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Access Foundation

Bible

Atlas

Zaine Ridling, Ph.D Editor

PDF version by: The eBible Study Library

Bible

Atlas

Access Foundation

Zaine Ridling, Ph.D Editor

Introduction

Almost every reader of the Bible will realize that the Scriptures, from Genesis to Revelation, contain extensive historical materials and innumerable allusions to the geographical background of that history. The geographical references range eastward to the Tigris and Euphrates and beyond to Media, Elam, and Parthia – from which came some of those present at Pentecost – and even to India. Including Asia Minor, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Arabia, they reach westward beyond Greece and Rome as far as Spain, which Paul visited or hoped to visit, and where we are probably to find Tarshish, towards which Jonah started his fateful voyage. Between these limits, the Holy Land itself, under its various names – Canaan, the land of Israel, or Palestine – with its immediate neighbors, is at the center of the picture throughout. It is not surprising, therefore, that an Atlas should be of great help to every reader of the Bible and particularly every student; but it must be a historical atlas, not only showing, by maps at the most convenient scales, the physical geography of the area concerned and of particular parts of it, but also, by successive maps of the same area, showing the historical changes which came about through the rise and fall of empires, the changes in geographical names, the appearance of new cities and villages and the disappearance of others, and similar historical developments. Moreover, it cannot be based on the Bible alone, but must make full use of modern archaeological knowledge which both illuminates and supplements the Bible text. Thus, there is mention in the Bible of Ur and Babylon in Mesopotamia, Hazor, Megiddo and Beth-shan in northern Palestine, Lachish, and Debir in Judah, and many other places about which little, perhaps not even their exact locations, would be known were it not for archaeological data. Further, there are places very important historically, which do not happen to be mentioned in the Bible, but which must be shown on the maps of the region and taken into account by the student as part of the total historical and geographical background. Thus, there will be found in this Atlas such places as Mari on the Euphrates, Akhetaton (Tell el-'Amarna) in Egypt, Ugarit in Syria, Hattusa in Asia Minor, Serabit el-Khadim in Sinai, which are unfamiliar to most Bible readers but are nonetheless important. There are, too, names of whole peoples, such as the Hurrians in Mitanni, the Sumerians in the Tigris-Euphrates valley, or the Hittites, with their capital at Hattusa, which can be placed on the map as a result of archaeological evidence. Few and obscure allusions to the Hittites in the Bible would give very little idea of their real importance. Such peoples as the Hittites are on the fringe of the Bible story but in a Bible atlas they must be shown as part of the total background. Nevertheless, in all the maps of this Atlas, the Bible is central, and their purpose is to throw light on it and relate it to its historical and geographical setting. Because in many cases a map alone would not do this for the ordinary reader, it is recommended that

the New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha: New Revised Standard Version. Ed. Michael D. Coogan. 3rd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press), be used in conjunction with this electronic atlas. The progress of knowledge about the geographical and material background of the Bible – not only the empires, cities, and villages but the daily life and everyday objects of biblical times – has been phenomenal, particularly in this century, and this has been primarily, if not entirely, due to continued archaeological research. The overall plan of the maps is set out in the Chapter Outline: if this plan is studied briefly and borne in mind, the use of the maps themselves will be greatly assisted.

Zaine Ridling,

Ph.D. Access Foundation

Chapter outline

Part One The Biblical Setting

Chapter 1

The Face of the Ancient Near East

Chapter 2

Natural Regions of Palestine

Chapter 3

Life in Ancient Palestine

Part Two The Hebrew Bible Period

Chapter 4

Before Abraham

Chapter 5

The World of the Patriarchs

Chapter 6

The Egyptian Experience

Chapter 7

The Exodus

Chapter 8

Conquest and Settlement

Chapter 9

The Kingdom of David and Solomon

Chapter 10

The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel

Chapter 11

Judah Alone amid International Powers

Chapter 12

The Babylonian Exile

Chapter 13

The Persian Period

Chapter 14

The Hellenistic Period

Part Three The New Testament Era

Chapter 15

Rome's Emergence as a World Power

Chapter 16

The Romans, Palestine, and Herod the Great

Chapter 17

The World of Jesus

Chapter 18

The Life and Ministry of Jesus

Chapter 19

Early Expansion of the Church

Chapter 20

The First Jewish Revolt

Chapter 21

The Early Christian Church

Part One: The Biblical Setting

Chapter 1

The Face of the Ancient Near East

Chapter 2

Natural Regions of Palestine

Chapter 3

Life in Ancient Palestine

Chapter 1

The Face of the Ancient Near East

Map 001:

The Ancient Near East

Map 002:

Modern States and the Ancient Near East

Map 003:

Mesopotamia: Homeland of Abraham

Map 004:

Egypt: Land of Bondage

Map 005:

Syria and Lebanon

Map 006:

International Routes, The King's Highway

Chapter 2 Natural Regions of Palestine

Map 007

National Regions of Ancient Palestine

Map 008

Cross Sectional Views of Longitudinal Zones

Map 009

Northern Coastal Plains

Map 010

Plain of Dor, Plain of Sharon, Samaria, et al.

Map 011

Philistine Plain, Shephelah, Judah, and the Dead Sea

Map 012

Arabah, Negeb, Wildernesses of Zin and Paran

Map 013

Modern Political Divisions of Ancient Palestine

Chapter 3 Life in Ancient Palestine

Map 014

Climate Patterns of Ancient Palestine

Part Two: The Hebrew Bible Period

Chapter 4

Before Abraham

Chapter 5

The World of the Patriarchs

Chapter 6

The Egyptian Experience

Chapter 7

The Exodus

Chapter 8

Conquest and Settlement

Chapter 9

The Kingdom of David and Solomon

Chapter 10

The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel

Chapter 11

Judah Alone amid International Powers

Chapter 12

The Babylonian Exile

Chapter 13

The Persian Period

Chapter 14

The Hellenistic Period

Chapter 4 Before Abraham

Map 015

Selected Neolithic and Chalcolithic Settlements

Map 016

The Table of Nations

Map 017

Ancient Near East in the 3rd Millennium

Chapter 5 The World of the Patriarchs

Map 018

Ancient Near East in the Time of the Patriarchs

Map 019

Palestine in the Middle Bronze Age

Map 020

The Migration of Abraham

Map 021

Abraham in Canaan

Map 022

Travels of Jacob

Map 023

The Journeys of Joseph

Chapter 6 The Egyptian Experience

Map 024

Expulsion of the Hyksos

Map 025

Egypt and Palestine in the Late Bronze Age

Map 026

Campaigns of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II

Map 027

Canaan in the 14th Century: The T.E.A. Tablets

Map 028

The Egyptian Empire and the Hittites

Map 029

The Route of the Exodus

Chapter 7 The Exodus

Map 030

Events during the Sojourn at Kadesh-Barnea

Map 031

Journey of the Spies

Map 032

The Journey from Kadesh-Barnea to the Plains of Moab

Chapter 8 Conquest and Settlement

Map 033

Ancient Near East from 1200-1000 BC

Map 034

The Sea Peoples

Map 035

The Levant from 1200-1000 BCE

Map 036

Joshua's Central and Southern Campaigns

Map 037

Joshua's Northern Campaign

Map 038

The Limits of Israelite Settlement

Map 039

The Tribal Allotments of Israel

Map 040

Levitical Cities and Cities of Refuge (1)

Map 041

The Judges of Israel

Map 042

Ehud and the Oppression of the Moabites

Map 043

Deborah's Victory over the Canaanites

Map 044

Gideon's Battles with the Amalekites

Map 045

Jephthah and the Ammonites

Map 046

Samson the the Philistines

Map 047

The Battle at Ebenezer and the Loss of the Ark

Map 048

The Ministry of Samuel and Anointment of Saul

Map 049

The Kingdom of Saul and His Wars

Map 050

David's Flight from Saul

Chapter 9 The Kingdom of David and Solomon

Map 051

David's Rise to Power

Map 052

David's Wars of Conquest

Map 053

Israel's United Kingdom

Map 054

Solomon's Economic Enterprises

Map 055

Solomon's Building Activities

Map 056

Jerusalem in the Time of David and Solomon

Chapter 10 The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel

Map 057

The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah_01

Map 058

The Campaign of Shishak

Map 059

Conflicts between Israel and Aram-Damascus

Map 060

The Omride Dynasty

Map 061

Phoenician Trade and Civilization

Map 062

Elijah and Elisha

Map 063

The Revolt of Jehu

Map 064

The Rise of Assyria

Map 065

Israel & Judah in the days of Jeroboam II and Uzziah

Map 066

The Assyrian Empire under Tiglath-Pileser III

Map 067

The Syro-Ephraimite War

Map 068

Tiglath-Pileser III's Campaigns

Map 069

Fall of Samaria and Deportation of Israelites

Map 070

Assyrian Districts after the Fall of Samaria

Map 071

Prophets of the 8th Century BCE

Chapter 11 Judah Alone amid International Powers

Map 072

Hezekiah's Preparation for Revolt

Map 073

Hezekiah's Jerusalem

Map 074

Sennacherib's Campaign against Judah

Map 075

Assyria in the 7th century BCE

Map 076

The Rise of the Neo-Babylonian Empire

Map 077

The Reign of Josiah

Map 078

Nebuchadnezzar's Campaigns against Judah

Chapter 12 The Babylonian Exile

Map 079

Judah during the Exile

Map 080

Jewish Exiles in Babylon

Map 081

Jewish Refugees in Egypt

Chapter 13 The Persian Period

Map 082

World Powers of the 6th century BCE

Map 083

The Conquests of Cyrus the Great

Map 084

The Persian Empire

Map 085

The Return of the Jewish Exiles to Judah

Map 086

Judah in the 5th century BCE

Chapter 14 The Hellenistic Period

Map 087

Alexander the Great's Empire

Map 088

The Division of Alexander's Empire ca. 275 BCE

Map 089

Palestine under the Ptolemies

Map 090

The Seleucid Empire and Antiochus III

Map 091

Campaigns of Antiochus IV against Egypt

Map 092

Selected Events in the Maccabean Revolt

Map 093

Jewish Expansion under the Hasmonean Dynasty

Map 094

Pompey's Campaign against Jerusalem

Part Three : The New Testament Era

Chapter 15

Rome's Emergence as a World Power

Chapter 16

The Romans, Palestine, and Herod the Great

Chapter 17

The World of Jesus

Chapter 18

The Life and Ministry of Jesus

Chapter 19

Early Expansion of the Church

Chapter 20

The First Jewish Revolt

Chapter 21

The Early Christian Church

Chapter 15 Rome's Emergence as a World Power

Map 095

Early Rome

Map 096

Roman Expansion in the 3rd & 2nd centuries BCE

Map 097

Civil Wars amidst Roman Expansion in 1st century BCE

Map 098

Roman Empire in the Age of Augustus

Chapter 16 The Romans, Palestine, and Herod the Great

Map 099

Roman Rule in Palestine 63-40 BCE

Map 100

The Kingdom of Herod the Great

Map 101

Herod's Building Program

Chapter 17 The World of Jesus

Map 102

The Division of Herod's Kingdom

Map 103

Palestine in the Time of Jesus_01

Map 104

Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls

Chapter 18 The Life and Ministry of Jesus

Map 105

Jesus' Birth and Early Childhood

Map 106

John the Baptist

Map 107

Galilee in the Time of Jesus

Map 108

The Ministry of Jesus around the Sea of Galilee

Map 109

The Ministry of Jesus beyond Galilee

Map 110

Jesus' Journeys from Galilee to Judea

Map 111

Jesus in Judea and Jerusalem

Map 112

Jerusalem in the New Testament Period

Map 113

The Passion Week in Jerusalem

Chapter 19 Early Expansion of the Church

Map 114

The Kingdom of Herod Agrippa I

Map 115

The Kingdom of Agrippa II

Map 116

Pentecost and the Jewish Diaspora

Map 117

Expansion of the Early Church in Palestine

Map 118

Paul's Conversion and Early Ministry

Map 119

The First Missionary Journey of Paul

Map 120

The Second Missionary Journey of Paul

Map 121

The Third Missionary Journey of Paul

Map 122

Paul's Arrest and Imprisonment

Map 123

Paul's Voyage to Rome

Chapter 20 The First Jewish Revolt

Map 124

Distribution of Roman Legions under Tiberius

Map 125

The First Jewish Revolt

Map 126

Titus's Campaigns

Chapter 21 The Early Christian Church

Map 127

Churches of the Revelation

Map 128

The Roman Empire ca. 117 CE

Map 129

Palestine from 73-135 CE

Map 130

The Bar Kokhba Revolt, 132-135 CE

Map 131

Hadrian's Jerusalem

Map 132

Christian Expansion in the 2nd & 3rd Century