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Strictly speaking, a CER is not a quantitative technique. It is a framework for using appropriate quantitative techniques to quantify a relationship between an independent variable and cost or price. Development of a CER is a 6-step process shown below:

Step 1. Define (or select) the dependent variable (Y)

Will the CER be used to estimate price, cost, labor hours, material cost, or some other measure of cost? Will the CER be used to estimate total product cost or estimate the cost of one or more components? The better the definition of the dependent variable, the easier it will be to gather comparable data for CER development. The dependent variable is the cost to be predicted and it is choice depends on the purpose of the cost function. It may also be referred to as response variable.

Step 2. Select the cost driver(s)

This may also be referred to as independent, explanatory or predictor variable. A cost driver can be defined as any factor whose change causes a change in the total cost of an activity.

Examples of potential cost driver

Direct labour hours

Machine hours

Number of units

Number of production runs

Number of orders, etc.

The potential cost driver should be plausible (i.e. make economic sense) and should be accurately measured.

In selecting potential cost drivers for CER development Consider the following factors:

Variables should be quantitatively measurable. Parameters such as maintainability are difficult to use

in estimating because they are difficult to measure quantitatively.

Data availability is also important. If you cannot obtain historical data, it will be impossible to analyse and use the variable as a predictive tool. For example, an independent variable such as physical

dimensions or parts count would be of little value during the conceptual phase of system development when the values of the independent variables are not known. Be especially wary of any CER based on 2 or 3 data observations.

If there is a choice between developing a CER based on performance or physical characteristics,

performance characteristics is generally the better choice, because performance characteristics are

usually known before design characteristics.


independent variables.

Collecting data is usually the most difficult and time-consuming element of CER development. It is

essential that all data be checked and double checked to ensure that all observations are relevant, comparable, relatively free of unusual costs.











A sufficient number of past observations must be obtained to derive an acceptable cost function.

This should be adjusted to reflect any change of circumstances e.g. changes in price levels caused by

inflation, changes in types of equipment used, etc. The time period used to measure the dependent variable and the cost driver should be the same.


Step 4 Plot the data on a graph

The graph (usually referred to as a scatter diagram) will indicate the general relationship between the dependent variable and the cost driver and will give a visual indication as to whether a lineal cost function can approximate the cost behaviour. It will also highlight extreme observations (outliers).

Step 5. Select the relationship that best predicts the dependent variable.

After exploring a variety of relationships, you must select the one that can best be used in predicting the dependent variable. Normally, this will be the relationship that best predicts the values of the dependent variable. A high correlation (relationship) between a potential independent variable and the dependent variable often indicates that the independent variable will be a good predictive tool. However, you must assure that the value of the independent variable is available in order for you to make timely estimates. If it is not, you may need to consider other alternatives. There are various methods that can be used to estimate the cost function. Examples include:

Engineering method Account analysis Regression analysis High low method Time series analysis Simulation analysis

Step 6: Test the reliability of the cost function

There are three main tests that should always be done. These include:

Logical relationship tests Goodness of fit test Specification tests (Tests of the assumptions of the model)