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Tutorials' Radio> Wireless: GSM, GPRS and UMTS

Mobile phone: GSM, GPRS and UMTS

The mobile telephone systems can be classified into different generations depend
the degree of technical evolution of the same. The key features of each of these
generations are summarized below.

First generation (1G)

It is the oldest of all, also known in Spain as TACS (Total Access Communications
System), and encompasses all those analog mobile communications technologies.
TACS system is a communication system for mobile cellular duplex in the 900 MH
band, with the capacity to transmit voice but not data. The precursor to the TACS
system was the system AMPS (American Mobile Phone System), developed in the
by Bell Laboratories and put into service in the first half of the 80s. Subsequently
AMPS system was adapted to European requirements for the UK (particularly with
respect to frequency bands and channel) and put into service in 1985 under the n
of the TACS system. Since the TACS standard only defines the radio access proto
between a mobile station and its corresponding base station, and does not cover
aspects relating to the management of mobility, came across a number of differen
standards in different countries NTT-MTS (Japan ), MNT (Scandinavia) and C450
(Germany), with the corresponding problems of incompatibility. It is now obsolet
will soon disappear.

The second generation (2G)

The limitations of the first generation of mobile telephony led to the
development of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). GSM
is a digital technology whose first feature is the transmission of voice,
but it also allows data transmission at low speed: 9.6 kbit / s. This
speed is clearly insufficient when compared to the 56 kbit / s which
allows a conventional modem Internet access through the phone line, yet
it has allowed the absolute success of the service for sending short
messages (SMS), surpassing by far the best expectations that the
operators could have imagined. This fact has opened a huge market
unknown to date and will be enhanced with future generations of mobile
telephony. The European GSM system operates in around 900 MHz,
while also emerged a variant known as DCS (Digital Cellular System)
who works at 1800 MHz and whose goal is to provide greater capacity in urban ar
Unlike the system TACS, GSM defines a complete system that includes not only th
a complete network architecture, which allows for the development of a multitude
GSM standard. Although prepared for data transmission, GSM is a standard desig
Therefore, the original concept of deriving a standard set of limitations for applica
transmission, such as: establishment of the slow connection (system-oriented con
symmetry of the link (same bandwidth for each direction of communication), cost

Second generation and a half (2.5G)

This includes all those digital mobile communications technologies that enable
greater data transmission capacity and which emerged as a precursor to 3G.
Mobile phone operators in Europe and the United States began moving to 2.5G

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GSM, GPRS, UMTS Page 2 of 3
in 2001, while Japan took the leap directly from 2G to 3G. One such technology
is 2.5G GPRS (General Packet Radio System), based on packet transmission and w
channels are shared among different users in a dynamic way. GPRS coexists with
the infrastructure deployed in it, but offering the user a more efficient service car
communications, especially in the case of access to IP networks like the Internet.
theoretical speed that can reach GPRS is 171.2 kbit / s (about 18 times higher tha
speed experienced by the user in practice is influenced by various factors and can
kbit / s in the downlink and 9.6 kbit / s on the rise. The main advantages are GPR
addition to a higher speed transmission, connection and charging for traffic, maki
WAP services, Internet access (Web browsing, FTP, e - mail) and access to enterp
other hand, HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) is a specification of the GS
standardized by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) in Febr
from 1999. With this technology, the number of channels used in GSM equivalent
data communication is variable, allowing transmission speeds of up to 57.6 kbit /
HSCSD is that investment to be implemented is minimal, although it has a disadv
users, paid for by the use of each channel. Finally, technology EDGE (Enhanced D
Evolution) is another of the development of GSM networks, theoretically allowing
kbit / s. This is a technology that improves the bandwidth of data transmission in
be regarded as a precursor to UMTS. In fact, EDGE and UMTS are complementary
together may give support to the needs of the operators to achieve global coverag
generation networks.

Third-generation (3G)
3G technologies are contained within the IMT-2000 (International Mobile
Telecommunications-2000) of the ITU, which can be regarded as the guide to
mark the common points that must be met to achieve the goal of global
roaming, ie that a 3G terminal user can communicate with any 3G network in
the world. The services offered by 3G technologies are basically: Internet
access, broadband services, international roaming and interoperability. But
fundamentally, these systems allow the development of multimedia
environments for the transmission of video and images in real time,
encouraging the emergence of new applications and services such as
videoconferencing or electronic commerce. Precisely UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System) is one of the members of this family of IMT-2000
standard. Among the attributes of UMTS can be highlighted: virtual
connectivity to the network all the time, different forms of pricing, asymmetric ba
down, setting the quality of service (QoS), integration of technology and standard
networks, customized services environment, and many others. In terms of data t
of 3G technologies, you can set different work environments, even up to 2 Mbit /
operation, such as the environment inside an office. This capability is far superior
technologies, enabling the development of multimedia genuine.

Other articles and news on mobile phones

"The future of mobile cellular communications systems
"Measures of RF test equipment in GSM

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