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Management Process and Organizational Behaviour MB0038 (Book ID:B1127) Semester--I Question: 1 Explain the Four processes of Social

l Learning Theory. Answer: Social learning theory focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. It considers that people learn from one another, including such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modeling. Among others Albert Bandura is considered the leading proponent of this theory. General principles of social learning theory follows: 1. People can learn by observing the behavior is of others and the outcomes of those behaviors. 2. Learning can occur without a change in behavior. Behaviorists say that learning has to be represented by a permanent change in behavior, in contrast social learning theorists say that because people can learn through observation alone, their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance. Learning may or may not result in a behavior change. 3. Cognition plays a role in learning. Over the last 30 years social learning theory has become increasingly cognitive in its interpretation of human learning. Awareness and expectations of future reinforcements or punishments can have a major effect on the behaviors that people exhibit. 4. Social learning theory can be considered a bridge or a transition between behaviorist learning theories and cognitive learning theories.

Question: 2 What are the hindrances that we face in perception

Question: 3-Describe the base of Power. Answer: Experts have identified different bases of power that a person may have. These are:

Coercive power. Coercive power results from a person's ability to punish or withhold rewards. A person who robs you on the street threatening you with a gun is using this type of power. Resource power. A person has resource power when he or she has the discretion to decide the resources available to you. Thus a person in finance department, who can influence the sanction of other employees' expenditure budget can exercise resource power over them. Position power. A person has some authority and discretion assigned to him by virtue of his/her position in the organization structure. This is position power. Expert power. A person has expert power by virtue of being recognized as an expert. We accept the advice of doctor, and even allow him/her to operate upon us because we have faith in his expertise. Information power. Information is like resource power. A person with information can disclose the information selectively to people he wants to favour, and in this way exercise influence over them. Association power. People can also exercise power by their relationship and association with others. People tend accept opinions and wishes of people having good relationship them. Personal power. This type of power flows from the persons personal characteristics including looks, personality, and interpersonal skills. This power has a multiplier effect. It helps a person to enhance the effectiveness of all other type of power.

Question:4- Ms. Chanchal Das Gupta is a recruitment specialist. For the post of QC Manager, She interviews three candidates. Given below are the physical characteristics of the candidates. Candidate Mr. Ravi Mr. Gineesh Mr. Ramgopal the Candidates as per Sheldons theory of personality. Physical Characteristics Muscular, thick skin, rectangular shaped. Thin, delicate build, large brain, tall Soft, round shaped, underdeveloped muscles.

From the above descriptions, what personality traits can Ms. Chanchal derive out of

Question No.4: Write Short Notes on (a)Corporate Identity Advertising (b) Institutional Advertising (a)Corporate identity Advertising
Combination of color schemes, designs, words, etc., that a firm employs to make a visual statement about itself and to communicate its business philosophy. It is an enduring symbol of how a firm views itself, how it wishes to be viewed by others, and how others recognize and remember it. Unlike corporate image (which is 'in there' changeable mental impression), corporate identity is 'out there' sensory-experience conveyed by things such as buildings, dcor, logo, name, slogan, stationery, uniforms, and is largely unaffected by its financial performance and ups and downs in its fortunes. Corporate-identity is either strong or weak (not positive, negative, or neutral like a corporate image) and is more or less permanent unless changed deliberately. The identity (conveyed by its name and multicolored bitten-off-apple logo) of Apple computer, for example, as an innovative and pathbreaking firm has survived almost intact over about 30 years. But its image as a successful business has dimmed and brightened several times during the same period.

(b)institutional advertising
The promotional message aimed at creating an image, enhancing reputation, building goodwill, or advocating an idea or the philosophy of an organization, instead of sales promotion. When employed by an organization to market itself (instead of its products), it is called Institutional advertising.

Question: 5 Discuss the different types of Business reports.


Answer: Different Types of Business Reports used in Business
This particular article I located discusses the different types of reports used for communication in the business world. Choosing the right type of report also requires a smart analysis. The writer must decide what type to use based on the information that he or she is trying to communicate. Also the writer must take into consideration their intended audience. Is the audience expecting the report to be in a specific format? Are they used to receiving information in one way? and which format will convey the message in the most appropriate way? Finally, how formal or informal should the report be. Reports, according to this article, can be classified as according to function or according to formality. Reports according to function can also be subdivided into the following:

Informational reports. Analytical reports Research reports

Where as reports according to formality can be subdivided into the following:


Statutory reports Non statutory or voluntary reports

The article goes further into outlining other types or reports such as information, analytical, research, statutory, non-statutory, special, and routine reports. Information reports are solely to provide facts with out suggestion or personal opinions. What ever ones findings are that is whats reported. These facts are given with out personal explanation or, again, any suggestions. Analytical reports are one step further as they contain facts along side analytical explanation of these facts. They contain a sort of a narration of facts and collected data.They also contain a conclusion or a set of interpretations reached by the writer.

Question:6-List the different steps involved in report proparation. Answer: There are 14 Steps to writing a report :
The following steps provide a guide to the writing process : 1. Clarify Purpose & Expectations Be clear about purpose, audience(s), resources to support report production, roles and responsibilities. This understanding is shared by other key people involved. 2. Decide on appropriate structure for report Usually funders will have a specific proforma they would like us to follow. It's worth being familiar with this well before to start writing the report. This way we can be on the look out for what to include as our project progresses. If we have no proforma provided, we will need to choose some appropriate headings as a guide. For some examples of proformas for reports, the index is as below :
HEALTH PROMOTION SA PRIMARY HEALTH CARE INITIATIVES & ADVANCEMENT PROGRAMS

3. Produce 1st draft Get it all down, worry about editing, length, style etc. later. Cut and paste from previous progress reports and evaluation plans etc. Leave gaps for others to fill in if necessary. 4. Re-draft Read and edit 1st draft, trying to read it from the perspective of a key person we would like the report to influence, or a member of our audience. 5.Circulate Circulate the draft to the project team or advisory committee if appropriate. Ask for written comments and ideas for recommendations by a fixed date, allowing readers enough time to do so. Be specific about what aspects we would like feedback about, eg. content, specific sections we are unsure about, style, tone, language, flow, recommendations, layout, typos, grammar. If we have only a few people and enough time, circulate just one copy for all comments, so as to make editing easier. 6. Integrate Comments, Develop Recommendations Decide which comments to incorporate, preferably in a small project team meeting. Discuss recommendations. If our recommendations involve others taking action, it may be advisable to involve these people in the process. This can help make sure they are drafted in a way that is most likely to be well received, and acted upon. It is important to put the most important recommendations first. It can also be helpful to sort our recommendations according to who we would like to be taking action. This way they have quick and clear access to the implications for them.

For more on developing, presenting and following up on recommendations:

MORE ON RECOMMENDATIONS

7. Write Executive Summary This is a very important part of our project report. Executive summaries are the most used source of information about project outcomes. It is necessary to keep the executive summary short, preferably on pages. It is useful to contain a brief summary of the project purpose, key strategies, findings of relevance to the audience. Make clear the implications of the findings, possibly including the recommendations as part of the executive summary, or following just after it. 8. Circulate Final Draft Include: acknowledgements, title page, contents page, Executive Summary, recommendations, references, lists of acronyms, appendices. 9. Do final Edits 10. Layout 11. Obtain ISBN Number If our report is to be a public document. This can be done via the Department of Human Services Library. They will require details of author, publisher, date, keywords, and a copy of the draft report. 12. Register your project with HEAPS 13. Print and Distribute 14. Launch with Celebration!!

8. Circulate Final Draft Include: acknowledgements, title page, contents page, Executive Summary, recommendations, references, lists of acronyms, appendices (eg. any questionnaires used, background info examples of publicity,etc.) 9. Do final Edits 10. Layout 11. Obtain ISBN Number If your report is to be a public document. This can be done via the Department of Human Services Library. They will require details of author, publisher, date, keywords, and a copy of the draft report. 12. Register your project with HEAPS 13. Print and Distribute 14. Launch with Celebration!!

Health Promotion Grants Project Report Proforma - Health Promotion SA Proforma for Part A of Final Report
Please provide a report using the following headings : 1. Executive Summary Brief overview of the entire report (no more than 1 single - sided A4 page) 2. Background History Justification of issue 3. Strategies Explain how successful strategies were in achieving objectives 4. Timeline Include dates of commencement, special events and completion 5. Project Advisory Group List membership of project advisory group Comment on level of involvement of target group in project 6. Budget Attach financial statements 7. Evaluation Comment on results measured against objectives. Include comments on evaluation of project materials and results of any promotional, educational, structural, and community development activities. If you conducted a survey as part of

Planning and Evaluation Wizard South Australian Community Health Research Unit www.sachru.sa.gov.au

Semester I MB0040-(Book ID:B1129) - Statistics for Management (SetI) Question:1(a) Statistics is the backbone of decisiobn-making.Comment.
Answer: a. Due to advanced communication network, rapid changes in consumer behaviour, varied expectations of variety of consumers and new market openings, modern managers have a difficult task of making quick and appropriate decisions. Therefore, there is a need for them to depend more upon quantitative techniques like mathematical models, statistics, operations research and econometrics. Decision making is a key part of our day-to-day life. Even when we wish to purchase a television, we like to know the price, quality, durability, and maintainability of various brands and models before buying one. As we can see, in this scenario we are collecting data and making an optimum decision. In other words, we are using Statistics. Again, suppose a company wishes to introduce a new product, it has to collect data on market potential, consumer likings, availability of raw materials, feasibility of producing the product. Hence, data collection is the back-bone of any decision making process. Many organisations find themselves data-rich but poor in drawing information from it. Therefore, it is important to develop the ability to extract meaningful information from raw data to make better decisions. Statistics play an important role in this aspect. Statistics is broadly divided into two main categories. Below Figure illustrates the two categories. The two categories of Statistics are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive Statistics: Descriptive statistics is used to present the general description of data which is summarised quantitatively. This is mostly useful in clinical research, when communicating the results of experiments. Inferential Statistics: Inferential statistics is used to make valid inferences from the data which are helpful in effective decision making for managers or professionals. Statistical methods such as estimation, prediction and hypothesis testing belong to inferential statistics. The researchers make deductions or conclusions from the collected data samples regarding the characteristics of large population from which the samples are taken. So, we can say Statistics is the backbone of decision-making.

:1(b) Statistics is as good as the user. Comment.

Answer : Statistics is used for various purposes. It is used to simplify mass data and to make comparisons easier. It is also used to bring out trends and tendencies in the data as well as the hidden relations between variables. All this helps to make decision making much easier. Let us look at each function of Statistics in detail. 1. Statistics simplifies mass data The use of statistical concepts helps in simplification of complex data. Using statistical concepts, the managers can make decisions more easily. The statistical methods help in reducing the complexity of the data and consequently in the understanding of any huge mass of data. 2. Statistics makes comparison easier Without using statistical methods and concepts, collection of data and comparison cannot be done easily. Statistics helps us to compare data collected from different sources. Grand totals, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, graphs and diagrams, coefficient of correlation all provide ample scopes for comparison 3. Statistics brings out trends and tendencies in the data After data is collected, it is easy to analyse the trend and tendencies in the data by using the various concepts of Statistics. 4. Statistics brings out the hidden relations between variables

Statistical analysis helps in drawing inferences on data. Statistical analysis brings out the hidden
relations between variables. 5. Decision making power becomes easier With the proper application of Statistics and statistical software packages on the collected data, managers can take effective decisions, which can increase the profits in a business. Seeing all these functionality we can say Statistics is as good as the user.

Question :2 Distinguish between the following with example. a) Inclusive and Exclusive limits. Answer: Class intervals are of two types; exclusive and inclusive. The class interval that does not include upper class limit is called an exclusive type of class interval. The class interval that includes the upper class limit is called an inclusive type of class interval. Example: In above table, the class 0 9 includes the value 9. In above table, the class 0 10 does not include the value 10. If the value of 10 occurs, it is included in the class 10 20.

(b) Continuous and discrete data


If you have quantitative data, like time to complete a task or number of questions correct on a quiz, then the data can be either continuous or discrete. Discrete data have finite values, or buckets. You can count them. Continuous data technically have an infinite number of steps, which form a continuum. The number of questions correct would be discrete--there are a finite and countable number of questions. Time to complete a task is continuous since it could take 178.8977687 seconds. Time forms an interval from 0 to infinity. You can usually tell the difference between discrete and continuous data because discrete usually can be preceded by "number of...". Here are some examples of discrete and continuous data

Continuous: Height of children

Weight of cars Time to wake up in the morning Speed of the train Discrete: Number of children in a household Number of languages a person speaks Number of people sleeping in stats class

(c) Qualitative and Quantitative data


Our language is dedicated to describing people, objects, and events. This is one of the reasons that a six hundred page book can become a three hour movie: all the descriptions are cut out. When we are describing something, all of our terms fall into two categories, qualitative and quantitative. Between these two areas, nothing is out of the realm of the descriptive powers of the human language. Definition of Qualitative and Quantitative Qualitative :- The specific qualities that an object or person posses. A quality is either a property or an attribute that an object posses. It is used to describe what the object is like. A quality is subjective and cannot be definitively measured. Quantitative:- The specific quantity associated with an object or person. A quantity is something that can be counted or measured. It refers with the amount or the magnitude of the object being described. A quantity can be definitively measured, or quantified. Examples of Qualitative and Quantitative Terms Qualitative:- Good, Bad, Beautiful, Ugly, Useless, Fascinating, Boring, Filthy, Sparkling, Pale, Dark, Soft, Hard, Wonderful, Colorful, Evil, Angelic, etc. Quantitative:- Hot, Cold, Long, Short, Fast, Slow, Large, Small, Many, Few, Heavy, Light, Near, Far etc. Uses of Qualitative and Quantitative in our Everyday Language Qualitative are found more in works of literature, such as poetry. For example: The woods are lovely dark and deep. These terms are also liberally used in advertising: The best that money can buy. Anywhere that

the impression of the object is more important than its actual physical specifications, you will find qualitative terms being used. Quantitative are found in areas where precision is valued. Scientists and their experiments strive to find the measurable quantities of certain objects such as how fast a particle will travel in an accelerator. Engineering also prefers quantitative terms because they need to know the specific load rating of various materials. Both quantitative and qualitative properties were first elucidated by Aristotle during Grecian times. His terminology has become the foundation of much of our modern system of the philosophy of language. He divides descriptions into subjective and objective. Obviously, quality is considered subjective whereas quantity is objective. This classification system is still used today. Summary: 1. Qualitative and quantitative properties are used to describe objects in subjective and objective terms, respectively. 2. Quality is something that cannot be measured, only experienced, whereas quantity must be measured in order to exist to us. 3. Qualitative terms are most often found in subjective forms of writing and literature such as advertisements and poetry where the expectation is not for scientific precision. On the other hand, scientific precision is required from quantitative terminology as it described measureable attributes of objects. 4. Both quantity and quality are terms that were originally codified by the great philosopher Aristotle.

(d) Class limits and class intervals


Class Limits

Class limits are the smallest and largest observations (data, events etc) in each class. Therefore, each class has two limits: a lower and upper. Example: Class 200 299 300 399 400 499 500 599 600 699 700 799 800 899 Total Frequency Frequency 12 19 6 2 11 7 3 60

Using the frequency table above, the lower and upper class limits for the first three classes are as below:. For the first class, 200 299 The lower class limit is 200 The upper class limit is 299 For the second class, 300 399 The lower class limit is 300 The upper class limit is 399 For the third class, 400 499 The lower class limit is 400 The upper class limit is 499

Class Intervals

Class interval is the difference between the upper and lower class boundaries of any class. Example: Class 200 299 300 399 400 499 500 599 600 699 700 799 800 899 Total Frequency Frequency 12 19 6 2 11 7 3 60

Using the table above, determine the class intervals for the first class. For the first class, 200 299 The class interval = Upper class boundary lower class boundary Upper class boundary = 299 Lower class boundary = 200 Therefore, the class interval = 299 200 = 99