Oersted and Champ missions.e. Potsdam. new and improved spherical harmonics models of the Main Field and its ﬁrst and second time derivatives are now available. and describe some alternative applications of the code. The coeﬃcients that occur in the traditional representation of the mean electromotive force considering derivatives of the mean magnetic ﬁeld up to the ﬁrst order are calculated with the ﬂuid velocity taken from the direct numerical simulations by two diﬀerent methods. This explicit scheme. which is due to the neglect of higher–order derivatives of the mean magnetic ﬁeld in the mean electromotive force. Schrinner a . a discrepancy occurs. Katlenburg-Lindau.30 Mean–ﬁeld view on geodynamo models ¨ M. The mean ﬁelds are deﬁned by azimuthal averaging.32 The inﬂuence of anisotropic viscosity and thermal diﬀusivity on convection in a ﬂuid planar layer 15 . Here we take advantage of such high quality models to investigate the nature and cause of the ﬁeld acceleration since 2000. Germany b Astrophysical Institute Potsdam. (b) a second term arising because of the interaction of the ﬂow acceleration with the Main Field.scheme allows highly eﬃcient use of massively parallel clusters. Preliminary results suggest that interactions of the ﬂow with the Secular Variation can explain a signiﬁcant fraction of the geomagnetic ﬁeld secular acceleration in areas of the core surface where this acceleration is weak but that ﬂow acceleration is much needed to explain the more localized regions where the ﬁeld secular acceleration is strong (at high Northern latitudes and in a region centered below the Indian ocean). however. Rheinhardt b and U. Germany A comparison is made between direct numerical simulations and mean–ﬁeld descriptions of magnetoconvection in a rotating spherical shell and simple geodynamo models. Christensen a a Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research. There is satisfying agreement of the results of both methods for convective motions with magnetic Reynolds numbers not exceeding the order of unity. i. Schmitt a . S7.. For the investigated example of magnetoconvection the mean magnetic ﬁeld derived from the direct numerical simulation is well reproduced by the mean–ﬁeld equations. And while spherical problems can be modelled within the Cartesian framework — which has its own advantages of computational simplicity — some advantages of more orthodox spherical formulations are lost. S7. We describe the characteristic behaviour of the compressible dynamos obtained. rather than the anelastic or Boussinesq ﬂuids more appropriate for the geodynamo.31 Investigating the current geomagnetic ﬁeld Secular Acceleration and its possible core surface ﬂow source Lu´ Silva and Gauthier Hulot ıs Equipe de G´omagn´tisme. comparing them to the relevant benchmarks where appropriate. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris.-H. Here we summarise a number of solutions obtained using this code. thus circumventing some of the computational diﬃculties common in large-scale numerical simulations of the geodynamo. M. We also report on further work towards more eﬃcient adaptations for geodynamo problems.Two terms can then contribute to this geomagnetic ﬁeld secular acceleration: (a) a ﬁrst term arising because of the interaction of the ﬂow with the Secular Variation. D. since the last geomagnetic jerk occurred. however.
while for greater Λ > O(10) the kinetic energy becomes comparable to magnetic one what is typical for Alfven waves. Bratislava. D. P. because also much better knowledge of geomagnetic secular variations is expected due to new geomagnetic satellite missions (Oersted.´s ˇ ´ ´ ˇ ˇık Tomaˇ Soltis. 56(56)◦ S. facilitate arising of torsional oscillations in the investigated model.stationary convection or overstability like in the case of instabilities studied in cartesian geometry in book (Chandrasekhar 1961). of Math. CHAMP. the phenomenon related to decadal variations of the geomagnetic ﬁeld which are correlated to the changes of the length of the day with period 65 years.33 A Geodynamo Model Locked to Boundary Anomalies: Evidence for Thermal Core-Mantle Interaction B. University of Bristol. the diﬀerential rotation of the core. Physics of the Earth and Meteorology. Numerical geodynamo models incorporating lateral heat ﬂux variations based on maps of lowermost mantle shear wave speed. S7.74(109)◦ W (Earth values in parentheses). 56(74)◦ S. Here the stationary convection corresponds to the steady drifting ﬂow in azimuthal direction. a proxy for boundary layer temperature. University of Leeds. in the way what is typical for the instabilities of MAC waves type. Depending on input parameters two modes of convection arise . Phys. It is shown that diﬀusive processes are important and therefore the inﬂuence of anisotropic viscosity and thermal diﬀusivity on the onset of the instabilities is investigated. We report a dynamo solution with a magnetic ﬁeld that is nearly locked to the boundary anomalies. SWARM). Leeds LS2 9JT. 450 yr of historical record for the Earth) the centres of the 4 lobes are at 55(59)◦ N. Therefore.114(117)◦ E and 55(52)◦ N. Many properties of the axisymmetric instabilities indicate the simple basis which is behind the complex processes of dynamo. Gubbins a and A. when viewed at the surface of the liquid core where it is generated. periodic shear deformations on the cylindrical surfaces coaxial with the rotation axis. In the broad range of parameters typical for the Earth’s core (in the sense of values of the introduced dimensionless numbers) the azimuthal component of instabilities dominates over the components in meridional planes. we study the conditions for the onset of these instabilities in the presence of the homogeneous vertical magnetic ﬁeld in the horizontal planar ﬂuid layer rotating around the vertical axis. while the overstability to the torsional oscillations of the layer. The aim of our contribution is to indicate that deeper study of various diﬀusive processes complicated due to turbulence in the Earth’s core is required. exhibit a 4-fold structure when averaged. The magnetic energy of the instabilities dominate over the kinetic one for the less Elsasser numbers (the ratio of magnetic and Coriolis force). they inherently facilitate the eﬀects which are important for dynamo. This pattern may have persisted. which is possible due to turbulence in the Earth’s core. when time-averaged (over several diﬀusion times for the model. and Inf. e. they can correspond to torsional oscillations of the core.112(108)◦ E. The complex competition of the diﬀusive processes and even the strong anisotropy of the diﬀusive coeﬃcients... Slovakia Although single axisymmetric hydromagnetic instabilities cannot serve to drive geodynamo. UK The Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. i.g. e. while the western pair are more active: in the model they collapse once and reform during the simulation while in the Earth the northern lobe has split in half and reformed 16 . Bristol BS8 1TW. Furthermore. but rarely if ever give a snapshot like the present geomagnetic ﬁeld. It has 4 lobes close to those of the Earth’s ﬁeld. Comenius University. has 4 main lobes symmetrically placed around the tangent cylinder. Sreenivasan a . The source of instabilities is in buoyancy due to vertical temperature gradient. Λ ≤ O(10). too. We show the example of the azimuthal magnetic ﬁeld with no inﬂuence on the axisymmetric instabilities. for several million years and may reﬂect the inﬂuence of lateral variations in heat ﬂux from core to mantle. The eastern pair are very stable in both the Earth and the model.74(110)◦ W. of Astronomy. Willis b a School of Earth and Environment. Fac. on average. UK b Department of Mathematics. Jozef Brestensky and Sebastian Sevc´ Dept..
These include the asymmetry of reversals. the toroidal magnetic ﬁeld. S7.org/math-ph/0602013). An optimal estimate can potentially be obtained using Bayesian techniques. Don Liu a and Weiyuan Jiang a . a JCET UMBC. However. we use the error covariances with diﬀerent correlation lengths to correct part of these variables in order to determine the impact of 17 . MD 21250. Geomagnetic ﬁeld observations have well understood error characteristics. the existence of an inhibition time. 94 (2005). Rev. and we need to apply the error statistics of MoSST core dynamics model correctly into an assimilation system. Gunter Gerbeth.34 Excursions into reversals ¨ Frank Stefani. Inertia also inhibits the locking eﬀect in non-magnetic convection and is likely to be weak in the core.org/physics/0601011). The role of the inner core to increase the ratio of excursions to reversals is discussed in the framework of resonant appearance of branch points in dependence on the wavelength of the dynamo source (arxiv.35 Error covariances derived from MoSST core dynamics model Zhibin Sun a . Implications for geodynamo modelling will be discussed. 184506). Lett. and the bimodal ﬁeld distribution. 143 (2006). Sci. We identify the existence of a branch point of the spectrum of the non-selfadjoint dynamo operator as the essential ingredient for reversals to happen (Phys.e. but also other physical variables. MD 20771. The greater disparity in the location of the centres for the western pair could be the result of incomplete time-averaging from the historical record. Andrew Tangborn b . We present some evidences for a self-tuning mechanism of highly supercritical dynamos that tend to saturate into a reversal-prone state by driving the branch point and its nearby local maximum of the growth rate towards the zero line (Earth Planet. By analyzing the error covariances. Locking is only achieved for low inertia and high thermal diﬀusivity. only part of the poloidal magnetic ﬁeld (up to degree L = 13 in spherical harmonic expansion) is observable at the Earth’s surface. Dresden. It will also correct the non-observed state variables more rapidly. We have developed a geomagnetic data assimilation system in which the error covariances are estimated using an ensemble of model solutions. The diﬀerence in activity between east and west could be caused by stronger seismic anomalies in the eastern sector. A mean-ﬁeld dynamo model with a spherically symmetric helical turbulence parameter α serves us as a sort of minimum dynamo model that exhibits a number of typical reversal features. Lett. This ”balanced” approach to correcting the core state is less likely to cause non-physical oscillations or instabilities in the response. USA Data assimilation is the methodology by which observations are combined with a model output to get an improved estimate of the state of a system. provided that good estimates of observation and model error statistics are available. 828-840). Germany Despite the recent success of fully coupled three-dimensional numerical models of the geodynamo. without taking resort to a turbulent resistivity. a geodynamo model that uses spherical harmonics (zonal and meridional) and ﬁnite diﬀerences (radial) for spatial derivative approximation. We regard the locking and similarity between model and geomagnetic ﬁelds as strong evidence for thermal core-mantle interaction. Uwe Gunther and Mingtian Xu Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. We have begun to develop the means to estimate error statistics of MoSST core dynamics model. the very nature of ﬁeld reversals is still a matter of controversy. As our ﬁrst step. the correlation between ﬁeld strength and interval length.while the southern lobe has drifted west by some 25◦ . USA b NASA GSFC. the velocity ﬁeld and the density perturbation should be corrected. The high supercriticality can also explain the typical time-scales of asymmetric reversals (arxiv. High thermal diﬀusivity provides a thick boundary layer necessary to inﬂuence whole-core convection but is less likely to be relevant in the core. we know not only how the poloidal magnetic ﬁeld deep inside the core should be corrected by the surface observations. Weijia Kuang b . the remaining poloidal ﬁeld. i. which is important considering the short duration of the surface magnetic ﬁeld record. S7.
In addition. but a future modelling approach could be the involvement of toroidal ﬁeld prediction from geodynamo models to achieve a time dependent description of the core-surface ﬂow and therefore magnetic diﬀusion. This poster presents additional results on simulations of precession driven dynamos in spheres. instantaneous ﬂow solutions may also be appropriate to evaluate processes at the CMB. Korte GFZ Potsdam. A comparison between the deduced length of day variation from historical eclipses and the prediction of our ﬂow model is given.2 for the instantaneous ﬂuid ﬂow at the core–mantle boundary (CMB) over the last seven thousands years. While their prominence in the geophysical context is base on the fact that 18 . University of G¨ttingen. In a simulated experiment in which true states are known we can determine under what conditions (eg. requires information about the morphology and the state of the toroidal ﬁeld at the CMB. Germany In this study. At least one more well converged example of a dynamo has been found at similar magnetic Reynolds numbers as the ﬁrst example. Epochs of a mainly westward ﬂow alternate with epochs of a eastward ﬂow. this emulates no penetration boundary conditions and enforces elliptical streamlines in the bulk of the ﬂow. Earth’s Magnetic Field. These changes in the ﬂow direction seem to recurring periodically. For a strong enough stratiﬁcation. These ﬂow solutions suggest that the core-surface ﬂow undergoes diﬀerent regimes of zonal ﬂow direction. However. S7. Also. error covariance structure) the model solutions converge to the true states. Wardinski and M. we invert the CALS7k. they should also reﬂect in the length of day variation. the mean velocity of the ﬂow seems to ﬂuctuate. As a technical point.each correction. Invoking magnetic diﬀusion in the inversion scheme to gain a time dependent ﬂuid ﬂow.36 Simulations of precession driven ﬂow in spherical geometry Andreas Tilgner Institute of Geophysics. S7. G¨ttingen. we will compare the new reslts with the existing results of synthetic Observing System Simulation experiments.37 The evolution of the core-surface ﬂow over the last seven thousands years I. While the mechanism causing these variations is unassigned. Potsdam. These tests will give us more conﬁdence that assimilation using real observations has made dynamically consistent corrections. it will be shown that the main characteristics of elliptical instabilities (which rely on ellipsoidal boundaries) can be reproduced with spectral codes adapted to spherical geometry. the structure of the magnetic ﬁeld is always clearly diﬀerent from the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld in that a higher multipole than the dipole is dominating. with a period of about 500 – 800 years. Germany o o It has recently been demonstrated that precession driven ﬂow is capable of dynamo action at magnetic Reynolds numbers characteristic of the Earth’s core.38 Torsional oscillations in dynamo simulations Johannes Wicht and Uli Christensen Max-Planck-Institute for Solar-System-Research. Katlenburg-Lindau. where due to core–mantle coupling angular momentum is transfered from the core to the mantle. These informations are unavailable. Germany Torsional oscillations [TOs] are considered an important part of the rapid ﬂow variations in the Earth’s core. This is done by imposing a stable thermal stratiﬁcation near the outer spherical boundary with ellipsoidal isothermal surfaces. However. S7. They are caused by the action of magnetic restoring forces on geostrophic cylinders that are aligned with the rotation axis. which used an artiﬁcal error covariance.
Taylorisation. However. S7. Such a correlation can not be found in the simulation that contains many more reversals than the analysed paleomagnetic data set. This coherent behaviour allows to more clearly identify TO like eﬀects at nearly all times in the small E simulations. S7. Respective cancellation on spherical shells is always of the same order of magnitude. This is in accordance with analysis of paleomagnetic data and compliant with the fact that reverals are seperated by time intervalls much longer than the reversal process itself. A closer analysis of the force ballance in time and space shows that TOs are excited locally at some cylindrical radius s and then travel inward and outward due to the magnetic coupling. It is desirable to extend them further back in time. we ﬁnd that Reynolds stresses always play a major role in the force ballance. But the reveral rate also varies considerably on shorter scales of some million years.39 Reversal rate in a dynamo model Johannes Wicht a and Cathrin Constable b a Max-Planck-Institute for Solar-System-Research. Germany b SCIPS. Reversals seem to obey a Possion statistics. USA Millennial scale time varying global models of the magnetic ﬁeld have been made using paleomagnetic directional and intensity data. Reversals are more likely to occur when the dipole is weak. chaotic and very Earth-like. i. Like for Earth. Such models are used to study very long term geomagnetic secular variation and provide constraints on the statistical properties of the paleoﬁeld for comparisons with numerical dynamo simulations. USA The slowest time scales in the geodynamo process are connected to magnetic reversals and variations in the reversal rate. Changes in Earth’s mantle likely cause variations over several tens of million years. very rarely reaching the necessary vigour for long enough to cause a reversal. However. Strong viscous damping clearly prevents TOs for the larger Ekman numbers but is negligible in the small E cases. San Diego. remains insigniﬁcant in the parameter range explored. Flow amplitudes vary statistically. A particularly simple model has been selected where mangetic ﬁeld and ﬂow are fairly large scale so that a reasonable long time intervall could be aﬀorded. the cancellation of Lorentz-forces on geostrophic cylinders. since only about six reversals could be simulated a statistical analysis was rendered useless. This is the reason why reversals are so rare and why the reversal rate varies so strongly.40 A statistical assessment of 0–1 Ma absolute paleointensity data Leah Ziegler Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics. each reversal is essentially independent from all previous and follwing ones. Both eﬀects are orders of magnitude larger in the simulations than would be appropriate for Earth. Simulations at lower Ekman numbers (3 × 10−4 instead of 2 × 10−2 ) show a reversal behaviour very similar to the larger Ekman number case. We succeeded to simulate more than 100 reversals that where analysed statistically.e. this is less clear in numerical dynamo models. Explicite force ballances on geostrophic cylinders are analysed and the applicability of TO theory is checked in all cases. and on hundred thousand to million year time scales the SINT models provide global averages of temporal variations in the Virtual 19 . self-consistens. We employ computer simulations to explore these variations in a dynamo model. Exceptionally strong variations in the convective ﬂow seem to trigger the reversal process in the model. University of California. The solutions are nevertheless fully 3d. We set out to carefully explore torsional oscillation in various dynamo simulations. Valet and coauthors (Nature 2005) suggest that there is a correlation between reversal rate and dipole strength during the last two million years of Earth’s history.e.viscosity and inertia are very small. Scripps Institution of Oceanography. the reversal rate varies signiﬁcantly and stochastically. Finally. Katlenburg-Lindau. TOs are only clearly veriﬁable during episodes where Reynolds stresses are small. spanning Ekman numbers from E = 3−4 to E = 3−6 . these may last some hundred years. i. San Diego.
and detailed comparisons of directional distribution shapes reveal systematic departures from the data). Although both CJ98 and TK03 are recognized as inadequate models for the PSV (for example.. However. To address the question of temporal sampling. these simulations allow an assessment of the inﬂuence of geographic sampling on the absolute paleointensity data. We generate comparison distributions with the same geographical sampling as the real data and use these as an aid in constructing a noise model for absolute paleointensity data.Axial Dipole Moment (VADM). Finally. speciﬁcally CJ98 and TK03 which are constructed from data spanning the last 5 My. this local alpha-eﬀect has been often used to explain the generation of the magnetic ﬁeld in the earth’s core. VADM distributions for the past million years are compared to simulated distributions from statistical PSV models. One of the unresolved problems is how the small-scale magnetic ﬁeld produces the large-scale magnetic ﬁeld. We investigate the statistical properties of global data sets of absolute paleointensity. Local absolute paleointensity data from the past million years are converted to VADMs. However. the nature of the material used in deriving the paleointensity estimate. they do not attempt to resolve geographic variations in intensity beyond those expected from a geocentric axial dipole. which represents the eﬀect of the small-scale ﬁeld and ﬂow on the generation of the large-scale ﬁeld. We ﬁnd that the bootstrap distributions have a lower mean VADM than the original distributions. with a view to using them to improve existing calibration schemes for relative paleointensity variations. archeomagnetic sources. archeomagnetic data give a lower mean VADM for the last 7 ky than do lava data in that time range).g. t). Assumed as instantaneous in time and local in space. t) ∼ α < B > (x. This process is important to understanding the mechanism that the dipole ﬁeld is generated by columnar ﬂow in the core.41 Nonlocal memory eﬀects of electromotive force by ﬂuid motion with two-dimensional periodicity Kumiko Hori and Shigeo Yoshida Graduate School of Environmental Studies.. However. (1) referred to as ’the alpha-eﬀect’. The statistics for the volcanic data are rather insensitive to choosing a subset of the data based on selection criteria. Furthermore. Such scaling is generally accomplished using absolute paleointensity data and these are also contaminated by noise from several sources. and rely on the simplifying assumption that spatial averages will eliminate non-axial-dipole contributions to the ﬁeld. The approximation is valid only for Rm 1. It is not obvious how the electromotive forces term should be described for Rm ≥ 1. and inappropriate when the magnetic Reynolds number Rm is as large as that in the earth’s core. intensity lows at reversals and at most excursions). The key concept which connects ﬂow with the large-scale magnetic ﬁeld is the electromotive force term < u × B >. 20 . are useful for characterizing changes in global paleoﬁeld strength at time scales longer than a few kyr (e. and submarine basaltic glasses over short time-scales where data coverage overlaps. then we assess the inﬂuences of temporal and geographical sampling. we compare the distribution and statistics of diﬀerent data sets over similar time ranges using a bootstrap resampling technique to create multiple subsets of data that are approximately uniformly distributed in time. the term is usually approximated as < u × B > (x. we are still far from the complete understanding of the results of MHD simulations. the average dipole moment for CJ98 is almost certainly too high. and a long term goal of using such relative intensity records in developing a time-varying global model for the past million years. there are unresolved issues about the nature of noise in paleomagnetic intensity data (especially in sediments) and how relative intensity data should be scaled to provide absolute ﬁeld variations. These have shown that intensity variations. Japan Many recent MHD dynamo simulations have shown magnetic ﬁelds similar to the planetary magnetic ﬁelds. we do observe diﬀerences in the distribution and statistics among data sets of diﬀerent types (e. However. Nagoya University. that can be considered in the calibration of relative paleointensity records. especially relative intensity time series derived from sediments. S7. We consider and compare intensity data from lava ﬂows. and reported estimates of error. and attribute this to the high concentration of recent (high intensity) observations in the original data sets.g.
All simulations are obtained for the full sphere without the use of hyperviscosities. we ﬁnd that the electromotive force for Rm > 1 has a nonlocal memory eﬀect. The dominant feature of the solutions are localized magnetic spots preferentially travelling in north/south direction similiar to solar dynamos. This φ represents the extended alpha-eﬀect which is non-local and non-instanteous. while we conﬁrm the electromotive force for Rm 1 can be approximated by the local alpha-eﬀect. As a result. S7.42 Finte volume simulations of the Geodynamo at low Ekman number Helmut Harder and Ulrich Hansen Institute of Geophysics. Although numerical simulations in a realistic parameter regime will be unattainable in the forseeable future. We introduce φ as < u × B > (x. t − t ) < B(x . t) = t ∞ (2) = −∞ −∞ φ(x − x . In order to resolve the ﬁne-scaled features of the solutions we use grids of up to 107 volume cells equivalent to a spherical harmonic expansion of order and degree = m = 232. 21 . University of M¨nster. In this regime we ﬁnd dynamo solutions with Rb < 1 which allows Joule dissipation to dominate viscous dissipation. we are able to present simulations with E = 10−5 and Rayleigh numbers up to 30 times overcritical. It has a non-zero helicity and two-dimensional periodicity.We examine the behaviour of the electromotive force as a function of Rm by a kinematic dynamo model. This ﬂuid motion can be considered to be a simpliﬁed model of the thermal convection in the outer core. Germany u The generation of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld by dynamo processes within the molten core is characterized by extremely low Ekman (E) and Roberts (Rb) numbers.Roberts(1972). The results means that the nonlocal memory eﬀect of the electromotive force is important in the Earth’s core. Within these spots the maximal ﬁeld strength exceeds the dipolar amplitude by orders of magnitude. This progress is achieved by the development of a ﬁnite volume method well adapted to parallel computation. which strongly aﬀects the dynamo action. We assume that the ﬂuid motion has the form of aligned columnar cells. ﬁrst considered by G. t ) > dx dt to examine the eﬀect of the electromotive force to the mean ﬁeld < B >.O.
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