You are on page 1of 9

ABDOMEN = part of the trunk that lies between thorax (thoracic diaphragm) & pelvis (pelvic brim)

thorax (thoracic diaphragm) & pelvis (pelvic brim) ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL STRUCTURE
thorax (thoracic diaphragm) & pelvis (pelvic brim) ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL STRUCTURE

ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL

POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL

brim) ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL STRUCTURE REPRESENTS SURFACE ANATOMY UMBILICUS

STRUCTURE

REPRESENTS

SURFACE ANATOMY

UMBILICUS

former site of attachment of umbilical cord

intervertebral disc between L3 & L4

LINEA ALBA

median fibrous white line / band divides anterior abdominal wall into right & left halves

anterior median line

LINEA

lateral border of rectus abdominis muscle

9 th costal cartilage to pubic tubercle

SEMILUNARIS

t h costal cartilage to pubic tubercle SEMILUNARIS  Divided into 9 regions by 2 pairs
t h costal cartilage to pubic tubercle SEMILUNARIS  Divided into 9 regions by 2 pairs

Divided into 9 regions by 2 pairs of planes

SEMILUNARIS  Divided into 9 regions by 2 pairs of planes VERTICAL PLANES HORIZONTAL PLANES LEFT

VERTICAL PLANES

HORIZONTAL PLANES

LEFT & RIGHT MIDCLAVICULAR PLANES

SUBCOSTAL PLANE

- immediately inferior to costal margin

- passes posterior through the body of L3

 

INTER-TUBERCULAR

- connects the tubercles of iliac crests

PLANE

- reaches the upper part of body of L5

crests PLANE - reaches the upper part of body of L5 = SUPERFICIAL FASCIA (one layer

= SUPERFICIAL FASCIA (one layer that contains a variable amount of fat)

SUPERFICIAL FATTY LAYER ( CAMPERS FASCIA)

DEEP MEMBRANOUS LAYER (SCARPAS FASCIA)

- containing a variable amount of fat

-

containing fibrous tissue & very little fat

superficial nerves & vessels run between these two layers

 

continuous with:

- Fascia lata ( superficial fascia of thigh)

- Colles fascia ( superficial fascia of perineum)

- investing layer of scrotum, penis & labia majora

 

ORIGIN

INSERTION

ACTION

NERVE SUPPLY

EXTERNAL

-

external surface of lower 8 ribs

by an aponeurosis into :

-flexion of trunk

-

lower 5 intercostals nerves

ABDOMINAL

*fibers directed downwards, forwards & medially

- linea alba

-lateral bending of trunk

(

7-11)

OBLIQUE

- pubic crest & tubercle

-

subcostal nerve (12)

- ASIS

-

ilio-hypogastric nerve

- anterior half of iliac spine

-

ilio-inguinal nerve

INTERNAL

- thoraco-lumbar fascia

- lower ¾ ribs

 

ABDOMINAL

- anterior 2/3 of iliac crest

- linea alba

OBLIQUE

- lateral 2/3 of inguinal ligament

*fibers directed upwards, forwards & medially

pubic crest -pectin

-

TRANSVERSUS

- inner surface of lower 6 ribs

-linea alba

ABDOMINIS

- thoraco-lumbar fascia

-

pubis crest

anterior 2/3 of inner lip of iliac crest -inguinal ligament

-

-pectin

RECTUS

- pubic crest

- xiphoid process

-

flexes the trunk

-

lower 5 intercostals nerves

ABDOMINIS

- symphysis pubis

- 5 th , 6 th & 7 th costal cartilages

raise intra-abdominal pressure

-

(

7-11)

-

subcostal nerve (12)

PYRAMIDALIS

- pubic crest (anterior to rectus abdominis)

linea alba

draws linea alba inferiorly

subcostal nerve

CREMASTERIC

lower fibers on internal oblique muscle

-

pubic tubercle

elevates testis

genital br of genitor-femoral nerve

lower fibers on internal oblique muscle - pubic tubercle elevates testis genital br of genitor-femoral nerve
lower fibers on internal oblique muscle - pubic tubercle elevates testis genital br of genitor-femoral nerve
lower fibers on internal oblique muscle - pubic tubercle elevates testis genital br of genitor-femoral nerve
lower fibers on internal oblique muscle - pubic tubercle elevates testis genital br of genitor-femoral nerve

structure

meaning

 

description

significance

LINEA ALBA

intermingling aponeuroses of external oblique, internal oblique & transverses abdominis muscles

 

connects xiphoid process with pubic symphysis & crest

 

INGUINAL LIGAMENT aka Pouparts ligament

infolded inferior border of external oblique aponeurosis

 

connects the ASIS & pubic tubercle * curved with convexity towards the thigh dt traction of fascia lata upon it

site of origin of

- a part of internal oblique muscle

   

- a part of transverses abdominis

LACUNAR LIGAMENT

extension of medial end of inguinal ligament

-

 

connects the pubic tubercle with the pectin of pubis

forms

 

-

medial border of femoral ring

-

flattened portion of aponeurosis of

floor of inguinal canal at the superficial inguinal ring

-

external oblique muscle that projects

posteriorly from the pubic tubercle

 

PECTINEAL LIGAMENT aka Coopers ligament

thickening of fascia on the pecten of pubis

 

looks like an extension of lacunar ligament along the surface of pectineal line

 

CONJOINT TENDON aka falx inguinalis

fused lower part of internal oblique & transverses abdominis

 

most important part of posterior wall of inguinal canal

SEMILUNAR LINE

lateral edge of rectus abdominis muscle

 

formed of aponeuroses of abdominal wall ms at the lateral margin of rectus sheath

 

SUPERFICIAL INGUINAL RING

slit-like opening between the diagonal fibers od aponeurosis of external oblique, superolateral to pubic tubercle

 

exit from inguinal canal

DEEP INGUINAL RING

- site of an outpouching of fascia transversalis

 

opening into inguinal canal

- 1.25cm superior to the midline of inguinal ligament

 

- lateral to inferior epigastric artery

 

INGUINAL CANAL

- passage between deep & superficial

 

wall of inguinal canal

pathway for :

inguinal rings

 

ant

- aponeurosis of external oblique (whole length)

-

male = spermatic cord

- oblique inter-muscular slit 6cm long

- fleshy fibers of internal oblique (lateral ½)

female = round ligament of uterus

-

- above the medial half of inguinal ligament

post

- transversalis fascia (whole length)

- conjoint tendon (medial ½)

 

- reflected ligament (medial ¼)

roof

fibers of internal oblique & tranversus abdominis

floor

superior surface of inguinal ligament

FASCIA

deep fascia that covers the inner surface of transverses abdominis

 

forms the internal spermatic fascia

TRANSVERSALIS

NERVE ORIGIN BRANCHES MOTOR SENSORY INTERCOSTAL ventral rami of spinal nerves T1-T12 lateral &

NERVE

ORIGIN

BRANCHES

MOTOR

SENSORY

INTERCOSTAL

ventral rami of spinal nerves T1-T12

lateral & anterior cutaneous branches

intercostals muscles abdominal wall muscles (T7-T11) muscles of forearm & hand (T12)

-

skin of chest & abdomen

NERVE

anterolaterally

 

skin of medial side of upper limb (T1-T2)

-

SUBCOSTAL

ventral rami of T12

muscles of abdominal wall

skin of abdominal wall anterolaterally

-

NERVE

ILIOHYPOGASTRIC

lumbar plexus (ventral rami of L1)

muscles of lower abdominal wall

-

skin of lower abdominal wall

NERVE

(just above symphysis pubis)

upper lateral part of gluteal region

-

ILIOINGUINAL

anterior cutaneous br (anterior labial/scrotal nerve)

-

skin over the symphysis pubis

NERVE

anterior scrotum /labia majura

-

GENITOFEMORAL

lumbar plexus (ventral rami of L1-

genital & femoral branches

cremasteric muscle

skin of anterior scrotum/labia majora

-

NERVE

L2)

skin of anterior scrotum/labia majora - NERVE L2) internal thoracic artery external iliac artery

internal thoracic artery

external iliac artery

abdominal aorta

thoracic aorta

- SUPERIOR EPIGASTRIC

- INFERIOR EPIGASTRIC

- INFERIOR PHRENIC - LUMBAR arteries

- LOWER POSTERIOR INTERCOSTAL - SUBCOSTAL artery

- MUSCULOPHRENIC

- DEEP CIRCUMFLEX

RECTUS SHEATH

= fibrous envelope that surrounds rectus abdominis muscle

= fibrous envelope that surrounds rectus abdominis muscle - internal oblique muscle splits for a greater

- internal oblique muscle splits for a greater part of its length into

1. anterior layer

2. posterior layer

fuses with aponeurosis of external oblique to form

fuses with aponeurosis of transversus abdominis to form

anterior wall of rectus sheath posterior wall of rectus sheath

wall of rectus sheath  posterior wall of rectus sheath - subdivided into 3 parts by

- subdivided into 3 parts by 2 lines

parts & lines

ANTERIOR WALL

POSTERIOR WALL

1.

UPPER

aponeurosis of external oblique muscle

-

-

5 th , 6 th & 7 th costal cartilage

PART

1 st line

line midway between the umbilicus & xiphoid process

 

-

aponeurosis of external

posterior wall of aponeurosis of internal oblique muscle

aponeurosis of transverses abdominis

-

-

2. MIDDLE

PART

oblique muscle

anterior layer of aponeurosis of internal oblique muscle

-

2 nd line

line midway between the umbilicus & symphysis pubis

 

aponeurosis of external oblique muscle

-

-

fascia transversalis

3.

LOWER

-

aponeurosis of internal

PART

oblique muscle

aponeurosis of transverses abdominis

-

oblique muscle aponeurosis of transverses abdominis - 2 muscles - pyramidalis   - rectus abdominis

2

muscles

- pyramidalis

 

- rectus abdominis

2

groups of vessels

- superior epigastric artery

 

- inferior epigastric artery

2

groups of nerves

- lower 5 intercostal nerves

 

- subcostal nerve

  - inferior epigastric artery 2 groups of nerves - lower 5 intercostal nerves   -

POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL

midline 5 lumbar vertebrae & their IV discs on each side - 12 t h

midline

5 lumbar vertebrae & their IV discs

on each side

- 12 th rib

- upper part of bony pelvis ( with iliacus muscle in its upper part)

- psoas muscles

- quadratus lumborum muscles

- aponeurosis of origin of transverses abdominis

superiorly

diaphragm

 
 

MUSCLE

 

ORIGIN

INSERTION

NERVE SUPPLY

ACTION

PSOAS MAJOR

-

transverse processes of

by a strong tendon into lesser trochanter of the femur

anterior rami of L1- L3 nerves

- flexion of the thigh

lumbar vertebrae -lateral surface of bodies of

- lateral flexion of trunk

T12-L5

 

- intervening IV discs

PSOAS MINOR

- lateral surface of bodies of

- pectineal line

anterior rami of L1

weak flexion of the trunk

T12-L1

- ilio-pectineal eminence

- intervening IV discs

ILIACUS

- upper 2/3 of iliac fossa

- lesser trochanter of the

femoral nerve (L2-L4)

- flexion of thigh

- ala of sacrum

femur

- stabilizing hip joint

anterior sacro-iliac & lumbo-sacral ligaments

-

- shaft inferior to it

QUADRATUS LUMBORUM

- ilio-lumbar ligament

- medial ½ of inferior border

anterior rami of T12-L4

- lateral flexion of the trunk

- internal lip of iliac crest

of 12 th rib

fixes 12 th rib during inspiration

-

- transverse process of L5

tips of lumbar transverse processes

-