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Young's Literal Translation of the



Robert Young, LL.D.

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The Letter and Idioms of the Original Languages


Robert Young, LL.D.

Revised Edition



Publishers' Note to the Third Edition

NOTWITHSTANDING the fact that the Revised Version of the Old and the New Testament has come into the field since the learned and lamented author first issued his Literal Translation of the Bible, the demand for it from year to year has continued remarkably steady. This indicates that it still fills a place of its own among helps to the earnest student of Holy Scripture. In 1887 Dr Young issued a Revised Edition, of which two impressions are exhausted. The work has been subjected to a fresh revision, making no alteration on the principles on which the Translation proceeds, but endeavouring to make it as nearly perfect in point of accuracy on its present lines as possible. The Publishers accordingly issue this new Revised Edition in the hope that earnest students of the Bible, by attaining to a clearer apprehension of the meaning of the inspired writer, may more clearly and fully apprehend the mind of the Spirit by whom all Holy Scripture has been given to us.

Edinburgh, January 1898.


Preface to the Revised Edition

THE following Translation of the New Testament is based upon the belief that every word of the original is "God-breathed," as the Apostle Paul says in his Second Epistle to Timothy, chap. 3.16. That language is, indeed, applicable, in the first place, only to the Writings of the "Old Testament," in which Timothy had been instructed, but as the Apostle Peter, in his Second Epistle, chap. 3.15,16, expressly ranks the "Epistles" of his beloved brother Paul along with "the other Scriptures," as the "Gospels" and the "Acts" of the Apostles were undoubtedly written before the date of Peter's writing, by men to whom the Saviour promised and gave the Holy Spirit, to guide them to all truth, to teach them all things, and to remind them of all things that Jesus said and did, there can be no reasonable ground for denying the inspiration of the New Testament by any one who holds that of the Old, or who is willing to take the plain unsophisticated meaning of God's Word regarding either. This inspiration extends only to the original text, as it came from the pens of the writers, not to any translations ever made by man, however aged, venerable, or good; and only in so far as any of these adhere to the original—neither adding to nor omitting from it one particle—are they of any real value, for, to the extent that they vary from the original, the doctrine of verbal inspiration is lost, so far as that version is concerned. If a translation gives a present tense when the original gives a past, or a past when it has a present; a perfect for a future, or a future for a perfect; an a for a the, or a the for an a; an imperative for a subjunctive, or a subjunctive for an imperative; a verb for a noun, or a noun for a verb, it is clear that verbal inspiration is as much overlooked as if it had no existence.


A strictly literal rendering may not be so pleasant to the ear as one where the apparent sense is chiefly aimed at, yet it is not euphony but truth that ought to be sought, and where in such a version as the one commonly in use in this country, there are scarcely two consecutive verses where there is not some departure from the original such as those indicated, and where these variations may be counted by tens of thousands, as admitted on all hands, it is difficult to see how verbal


Preface to the Revised Edition

inspiration can be of the least practical use to those who depend upon that version alone. Modern scholarship is beginning to be alive to the inconsistency of thus gratuitously obscuring, and really changing, the meaning, of the sacred writers by subjective notions of what they ought to have written, rather than what they did write, for if we admit that in a single case it can be lawful to render a past tense by a present, where shall we end? who is to be judge? if we do so in one passage, to bring out what may appear to us might, could, would, or should, be the Scriptural meaning, we cannot deny the same privilege to others who may twist other passages in like manner. The alteration of an a for a the may appear a small matter not worth speaking of, but an attentive comparison of the following Translation with the common one will discover numerous passages where the entire force of the verse depends upon the insertion or non-insertion of the article. For example, in Mat. 2.4, Herod is represented as enquiring "where Christ ' should be born. But "Christ" is the surname of the man Jesus, who was quite unknown to Herod, who could not consequently ask for a person of whose existence he was ignorant. The true explanation is, that King James' Translators omitted the definite article which occurs in the original. The correct translation is, where "the Christ" should be born. Herod knew of "the Christ," the Messiah, the long promised Saviour and King of the Jews, and his enquiry was, where He was to be born, whose kingdom was to be over all. The simple article clears up the whole. There are about two thousand instances in the New Testament where these translators have thus omitted all notice of the definite article, not to say any thing of the great number of passages where they have inserted it, though not in the original. The following translation need not, and ought not, to be considered, in any sense, as coming into competition with the Common Version, but as one to be used in connection with it, and as auxiliary to it; and not a few assurances have been received from clergymen and others that they thus use it, and find it at once interesting and profitable. The change of a single word, or collocation of words, is often found to throw an entirely new shade of meaning over the Scripture. This advantage is well known to all


Preface to the Revised Edition

who have compared the various ancient versions, or even the English versions that successively formed what was popularly called "the authorized version," i.e., Tyndale, Coverdale, Geneva, Bishops, &c. The Greek Text followed is that generally recognized as the "Received Text," not because it is thought perfect, but because the department of Translation is quite distinct from that of Textual Criticism, and few are qualified for both. If the original text be altered by a translator, (except he give his reasons for and against each emendation,) the reader is left in uncertainty whether the translation given is to be considered as that of the old or of the new reading. And, after all, the differences in sense to be found in the 100,000 various Greek readings are so trifling compared with those to be derived from an exact translation of the Received Text, that the writer willingly leaves them to other hands; at the same time, it is contemplated, in a future edition, to give, in an Appendix, all the various readings of the Greek MSS. that are capable of being expressed in English. With grateful thanks to the Father of Lights, this revised edition is presented to the friends of Divine Truth, with the hope that it may be a means, in the hands of the Divine Spirit, of quickening their faith, and encouraging their hearts, in the work of the Lord. R.Y.


Preface to the First Edition

THE WORK, in its present form, is not to be considered as intended to come into competition with the ordinary use of the commonly received English Version of the Holy Scriptures, but simply as a strictly literal and idiomatic rendering of the Original Hebrew and Greek Texts. For about twenty years—fully half his life-time—the Translator has had a desire to execute such a work, and has been engaged in Biblical pursuits tending to this end more or less exclusively; and now, at last, in the good providence of God, the desire has been accomplished. How far he has been able to carry out the just principles of Biblical Translation, founded on a solid and immoveable foundation, time alone will tell, and for this he confidently waits. As these principles are to some extent new, and adhered to with a severity never hitherto attempted, and as the Translator has perfect confidence in their accuracy and simplicity, he proceeds at once to state them distinctly and broadly, that not merely the learned, but the wayfaring man need not err in appreciating their value. There are two modes of translation which may be adopted in rendering into our own language the writings of an ancient author; the one is, to bring him before us in such a manner as that we may regard him as our own; the other, to transport ourselves, on the contrary, over to him, adopting his situation, modes of speaking, thinking, acting,—peculiarities of age and race, air, gesture, voice, &c. Each of these plans has its advantages, but the latter is incomparably the better of the two, being suited—not for the ever-varying modes of thinking and acting of the men of the fifth, or the tenth, or the fifteenth, or some other century, but—for all ages alike. All attempts to make Moses or Paul act, or speak, or reason, as if they were Englishmen of the nineteenth century, must inevitably tend to change the translator into a paraphrast or a commentator, characters which, however useful, stand altogether apart from that of him, who, with a work before him in one language, seeks only to transfer it into another. In prosecuting the plan thus adopted, a literal translation was indispensable. No other kind of rendering could place the reader in the position contemplated, side by side with the writer—prepared to think as he does, to see as he sees, to reason, to feel, to weep, and to exult along with him. His very conception of time, even in the minor accidents of the grammatical past, present, future, are to become our own. If he speaks of


Preface to the First Edition

an event, as now passing, we are not, on the logical ground of its having in reality already transpired, to translate his present as if it were a past; or if, on the other hand, his imagination pictures the future as if even at this moment present, we are not translators but expounders, and that of a tame description, if we take the liberty to convert his time, and tense—the grammatical expression of his time—into our own. King James' translators were almost entirely unacquainted with the two distinctive peculiarities of the Hebrew mode of thinking and speaking, admitted by the most profound Hebrew scholars in theory, though, from undue timidity, never carried out in practice, viz:—

I. That the Hebrews were in the habit of using the past tense to express the certainty of an action taking place, even though the action might not really be performed for some time. And

II That the Hebrews, in referring to events which might be either past

or future were accustomed to act on the principle of transferring themselves mentally to the period and place of the events themselves, and were not content with coldly viewing them as those of a bygone or still coming time; hence the very frequent use of the present tense.

These two great principles of the Hebrew language are substantially to be found in the works of Lee, Gesenius, Ewald, &c.; but the present writer has carried them out in translation much beyond what any of these ever contemplated, on the simple ground that, if they are true, they ought to be gone through with. While they affect very considerably the outward form of the translation, it is a matter of thankfulness that they do not touch the truth of a single Scripture doctrine—not even one. Every effort has been made to secure a comparative degree of uniformity in rendering the original words and phrases. Thus, for example, the Hebrew verb nathan, which is rendered by King James' translators in sixty-seven different ways (see in the subsequent page, entitled 'Lax Renderings,') has been restricted and reduced to ten, and so with many others. It is the Translator's ever-growing conviction, that even this smaller number may be reduced still further. It has been no part of the Translator's plan to attempt to form a New Hebrew or Greek Text—he has therefore somewhat rigidly adhered to the received ones. Where he has differed, it is generally in reference to the


Preface to the First Edition

punctuation and accentuation, the division of words and sentences, which, being merely traditional, are, of course, often imperfect. For an explanation and vindication of these differences, the reader is referred to the "Concise Commentary," which is designed to supplement the present volume. The Translator has often had occasion to regret the want of a marginal column to insert the various renderings of passages where he has been unable to satisfy his own mind—he has, however, cast the chief of these into an appendix, under the title, "Additions and Corrections." and still more elaborately in the supplementary volume.

EDINBURGH, 10th Sept. 1862


Style of the Sacred Writers, and of this Translation

ONE of the first things that is likely to attract the attention of the Readers of this New Translation is its lively, picturesque, dramatic style, by which the inimitable beauty of the Original Text is more vividly brought out than by any previous Translation. It is true that the Revisers appointed by King James have occasionally imitated it, but only in a few familiar phrases and colloquialisms, chiefly in the Gospel Narrative, and without having any settled principles of translation to guide them on the point. The exact force of the Hebrew tenses has long been a vexed question with critics, but the time cannot be far distant when the general principles of the late learned Professor Samuel Lee of Cambridge, with some modification, will be generally adopted in substance, if not in theory. It would be entirely out of place here to enter into details on this important subject, but a very few remarks appear necessary, and may not be unacceptable to the student.

I. It would appear that the Hebrew writers, when narrating or describing events which might be either past or future (such as the case of Moses in reference to the Creation or the Deluge, on the one hand, and and to the Coming of the Messiah or the Calamities which were to befall Israel, on the other), uniformly wrote as if they were alive at the time of the occurrence of the events mentioned, and as eyewitnesses of what they are narrating. It would be needless to refer to special passages in elucidation or vindication of this principle essential to the proper understanding of the Sacred Text, as every page of this Translation affords abundant examples. It is only what common country people do in this land at the present day, and what not a few of the most popular writers in England aim ay and accomplish—placing themselves and their readers in the times and places of the circumstances related. This principle of translation has long been admitted by the best Biblical Expositors in reference to the Prophetic Delineation of Gospel


times, but it is equally applicable and necessary to the historical narratives of Genesis, Ruth, etc.

II. The Hebrew writers often express the certainty of a thing taking place by putting it in the past tense, though the actual fulfilment may not take place for ages. This is easily understood and appreciated when the language is used by God, as when He says, in Gen. xv. 18, "Unto thy seed I have given this land;" and in xvii. 4, "I, lo, My covenant is with thee, and thou hast become a father of a multitude of nations." The same thing is found in Gen. xxiii. 11, where Ephron answers Abraham: "Nay, my lord, hear me; the field I have given to thee, and the cave that is in it; to thee I have given it; before the eyes of the sons of my people I have given it to thee; bury thy dead." And again in Abraham's answer to Ephron: "Only—if thou wouldst hear me—I have given the money of the field; accept from me, and I bury my dead there." Again in 2 Kings v. 6, the King of Syria, writing to the King of Israel, says: "Lo, I have sent unto thee Naaman, my servant, and thou hast recovered him from his leprosy,"—considering the King of Israel as his servant, a mere expression of the master's purpose is sufficient. In Judges viii. 19, Gideon says to Zebah and Zalmunnah, "If ye had kept them alive, I had not slain you." So in Deut. xxxi. 18, "For all the evils that they have done"shall have done. It would be easy to multiply examples, but the above may suffice for the present. Some of these forms of expression are preceded by the conjunction "and" (waw, in Hebrew), and a very common opinion has been that the conjunction in these cases has a conversive power, and that the verb is not to be translated past (though so in grammatical form), but future. This is, of course, only an evasion of the supposed difficulty, not a solution, and requires to be supported by the equally untenable hypothesis that a (so-called) future tense, when preceded by the same conjunction waw ("and,") often becomes a past. Notwithstanding these two converting hypotheses, there are numerous passages which have no conjunction before them, which can only be explained by the principle stated above.


III The Hebrew writers are accustomed to express laws, commands, etc., in four ways:

1st By the regular imperative form, e.g., "Speak unto the people." 2nd By the infinitive, "Every male of you is to be circumcised." 3rd By the (so-called) future, "Let there be light;" "Thou shalt do no murder; " "Six days is work done." 4th By the past tense, "Speak unto the sons of Israel, and thou hast said unto them." There can be no good reason why these several peculiarities should not be exhibited in the translation of the Bible, or that they should be confounded, as they often are, in the Common Version. In common life among ourselves, these forms of expression are frequently used for imperatives, e.g., "Go and do this,"—"This is to be done first,"—"You shall go,"—"You go and finish it." There are few languages which afford such opportunities of a literal and idiomatic rendering of the Sacred Scriptures as the English tongue, and the present attempt will be found, it is believed, to exhibit this more than any other Translation. The three preceding particulars embrace all that appears necessary for the Reader to bear in mind in reference to the Style of the New Translation. In the Supplementary "Concise Critical Commentary," which is now in the course of being issued, abundant proofs and illustrations will be found adduced at length.


The Battle of the Hebrew Tenses

THE uncertain state of Hebrew criticism in reference to the Tenses is so fully exhibited in the following extracts from one of the latest, and in some respects one of the best, grammatical Commentaries (by the Rev. J. A. Alexander, of Princeton, New Jersey), on the Book of Isaiah, that the reader's attention to them is specially requested.

On Isa. 5.13, Prof. A. remarks:—'Luther, Gesenius, and Hendewerk take [the verb] as a future, which is not to be assumed without necessity. Most recent writers evade the difficulty by rendering it in the present tense. The only natural construction is the old one (Septuagint, Vulgate, Vitringa, Barnes), which gives the preterite its proper meaning, and either supposes the future to be here, as often elsewhere, spoken of as already past,' &c.

[This principle, though admitted and maintained by Gesenius, Lee, &c. has never been acted upon, to any extent, by any Translator till the present. It is the only principle, however, that can carry us through every difficulty in the Sacred Scriptures.]

On chap. 5.25, 'The future form given to the verbs by Clericus is altogether arbitrary. Most of the later writers follow Luther in translating them as presents. But, if this verse is not descriptive of the past, as distinguished from the present and the future, the Hebrew language is incapable of making any such distinction.'

[Let this principle be carried out, as it ought to be, and nine-tenths of the common critical works on the Bible are rendered perfectly useless, and positively injurious.]

On chap. 5.26, 'Here, as in v.25, the older writers understand the verbs as future, but the later ones as present. The verbs in the last clause have waw prefixed, but its conversive power commonly depends upon a future verb preceding, which is wanting here.'


[And so it is in dozens of places where Prof. A. follows in the usual wake of critics.]

On chap. 5.27, 'The English Version follows Calvin in translating all the verbs as future. The Vulgate supplies the present in the first clause, and makes the others future. But as the whole is evidently one description, the translation should be uniform, and as the preterite and future forms are intermingled, both seem to be here used for the present, which is given by Luther, and most of the late writers.'

[Here, leaving all certainty and settled principles behind him, Prof. A. tells us how he thinks the inspired writer ought to have written, not what he did write.]

On chap. 8.2, 'The Vulgate takes the verb as a preterite, and Gesenius, Maurer, Knobel read accordingly with waw conversive. The Septuagint, Targum, and Peshito make it imperative, and Hitzig accordingly. Gesenius formerly preferred an indirect or subjunctive construction, which is still retained by Henderson.' [Here are four ancient versions and, five modern critics at fives and sixes regarding what is as simple as can well be imagined!]

On chap. 9.7, 'Another false antithesis is that between the verbs, referring one to past time, and the other to the future. This is adopted even by Ewald, but according to the usage of the language [rather of modern Hebrew grammar], Waw is conversive of the preterite only when preceded by a future, expressed or implied.'

[By this very extraordinary rule the critic can never have any difficulty, for it is very easy to consider a verbal form implied when it suits his convenience! Yet this egregious absurdity is very commonly adopted in all existing translations, including the Common English Version; e.g., Gen, 9.12-14, where the Hebrew Text has four verbs all in the past tense, yet the first is translated as a present ('I do set'), and the remaining three as futures! The first verb is undoubtedly in the past, 'I have set,' the other


three as undoubtedly, seeing the Waw by which they are preceded cannot be conversive, except when preceded by a future or an imperative, neither of which occur in this place. The solution of the supposed difficulty is only to be found in the principle stated above by Prof. A., and which is the basis of the New Translation, and maintained by Gesenius and Lee, that the Hebrews were in the habit of using the past to denote the certainty of an event taking place.]

On chap. 9.19, 'Ewald refers the first clause to the past, and the second to the present. Umbreit the first to the present, and the second to the future. But the very intermingling of the past and the future forms shows that the whole was meant to be descriptive.'

[Would they not be descriptive had they been all past, or all present, or all future?]

On chap. 10.14, 'The present form, which Hendewerk adopts throughout the verses, is equally grammatical,'—[though the first verb is a perfect, and the second a perfect!]

On chap. 14.24, 'Kimchi explains [the verb] to be a preterite used for a future, and this construction is adopted in most versions, ancient and modern. It is, however, altogether arbitrary, and in violation of the only safe rule as to the use of the tenses, viz., that they should have their proper and distinctive force, unless forbidden by the context or the nature of the subject, which is very far from being the case here, as we shall see below. Gesenius and De Wette evade the difficulty by rendering both the verbs as presents, a construction which is often admissible, and even necessary(!) in a descriptive context, but when used indiscriminately or inappropriately, tends both to weaken and obscure the sense. Ewald and Umbreit make the first verb present, and the second future, which is scarcely, if at all, less objectionable.'

The above extracts are surely sufficient to show that Hebrew criticism, as hitherto taught, is capable of being used to any purpose, or moulded to any


form the Critic may wish. Such a state of things surely cannot continue any longer, or be adopted by any one who regards simplicity more than ingenious guesses, truth more than tradition.


View of Hebrew Tenses As Seen in the New Translation

THE HEBREW has only two tenses, which, for want of better terms, may be called Past and Present.

The past is either perfect or imperfect, e.g., 'I lived in this house five years,' or 'I have lived in this house five years;' this distinction may and can only be known by the context, which must in all cases be viewed from the writer's standing-point. In every other instance of its occurrence, it points out either— 1) A gentle imperative, e.g., "Lo, I have sent unto thee Naaman my servant, and thou hast recovered him from his leprosy;" see also Zech. 1.3 &c; or 2) A fixed determination that a certain thing shall be done, e.g., "Nay, my lord, hear me, the field I have given to thee, and the cave that is in it; to thee I have given it; before the eyes of the sons of my people I have given it to thee; bury thy dead;" and in the answer, "Only—if thou wouldst hear me—I have given the money of the field."

The present tense—as in the Modern Arabic, Syriac, and Amharic, the only living remains of the Semitic languages—besides its proper use, is used rhetorically for the future, there being no grammatical form to distinguish them; this, however, causes no more difficulty than it does in English, Turkish, Greek, Sanscrit, &c., the usages of which may be seen in the Extracts from the principal grammarians. In every other instance of its occurrence, it points out an imperative, not so gently as when a preterite is used for this purpose, nor so stern as when the regular imperative form is employed, but more like the infinitive, Thou art to write no more; thou mayest write no more. The present participle differs from the present tense just in the same manner and to the same extent as "I am writing, or, I am a writer," does from, "I write, or, I do write."


THE ABOVE VIEW of the Hebrew tenses is equally applicable to all the Semitic languages, including the Ancient and Modern Arabic, the Ancient and Modern Syriac, the Ancient and Modern Ethiopic, the Samaritan, the Chaldee, and the Rabbinical Hebrew—not one of which is admitted to have the Waw Conversive. It may be added, that all the Teutonic languages—fourteen in number —agree with the Semitic in rejecting a future tense; the futurity of an event being indicated either by auxiliary verbs, adverbs, and other particles, or by the context.

Analysis of the Verbs in Genesis ix. 12-15

12 "And God saith, This is the token of the covenant that I am making between Me and you, and every living creature that is with you, for generations age-during; 13 My bow I have given in the cloud, and it hath been for a token of a covenant between Me and the earth; 14 and it hath come to pass, in My sending a cloud over the earth, that the bow hath been seen in the cloud, 15 and I have remembered My covenant, that is between Me and you, and every living creature of all flesh, and the waters become no more a deluge to destroy all flesh." Verse 12. And God saith.] The present tense is used, according to the almost universal custom of the Hebrews, &c., to bring up the narrative to the present time. The conjunction and has no special or logical significance, but is used simply to break the abruptness of the opening sentence, as the Hebrews scarcely ever allow a verb in the present or past tense to commence a sentence, especially in prose, without some other word preceding it; the only other way would have been to put the nominative before the verb, but this, though occasionally used, is not agreeable to Hebrew taste. This (is) the token.] The Hebrew substantive verb is, in the present tense, very frequently omitted; in the past tense, it is very rarely, if ever, omitted. That I am making, lit. giving.] The participle is more strikingly expressive of present action than if the present tense had been employed.


That (is) with you.] The present tense of the substantive verb is understood as above, according to the usus loquendi. V.13. My bow I have given in the cloud.] The past tense here is used to express a fixed determination that the circumstance mentioned is undoubtedly to take place; most unwarrantably does the Common Version translate as a present, 'I do set;' while the theory of the Waw conversive has no place here, since there is no Waw to work on. And it hath become.] The fixed determination is here continued from the preceding clause; on no grammatical principle can it be rendered present, much less future, as it is in the Common Version; the Waw here can have no converting power, there being no future preceding it to rest on, as the rules of Waw conversive imperatively demand. V.14. It hath come to pass—the bow hath been seen—I have remembered]—though rendered future in the Common Version, are all past, being preceded by pasts, and are to be explained by the same principle—of expressing the certainty of a future action by putting it in the past, owing to the determination of the speaker that it must be.

The only remaining verb in the 15th verse is correctly put in the present tense; the speaker, going forward in thought to the period when the events alluded to take place, declares graphically that 'the waters become no more a deluge to destroy all flesh.'


"Waw Conversive" A Fiction — Not a Fact

THE doctrine of "Waw Conversive," according to the common Hebrew Grammars, is:-- "The past tense with the prefix waw, expresses future time when preceded by a verb in the future or by an imperative." And again:— "The future tense, with the prefix waw, and dagesh in the following letter, is used to express the past." [See the Grammars of Hurwitz, Gesenius, &c.]

The objections to this doctrine may be summed up in four particulars:—

I. It is insufficient to explain the many thousands of passages in the

Hebrew Bible where a past tense is preceded neither by a future nor by an

imperative, yet where it is "converted" in the Common English Bible, and with as much propriety as in any of those instances that are supposed to be indisputable: e.g. Ge. 9.12, "This (is) the token of the covenant that I am making

between Me and you

the token of the covenant


Ge. 17.4, " Lo, My covenant (is) with thee, and thou hast become the father of a multitude of nations." The true solution of the principle involved in these passages is: That the Hebrews were in the habit of expressing the certainty of an action

my bow I have set in the cloud, and it hath become

and it hath come to pass … and it hath been

and the waters do no more," &c.

and I have remembered

taking place by putting it in the past tense (see particularly Ge. 23.11, "I have given … I have given … I have given;" also in verse 13, "I have given"), taking its fulfilment for granted.

II. It leads to results rather startling, viz. that most, if not all, of

the Hebrew particles are conversive! Grammarians have already been

driven to admit, or rather assert, that az then, and terem not yet, are conversive as well as waw.



But the list might be enlarged with such as the following:—


Kings 10.22—ahath, once


in three years cometh.'

Num. 3.23—ahari, behind


they do encamp westward.'

Judg. 5. 8—im, not


is not seen.'

Judg. 5.29—aph, yea


she returneth.'

Gen. 6. 4—asher, when


they come in.

Deut. 12.30—aicah, how?


do they serve?'

Ezek. 21.32—gam, also


also hath not been.'

1 Sa. 21.14—hinneh, lo

Exod. 18.15—ki, because

Exod. 1.12—ken, so Gen. 32.26—ki im, except Ruth 2.13—lo, not

1 Sa. 21.14—lamah, why? 9.24—al ken, therefore



'so they multiply.'




'therefore they say.'

you see the man is mad.'

the people come unto me.'

thou hast blessed me.'

I—I am not as one.'

do ye bring him unto me?'

Josh. 9. 8—me-ayin, whence? . 'whence come ye?

Gen. 37.12—ma, what?


dost thou seek?'

21. 7—mi, who?


hath said?'

This is only a small specimen of what might be adduced. It is not too much to say that the above twenty particles (including az, waw, and terem) might be doubled, if not tripled, in number. III. It requires us to admit that the form yiqtol is essentially a future tense, while from the analogy of the Modern and Ancient Arabic, as well as from its use in the following passages (which might easily be multiplied), it is evidently an indefinite present, expressive of habitual action, which may very naturally be viewed as being or continuing in operation at some period afterwards as well as at present.

Ge. 2.10—yippared, it is parted. 19—yikra, he calleth 6. 4—yavou, they come in. 10. 9—yeamar, it is said. 31.39—ahattenah, I repay it. —tevakshenah, thou dost

seek it. 1 Sa. 13.17—yiphneh, he turneth. 14.47—yarshia, he vexeth. 21.14—taviu, do ye bring; tiru, you see. Isa. 1.11—yomar, he saith.


Job 3.11—amuth, do I die.

3—irraled, I am born.

None of these passages can with any propriety be regarded as expressive of future action; and there seems no rational way of solving the problem but by regarding the tense as is done above. IV. It is not found in any other language; and in particular, it is unknown in all the cognate Semitic dialects, viz., the Samaritan, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic, and in all the voluminous uninspired literature of the Jews. Attempts have been made to find something like it in the use of the Arabic particle pha, but, as Professor Lee has well remarked (in his Hebrew Grammar and Lexicon), the same thing might be alleged of most other Arabic particles, such as la, no, lam, not, lamma, why, summa, then, &c., which no one has ever as yet thought of doing. The Arabs, in order to lessen the occasional ambiguity arising from the same form of the verb being used indifferently for the present and the future, sometimes prefix to it the particle sa (a contraction of soufa, at last, hereafter), which makes it strictly future, and sometimes the word ammal (an agent), which makes it strictly present.




דוע ארקי אלו ה , םיוג ןומה באל תייהו , ךתא יתירב הנה ינא ד ךיתתנ םיוג ןומה-בא יכ , םהרבא ךמש היהו , םרבא ,ךמש תא :

Common Version:— "As for Me, behold, My covenant is with thee, and thou SHALT be a father of many nations; neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham, for a father of many nations HAVE I made thee." New Version:— "I—lo, My covenant is with thee, and thou HAST become a father of a multitude of nations, and thy name is no more called Abram, but thy name hath been Abraham, for a father of a multitude of nations HAVE I made thee."--Gen. 17.4,5.


It is the first and the last of the verbs in the above verses to which the reader's attention is specially requested, viz, those translated in the Common Version, "Thou shalt be," and "I have made," and in the New Version, "Thou hast become," and "I have made."

Both Versions agree in translating the last verb as a preterite, "I have made;" as the form of the verb is admitted on all hands to be that of a preterite. The versions differ, however, in the translation of the first verb, the one rendering it by the future "shall," the other by the preterite "hast." The question at issue is: Which of the two is right? both cannot be right—one must be wrong.

It is undoubtedly in the preterite form, precisely like the last verb in


the sentence, admitted on all hands to be a preterite. Why then should this not be translated as a preterite likewise? If it be said, that the sense requires it to be translated as a future, seeing it is not literally true that Abraham was a father of many nations at the moment that God addressed these words to him, then, on precisely the same principle, the last verb ought to be translated as a future, "I will make thee,"—not "I have made thee," as both versions agree in doing—as it is not literally true, that, at the moment when God thus addressed him, He had made him a father of many nations. If no one will venture to translate the last verb as a future, why should the first be so rendered?

If it be said that the first verb has a conjunction before it, called Waw, signifying "and," and that the Hebrew Grammarians have laid it down as an idiom of the language, that, in certain circumstances, Waw before a preterite indicates that the preterite is to be reckoned as a future, the answer is: These circumstances do not exist in the present case. The fundamental Rule laid down by all Hebrew Grammarians to regulate Waw Conversive is: that the first verb to be converted must be preceded by one of a different tense, e.g., a preterite must be preceded by a future, and a future by a preterite. But, in the passage before us, there is, in the Hebrew, no verb at all preceding the one supposed to be converted, and consequently the Rule cannot operate.

On no principle of Hebrew Grammar, as commonly taught, can the Conversive Principle come into operation in this passage, and it is only one out of hundreds of similar instances. The solution of the matter is found in the principle: That the Hebrews were in the habit of using the preterite form of the verb to denote a fixed determination that the things mentioned shall and must take place; this principle is common to all the Semitic languages; it is distinctly admitted by the best Hebrew Grammarians; it is common to the New Testament Writers, and to the whole series of Greek and Latin Classics, (see Winer,


Stuart, Kuhner, &c.) and it is the only one that meets all cases. The Waw Conversive, on the contrary, is unknown in every other Hebrew composition—in every other Semitic dialect—in every other language on earth.


Hebrew Tenses Illustrated by Those of Other Languages


THE oldest writings in the Hebrew language, after the Old Testament, are the Talmuds, large portions of which we have examined to find some examples of Waw Conversive, but in vain; we have not found a single instance of a preterite converted into a future, or any thing that bears the slightest resemblance to it. With the same view we have read large portions of the best Rabbinical Commentators, Kimchi, Jarchi, Aben-Ezra; the Jewish Prayer-Books, the Hebrew translations of the New Testament, of the Pilgrim's Progress, of Dr M'Caul's Old Paths, and have looked over other Hebrew works too numerous to mention, and all with the same negative result. How is it at all possible that the Hebrew language, as found in the Old Testament, can have a Waw Conversive, if it be wanting in all the oldest and most valued later Hebrew writings? Can credulity go farther? The astounding fact is: that, out of the hundreds of languages which are, and have been, spoken on the earth, not one, except the Hebrew, is supposed to have the Waw Conversive; while, out of the hundreds of volumes which have been published in the Hebrew language, not one, except the Old Testament, has the Waw Conversive!


NICHOLLS writes:—"Some verbs include, under the perfect form,

both a perfect and present tense,

circumstance related in the perfect tense, as something that has actually taken place, the design of the writers in this case was to mark the future occurrence as something already evidently decreed and decided on, and therefore as it were accomplished: thus Ge. 15.18, 'To thy sons have I given the land.' "The peculiar use of Waw, called Waw Conversive among the

we sometimes find a future


Hebrews, is unknown to the Samaritans, Chaldees, and Syrians. "The future tense, besides the force of a future, seems to have the force of a present; as Ge. 37.15, 'What seekest thou?' Ex. 5.15, 'Why do ye do so?'"—Grammar, p. 93,94.


LUDOLPH writes:—"Praesens tantum in subjunctivo occurrit; nam indicativi futuro utuntur pro praesenti; quod quidem nostro idiomati assuetis oppido iucommodum videtur, sensus tamen, constructio, longnsque usus, huic defectui succurrit.

continet autem sub se caetera praeterita latinorum,

imperfectivum, et plusquam perfectum indicativi et subjunctivi, nec non futurum subjunctiva, si particulae id poscant, ut Ps. 50.17; 54.12,13. "Excipe hale; defectum, quod praesentis et imperfecti indicativi signiticationem habet, est, erat adest, aderat." "Futurum, ut dixemus, hic etiam pro presenti indicativi est."—Gram. p. 19,20).


ISENBERG writes:—"The Abyssinians have not, strictly speaking,

more than two divisions of time, i.e., the past and the present; the present

being used also for the future

propriety called aorist [?] because it is applicable to the future, as well as to the present tense, is a form composed of the contingent and the auxiliary. "Whether this form, when it occurs, is intended for the present or the future, generally depends on the context. In order, however, to have no doubt when they speak of future things, they use the simple contingent form with additional particles, I have [am] to be honourable; time is for me [to come] that I am to be honourable.'

for the present or


The present, which might be perhaps with


"The simple preterite of the indicative is used

'I am gone,' i.e., if you allow me I go now; or when a

person is frequently called, and does not come, he at last answers, [I have

come, I have come, i.e.] 'I come, I come.'


"The present indicative is used for both the present and the future tenses. "The future time is generally expressed by the same forms which serve for the present, except the aoristic construction. In page 66 of this work we pointed out a decidedly future form, besides which they make use of the contingent with al and dohonal; but these two latter forms are not confined to the future; they are also used for the present tense." MALTESE GESENIUS writes:—"Ich folge der Anordnung der Grammatiker fur die arabische vulgar-sprache, in welcher bekantlich, wie in Maltese, das Fut. praesent ist.—P. 16.

COPTIC. TATTAM writes:—"Instances frequently occur, in which the present tense is used for the perfect, and also for the future. "The future tense and future participles are sometimes used to express the present and perfect tenses."—Grammar, p. 61-66.


Hebrew Tenses Illustrated by Those of Other Languages


RICHARDSON writes:—"The preterite is used also in place of the future, and other tenses, which an attention to the construction only can render familiar. "The particle la, 'not,' gives to the preterite the signification of the

present, 'the fruit of timidity does not gain [hath not gained], and doth not

Perceded by az, or aza, 'when,' it becomes the future

of the subjunctive, 'when you shall be [have been] among strange people,

to whom you do not belong, then eat whatever is set before you, whether it be bad or good.' "The future corresponds more frequently to our present than to any

It is

lose [hath not lost]

other tense, as may be remarked in almost every

frequently restrained to a future tense when the particle sa is prefixed

the negative lana, 'not at all,' together with the particles saufa, saf, saw, say, give it likewise the future sense. When preceded by ma, 'not,' it has

lam and lama, 'not yet,' gives it,

for the most part a present signification

according to Erpenius, the sense of the preterite."—Grammar, p. 81-89


FARIS EL-SHIDIAC writes:—"The form for the future of the verb is also applicable for the present. The modern Arabs, therefore, make it a real present by joining it to some other word. Thus howa yaktuba, signifies he writes, or he will write. But howa ammal yaktuba, has the single signification of he is writing. "Although in the classical Arabic there are two particles, sa and saufa employed to confine the verb to the future, they are very seldom used in ordinary books."—Grammar, p. 38.


HOFFMAN writes:—"Praet. pro Fut. in sermonibus propheticis,


asseverationibus, vel in expectatione interdum, sed multo rarius, quam in Hebraicis libris usurpatur (Praet. propheticum), ita ut viva loquentis imaginatione id, quod futurum est, tanquam praeteritum aut certe praesens fingatur; e.g., Es. 9.1, Ge. 17.20; 40.14, Job 19.27, Jo. 5.24. "Praet. pro Imper. ut quamquam non omnino prohibitum, tamen in uno fere verbo hewo vulgare est, idque in sermonibus tum affirmantibus tum negantibus, praecipue ubi cum Adject. aut Partic. conjunctum legitur, ut Mat. 5.25; 6.7, Mar. 5.34; 13.37, Lu. 10.37; 11.2; 13.14, Rom. 12.9-14, 16, 1Cor. 11.24; 14.20, Eph. 4.32, Tit. 3.1, 1Jo. 4.1. "Praet. pro Fut. exacto poni, non singulare putarim, quia hoc tempus praeteriti notionem certo includit; ita in his sententiis hypotheticis, De. 4.30, 1Sa. 10.2. The future is used: "pro praes. neque tamen tam crebro, quam in Hebraico sermone, e.g. 1Sa. 1.8, Ephr. 1.119, f., Ge. 4.15, Es. 43.17. "Fut. Syriaco ea quoque indicantur, quae Romani praes. conjunct,

designant; itaque a) Optativus, ut Ps. 7.10, Cant. 7.9, 1Reg. 17.21, deinde b) Germanorum formulae loquendi verbo quodam auxiliari (mogen, durfer, konnen, sollen), effectae, ut Ps. 7.10, Es. 19.12; 47.13. Esdr. 19.14 Ge. 2.16; 3.2; 30.31, Ju. 14.16, Pr. 20.9, Non minus c) Imper. hoc tempore signatur, quid? quod in praeceptis ad aliquid prohibendum datis, cum Imper. prohibitive usurpari nequeat (P 132, 1), vulgo eo utuntur, e.g., Ge. 46.3, Ex. 20.13-17, Ruth 1.20."— Grammar, p. 332-336. UHLEMANN writes:—"The past designates the present tense a) in prophecies, asseverations, and the like, which are viewed as already fulfilled and accomplished.

the present, although more rarely than in

"The future stands for

Hebrew. "The preterite also stands for the imperative."—Grammar, p. 171-7.


STODDART writes.—"Present tense. This is sometimes used

as a future, 'we are going after a month;' so in Ge. 6.17, where in the modern language we have the present tense, and in the ancient the active participle.


"Preterite tense.—1) Used as a present: e.g., a man in distress says; 'I died, i.e., I am dead; I choked, i.e., I am choked, or I am drowned.' A boy in recitation, if confused, will say 'it lost on me,' i.e., I have lost it. Ask a man how his business is to-day, and he may reply, 'It remained [remains] just so.' Persons coming to make a petition will tell us, 'we poured (i.e., we now place) our hope on you.' Compare Ancient Syriac, (Hoff. P 129, 4.b.c.) (Compare also Ps. 1.1, in the Ancient and Modern. "4) As a future, e.g., if you died to-morrow, you perished; if you believe, Christ just now (i.e., at this moment) received [will receive] you;' this is no doubt an emphatic future. Compare Nordh. P 966. 1,c.

Many of the idioms mentioned above

give force and vivacity to the language. We are thus allowed to speak of events and actions which are present or future, though definite, or future and contingent, as if they had actually transpired and were recorded in the past. On this account the preterite is often used in Hebrew in the language of prophecy. "It is not strange that these different idioms lead to ambiguity, which no acquaintance with the language will fully remove; e.g., [a certain given phrase] may be translated, 'our sweet voices let us all raise.' or we do all raise, or we will all raise.' The perplexity thus caused, however, is as nothing compared with the puzzling expressions we often find in Hebrew."—Grammar, p. 158-164.

"5) As a subjunctive


BARKER writes:—"The first tense [i.e. the present] has also a future signification; aidrm is used for 'I do' and 'I will do' equally. It is therefore called aorist [?] by Mr Redhouse." The present participle aider, 'doing,' has, Mr Barker says, a future sense also.— Grammar, p. 27, 28.


BLEECK writes:—"In narration, when, after a verb in the preterite, a second verb occurs, which in English would also be naturally in a past


tense, the Persians employ the present (or aorist), as, 'The young tiger saw that he has not the power of resisting.' "Similarly, in recounting a conversation, the Persians always make use of a dramatic style, i.e., they report the very words, as, Hattim told her that he would not eat—lit., Hattim said to her thus, I will not eat."—Grammar, p. 79.


WILLIAMS writes:—"Present tense. This tense, besides its proper use, is frequently used for the future; as, 'whether shall [do] I go? when shall [do] I see thee?' "In narrative it is commonly used for the past tense; as, 'he having

The particle sma, when

touched the ground, touches his ears, and says.'

used with the present, gives it the force of a perfect."—Grammar, p. 198,



CLARKSON writes:—"Present [tense expresses] in familiar conversation

action as about to take place immediately, 'I am sending [going to send] a servant with you; [also] action originating in past time, and not yet completed, where the English uses the perfect of the auxiliary, 'How many days have you been [are you] studying Gujarati.' "It is used in narrative of past events, when writing seriatim. "It expresses future action, which, on account of its certainty, is viewed as present by the speaker, e.g., I go [shall go] this year to Bombay.

where the English uses the present,

especially when preceded by jare, 'when,'—when my brother comes, lit. shall come.'—Grammar, p. 73, 74.

"The first future

is used


Shakespear writes:—"The past indefinite of a verb seems at times used in

a present or future

The present, when celerity in the performance

of any enterprise is emphatically denoted, may be used in the sense of the


The indefinite future or aorist may not only convey a present meaning, but it may even be construed with an auxiliary verb as a present participle even."—Grammar, p. 136.


LOW writes:—"The present tense of this [indicative] mood is in its nature


will [shall?] not

shoot a bird.'—Grammar, p. 47.

'I shot a bird,' as it stands, might be also rendered, 'I

I remain or I will remain; you are not to go yonder, i.e., you


CAMPBELL writes:—"It is of much importance for the reader to understand that the two forms of the future tense are seldom used; the

present or the aorist being commonly substituted for them."—Grammar, p.



CRAWFORD writes:—"Time is often left to be inferred from the context, and, indeed, is expressed only when it is indispensable to the sense that it should be specified. "The tenses, when they must be specified, are formed by auxiliaries, which are either verbs or adverbs."—Grammar, p. 48.


WILLIAMS writes:—"The present and perfect, when formed by ka, will generally be distinguished by the sense."—p. 63.


GROWTHER writes:—"The present and imperfect tenses are both alike;


as moh loh, I go, I went; awa de, we return, we returned; o sung, he sleeps,

he slept; o joko, thou sittest, thou

speaking, is more frequently expressed by the sign of the particle ng, and

[it] is then understood that the action is not yet past; as a'ng—koh takardah, we are writing a book."—Vocabulary, p. 16.

The present tense, strictly


PRIESTLEY writes:—"A little reflection may, I think suffice to convince any person that we have no more business with a future tense in our language than we have with the whole system of Latin moods and tenses; because we have no modification of our verbs to correspond to it; and if we had never heard of a future tense in some other language, we should no more have given a particular name to the combination of the verb with the auxiliary shall or will, than to those that are made with the auxiliaries do, have, can, must, or any other."—English Grammar.

LATHAM writes:—"Notwithstanding its name, the present tense, in English, does not express a strictly present action; it rather expresses an habitual one. He speaks well—he is a good speaker. If a man means to say that he is in the act of speaking, he says, I am speaking. It has also, especially when combined with a subjunctive mood, a future power. I beat you (—I will beat you) if you don't leave off."—English Language, p.


LINDLEY MURRAY writes:—"The present tense, preceded by the words when, before, after, as soon as, &c., is sometimes [often?] used to point out the relative time of a future action; as, 'When he arrives he will hear the news;' 'He will hear the news before he arrives;' or, 'As soon as he arrives,' or, 'At, farthest, soon after he arrives;' 'The more she improves, the more amiable she will be.' "In animated historical narratives, this tense is sometimes [always?] substituted for the imperfect tense; as, 'He enters the territory of the peaceful inhabitants, he fights and conquers, takes an immense booty, which he divides among his soldiers, and returns home to enjoy an empty


triumph.' "The perfect tense, preceded by the words when, after, as soon as, &c., is often used to denote the relative time of a future action; as, 'When I have finished my letter, I will attend to his request;' 'I will attend to this business, as soon as I have finished my letter.'

the verb itself in

the present, and the auxiliary both of the present and past-imperfect tenses often carry with them somewhat of a future sense; as, 'If he come to- morrow, I may speak to him; if he should or would come to-morrow, I might, could, would, or should speak to him.' "Observe also, that the auxiliaries should and would, in the imperfect tenses, are used to express the present and future as well as the past: as, 'It is my desire, that he should, or would, come now, or to-morrow;' as well as, 'It was my desire, that he should or would come yesterday;' so that, in this mood, the precise time of the verb is very much determined by the nature and drift of the sentence."—Grammar, p. 116-119.

"It is to be observed, that in the subjunctive mood

PICKBOURN writes:—"The first of these English tenses, viz., I write, is an aorist [?], or indefinite of the present time. "Even those compound participles, which denote completed or

finished actions, may be applied to future, as well as past and present time. Thus: "Whenever that ambitious young prince comes to the throne, being supported by a veteran army, and having got possession of the treasures which will be [are] found in his father's coffers, he," &c.—English Verb, p.


MARSH writes:—"It is a curious fact that the Romance languages, as well as the Romaic, at one period of their history, all rejected the ancient inflected futures, and formed new compound or auxiliary ones, employing for that purpose the verbs will and shall, or have in the sense of duty or necessity, though French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, have now agglutinated the infinite and auxiliary into a simple future. "Why is it that the Gothic languages have always possessed a past tense, never a future? Why did the Romance dialects retain the Latin past


forms, and reject the Latin future?" "If the expression of time is an inherent necessity of the verb, special forms for the future as well as the present and the past ought to be universal, but in most modern European languages, the future is a compound, the elements of which are a present auxiliary and an aorist

infinitive, for in the phrases I shall go, he will go, shall and will are in the present tense, and go is aoristic. "The Anglo-Saxon, with a single exception in the case of a substantive verb, had absolutely no mode of expressing the future by any verbal form, simple or compound. The context alone determined the time, and in German, in the Scandinavian dialects, and in English, we still very commonly, as the Anglo-Saxons did, express the future by a present. Ich gehe morgen nach London, I go, or I am going, to London to-morrow, are more frequently used by Germans and Englishmen, than ich werde gehen, I shall or will go; and the adverbial nouns morgen and to-morrow, not the verbs gehen and go, are the true time-words. "The use of the present for the past, too, especially in spirited narrative and in poetry, is not less familiar, and in both these cases the expression of time belongs to the grammatical period, not to the verb."—Lectures, p.



Summary of the New View of the Hebrew Verb

From these pages the scholar can scarcely fail to infer that:—

I The form of the Hebrew verb yiqtol, denotes a real present, and not a future:

1) Because it is admitted by Ewald, Gesenius, Lee, Rodiger, and every other Hebrew Grammarian of name, that it is so in numberless places, and because there are thousands of instances where the Common English Version, and all other versions, ancient and modern, do rightly translate it as a present.

2) Because there are numerous passages where it cannot possibly be a future; and as it is impossible, in the very nature of things, for a real future to express present time,—whereas it is very common, in almost all languages, rhetorically to express futurity by a present—it must be a present, and not a future.

Because in all the Cognate Semitic Dialects it is regarded as a present.

II The form of the Hebrew verb qatal denotes a past (perfect or imperfect). It is also used idiomatically:—

1) To express a gentle imperative; this is universally agreed by all Hebrew Grammarians to be the case when it is preceded by a regular imperative, e.g., "Speak and say," lit., Speak, and thou hast said; but this limitation of theirs arises from imperfect acquaintance with the facts of the case, as there are many passages where there is no imperative preceding, yet where the past tense is used to express a command, e.g., Zech. 1.3, "And



thou hast said," i.e, "Say thou." This idiom is also admitted to be common in all the Cognate Semitic Dialects.

2) To express a fixed determination that a certain thing must and shall be. This idiom is distinctly admitted by the above- mentioned Hebrew Grammarians, and is common, not only in the Cognate Semitic Dialects, but in the Greek New Testament, and also in the Greek and Latin Classics, as shown by Stuart, Winer, Macknight, Kuhner, and others.

III The Waw Conversive is Unnecessary. It is based upon superficial data, for:—


It supposes yiqtol to be an exclusively future form, which is not the case.


It ignores the idiomatic use of the past tense to express a "fixed determination," which is admitted by all Hebrew Grammarians.

3) It casts the utmost uncertainty over the language, as, on the very same principles by which waw is supposed to be conversive, the particles once, behind, not, yea, when, how? also, lo, because, so, except, why? therefore, whence? what? and who? must be held to be conversive likewise—which no sane man will venture to maintain.


It does not explain all the phenomena of the case, for there are numberless passages "where a past tense is preceded neither by a future nor by an imperative (as the rules of Waw Conversive imperatively require), yet, when it is converted in the Common English Version, and with as much propriety as in any of those instances which are supposed to be indisputable."


It is unparalleled among all the other languages of the world— ancient and modern, eastern and western.

It is found in no other composition in the Hebrew


Language; in all the most ancient, and valued, and voluminous Hebrew writings it is wanting;—the Talmudim, the Perushim, the Midrashim, have it not. If the Hebrew language ever had a Waw Conversive, is it at all likely that it should suddenly, totally, and unobservedly drop out of existence?

The result of the whole is: That the Waw Conversive does not exist in the Hebrew Bible, and is Unnecessary, Imperfect, and Unexampled in any language.

It has only a traditional existence, being the too hasty generalization of some ancient grammarians, who observed that the Septuagint Translators had—with the freedom which characterizes their whole work both in style and sentiments—deemed the Hebrew idioms too colloquial for the fastidious Greeks, and too simple for the dignity of literary composition; and as all succeeding translators, without an exception, were under the spell of the sacred character of that Version, it is no wonder, though much to be regretted, that their example was followed. Of late years there has been a very strong tendency in translators and expositors to adhere more than ever to the exact form of the Hebrew and Greek Tenses, but the present Translation is the first and only one in which it is carried out systematically.


Confused Renderings of King James' Revisers

The English verb 'destroy' is, in the Common Version, the representative of not less than forty-nine different Hebrew words (as may be seen in the 'Englishman's Hebrew Concordance,' p. 1510 of second edition);— the verb 'to set,' of forty, and 'to bring,' of thirty- nine, &c. It ia evident, therefore, that the use of 'Cruden's Concordance,' and all others based on the Common Version, can only mislead the mere English reader. The following list of words, with the number of their Hebrew representatives (according to the Common Version) expressed in numerals, will surprise all who have not hitherto attended to this subject; viz:— To abhor 12, abide 13, abundance 11, affliction 12, to be afraid 22, after 13, against 13, among 11, to be angry 10, another 11, to appoint 24, appointed 10, army 10, at 13, to bear 13, beauty 15, before 22, beside 14, to bind 15, body 12, border 13, bough 13, branch 20, to break 33, bright 10, to bring 39, to bring forth 21, broken 12, to be broken 16, to burn 19, burning 12, but 15, by 14, captain 16, captivity 10, to carry away 10, to carry 12, to cast 19, to cast down 19, to cast out 15, to catch 12, to cease 21, chain 10, chamber 10, change 16, to be changed 10, chief 10,

to cleave 15, coast 10, to come 32, commandment 12, companion 10, company 22, to consider 18, to consume 21, consumed 10, to continue 11, corner 10, country 10, to cover 21, covering 13, to cry 17, to cut down 10, to be cut down 13, to cut off 18, to be cut off 14, dark 11, darkness 10, to declare 11, decree 11, to be defiled 10, to deliver 26, to depart 18, desire 13, to desire 13, desolate 16, to be desolate 11, desolation 12, to despise 10, to destroy 49, to be destroyed 17, destruction 35, to divide 19, to draw out 10, dung 10, to dwell 14, dwelling 11, east 10, end 26, to establish 13, to be exalted 11, excellent 10, to fail 30, to faint 18, to fall 14, fear 16, to fear 10, flood 10, for 21, foundation 11, from 17, fruit 12, garment 14, to gather 23, to gather together 16, to be gathered 10, to be gathered together 14, to get 16, gift 12, to give 15, glorious 12, glory 10, to go 22, goodly 15, governor 12, great 24, grief 10, to be grieved 17, grievous 10, to grow 13, habitation 17, to harden 10, haste 11, to make haste 10, height 11, to hide 14, to hide self 12, high 18, to hold 12, hurt 11, idol 11, if 10, in 13, to increase 17, iniquity 11, to be joined 10, judgment 10, to keep 11, to kindle 15, knowledge 12, labour 10, to be laid 10, to lay 24, to lead 12,


to leave 15, to be left 11, to lift up 15, light 13, to long 10, to look 16, to be made 11, majesty 10, to make 23, man 12, to mark 10, measure 13, meat 14, to meet 10, midst 10, might 12, mighty 26, to mourn 12, to move 15, to be moved 13, much 10, multitude 14, net 10, not 14, now 13, of 10, to offer 22, offering 10, old 13, only 11, to oppress 10, to ordain 12, over 10, to overthrow 11, palace 10, part 14, people 10, to perceive 10, to perish 13, pit 12, place 13, pleasant 17, pleasure 10, poor 10, portion 13, to pour out 12, power 17, to prepare 14, to prevail 15, pride 10, prince 11, proud 16, to put 28, to regard 17, rejoice 19, to remain 16, remnant 11, to remove 20, to be removed 11, to repair 10, to rest 17, reward 16, riches 10, right 16, river 11, ruler 13, to run 14, scatter 12, to be scattered 10, secret 12, to set 40, to be set 13, to set up 18, to shake 15, to shew 19, to shine 11, to shut 11, side 13, to be slain 14, slaughter 12, to slay 15, to smite 12, sorrow 28, to speak 22, speech 10, spoil 10, to spoil 16, to spread 15, to stay 14, to stop 10, strength 33, to strengthen 12, strong 26, substance 14, to take 34, to take away 24, to be taken away 10, to tarry 16, to teach 10, to tell 12, terror 10, that 16, these 16, think 12, this 20, thought 11, through 11, thus 10, to 12, tremble 13, trouble 14, to trouble 12, to be troubled 14, truth 11, to turn 15, to turn aside 10, to be turned 10, understanding 14, to utter 15, to vex 16,

to wait 10, wall 13, waste 10, to waste 10, when 12, where 13, which 11, wisdom 12, with 18, within 12, without 12, word 10, work 15, wrath 10, yet 10, youth 11. To make afraid 8, ancient 8, army 8, ask 8, assembly 8, back 9, band 9, battle 8, beat 9, because of 8, to behold 9, bottom 8, break down 8, to be brought 9, burden 8, to be burned 8, cast down 9, cause 9, to charge 8, chariot 8, clean 8, come upon 8, commit 8, to compass 9, confirm 9, cry out 8, to cut 8, to dance 8, deceitful 8, deep 9, defence 8, to be delivered 9, destroyer 8, devour 9, to direct 9, to do 9, to be done 8, to draw 9, to drive 8, drive away 8, dry 8, edge 8, enemy 9, even 8, ever 8, excellency 8, except 8, fair 8, fall down 8, fat 8, favour 8, to feed 9, fellow 9, first 9, flame 9, folly 9, foolish 9, form 9, friend 9, full 9, to gather selves together 8, be glad 9, going 9, be gone 9, goods 8, grieve 9, guide 8, heart 8, here 8, be hid 9, hole 8, honour 9, hope 9, image 9, increase 9, it 8, kill 9, lamb 9, to lament 9, to lay up 9, to leap 8, lift up self 8, to be lifted up 9, like 8, to be liked 8, line 8, little one 8, long 8, lord 8, lying 8, majesty 8, manner 9, to melt 9, mischief 8, to mock 8, mourning 8, none 8, officer 8, one 8, to open 9, oppressor 8, other 8, pain 9, to part 8, path 9, perfect 9, to perform 8, to pervert 8, piece 9, plain 8, pluck 8, polluted 9, possession 9, pray 9, precious 8, preserve 8, price 8, prison


9, prosper 9, pure 9, purpose 9, put away 9, put on 9, raise up 9, ready 8, receive 9, rejoicing 9, rest 8, return 8, ruin 8, to rule 9, to be sanctified 8, save 8, to say 8, search 8, see 9, shame 9, sheep 8, to shoot 8, to shout 8, shut up 8, sin 9, since 8, to sing 8, small 9, snare 9, son 8, sore 9, to sound 8, space 8, spring, 8, staff 9, step 8, stir up 8, stranger 9, stream 9, strike 8, strive 9, stronghold 9, subdue 8, such 8, surety

8, sweet 9, to be taken 8, tear 9, thick 8. The above are taken from a most useful book, entitled 'The Englishman's Hebrew Concordance,' which only requires the insertion of the Hebrew Particles to make it a complete work. 'The Bible Student's Guide,' by the Rev. W. Wilson, D.D., cannot be sufficiently commended as an accurate and elaborate Key to the mixed renderings of King James' Revisers.



NATHAN, 'to give,' is rendered (in the Kal conjugation) by such words as: to add, apply, appoint, ascribe, assign, bestow, bring, bring forth, cast, cause, charge, come, commit, consider, count, deliver, deliver up, direct, distribute, fasten, frame, give, give forth, give over, give up, grant, hang, hang up, lay, lay to charge, lay up, leave, lend, let, let out, lift up, make, O that, occupy, offer, ordain, pay, perform, place, pour, print, put, put forth, recompense, render, requite, restore, send, send out, set, set forth, shew, shoot forth, shoot up, strike, suffer, thrust, trade, turn, utter, would God, yield; besides seventeen varieties in idiomatic renderings=84! ASAH, 'to do,' (in Kal) by: to accomplish, advance, appoint, to be at, bear, bestow, bring forth, bring to pass, bruise, be busy, have charge, commit, deal, deal with, deck, do, dress, execute, exercise, fashion, finish, fit, fulfil, furnish, gather, get, go about, govern, grant, hold, keep, labour, maintain, make ready, make, observe, offer, pare, perform, practise, prepare, procure, provide, put, require, sacrifice, serve, set, shew, spend, take, trim, work, yield; besides twenty idiomatic renderings=74! DABAR, 'a word,' is rendered by: act, advice, affair, answer, anything, book, business, care, case, cause, certain rate, commandment, communication, counsel decree, deed, due, duty, effect, errant, hurt, language, manner, matter, message, oracle, ought, parts, pertaining, portion, promise, provision, purpose, question, rate, reason, report, request, sake, saying, sentence, something to say, speech, talk, task, thing, thought, tidings, what, wherewith, whit, word, work; besides thirty-one idiomatic renderings=84! PANIM, 'face,'is rendered by: afore, afore-time, against, anger, at, because of, before, before-time, countenance, edge, face, favour, fear of, for, forefront, forepart, form, former time, forward, from, front, heaviness, it, as long as, looks, mouth, of, off, of old, old time, open, over-against, person, presence, prospect, was purposed, by reason of, right forth, sight, state, straight, through, till, time past, times past, to, toward, unto, upon, upside, with, within; besides forty-two idiomatic renderings=94! SUM or SIM, 'to set,' is (in Kal) rendered by: appoint, bring, care, cast in, change, charge, commit, consider, convey, determine, dispose, do, get, give, heap up, hold, impute, be laid, lay, lay down, lay up, leave, look, be made, make, make


out, mark, ordain, order, place, be placed, preserve, purpose, put, put on, rehearse, reward, set, cause to be set set on, set up, shew, take, turn, work; besides fourteen idiomatic renderings=59! SHUB, (in Hiphil) 'to turn back,' is rendered by: to answer, cause to answer, bring, bring back, bring again, bring home again, carry back, carry again, convert, deliver, deliver again, draw back, fetch home again, give again, hinder, let, pull in again, put, put again, put up again, recall, recompense, recover, refresh, relieve, render, render again, be rendered, requite, rescue, restore, retrieve, return, cause to return, make to return, reverse reward, send back, set again, take back, take off, turn away, turn back, cause to turn, make to turn, withdraw; besides fifteen idiomatic renderings=60! NASAH, 'to lift up,' is (in Kal) rendered by: accept, arise, able to bear, bear up, be borne, bring, bring forth, burn, be burned, carry, carry away, cast, contain, ease, exact, exalt, fetch, forgive, go on, hold up, lade, be laid, lay, lift up, pluck up, marry, obtain, offer, pardon, raise, raise up, receive, regard, respect, set, set up, spare, stir up, suffer, take, take away, take up, wear, yield; besides four idiomatic renderings=46! OBAR, 'to pass over,' is (in Kal) rendered by: to alienate, be altered, come, come over, come on, be delivered, enter, escape, fail, get over, go, go away, go beyond, go by, go forth, go his way, go in, go on, go over, go through, be gone, have more, overcome, overpass, overpast, overrun, pass, pass along, pass away, pass beyond, pass by, pass on, pass out, pass over, pass through, give passage, be past, perish, transgress; besides three idiomatic renderings=42! RAB, 'many, much,' is rendered by: abound, abundance, abundant, captain, elder, common, enough, exceedingly, full, great, great multitude, great man, great one, greatly, increase, long, long enough, manifold, many, many a time, so many, have many many things, master, mighty, more, much, too much, very much, multiply, multitude, officer, plenteous, populous, prince, suffice, sufficient; besides seven idiomatic renderings=44! TOB, 'good,' is rendered, by: beautiful, best, better, bountiful, cheerful, at ease, fair, fair word, to favour, be in favour, fine, glad, good, good deed, goodlier, goodliest, goodly, goodness, goods, graciously, joyful, kindly, kindness, liketh, liketh best, loving, merry, pleasant, pleasure, precious, prosperity, ready, sweet, wealth, welfare, well, to be well; besides four idiomatic renderings=41! It would be easy to multiply examples of lax renderings did space permit. The following are some that have been marked; e.g. Ahad by 23, Altar 25, Ish 31, Al 36, Im 23, Amar 37, Aphes 23, Asher 27, Bo 32, Bin 20, Ben 20, Gam 20,


Halak 36, Ze 21, Hul 27, Hazak 23, Hai 22, Hayil 26, Tob 37, Jad 36, Jada 36, Yom 32, Hatib 28, Yalak 24, Jatza 37, Ysh 31, Yashab 20, Ki 36, Kol 20, Kalah 21, Lakah 20, Meod 21, Moed 20, Matza 22, Maneh 20, Mishpat 27, Natah 21, Naphal 20, Nephesh 35, Sabab 20, Ad 22, Oud 26, Oulam 24, Al 34, Alah 37, Im 21, Amad 23, Anah 20, Arak 20, Pe 29, Panah 20, Pagod 25, Qum 27, Qarah 24, Raah 32, Rosh 21, Hirbah 30, Ra 37, Shub 35, Shalom 28, Shillah 27, Shillet 20, Shama 20.



Chapter 1

1 IN the beginning of God's preparing the heavens and the earth —

2 the earth hath existed waste and void, and darkness [is] on the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God fluttering on the face of the waters,

3 and God saith, 'Let light be;' and light is.

4 And God seeth the light that [it is] good, and God separateth between the light and the darkness,

5 and God calleth to the light 'Day,' and to the darkness He hath called 'Night;' and there is an evening, and there is a morning — day one.

6 And God saith, 'Let an expanse be in the midst of the waters, and let it be separating between waters and waters.'

7 And God maketh the expanse, and it separateth between the waters which [are] under the expanse, and the waters which [are] above the expanse: and it is so.

8 And God calleth to the expanse 'Heavens;' and there is an evening, and there is a morning — day second.

9 And God saith, 'Let the waters under the heavens be collected unto one


place, and let the dry land be seen:' and

it is so.

10 And God calleth to the dry land 'Earth,' and to the collection of the waters He hath called 'Seas;' and God seeth that [it is] good.

11 And God saith, 'Let the earth yield tender grass, herb sowing seed, fruit- tree (whose seed [is] in itself) making fruit after its kind, on the earth:' and it is so.

12 And the earth bringeth forth tender grass, herb sowing seed after its kind, and tree making fruit (whose seed [is] in itself) after its kind; and God seeth that [it is] good;

13 and there is an evening, and there is

a morning — day third.

14 And God saith, 'Let luminaries be in the expanse of the heavens, to make a separation between the day and the night, then they have been for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years,

15 and they have been for luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth:' and it is so.

16 And God maketh the two great


luminaries, the great luminary for the rule of the day, and the small luminary —and the stars — for the rule of the


17 and God giveth them in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the


18 and to rule over day and over night, and to make a separation between the light and the darkness; and God seeth that [it is] good;

19 and there is an evening, and there is

a morning — day fourth.

20 And God saith, 'Let the waters teem with the teeming living creature, and fowl let fly on the earth on the face of the expanse of the heavens.'

21 And God prepareth the great monsters, and every living creature that is creeping, which the waters have teemed with, after their kind, and every fowl with wing, after its kind, and God seeth that [it is] good.

22 And God blesseth them, saying, 'Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and the fowl let multiply in the earth:'

23 and there is an evening, and there is

a morning — day fifth.

24 And God saith, 'Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle and creeping thing, and beast of


the earth after its kind:' and it is so.

25 And God maketh the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, and God seeth that [it is] good.

26 And God saith, 'Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness, and let them rule over fish of the sea, and over fowl of the heavens, and over cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that is creeping on the earth.'

27 And God prepareth the man in His image; in the image of God He prepared him, a male and a female He prepared them.

28 And God blesseth them, and God saith to them, 'Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it, and rule over fish of the sea, and over fowl of the heavens, and over every living thing that is creeping upon the earth.'

29 And God saith, 'Lo, I have given to you every herb sowing seed, which [is] upon the face of all the earth, and every tree in which [is] the fruit of a tree sowing seed, to you it is for food;

30 and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the heavens, and to every creeping thing on the earth, in which [is] breath of life, every green


herb [is] for food:' and it is so.

31 And God seeth all that He hath done, and lo, very good; and there is an evening, and there is a morning — day the sixth.

Chapter 2

1 And the heavens and the earth are completed, and all their host;

2 and God completeth by the seventh day His work which He hath made, and ceaseth by the seventh day from all His work which He hath made.

3 And God blesseth the seventh day, and sanctifieth it, for in it He hath ceased from all His work which God had prepared for making.

4 These [are] births of the heavens and of the earth in their being prepared, in the day of Jehovah God's making earth and heavens;

5 and no shrub of the field is yet in the earth, and no herb of the field yet sprouteth, for Jehovah God hath not rained upon the earth, and a man there is not to serve the ground,

6 and a mist goeth up from the earth, and hath watered the whole face of the ground.

7 And Jehovah God formeth the man —


dust from the ground, and breatheth into his nostrils breath of life, and the man becometh a living creature.

8 And Jehovah God planteth a garden in Eden, at the east, and He setteth there the man whom He hath formed;

9 and Jehovah God causeth to sprout from the ground every tree desirable for appearance, and good for food, and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

10 And a river is going out from Eden to water the garden, and from thence it is parted, and hath become four chief [rivers];

11 the name of the one [is] Pison, it [is] that which is surrounding the whole land of the Havilah where the gold [is],

12 and the gold of that land [is] good, there [is] the bdolach and the shoham stone;

13 and the name of the second river [is] Gibon, it [is] that which is surrounding the whole land of Cush;

14 and the name of the third river [is] Hiddekel, it [is] that which is going east of Asshur; and the fourth river is Phrat.

15 And Jehovah God taketh the man, and causeth him to rest in the garden


of Eden, to serve it, and to keep it.

16 And Jehovah God layeth a charge on the man, saying, 'Of every tree of the garden eating thou dost eat;

17 and of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou dost not eat of it, for in the day of thine eating of it — dying thou dost die.'

18 And Jehovah God saith, 'Not good for the man to be alone, I do make to him an helper — as his counterpart.'

19 And Jehovah God formeth from the ground every beast of the field, and every fowl of the heavens, and bringeth in unto the man, to see what he doth call it; and whatever the man calleth a living creature, that [is] its name.

20 And the man calleth names to all the cattle, and to fowl of the heavens, and to every beast of the field; and to man hath not been found an helper —as his counterpart.

21 And Jehovah God causeth a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he sleepeth, and He taketh one of his ribs, and closeth up flesh in its stead.

22 And Jehovah God buildeth up the rib which He hath taken out of the man into a woman, and bringeth her in unto the man;

23 and the man saith, 'This [is] the


[proper] step! bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh!' for this it is called Woman, for from a man hath this been taken;

24 therefore doth a man leave his father and his mother, and hath cleaved unto his wife, and they have become one flesh.

25 And they are both of them naked, the man and his wife, and they are not ashamed of themselves.

Chapter 3

1 And the serpent hath been subtile above every beast of the field which Jehovah God hath made, and he saith unto the woman, 'Is it true that God hath said , Ye do not eat of every tree of the garden?'

2 And the woman saith unto the serpent, 'Of the fruit of the trees of the garden we do eat,

3 and of the fruit of the tree which [is] in the midst of the garden God hath said , Ye do not eat of it , nor touch it , lest ye die.'

4 And

woman, 'Dying, ye do not die,

5 for God doth know that in the day of your eating of it — your eyes have been opened, and ye have been as God, knowing good and evil.'







6 And the woman seeth that the tree [is] good for food, and that it [is] pleasant to the eyes, and the tree is desirable to make [one] wise, and she taketh of its fruit and eateth, and giveth also to her husband with her, and he doth eat;

7 and the eyes of them both are opened, and they know that they [are] naked, and they sew fig-leaves, and make to themselves girdles.

8 And they hear the sound of Jehovah God walking up and down in the garden at the breeze of the day, and the man and his wife hide themselves from the face of Jehovah God in the midst of the trees of the garden.

9 And Jehovah God calleth unto the man, and saith to him, 'Where [art] thou?'

10 and he saith, 'Thy sound I have heard in the garden, and I am afraid, for I am naked, and I hide myself.'

11 And He saith, 'Who hath declared to thee that thou [art] naked? of the tree of which I have commanded thee not to eat, hast thou eaten?'

12 and the man saith, 'The woman whom Thou didst place with me —she hath given to me of the tree — and I do eat.'

13 And













done?' and the woman saith, 'The serpent hath caused me to forget — and I do eat.'

14 And Jehovah God saith unto the serpent, 'Because thou hast done this, cursed [art] thou above all the cattle, and above every beast of the field: on thy belly dost thou go, and dust thou dost eat, all days of thy life;

15 and enmity I put between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; he doth bruise thee — the head, and thou dost bruise him — the heel.'

16 Unto the woman He said, 'Multiplying I multiply thy sorrow and thy conception, in sorrow dost thou bear children, and toward thy husband [is] thy desire, and he doth rule over thee.'

17 And to the man He said, 'Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and dost eat of the tree concerning which I have charged thee, saying, Thou dost not eat of it, cursed [is] the ground on thine account; in sorrow thou dost eat of it all days of thy life,

18 and thorn and bramble it doth bring forth to thee, and thou hast eaten the herb of the field;

19 by the sweat of thy face thou dost eat bread till thy return unto the ground,


for out of it hast thou been taken, for dust thou [art], and unto dust thou turnest back.'

20 And the man calleth his wife's name Eve: for she hath been mother of all living.

21 And Jehovah God doth make to the man and to his wife coats of skin, and doth clothe them.

22 And Jehovah God saith, 'Lo, the man was as one of Us, as to the knowledge of good and evil; and now, lest he send forth his hand, and have taken also of the tree of life, and eaten, and lived to the age,' —

23 Jehovah God sendeth him forth from the garden of Eden to serve the ground from which he hath been taken;

24 yea, he casteth out the man, and causeth to dwell at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubs and the flame of the sword which is turning itself round to guard the way of the tree of life.

Chapter 4

1 And the man knew Eve his wife, and she conceiveth and beareth Cain, and saith, 'I have gotten a man by Jehovah;'

2 and she addeth to bear his brother, even Abel. And Abel is feeding a flock, and Cain hath been servant of


the ground.

3 And it cometh to pass at the end of days that Cain bringeth from the fruit of the ground a present to Jehovah;

4 and Abel, he hath brought, he also, from the female firstlings of his flock, even from their fat ones; and Jehovah looketh unto Abel and unto his present,

5 and unto Cain and unto his present He hath not looked; and it is very displeasing to Cain, and his countenance is fallen.

6 And Jehovah saith unto Cain, 'Why hast thou displeasure? and why hath thy countenance fallen?

7 Is there not, if thou dost well, acceptance? and if thou dost not well, at the opening a sin-offering is crouching, and unto thee its desire, and thou rulest over it.'

8 And Cain saith unto Abel his brother, ['Let us go into the field;'] and it cometh to pass in their being in the field, that Cain riseth up against Abel his brother, and slayeth him.

9 And Jehovah saith unto Cain, 'Where [is] Abel thy brother?' and he saith, 'I have not known; my brother's keeper —I?'

10 And He saith, 'What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood is crying unto Me from the ground;


11 and now, cursed [art] thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive the blood of thy brother from thy hand;

12 when thou tillest the ground, it doth not add to give its strength to thee — a wanderer, even a trembling one, thou art in the earth.'

13 And Cain saith unto Jehovah, 'Greater is my punishment than to be borne;

14 lo, Thou hast driven me to-day from off the face of the ground, and from Thy face I am hid; and I have been a wanderer, even a trembling one, in the earth, and it hath been — every one finding me doth slay me.'

15 And Jehovah saith to him, 'Therefore — of any slayer of Cain sevenfold it is required;' and Jehovah setteth to Cain a token that none finding him doth slay him.

16 And Cain goeth out from before Jehovah, and dwelleth in the land, moving about east of Eden;

17 and Cain knoweth his wife, and she conceiveth, and beareth Enoch; and he is building a city, and he calleth the name of the city, according to the name of his son — Enoch.

18 And born to Enoch is Irad; and Irad hath begotten Mehujael; and Mehujael


hath begotten Methusael; and Methusael hath begotten Lamech.

19 And Lamech taketh to himself two wives, the name of the one Adah, and the name of the second Zillah.

20 And Adah beareth Jabal, he hath been father of those inhabiting tents and purchased possessions;

21 and the name of his brother [is] Jubal, he hath been father of every one handling harp and organ.

22 And Zillah she also bare Tubal-Cain, an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron; and a sister of Tubal-Cain [is] Naamah.

23 And Lamech saith to his wives: — 'Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; Wives of Lamech, give ear [to] my saying: For a man I have slain for my wound, Even a young man for my hurt;

24 For sevenfold is required for Cain,

seventy and

And for Lamech sevenfold.'

25 And Adam again knoweth his wife, and she beareth a son, and calleth his name Seth, 'for God hath appointed for me another seed instead of Abel:' for Cain had slain him.

26 And to Seth, to him also a son hath been born, and he calleth his name Enos; then a beginning was made of


preaching in the name of Jehovah.

Chapter 5

1 This [is] an account of the births of Adam: In the day of God's preparing man, in the likeness of God He hath made him;

2 a male and a female He hath prepared them, and He blesseth them, and calleth their name Man, in the day of their being prepared.

3 And Adam liveth an hundred and thirty years, and begetteth [a son] in his likeness, according to his image, and calleth his name Seth.

4 And the days of Adam after his begetting Seth are eight hundred years, and he begetteth sons and daughters.

5 And all the days of Adam which he lived are nine hundred and thirty years, and he dieth.

6 And Seth liveth an hundred and five years, and begetteth Enos.

7 And Seth liveth after his begetting Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

8 And all the

hundred and twelve years, and he



days of Seth are

9 And Enos liveth ninety years, and begetteth Cainan.


10 And Enos liveth after his begetting Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

11 And all the days of Enos are nine hundred and five years, and he dieth.

12 And Cainan liveth seventy years, and begetteth Mahalaleel.

13 And Cainan liveth after his begetting Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

14 And all the days of Cainan are nine hundred and ten years, and he dieth.

15 And Mahalaleel liveth five and sixty years, and begetteth Jared.

16 And Mahalaleel liveth after his begetting Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

17 And all the days of Mahalaleel are eight hundred and ninety and five years, and he dieth.

18 And













19 And Jared liveth after his begetting Enoch eight hundred years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

20 And all the days of Jared are nine hundred and sixty and two years, and


he dieth.

21 And Enoch liveth five and sixty years, and begetteth Methuselah.

22 And Enoch walketh habitually with God after his begetting Methuselah three hundred years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

23 And all the days of Enoch are three hundred and sixty and five years.

24 And Enoch walketh habitually with God, and he is not, for God hath taken him.

25 And Methuselah liveth an hundred and eighty and seven years, and begetteth Lamech.

26 And Methuselah liveth after his begetting Lamech seven hundred and eighty and two years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

27 And all the days of Methuselah are nine hundred and sixty and nine years, and he dieth.

28 And Lamech liveth an hundred and eighty and two years, and begetteth a son,

29 and calleth his name Noah, saying, 'This [one] doth comfort us concerning our work, and concerning the labour of our hands, because of the ground which Jehovah hath cursed.'

30 And Lamech liveth after his


begetting Noah five hundred and ninety and five years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

31 And all the days of Lamech are seven hundred and seventy and seven years, and he dieth.

32 And Noah is a son of five hundred years, and Noah begetteth Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

Chapter 6

1 And it cometh to pass that mankind have begun to multiply on the face of the ground, and daughters have been born to them,

2 and sons of God see the daughters of men that they [are] fair, and they take to themselves women of all whom they have chosen.

3 And Jehovah saith, 'My Spirit doth not strive in man — to the age; in their erring they [are] flesh:' and his days have been an hundred and twenty years.

4 The fallen ones were in the earth in those days, and even afterwards when sons of God come in unto daughters of men, and they have borne to them — they [are] the heroes, who, from of old, [are] the men of name.

5 And Jehovah seeth that abundant [is] the wickedness of man in the earth,


and every imagination of the thoughts of his heart only evil all the day;

6 and Jehovah repenteth that He hath made man in the earth, and He grieveth Himself — unto His heart.

7 And Jehovah saith, 'I wipe away man whom I have prepared from off the face of the ground, from man unto beast, unto creeping thing, and unto fowl of the heavens, for I have repented that I have made them.'

8 And Noah found grace in the eyes of Jehovah.

9 These [are] births of Noah: Noah [is] a righteous man; perfect he hath been among his generations; with God hath Noah walked habitually.

10 And Noah begetteth three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

11 And the earth is corrupt before God, and the earth is filled [with] violence.

12 And God seeth the earth, and lo, it hath been corrupted, for all flesh hath corrupted its way on the earth.

13 And God said to Noah, 'An end of all flesh hath come before Me, for the earth hath been full of violence from their presence; and lo, I am destroying them with the earth.

14 'Make for thyself an ark of gopher- wood; rooms dost thou make with the


ark, and thou hast covered it within and without with cypress;

15 and this [is] that which thou dost with it: three hundred cubits [is] the length of the ark, fifty cubits its breadth, and thirty cubits its height;

16 a window dost thou make for the ark, and unto a cubit thou dost restrain it from above; and the opening of the ark thou dost put in its side, — lower, second, and third [stories] dost thou make it.

17 'And I, lo, I am bringing in the deluge of waters on the earth to destroy all flesh, in which [is] a living spirit, from under the heavens; all that [is] in the earth doth expire.

18 'And I have established My covenant with thee, and thou hast come in unto the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy son's wives with thee;

19 and of all that liveth, of all flesh, two of every [sort] thou dost bring in unto the ark, to keep alive with thee; male and female are they.

20 Of the fowl after its kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every [sort] they come in unto thee, to keep alive.

21 'And thou, take to thyself of all food that is eaten; and thou hast gathered


unto thyself, and it hath been to thee and to them for food.'

22 And Noah doth according to all that God hath commanded him; so hath he done.

Chapter 7

1 And Jehovah saith to Noah, 'Come in, thou and all thy house, unto the ark, for thee I have seen righteous before Me in this generation;

2 of all the clean beasts thou dost take to thee seven pairs, a male and its female; and of the beasts which are not clean two, a male and its female;

3 also, of fowl of the heavens seven pairs, a male and a female, to keep alive seed on the face of all the earth;

4 for after other seven days I am sending rain on the earth forty days and forty nights, and have wiped away all the substance that I have made from off the face of the ground.'

5 And Noah doth according to all that Jehovah hath commanded him:

6 and Noah [is] a son of six hundred years, and the deluge of waters hath been upon the earth.

7 And Noah goeth in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, unto the ark, from the presence of the waters of the deluge;


8 of the clean beasts and of the beasts that [are] not clean, and of the fowl, and of every thing that is creeping upon the ground,

9 two by two they have come in unto Noah, unto the ark, a male and a

female, as

God hath commanded


10 And it cometh to pass, after the seventh of the days, that waters of the deluge have been on the earth.

11 In the six hundredth year of the life of Noah, in the second month, in the seventeenth day of the month, in this day have been broken up all fountains of the great deep, and the net-work of the heavens hath been opened,

12 and the shower is on the earth forty days and forty nights.

13 In this self-same day went in Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, sons of Noah, and Noah's wife and the three wives of his sons with them, unto the ark;

14 they, and every living creature after its kind, and every beast after its kind, and every creeping thing that is creeping on the earth after its kind, and every fowl after its kind, every bird — every wing.

15 And they come in unto Noah, unto the ark, two by two of all the flesh in


which [is] a living spirit;

16 and they that are coming in, male and female of all flesh, have come in as God hath commanded him, and Jehovah doth close [it] for him.

17 And the deluge is forty days on the earth, and the waters multiply, and lift up the ark, and it is raised up from off the earth;

18 and the waters are mighty, and multiply exceedingly upon the earth; and the ark goeth on the face of the waters.

19 And the waters have been very very mighty on the earth, and covered are all the high mountains which [are] under the whole heavens;

20 fifteen cubits upwards have the waters become mighty, and the mountains are covered;

21 and expire doth all flesh that is moving on the earth, among fowl, and among cattle, and among beasts, and among all the teeming things which are teeming on the earth, and all mankind;

22 all in whose nostrils [is] breath of a living spirit — of all that [is] in the dry land — have died.

23 And wiped away is all the substance that is on the face of the ground, from man unto beast, unto creeping thing,


and unto fowl of the heavens; yea, they are wiped away from the earth, and only Noah is left, and those who [are] with him in the ark;

24 and the waters are mighty on the earth a hundred and fifty days.

Chapter 8

1 And God remembereth Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle which [are] with him in the ark, and God causeth a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters subside,

2 and closed are the fountains of the deep and the net-work of the heavens, and restrained is the shower from the heavens.

3 And turn back do the waters from off the earth, going on and returning; and the waters are lacking at the end of a hundred and fifty days.

4 And the ark resteth, in the seventh month, in the seventeenth day of the month, on mountains of Ararat;

5 and the waters have been going and becoming lacking till the tenth month; in the tenth [month], on the first of the month, appeared the heads of the mountains.

6 And it cometh to pass, at the end of forty days, that Noah openeth the window of the ark which he made,


7 and he sendeth forth the raven, and it goeth out, going out and turning back till the drying of the waters from off the earth.

8 And he sendeth forth the dove from him to see whether the waters have been lightened from off the face of the ground,

9 and the dove hath not found rest for the sole of her foot, and she turneth back unto him, unto the ark, for waters [are] on the face of all the earth, and he putteth out his hand, and taketh her, and bringeth her in unto him, unto the ark.

10 And he stayeth yet other seven days, and addeth to send forth the dove from the ark;

11 and the dove cometh in unto him at even-time, and lo, an olive leaf torn off in her mouth; and Noah knoweth that the waters have been lightened from off the earth.

12 And he stayeth yet other seven days, and sendeth forth the dove, and it added not to turn back unto him any more.

13 And it cometh to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first [month], in the first of the month, the waters have been dried from off the earth; and Noah turneth aside the


covering of the ark, and looketh, and lo, the face of the ground hath been dried.

14 And in the second month, in the seven and twentieth day of the month, the earth hath become dry.

15 And God speaketh unto Noah, saying, 'Go out from the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee;

16 every living thing that [is] with thee, of all flesh, among fowl, and among cattle, and among every creeping thing which is creeping on the earth, bring out with thee;

17 and they have teemed in the earth, and been fruitful, and have multiplied on the earth.'

18 And Noah goeth out, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him;

19 every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl; every creeping thing on the earth, after their families, have gone out from the ark.

20 And Noah buildeth an altar to Jehovah, and taketh of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and causeth burnt-offerings to ascend on the altar;

21 and Jehovah smelleth the sweet fragrance, and Jehovah saith unto His


heart, 'I continue not to disesteem any more the ground because of man, though the imagination of the heart of man [is] evil from his youth; and I continue not to smite any more all living, as I have done;

22 during all days of the earth, seed- time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night, do not cease.'

Chapter 9

1 And God blesseth Noah, and his sons, and saith to them, 'Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth;

2 and your fear and your dread is on every beast of the earth, and on every fowl of the heavens, on all that creepeth on the ground, and on all fishes of the sea — into your hand they have been given.

3 Every creeping thing that is alive, to you it is for food; as the green herb I have given to you the whole;

4 only flesh in its life — its blood — ye do not eat.

5 'And only your blood for your lives do I require; from the hand of every living thing I require it, and from the hand of man, from the hand of every man's brother I require the life of man;

6 whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man


is his blood shed: for in the image of God hath He made man.

7 And ye, be fruitful and multiply, teem in the earth, and multiply in it.'

8 And God speaketh unto Noah, and unto his sons with him, saying,

9 'And I, lo, I am establishing My covenant with you, and with your seed after you,

10 and with every living creature which [is] with you, among fowl, among cattle, and among every beast of the earth with you, from all who are going out of the ark — to every beast of the earth.

11 And I have established My covenant with you, and all flesh is not any more cut off by waters of a deluge, and there is not any more a deluge to destroy the earth.'

12 And God saith, 'This is a token of the covenant which I am giving between Me and you, and every living creature that [is] with you, to generations age- during;

13 My bow I have given in the cloud, and it hath been for a token of a covenant between Me and the earth;

14 and it hath come to pass (in My sending a cloud over the earth) that the bow hath been seen in the cloud,


15 and I have remembered My covenant which is between Me and you, and every living creature among all flesh, and the waters become no more a deluge to destroy all flesh;

16 and the bow hath been in the cloud, and I have seen it — to remember the covenant age-during between God and every living creature among all flesh which [is] on the earth.'

17 And God saith unto Noah, 'This [is] a token of the covenant which I have established between Me and all flesh that [is] upon the earth.'

18 And the sons of Noah who are going out of the ark are Shem, and Ham, and Japheth; and Ham is father of Canaan.

19 These three [are] sons of Noah, and from these hath all the earth been overspread.

20 And Noah remaineth a man of the ground, and planteth a vineyard,

21 and drinketh of the wine, and is drunken, and uncovereth himself in the midst of the tent.

22 And Ham, father of Canaan, seeth the nakedness of his father, and declareth to his two brethren without.

23 And Shem taketh — Japheth also — the garment, and they place on the shoulder of them both, and go backward, and cover the nakedness of


their father; and their faces [are] backward, and their father's nakedness they have not seen.

24 And Noah awaketh from his wine, and knoweth that which his young son hath done to him,

25 and














26 And he saith: 'Blessed of Jehovah my God [is] Shem, And Canaan is servant to him.

27 God doth give beauty to Japheth, And he dwelleth in tents of Shem, And Canaan is servant to him.'

28 And Noah liveth after the deluge three hundred and fifty years;

29 and all the days of Noah are nine hundred and fifty years, and he dieth.

Chapter 10

1 And these [are] births of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and born to them are sons after the deluge.

2 'Sons of Japheth [are] Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

3 And sons of Gomer [are] Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

4 And sons of Javan [are] Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.


5 By these have the isles of the nations been parted in their lands, each by his tongue, by their families, in their nations.

6 And sons of Ham [are] Cush, and Mitzraim, and Phut, and Canaan.

7 And sons of Cush [are] Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtechah; and sons of Raamah [are] Sheba and Dedan.

8 And Cush hath begotten Nimrod;

9 he hath begun to be a hero in the land; he hath been a hero in hunting before Jehovah; therefore it is said, 'As Nimrod the hero [in] hunting before Jehovah.'

10 And the first part of his kingdom is Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar;

11 from that land he hath gone out to Asshur, and buildeth Nineveh, even the broad places of the city, and Calah,

12 and Resen, between Nineveh and Calah; it [is] the great city.

13 And Mitzraim hath begotten the Ludim, and the Anamim, and the Lehabim, and the Naphtuhim,

14 and the Pathrusim, and the Casluhim, (whence have come out Philistim,) and the Caphtorim.

15 And Canaan hath begotten Sidon his


first-born, and Heth,

16 and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite,

17 and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite,

18 and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterwards have the families of the Canaanite been scattered.

19 And the border of the Canaanite is from Sidon, [in] thy coming towards Gerar, unto Gaza; [in] thy coming towards Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, unto Lasha.

20 These [are] sons of Ham, by their families, by their tongues, in their lands, in their nations.

21 As to Shem, father of all sons of Eber, brother of Japheth the elder, he hath also begotten:

22 Sons

Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.

23 And sons of Aram [are] Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.

24 And Arphaxad hath begotten Salah, and Salah hath begotten Eber.

25 And to Eber have two sons been born; the name of the one [is] Peleg (for in his days hath the earth been divided,) and his brother's name [is]








26 And Joktan hath begotten Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah,

27 and Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah,

28 and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba,

29 and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab; all these [are] sons of Joktan;

30 and their dwelling is from Mesha, [in] thy coming towards Sephar, a mount of the east.

31 These [are] sons of Shem, by their families, by their tongues, in their lands, by their nations.

32 These [are] families of the sons of Noah, by their births, in their nations, and by these have the nations been parted in the earth after the deluge.

Chapter 11

1 And

pronunciation, and of the same words,

cometh to pass, in their

2 and

journeying from the east, that they find a valley in the land of Shinar, and dwell there;

3 and they say each one

neighbour, 'Give help, let us make bricks, and burn [them] thoroughly:' and the brick is to them for stone, and the bitumen hath been to them for












4 And they say, 'Give help, let us build for ourselves a city and tower, and its head in the heavens, and make for ourselves a name, lest we be scattered over the face of all the earth.'

5 And Jehovah cometh down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men have builded;

6 and Jehovah saith, 'Lo, the people [is] one, and one pronunciation [is] to them all, and this it hath dreamed of doing; and now, nothing is restrained from them of that which they have purposed to do.

7 Give help, let us go down, and mingle there their pronunciation, so that a man doth not understand the pronunciation of his companion.'

8 And Jehovah doth scatter them from thence over the face of all the earth, and they cease to build the city;

9 therefore hath [one] called its name Babel, for there hath Jehovah mingled the pronunciation of all the earth, and from thence hath Jehovah scattered them over the face of all the earth.

10 These [are] births of Shem: Shem [is] a son of an hundred years, and begetteth Arphaxad two years after the deluge.

11 And Shem liveth after his begetting


Arphaxad five hundred years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

12 And Arphaxad hath lived five and thirty years, and begetteth Salah.

13 And Arphaxad liveth after his begetting Salah four hundred and three years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

14 And Salah hath lived thirty years, and begetteth Eber.

15 And Salah liveth after his begetting Eber four hundred and three years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

16 And Eber liveth four and thirty years, and begetteth Peleg.

17 And Eber liveth after his begetting Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

18 And Peleg liveth thirty years, and begetteth Reu.

19 And Peleg liveth after his begetting Reu two hundred and nine years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

20 And Reu liveth two and thirty years, and begetteth Serug.

21 And Reu liveth after his begetting Serug two hundred and seven years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

22 And Serug liveth thirty years, and begetteth Nahor.


23 And Serug liveth after his begetting Nahor two hundred years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

24 And Nahor liveth nine and twenty years, and begetteth Terah.

25 And Nahor liveth after his begetting Terah an hundred and nineteen years, and begetteth sons and daughters.

26 And Terah liveth seventy years, and begetteth Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

27 And these [are] births of Terah:

Terah hath begotten Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran hath begotten Lot;

28 and Haran dieth in the presence of Terah his father, in the land of his birth, in Ur of the Chaldees.

29 And Abram and Nahor take to themselves wives; the name of Abram's wife [is] Sarai, and the name of Nahor's wife [is] Milcah, daughter of Haran, father of Milcah, and father of Iscah.

30 And Sarai is barren — she hath no child.

31 And Terah taketh Abram his son, and Lot, son of Haran, his son's son, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, wife of Abram his son, and they go out with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go towards the land of Canaan; and they come unto Charan, and dwell there.


32 And the days of Terah are two hundred and five years, and Terah dieth in Charan.

Chapter 12

1 And Jehovah saith unto Abram, 'Go for thyself, from thy land, and from thy kindred, and from the house of thy father, unto the land which I shew thee.

2 And I make thee become a great nation, and bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing.

3 And I bless those blessing thee, and him who is disesteeming thee I curse, and blessed in thee have been all families of the ground.'

4 And Abram goeth on, as Jehovah hath spoken unto him, and Lot goeth with him, and Abram [is] a son of five and seventy years in his going out from Charan.

5 And Abram taketh Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that they have gained, and the persons that they have obtained in Charan; and they go out to go towards the land of Canaan; and they come in to the land of Canaan.

6 And Abram passeth over into the land, unto the place Shechem, unto the oak of Moreh; and the Canaanite [is] then in the land.


7 And Jehovah appeareth unto Abram, and saith, 'To thy seed I give this land;' and he buildeth there an altar to Jehovah, who hath appeared unto him.

8 And he removeth from thence towards a mountain at the east of Beth- El, and stretcheth out the tent (Beth-El at the west, and Hai at the east), and he buildeth there an altar to Jehovah, and preacheth in the name of Jehovah.

9 And Abram journeyeth, going on and journeying towards the south.

10 And there is a famine in the land, and Abram goeth down towards Egypt to sojourn there, for the famine [is] grievous in the land;

11 and it cometh to pass as he hath drawn near to enter Egypt, that he saith unto Sarai his wife, 'Lo, I pray thee, I have known that thou [art] a woman of beautiful appearance;

12 and it hath come to pass that the Egyptians see thee, and they have said, 'This [is] his wife,' and they have slain me, and thee they keep alive:

13 say, I pray thee, thou [art] my sister, so that it is well with me because of thee, and my soul hath lived for thy sake.'

14 And it cometh to pass, at the entering of Abram into Egypt, that the Egyptians see the woman that she [is]


exceeding fair;

15 and princes of Pharaoh see her, and praise her unto Pharaoh, and the woman is taken [to] Pharaoh's house;

16 and to Abram he hath done good because of her, and he hath sheep and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and handmaids, and she-asses, and camels.

17 And Jehovah plagueth Pharaoh and his house — great plagues — for the matter of Sarai, Abram's wife.

18 And Pharaoh calleth for Abram, and saith, 'What [is] this thou hast done to me? why hast thou not declared to me that she [is] thy wife?

19 Why hast thou said, She [is] my sister, and I take her to myself for a wife? and now, lo, thy wife, take and go.'

20 And Pharaoh chargeth men concerning him, and they send him away, and his wife, an all that he hath.

Chapter 13

1 And Abram goeth up from Egypt (he and his wife, and all that he hath, and Lot with him) towards the south;

2 and Abram [is] exceedingly wealthy in cattle, in silver, and in gold.

3 And he goeth on his journeyings from


the south, even unto Bethel, unto the place where his tent had been at the commencement, between Bethel and Hai —

4 unto the place of the altar which he made there at the first, and there doth Abram preach in the name of Jehovah.

5 And also to Lot, who is going with Abram, there hath been sheep and oxen and tents;

6 and the land hath not suffered them to dwell together, for their substance hath been much, and they have not been able to dwell together;

7 and there is a strife between those feeding Abram's cattle and those feeding Lot's cattle; and the Canaanite and the Perizzite [are] then dwelling in the land.

8 And Abram saith unto Lot, 'Let there not, I pray thee, be strife between me and thee, and between my shepherds and thy shepherds, for we [are] men — brethren.

9 Is not all the land before thee? be parted, I pray thee, from me; if to the left, then I to the right; and if to the right, then I to the left.'

10 And Lot lifteth up his eyes, and seeth the whole circuit of the Jordan that it [is] all a watered country (before Jehovah's destroying Sodom and


Gomorrah, as Jehovah's garden, as the land of Egypt,) in thy coming toward Zoar,

11 and Lot chooseth for himself the whole circuit of the Jordan; and Lot journeyeth from the east, and they are parted — a man from his companion;

12 Abram hath dwelt in the land of Canaan, and Lot hath dwelt in the cities of the circuit, and tenteth unto Sodom;

13 and the men of Sodom [are] evil, and sinners before Jehovah exceedingly.

14 And Jehovah said unto Abram, after Lot's being parted from him, 'Lift up, I pray thee, thine eyes, and look from the place where thou [art], northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward;

15 for the whole of the land which thou are seeing, to thee I give it, and to thy seed — to the age.

16 And I have set thy seed as dust of the earth, so that, if one is able to number the dust of the earth, even thy seed is numbered;

17 rise, go up and down through the land, to its length, and to its breadth, for to thee I give it.'

18 And Abram tenteth, and cometh, and dwelleth among the oaks of Mamre, which [are] in Hebron, and buildeth


there an altar to Jehovah.

Chapter 14

1 And it cometh to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goyim,

2 they have made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboim, and the king of Bela, which [is] Zoar.

3 All these have been joined together unto the valley of Siddim, which [is] the Salt Sea;


Chedorlaomer, and the thirteenth year they rebelled.

5 And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, and the kings who [are] with him, and they smite the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim,

4 twelve



6 and the Horites in their mount Seir, unto El-Paran, which [is] by the wilderness;

7 and they turn back and come in unto En-Mishpat, which [is] Kadesh, and smite the whole field of the Amalekite, and also the Amorite who is dwelling in Hazezon-Tamar.


8 And the king of Sodom goeth out, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboim, and the king of Bela, which [is] Zoar; and they set the battle in array with them in the valley of Siddim,

9 with Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goyim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings with the five.

10 And the valley of Siddim [is] full of bitumen-pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah flee, and fall there, and those left have fled to the mountain.

11 And they take the whole substance of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the whole of their food, and go away;

12 and they take Lot, Abram's brother's son (seeing he is dwelling in Sodom), and his substance, and go away.

13 And one who is escaping cometh and declareth to Abram the Hebrew, and he is dwelling among the oaks of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner, and they [are] Abram's allies.

14 And Abram heareth that his brother hath been taken captive, and he draweth out his trained domestics, three hundred and eighteen, and pursueth unto Dan.

15 And he divideth himself against


them by night, he and his servants, and smiteth them, and pursueth them unto Hobah, which [is] at the left of Damascus;

16 and he bringeth back the whole of the substance, and also Lot his brother and his substance hath he brought back, and also the women and the people.

17 And the king of Sodom goeth out to meet him (after his turning back from the smiting of Chedorlaomer, and of the kings who [are] with him), unto the valley of Shaveh, which [is] the king's valley.

18 And Melchizedek king of Salem hath brought out bread and wine, and he [is] priest of God Most High;

19 and he blesseth him, and saith, 'Blessed [is] Abram to God Most High, possessing heaven and earth;

20 and blessed [is] God Most High, who hath delivered thine adversaries into thy hand;' and he giveth to him a tenth of all.

21 And the king of Sodom saith unto Abram, 'Give to me the persons, and the substance take to thyself,'

22 and Abram saith unto the king of Sodom, 'I have lifted up my hand unto Jehovah, God Most High, possessing heaven and earth —


23 from a thread even unto a shoe- latchet I take not of anything which thou hast, that thou say not, I — I have made Abram rich;

24 save only that which the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men who have gone with me — Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre — they take their portion.'

Chapter 15

1 After these things hath the word of Jehovah been unto Abram in a vision, saying, 'Fear not, Abram, I [am] a shield to thee, thy reward [is] exceeding great.'

2 And Abram saith, 'Lord Jehovah, what dost Thou give to me, and I am going childless? and an acquired son in my house is Demmesek Eliezer.'

3 And Abram saith, 'Lo, to me Thou hast not given seed, and lo, a domestic doth heir me.'

4 And lo, the word of Jehovah [is] unto him, saying, 'This [one] doth not heir thee; but he who cometh out from thy bowels, he doth heir thee;'

5 and He bringeth him out without, and saith, 'Look attentively, I pray thee, towards the heavens, and count the stars, if thou art able to count them;' and He saith to him, 'Thus is thy seed.'


6 And he hath believed in Jehovah, and



7 And He saith unto him, 'I [am] Jehovah who brought thee out from Ur of the Chaldees, to give to thee this land to possess it;'

8 and he saith, 'Lord Jehovah, whereby do I know that I possess it?'

9 And He saith unto him, 'Take for Me a heifer of three years, and a she-goat of three years, and a ram of three years, and a turtle-dove, and a young bird;'

10 and he taketh to him all these, and separateth them in the midst, and

putteth each piece

fellow, but the bird he hath not


11 and the ravenous birds come down upon the carcases, and Abram causeth them to turn back.

12 And the sun is about to go in, and deep sleep hath fallen upon Abram, and lo, a terror of great darkness is falling upon him;

13 and He saith to Abram, 'knowing -­ know that thy seed is a sojourner in a land not theirs, and they have served them, and they have afflicted them four hundred years,

14 and the nation also whom they serve

over against its






I judge, and after this they go out with great substance;

15 and thou — thou comest in unto thy fathers in peace; thou art buried in a good old age;

16 and the fourth generation doth turn back hither, for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet complete.'

17 And it cometh to pass — the sun hath gone in, and thick darkness hath been — and lo, a furnace of smoke, and a lamp of fire, which hath passed over between those pieces.

18 In that day hath Jehovah made with Abram a covenant, saying, 'To thy seed I have given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Phrat,

19 with the Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite,

20 and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim,

21 and the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Girgashite, and the Jebusite.'

Chapter 16

1 And Sarai, Abram's wife, hath not borne to him, and she hath an handmaid, an Egyptian, and her name [is] Hagar;

2 and Sarai saith unto Abram, 'Lo, I


pray thee, Jehovah hath restrained me from bearing, go in, I pray thee, unto my handmaid; perhaps I am built up from her;' and Abram hearkeneth to the voice of Sarai.

3 And Sarai, Abram's wife, taketh Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, at the end of the tenth year of Abram's dwelling in the land of Canaan, and giveth her to Abram her husband, to him for a wife,

4 and he goeth in unto Hagar, and she conceiveth, and she seeth that she hath conceived, and her mistress is lightly esteemed in her eyes.

5 And Sarai saith unto Abram, 'My violence [is] for thee; I — I have given mine handmaid into thy bosom, and she seeth that she hath conceived, and

I am lightly esteemed in her eyes;

Jehovah doth judge between me and


6 And Abram saith unto Sarai, 'Lo, thine handmaid [is] in thine hand, do

to her that which is good in thine eyes;'

and Sarai afflicted her, and she fleeth

from her presence.

7 And a messenger of Jehovah findeth her by the fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way [to] Shur,

8 and





handmaid, whence





and whither dost thou go?' and she saith, 'From the presence of Sarai, my mistress, I am fleeing.'

9 And the messenger of Jehovah saith

to her, 'Turn back unto thy mistress,

and humble thyself under her hands;'

10 and the messenger of Jehovah saith

to her, 'Multiplying I multiply thy

seed, and it is not numbered from multitude;'

11 and the messenger of Jehovah saith

to her, 'Behold thou [art] conceiving,

and bearing a son, and hast called his

name Ishmael, for Jehovah hath hearkened unto thine affliction;

12 and he is a wild-ass man, his hand against every one, and every one's hand against him — and before the face of all his brethren he dwelleth.'

13 And she calleth the name of Jehovah who is speaking unto her, 'Thou [art],

O God, my beholder;' for she said,

'Even here have I looked behind my


14 therefore hath one called the well, 'The well of the Living One, my beholder;' lo, between Kadesh and Bered.

15 And Hagar beareth to Abram a son; and Abram calleth the name of his son, whom Hagar hath borne, Ishmael;

16 and Abram [is] a son of eighty and


six years in Hagar's bearing Ishmael to Abram.

Chapter 17

1 And Abram is a son of ninety and nine years, and Jehovah appeareth unto Abram, and saith unto him, 'I [am] God Almighty, walk habitually before Me, and be thou perfect;

2 and I give My covenant between Me and thee, and multiply thee very exceedingly.'

3 And Abram falleth upon his face, and God speaketh with him, saying,

4 'I — lo, My covenant [is] with thee, and thou hast become father of a multitude of nations;

5 and thy name is no more called Abram, but thy name hath been Abraham, for father of a multitude of nations have I made thee;

6 and I have made thee exceeding fruitful, and made thee become nations, and kings go out from thee.

7 'And I have established My covenant between Me and thee, and thy seed after thee, to their generations, for a covenant age-during, to become God to thee, and to thy seed after thee;

8 and I have given to thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings, the whole land of Canaan,


for a possession age-during, and I have become their God.'

9 And God saith unto Abraham, 'And thou dost keep My covenant, thou and thy seed after thee, to their generations; 10 this [is] My covenant which ye keep between Me and you, and thy seed after thee: Every male of you [is] to be circumcised;

11 and ye have circumcised the flesh of your foreskin, and it hath become a token of a covenant between Me and you.

12 'And a son of eight days is circumcised by you; every male to your generations, born in the house, or bought with money from any son of a stranger, who is not of thy seed;

13 he is certainly circumcised who [is] born in thine house, or bought with thy money; and My covenant hath become in your flesh a covenant age-during;

14 and an uncircumcised one, a male, the flesh of whose foreskin is not circumcised, even that person hath been cut off from his people; My covenant he hath broken.'

15 And God saith unto Abraham, 'Sarai thy wife — thou dost not call her name Sarai, for Sarah [is] her name;

16 and I have blessed her, and have also given to thee a son from her; and I


have blessed her, and she hath become nations — kings of peoples are from her.'

17 And Abraham falleth upon his face, and laugheth, and saith in his heart, 'To the son of an hundred years is one born? or doth Sarah — daughter of ninety years — bear?'

18 And Abraham saith unto God, 'O that Ishmael may live before Thee;'

19 and God saith, 'Sarah thy wife is certainly bearing a son to thee, and thou hast called his name Isaac, and I have established My covenant with him, for a covenant age-during, to his seed after him.

20 As to Ishmael, I have heard thee; lo, I have blessed him, and made him fruitful, and multiplied him, very exceedingly; twelve princes doth he beget, and I have made him become a great nation;

21 and My covenant I establish with Isaac, whom Sarah doth bear to thee at this appointed time in the next year;'

22 and He finisheth speaking with him, and God goeth up from Abraham.

23 And Abraham taketh Ishmael his son, and all those born in his house, and all those bought with his money — every male among the men of Abraham's house — and circumciseth


the flesh of their foreskin, in this self- same day, as God hath spoken with him.

24 And Abraham [is] a son of ninety and nine years in the flesh of his foreskin being circumcised;

25 and Ishmael his son [is] a son of thirteen years in the flesh of his foreskin being circumcised;

26 in this self-same day hath Abraham been circumcised, and Ishmael his son; 27 and all the men of his house — born in the house, and bought with money from the son of a stranger — have been circumcised with him.

Chapter 18

1 And Jehovah appeareth unto him among the oaks of Mamre, and he is sitting at the opening of the tent, about the heat of the day;

2 and he lifteth up his eyes and looketh, and lo, three men standing by him, and he seeth, and runneth to meet them from the opening of the tent, and boweth himself towards the earth,

3 And he saith, 'My Lord, if, I pray thee, I have found grace in thine eyes, do not, I pray thee, pass on from thy servant;

4 let,















recline under the tree;

5 and I bring a piece of bread, and support ye your heart; afterwards pass on, for therefore have ye passed over unto your servant;' and they say, 'So mayest thou do as thou has spoken.'

6 And Abraham hasteth towards the tent, unto Sarah, and saith, 'Hasten three measures of flour-meal, knead, and make cakes;'

7 and Abraham ran unto the herd, and taketh a son of the herd, tender and good, and giveth unto the young man, and he hasteth to prepare it;

8 and he taketh butter and milk, and the son of the herd which he hath prepared, and setteth before them; and he is standing by them under the tree, and they do eat.

9 And they say unto him, 'Where [is] Sarah thy wife?' and he saith, 'Lo — in the tent;'

10 and he saith, 'returning I return unto thee, about the time of life, and lo, to Sarah thy wife a son.'

11 And Sarah is hearkening at the opening of the tent, which is behind him;

12 and Abraham and Sarah [are] aged, entering into days — the way of women hath ceased to be to Sarah;


13 and Sarah laugheth in her heart, saying, 'After I have waxed old I have had pleasure! — my lord also [is] old!'

14 And Jehovah saith unto Abraham, 'Why [is] this? Sarah hath laughed, saying, Is it true really — I bear — and I am aged? Is any thing too wonderful for Jehovah? at the appointed time I return unto thee, about the time of life, and Sarah hath a son.'

15 And Sarah denieth, saying, 'I did not laugh;' for she hath been afraid; and He saith, 'Nay, but thou didst laugh.'

16 And the men rise from thence, and look on the face of Sodom, and Abraham is going with them to send them away;

17 and Jehovah said, 'Am I concealing from Abraham that which I am doing,

18 and Abraham certainly becometh a nation great and mighty, and blessed in him have been all nations of the earth?

19 for

known him, that he

commandeth his children, and his house after him (and they have kept

the way of Jehovah), to do righteousness and judgment, that Jehovah may bring on Abraham that which He hath spoken concerning him.'

20 And Jehovah saith, 'The cry of












— because

exceeding grievous:

21 I go down now, and see whether according to its cry which is coming unto Me they have done completely — and if not — I know;'

22 and the men turn from thence, and go towards Sodom; and Abraham is yet standing before Jehovah.

23 And Abraham draweth nigh and saith, 'Dost Thou also consume righteous with wicked?

24 peradventure there are fifty righteous in the midst of the city; dost Thou also consume, and not bear with the place for the sake of the fifty — the righteous who [are] in its midst?

25 Far be it from Thee to do according to this thing, to put to death the righteous with the wicked; that it hath been — as the righteous so the wicked — far be it from Thee; doth the Judge of all the earth not do justice?'

26 And Jehovah saith, 'If I find in Sodom fifty righteous in the midst of the city, then have I borne with all the place for their sake.'

27 And Abraham answereth and saith, 'Lo, I pray thee, I have willed to speak unto the Lord, and I — dust and ashes;

28 peradventure there are lacking five


of the fifty righteous — dost Thou destroy for five the whole of the city?' and He saith, 'I destroy [it] not, if I find there forty and five.'

29 And he addeth again to speak unto Him and saith, 'Peradventure there are found there forty?' and He saith, 'I do [it] not, because of the forty.'

30 And he saith, 'Let it not be, I Pray thee, displeasing to the Lord, and I speak: peradventure there are found there thirty?' and He saith, 'I do [it] not, if I find there thirty.'

31 And he saith, 'Lo, I pray thee, I have willed to speak unto the Lord:

peradventure there are found there twenty?' and He saith, 'I do not destroy [it], because of the twenty.'

32 And he saith, 'Let it not be, I pray Thee, displeasing to the Lord, and I speak only this time: peradventure there are found there ten?' and He saith, 'I do not destroy [it], because of the ten.'

33 And Jehovah goeth on, when He hath finished speaking unto Abraham, and Abraham hath turned back to his place.

Chapter 19

1 And two of the messengers come towards Sodom at even, and Lot is sitting at the gate of Sodom, and Lot


seeth, and riseth to meet them, and boweth himself — face to the earth,

2 and he saith, 'Lo, I pray you, my lords, turn aside, I pray you, unto the house of your servant, and lodge, and wash your feet — then ye have risen early and gone on your way;' and they say, 'Nay, but in the broad place we do lodge.'

3 And he presseth on them greatly, and they turn aside unto him, and come in unto his house; and he maketh for them a banquet, and hath baked unleavened things; and they do eat.

4 Before they lie down, the men of the city — men of Sodom — have come round about against the house, from young even unto aged, all the people from the extremity;

5 and they call unto Lot and say to him, 'Where [are] the men who have come in unto thee to-night? bring them out unto us, and we know them.'

6 And Lot goeth out unto them, to the opening, and the door hath shut behind him,

7 and saith, 'Do not, I pray you, my brethren, do evil;

8 lo, I pray you, I have two daughters, who have not known any one; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do to them as [is] good in your eyes;


only to these men do not anything, for therefore have they come in within the shadow of my roof.'

9 And they say, 'Come nigh hither;' they say also, 'This one hath come in to sojourn, and he certainly judgeth! now, we do evil to thee more than [to] them;' and they press against the man, against Lot greatly, and come nigh to break the door.

10 And the men put forth their hand, and bring in Lot unto them, into the house, and have shut the door;

11 and the men who [are] at the opening of the house they have smitten with blindness, from small even unto great, and they weary themselves to find the opening.

12 And the men say unto Lot, 'Whom hast thou here still? son-in-law, thy sons also, and thy daughters, and all whom thou hast in the city, bring out from this place;

13 for we are destroying this place, for their cry hath been great [before] the face of Jehovah, and Jehovah doth send us to destroy it.'

14 And Lot goeth out, and speaketh unto his sons-in-law, those taking his daughters, and saith, 'Rise, go out from this place, for Jehovah is destroying the city;' and he is as [one] mocking in the eyes of his sons-in-law.


15 And when the dawn hath ascended, then the messengers press upon Lot, saying, 'Rise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters who are found present, lest thou be consumed in the iniquity of the city.'

16 And he lingereth, and the men lay hold on his hand, and on the hand of his wife, and on the hand of his two daughters, through the mercy of Jehovah unto him, and they bring him out, and cause him to rest without the city.

17 And it cometh to pass when he hath brought them out without, that he saith, 'Escape for thy life; look not expectingly behind thee, nor stand thou in all the circuit; to the mountain escape, lest thou be consumed.'

18 And Lot saith unto them, 'Not [so], I pray thee, my lord;

19 lo, I pray thee, thy servant hath found grace in thine eyes, and thou dost make great thy kindness which thou hast done with me by saving my life, and I am unable to escape to the mountain, lest the evil cleave [to] me, and I have died;

20 lo, I pray thee, this city [is] near to flee thither, and it [is] little; let me escape, I pray thee, thither, (is it not little?) and my soul doth live.'


21 And he saith unto him, 'Lo, I have accepted thy face also for this thing, without overthrowing the city [for] which thou hast spoken;

22 haste, escape thither, for I am not able to do anything till thine entering thither;' therefore hath he calleth the name of the city Zoar.

23 The sun hath gone out on the earth, and Lot hath entered into Zoar,

24 and Jehovah hath rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from Jehovah, from the heavens;

25 and He overthroweth these cities, and all the circuit, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which is shooting up from the ground.

26 And his wife looketh expectingly from behind him, and she is — a pillar of salt!

27 And Abraham riseth early in the morning, unto the place where he hath stood [before] the face of Jehovah;

28 and he looketh on the face of Sodom and Gomorrah, and on all the face of the land of the circuit, and seeth, and lo, the smoke of the land went up as smoke of the furnace.

29 And it cometh to pass, in God's destroying the cities of the circuit, that God remembereth Abraham, and


sendeth Lot out of the midst of the overthrow in the overthrowing of the cities in which Lot dwelt.

30 And Lot goeth up out of Zoar, and dwelleth in the mountain, and his two daughters with him, for he hath been afraid of dwelling in Zoar, and he dwelleth in a cave, he and his two daughters.

31 And the first-born saith unto the younger, 'Our father [is] old, and a man there is not in the earth to come in unto us, as [is] the way of all the earth;

32 come, we cause our father to drink wine, and lie with him, and preserve from our father — a seed.'

33 And they cause their father to drink wine on that night; and the first-born goeth in, and lieth with her father, and he hath not known in her lying down, or in her rising up.

34 And it cometh to pass, on the morrow, that the first-born saith unto the younger, 'Lo, I have lain yesterday- night with my father: we cause him to drink wine also to-night, and go thou in, lie with him, and we preserve from our father — a seed.'

35 And they cause their father to drink wine on that night also, and the younger riseth and lieth with him, and he hath not known in her lying down, or in her rising up.


36 And the two daughters of Lot conceive from their father,

37 and the first-born beareth a son, and calleth his name Moab; he [is] father

of Moab unto this day;

38 as to the younger, she also hath born

a son, and calleth his name Ben-

Ammi: he [is] father of the Beni-

Ammon unto this day.

Chapter 20

1 And Abraham journeyeth from thence toward the land of the south, and dwelleth between Kadesh and Shur, and sojourneth in Gerar;

2 and Abraham saith concerning Sarah his wife, 'She is my sister;' and Abimelech king of Gerar sendeth and taketh Sarah.

3 And God cometh in unto Abimelech

in a dream of the night, and saith to

him, 'Lo, thou [art] a dead man, because of the woman whom thou hast taken —and she married to a husband.'

4 And Abimelech hath not drawn near unto her, and he saith, 'Lord, also a righteous nation dost thou slay?

5 hath not he himself said to me, She [is] my sister! and she, even she herself, said, He [is] my brother; in the integrity of my heart, and in the innocency of my hands, I have done



6 And God saith unto him in the dream, 'Yea, I — I have known that in the integrity of thy heart thou hast done this, and I withhold thee, even I, from sinning against Me, therefore I have not suffered thee to come against her;

7 and now send back the man's wife, for he [is] inspired, and he doth pray for thee, and live thou; and if thou do not send back, know that dying thou dost die, thou, and all that thou hast.'

8 And Abimelech riseth early in the morning, and calleth for all his servants, and speaketh all these words in their ears; and the men fear exceedingly;

9 and Abimelech calleth for Abraham, and saith to him, 'What hast thou done to us? and what have I sinned against thee, that thou hast brought upon me, and upon my kingdom, a great sin?

works which are not done thou hast done with me.'

10 Abimelech also saith unto Abraham, 'What hast thou seen that thou hast done this thing?'

11 And Abraham saith, 'Because I said, 'Surely the fear of God is not in this place, and they have slain me for the sake of my wife;

12 and also, truly she is my sister,


daughter of my father, only not daughter of my mother, and she becometh my wife;

13 and it cometh to pass, when God hath caused me to wander from my father's house, that I say to her, This [is] thy kindness which thou dost with me: at every place whither we come, say of me, He [is] my brother.'

14 And Abimelech taketh sheep and oxen, and servants and handmaids, and giveth to Abraham, and sendeth back to him Sarah his wife;

15 and Abimelech saith, 'Lo, my land [is] before thee, where it is good in thine eyes, dwell;'

16 and to Sarah he hath said, 'Lo, I have given a thousand silverlings to thy brother; lo, it is to thee a covering of eyes, to all who are with thee;' and by all this she is reasoned with.

17 And Abraham prayeth unto God, and God healeth Abimelech and his wife, and his handmaids, and they bear:


18 for Jehovah restraining

restrained every womb of the house of

Abimelech, because of Sarah, Abraham's wife.

Chapter 21

1 And Jehovah hath looked after Sarah as He hath said, and Jehovah doth to


Sarah as He hath spoken;

2 and Sarah conceiveth, and beareth a son to Abraham, to his old age, at the appointed time that God hath spoken of with him;

3 and Abraham calleth the name of his son who is born to him, whom Sarah hath born to him — Isaac;

4 and Abraham circumciseth Isaac his son, [being] a son of eight days, as God hath commanded him.

5 And Abraham [is] a son of a hundred years in Isaac his son being born to him,

6 and Sarah saith, 'God hath made laughter for me; every one who is hearing laugheth for me.'

7 She saith also, 'Who hath said to Abraham, Sarah hath suckled sons, that I have born a son for his old age?'

8 And the lad groweth, and is weaned, and Abraham maketh a great banquet in the day of Isaac's being weaned;

9 and Sarah seeth the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she hath borne to Abraham, mocking,

10 and she saith to Abraham, 'Cast out this handmaid and her son; for the son of this handmaid hath no possession with my son — with Isaac.'

11 And the thing is very wrong in the


eyes of Abraham, for his son's sake;

12 and God saith unto Abraham, 'Let it not be wrong in thine eyes because of the youth, and because of thy handmaid: all that Sarah saith unto thee — hearken to her voice, for in Isaac is a seed called to thee.

13 As to the son of the handmaid also, for a nation I set him, because he [is] thy seed.'

14 And Abraham riseth early in the morning, and taketh bread, and a bottle of water, and giveth unto Hagar (placing [it] on her shoulder), also the lad, and sendeth her out; and she goeth on, and goeth astray in the wilderness of Beer-Sheba;

15 and the water is consumed from the bottle, and she placeth the lad under one of the shrubs.

16 And she goeth and sitteth by herself over-against, afar off, about a bow- shot, for she said, 'Let me not look on the death of the lad;' and she sitteth over-against, and lifteth up her voice, and weepeth.

17 And God heareth the voice of the youth; and the messenger of God calleth unto Hagar from the heavens, and saith to her, 'What to thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath hearkened unto the voice of the youth where he [is];


18 rise, lift up the youth, and lay hold on him with thy hand, for for a great nation I set him.'

19 And God openeth her eyes, and she seeth a well of water, and she goeth and filleth the bottle [with] water, and causeth the youth to drink;

20 and God is with the youth, and he groweth, and dwelleth in the wilderness, and is an archer;

21 and he dwelleth in the wilderness of Paran, and his mother taketh for him a wife from the land of Egypt.

22 And it cometh to pass at that time that Abimelech speaketh — Phichol also, head of his host — unto Abraham,