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Workbook X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Introduction
In this Workbook we calculate the entropy change accompanying changes in temperature for a substance with constant heat capacity. In the Extension, we consider the
temperature variation of the heat capacity

Excel skills required for this workbook


1. Writing formulas.
2. Plotting functions.
Click on
Worksheet 1. Constant heat capacity
Worksheet 2. Extension
Data
Enlarged Graphs

To
calculate the entropy change with temperature for a substance with constant heat capacity
calculate the entropy change with temperature for a substance taking into account the variation of the heat capacity
with temperature
view or edit the data used in the worksheets
view enlarged versions of all the graphs in the workbook

Useful definitions and conversions:


2 -2
1 J = 1 kg m s
Color Code:
The value in a yellow cell can be typed in by the student as part of the exploration process. The value is typically used to calculate data points in a graph or for
a "one-point" calculation of a given property.
The value in a violet cell is the result of a "one-point" calculation using values in yellow cells

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Introduction

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Introduction

Workbook X008: Change in entropy with temperature


Worksheet 1: Constant heat capacity
When the heat capacity is constant at C (either C p or C V ), and the temperature is
changed from T i to T f, the change in entropy is

Enlarged Graph X008.1

20

S = C lnT ratio

18

8.31447
8

gas constant
set the heat capacity (C p or C V )

T ratio, initial =

set the initial temperature ratio

T ratio, final =

10

set the final temperature ratio

16
-1
-1
S / (J K mol )

where T ratio = T f / T i. Graph X008.1 is a plot of the change in entropy, S , against T ratio
using the values set below.

-1
-1
R / (J K mol ) =
-1
C / (J K mol-1) =

C / (J K-1 mol-1 ) =

14
12
10
8
6
4
2

Exploration X008.1

Plot different curves for different values of C . Is the dependence of the entropy change on
temperature stronger or weaker as the heat capacity is increased? Provide a molecular
interpretation for your observation.

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

1. Constant heat capacity

Graph X008.1

T ratio

10

12

Workbook X008: Change in entropy with temperature


Worksheet 2. Extension
Here we allow for temperature variation of the heat capacity. Suppose that we are
interested in calculating the change in entropy when carbon dioxide gas is heated at
constant volume. The constant pressure heat capacity of carbon dioxide gas varies with
temperature according to:
-1
-1
-2
5
-2
C p, m / (J K mol ) = 41.58 + 1.56 10 T /K - 7.97 10 (T /K)

If we assume that the gas is perfect, it follows that:


C v, m = C p, m - R

Ti / K =

400

set the initial temperature

Tf / K =
n / mol =

800
1

set the final temperature


set the amount

The change in entropy is:


Tf
S = n

(C v, m / T) dT
Ti

S / (J K-1) =

27.430

calculated change in entropy

Exploration X008.2
Use the example in this Extension to plot S against T between 300 K and 1200 K taking
into account the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Then, add to the graph a
-1
-1
second plot, in which the heat capacity is held constant at 41.58 J K mol . Over what
temperature range does the approximation of a constant heat capacity lead to an error of
less than 10 per cent?

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

2. Extension

Workbook X008: Change in entropy with temperature


Worksheet 1. Constant heat capacity
Graph X008.1
Variation of entropy change with T ratio ( = T f /T i)
-1

-1

S /(J K mol )

T ratio
1.000
1.018
1.036
1.054
1.072
1.090
1.108
1.126
1.144
1.162
1.180
1.198
1.216
1.234
1.252
1.270
1.288
1.306
1.324
1.342
1.360
1.378
1.396
1.414
1.432
1.450
1.468
1.486
1.504
1.522
1.540
1.558
1.576
1.594
1.612

0.000
0.143
0.283
0.421
0.556
0.689
0.820
0.949
1.076
1.201
1.324
1.445
1.565
1.682
1.798
1.912
2.025
2.136
2.245
2.353
2.460
2.565
2.669
2.771
2.873
2.973
3.071
3.169
3.265
3.360
3.454
3.547
3.639
3.730
3.820

Set up for 500 data points between initial and final values of Tratio.
increment =
-1

0.018
-1

C / (J K mol ) =

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

1.630
1.648
1.666
1.684
1.702
1.720
1.738
1.756
1.774
1.792
1.810
1.828
1.846
1.864
1.882
1.900
1.918
1.936
1.954
1.972
1.990
2.008
2.026
2.044
2.062
2.080
2.098
2.116
2.134
2.152
2.170
2.188
2.206
2.224
2.242
2.260
2.278
2.296
2.314
2.332
2.350
2.368
2.386

3.909
3.996
4.083
4.169
4.254
4.339
4.422
4.504
4.586
4.667
4.747
4.826
4.904
4.982
5.059
5.135
5.210
5.285
5.359
5.432
5.505
5.577
5.649
5.719
5.789
5.859
5.928
5.996
6.064
6.131
6.198
6.264
6.329
6.394
6.459
6.523
6.586
6.649
6.712
6.774
6.835
6.896
6.957

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

2.404
2.422
2.440
2.458
2.476
2.494
2.512
2.530
2.548
2.566
2.584
2.602
2.620
2.638
2.656
2.674
2.692
2.710
2.728
2.746
2.764
2.782
2.800
2.818
2.836
2.854
2.872
2.890
2.908
2.926
2.944
2.962
2.980
2.998
3.016
3.034
3.052
3.070
3.088
3.106
3.124
3.142
3.160

7.017
7.077
7.136
7.195
7.253
7.311
7.369
7.426
7.482
7.539
7.595
7.650
7.705
7.760
7.815
7.869
7.922
7.976
8.029
8.081
8.133
8.185
8.237
8.288
8.339
8.390
8.440
8.490
8.540
8.589
8.638
8.687
8.735
8.784
8.831
8.879
8.926
8.973
9.020
9.067
9.113
9.159
9.205

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

3.178
3.196
3.214
3.232
3.250
3.268
3.286
3.304
3.322
3.340
3.358
3.376
3.394
3.412
3.430
3.448
3.466
3.484
3.502
3.520
3.538
3.556
3.574
3.592
3.610
3.628
3.646
3.664
3.682
3.700
3.718
3.736
3.754
3.772
3.790
3.808
3.826
3.844
3.862
3.880
3.898
3.916
3.934

9.250
9.295
9.340
9.385
9.429
9.473
9.517
9.561
9.605
9.648
9.691
9.734
9.776
9.818
9.860
9.902
9.944
9.985
10.027
10.068
10.108
10.149
10.189
10.230
10.270
10.309
10.349
10.388
10.428
10.467
10.505
10.544
10.583
10.621
10.659
10.697
10.735
10.772
10.809
10.847
10.884
10.921
10.957

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

3.952
3.970
3.988
4.006
4.024
4.042
4.060
4.078
4.096
4.114
4.132
4.150
4.168
4.186
4.204
4.222
4.240
4.258
4.276
4.294
4.312
4.330
4.348
4.366
4.384
4.402
4.420
4.438
4.456
4.474
4.492
4.510
4.528
4.546
4.564
4.582
4.600
4.618
4.636
4.654
4.672
4.690
4.708

10.994
11.030
11.066
11.102
11.138
11.174
11.209
11.245
11.280
11.315
11.350
11.385
11.419
11.454
11.488
11.522
11.557
11.590
11.624
11.658
11.691
11.725
11.758
11.791
11.824
11.856
11.889
11.922
11.954
11.986
12.018
12.050
12.082
12.114
12.146
12.177
12.208
12.240
12.271
12.302
12.333
12.363
12.394

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

4.726
4.744
4.762
4.780
4.798
4.816
4.834
4.852
4.870
4.888
4.906
4.924
4.942
4.960
4.978
4.996
5.014
5.032
5.050
5.068
5.086
5.104
5.122
5.140
5.158
5.176
5.194
5.212
5.230
5.248
5.266
5.284
5.302
5.320
5.338
5.356
5.374
5.392
5.410
5.428
5.446
5.464
5.482

12.425
12.455
12.485
12.516
12.546
12.576
12.605
12.635
12.665
12.694
12.724
12.753
12.782
12.811
12.840
12.869
12.898
12.927
12.955
12.984
13.012
13.040
13.068
13.096
13.124
13.152
13.180
13.208
13.235
13.263
13.290
13.317
13.345
13.372
13.399
13.426
13.453
13.479
13.506
13.533
13.559
13.585
13.612

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

5.500
5.518
5.536
5.554
5.572
5.590
5.608
5.626
5.644
5.662
5.680
5.698
5.716
5.734
5.752
5.770
5.788
5.806
5.824
5.842
5.860
5.878
5.896
5.914
5.932
5.950
5.968
5.986
6.004
6.022
6.040
6.058
6.076
6.094
6.112
6.130
6.148
6.166
6.184
6.202
6.220
6.238
6.256

13.638
13.664
13.690
13.716
13.742
13.768
13.794
13.819
13.845
13.870
13.896
13.921
13.946
13.971
13.996
14.021
14.046
14.071
14.096
14.121
14.145
14.170
14.194
14.219
14.243
14.267
14.291
14.315
14.339
14.363
14.387
14.411
14.435
14.458
14.482
14.506
14.529
14.552
14.576
14.599
14.622
14.645
14.668

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

6.274
6.292
6.310
6.328
6.346
6.364
6.382
6.400
6.418
6.436
6.454
6.472
6.490
6.508
6.526
6.544
6.562
6.580
6.598
6.616
6.634
6.652
6.670
6.688
6.706
6.724
6.742
6.760
6.778
6.796
6.814
6.832
6.850
6.868
6.886
6.904
6.922
6.940
6.958
6.976
6.994
7.012
7.030

14.691
14.714
14.737
14.760
14.783
14.805
14.828
14.850
14.873
14.895
14.918
14.940
14.962
14.984
15.006
15.028
15.050
15.072
15.094
15.116
15.138
15.159
15.181
15.203
15.224
15.245
15.267
15.288
15.309
15.331
15.352
15.373
15.394
15.415
15.436
15.457
15.478
15.498
15.519
15.540
15.560
15.581
15.601

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

7.048
7.066
7.084
7.102
7.120
7.138
7.156
7.174
7.192
7.210
7.228
7.246
7.264
7.282
7.300
7.318
7.336
7.354
7.372
7.390
7.408
7.426
7.444
7.462
7.480
7.498
7.516
7.534
7.552
7.570
7.588
7.606
7.624
7.642
7.660
7.678
7.696
7.714
7.732
7.750
7.768
7.786
7.804

15.622
15.642
15.663
15.683
15.703
15.723
15.744
15.764
15.784
15.804
15.824
15.844
15.863
15.883
15.903
15.923
15.942
15.962
15.982
16.001
16.020
16.040
16.059
16.079
16.098
16.117
16.136
16.155
16.174
16.194
16.213
16.231
16.250
16.269
16.288
16.307
16.326
16.344
16.363
16.382
16.400
16.419
16.437

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

7.822
7.840
7.858
7.876
7.894
7.912
7.930
7.948
7.966
7.984
8.002
8.020
8.038
8.056
8.074
8.092
8.110
8.128
8.146
8.164
8.182
8.200
8.218
8.236
8.254
8.272
8.290
8.308
8.326
8.344
8.362
8.380
8.398
8.416
8.434
8.452
8.470
8.488
8.506
8.524
8.542
8.560
8.578

16.456
16.474
16.492
16.511
16.529
16.547
16.565
16.583
16.601
16.620
16.638
16.656
16.673
16.691
16.709
16.727
16.745
16.763
16.780
16.798
16.815
16.833
16.851
16.868
16.886
16.903
16.920
16.938
16.955
16.972
16.990
17.007
17.024
17.041
17.058
17.075
17.092
17.109
17.126
17.143
17.160
17.177
17.194

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

8.596
8.614
8.632
8.650
8.668
8.686
8.704
8.722
8.740
8.758
8.776
8.794
8.812
8.830
8.848
8.866
8.884
8.902
8.920
8.938
8.956
8.974
8.992
9.010
9.028
9.046
9.064
9.082
9.100
9.118
9.136
9.154
9.172
9.190
9.208
9.226
9.244
9.262
9.280
9.298
9.316
9.334
9.352

17.210
17.227
17.244
17.260
17.277
17.294
17.310
17.327
17.343
17.360
17.376
17.393
17.409
17.425
17.442
17.458
17.474
17.490
17.506
17.522
17.539
17.555
17.571
17.587
17.603
17.619
17.634
17.650
17.666
17.682
17.698
17.714
17.729
17.745
17.761
17.776
17.792
17.807
17.823
17.838
17.854
17.869
17.885

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

9.370
9.388
9.406
9.424
9.442
9.460
9.478
9.496
9.514
9.532
9.550
9.568
9.586
9.604
9.622
9.640
9.658
9.676
9.694
9.712
9.730
9.748
9.766
9.784
9.802
9.820
9.838
9.856
9.874
9.892
9.910
9.928
9.946
9.964
9.982
10.000

17.900
17.915
17.931
17.946
17.961
17.977
17.992
18.007
18.022
18.037
18.052
18.067
18.082
18.097
18.112
18.127
18.142
18.157
18.172
18.187
18.202
18.216
18.231
18.246
18.261
18.275
18.290
18.305
18.319
18.334
18.348
18.363
18.377
18.392
18.406
18.421

X008: Change in entropy with temperature

Data

C / (J K-1 mol-1) =

return to original worksheet

20
18

14

-1

-1

S / (J K mol )

16

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

Graph X008.1

6
T ratio

10

12