Multi-user detection in OFDM space time block code

for high rate uplink application

M.J. Syed, V. Meghdadi, G. Ferré,
J.P. Cances, J.M. Dumas
University of Limoges, ENSIL-GESTE
Parc ESTER B.P 6804, 87068 LIMOGES Cedex (France)
{syed, meghdadi, ferre, cances, dumas}@ensil.unilim.fr
G.R.M. Khani
Laboratoire des Signaux et Systèmes (L2S),Supélec
3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
gholam-reza.mohammad-khani@lss.supelec.fr


Abstract -In this paper, we propose a multi-user detector for
space-time uplink transmission in multi-carrier CDMA systems
using a new combination of STBC, OFDM and CDMA spreading.
To achieve high rate, CDMA spreading codes are shared between
a few users and we use linear STBC decoding to further separate
users. The OFDM codewords are built from chips issued from
different symbols. The STBC encoder and decoder are placed at
the last stage of our multi-user transmitter and receiver
respectively. We show that the system is particularly easy to
implement when exploiting the space diversity after CDMA
detection. Besides, the performance is comparable to the case of a
single user STBC system. The proposed system allows very high
rate multi-user system compared to conventional CDMA system
or combined array-processing technique previously proposed.
Keywords-STBC, uplink multi-user detection, multi-carrier,
OFDM, CDMA, linear decoding, high rate, overloaded systems
I. INTRODUCTION
Space-time coding (STC) techniques, including space-time
trellis coding (STTC) and space-time block coding (STBC)
integrate the techniques of antenna array spatial diversity and
channel coding and can provide significant capacity gains in
wireless channels. A lot of papers ([1]-[3]) have investigated
their use particularly for the case of wireless flat-fading
channels. However, many wireless channels are frequency-
selective in nature, for which the STC design problem becomes
a complicated issue. On the other hand, the orthogonal
frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) technique transforms
a frequency-selective fading channel into parallel correlated
flat-fading channels. Stamoulis et al. have shown that a multi
user STBC system under a flat fading environment is feasible
and that a simple linear processing technique can be used as
long as the receiver has at least the same number of antennas as
the number of users [4]. This can be generalized to a frequency
selective channel with aid of OFDM system or with frequency
equalizer techniques (FDE). It has been shown that the
decoding problem for a STBC system over a frequency
selective channel can be uncoupled into K individual multiple
users STBC systems over a fading channel with K the number
tones in the FDE [5]. The inconvenience of the systems in
[4][5] is the number of antenna constraint at the receiver. In
practice, the number of antenna deployable over a site is limited
due to space constraint. Furthermore, in order to have
uncorrelated channel between the antennas, a minimum
separation distance between antennas must be respected.
Besides, the increase of the number of receive antenna to cope
with more users is without any diversity gain.
It is therefore natural to consider another multiple access
technique such as CDMA. Liu et al. have proposed a
generalized complex STBC design with precoders particularly
for MC-CDMA uplink application [6]. The main drawback of
this system is that a set of different subcarriers is allocated to
each user. Another STC multi-carrier CDMA system has been
proposed by Yang et al with different spreading signature for
each transmit antenna [8]. Baum et al proposed a downlink
cyclic prefixed single carrier CDMA in [9] to make use of the
efficient (FDE) and MMSE techniques. Vook et al extended
this idea with antenna diversity [10]. Other STBC - CDMA
based system with MMSE filtering techniques have been
proposed by Auffray et al. [11]
We propose an uplink multi carrier CDMA based multi-user
system with antenna diversity over frequency selective channel,
particularly suitable for high rate application, combining linear
decoding technique and CDMA. Our proposed system can be
viewed as an extension of MC-DS-CDMA techniques with
antenna diversity and OFDM cyclic prefixing. The system is an
adaptation from the multi-user space frequency uplink system
proposed in [12]. We show that our transmitter and receiver
architecture is particularly easy to implement. High rate system
can be achieved with high number of users since our
architecture allows spreading code sharing between users. The
number of receiver antenna needed is at least the same as the
maximum number of users sharing the same spreading code.
This can drastically reduce the spreading code length and the
number of required receiver antenna. Our proposed system is a
flexible tradeoff between CDMA based systems [6]-[11] and
array processing techniques [4][5]. Compared to [6][7], each
user in our system occupies all subcarriers available to transmit.
The first stage of the proposed receiver is to uncoupled the
users via the spreading code and the second stage separate the
users using linear processing. The complexity of the decoder is
low and highly parallelizable. In quasi-synchronous system as
in micro cell environment, we show that with orthogonal
spreading code such as Walsh Code, we can achieve the same
performance as the single user STBC system over fading
channel.
This paper is organized as follows. In section II, we
describe the transceiver structure for non-overloaded system.
IEEE Communications Society / WCNC 2005 438 0-7803-8966-2/05/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE
Section III is devoted to the case of overloaded systems.
Computer simulations are exhibited in section IV whereas the
main conclusions are given in section V.
II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
In this section, we will first present a simple system where
different spreading codes are allocated to each user.
A. Transmitter
We limit our scope to two transmit antennas system as
generalization to N antennas is straightforward. The transmitter
model for any user u is represented in Figure 1. The system
functions in blocks of 2×K symbols. K denotes the number of
tones in the OFDM modulation. Let
1 2
u u,q u,q
,
(
=
¸ ¸
b b b the 2×K
symbols to be sent by user u with
( ) ( )
{ } 1 2
1
p p p
u,q u,q u,q
p ,
b b K

(
=
¸ ¸
b … . The index
p
q represents
invariantly symbols for any timeslot within a STBC codeword.
The 2×K symbols are rearranged to form two vectors of K
symbols using the serial to parallel converter (S/P). On each
branch of S/P output, the 2 symbols are spreaded using a code
of size θ.

Figure 1. Transmitter Model
If we note
( )
p p
u,q u,q K K
diag )
×
= B b and
( ) ( ) 1
u u u
c c ( = θ
¸ ¸
c … the spreading code of user u, the
spreading operation can be modeled by a matrix multiplication

p p
u,q u,q u
K×θ
= ⋅ s B C (1)
with
u
C is K×θ matrix, with each line of the matrix
contains the spreading code of the user u. Each line in
p
u,q
s
represents the sequence to be sent over a distinct sub carrier and
each column indicates the time of transmission. IDFT is then
applied to each column of each matrix
p
u,q
s , to form θ OFDM
codewords of K tones

p p
*
u,q u,q
= ⋅ X Q s (2)
Q is a K×K DFT matrix with
( )
2
1
j mn K
m,n
Q / K e
− ⋅ π⋅ ⋅
= ⋅ .
{ }
1 2
u,q u,q
, X X represent a STBC codeword. Our STBC
construction differs slightly from the symbol based STBC
system proposed in [1]-[3] or vector based STBC system as in
[5]. We send two matrices at each STBC time slot, and the
matrices are specially formed so that the symbols obtained after
multi-user interference (MUI) elimination are orthogonal. In
our two transmit antennas configuration, we will send
successively
{ }
1 2
u,q u,q
, X X over the first antenna and
{ }
2 1
u,q u,q
, −X X

over the second antenna, with

p p
*
u,q u,q
= ⋅ X J X

(3)
and
0 1
1 0
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
J is a skew eye matrix representing the
OFDM codeword time reversal. Note that the OFDM codeword
time reversal is not the same as spreaded sequence time reversal
as the OFDM codeword time reversal is done immediately after
the parallel/serial converter in the OFDM modulator. Figure 2.
and TABLE I. resume the transmit operation.
We consider that appropriate OFDM cyclic prefix is used to
avoid inter-block interferences. We suppose that the OFDM sub
carriers are sufficiently spaced and there is no inter carrier
interference. A fully orthogonal real valued spreading code
such as Walsh Code is used.

Figure 2. Data transmission over time and antenna (CP denotes cyclic prefix)
B. Receiver
The receiver structure is represented in Figure 3. In an
uplink configuration, each user will have its own frequency
selective channel between each transmit and each receive
antenna. Considering the channel response of u
th
user between
his j
th
transmit antenna and i
th
receiver antenna, the channel is
modeled as
( ) ( )
1
0
L
u u
j ,i j ,i
l
l
h l
f

=
| |
τ = α ⋅δ τ−
|

\ .

(4)
with 1
m
L f = τ ∆ + (
¸ ¸
,
m
τ is the maximum delay in any user
frequency selective channel, ( )
u
j ,i
l α is the l
th
complex value tap
gain, and f ∆ the whole bandwidth of the OFDM system.
All user signals emitted from all transmit antennas,
propagate through their respective frequency selective channel
and reach the i
th
receiver antenna. These superposed signals are
affected with an additive complex Gaussian noise with variance
2
n
σ per dimension. It is assumed that all channels are not
IEEE Communications Society / WCNC 2005 439 0-7803-8966-2/05/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE
correlated to each other, and the channel is invariant during our
STBC codeword.
TABLE I. TRANSMIT OPERATION OVER SPACE AND TIME

Antenna 1 Antenna 2
2q
1
u,q
X
2
u,q
−X

t
i
m
e

2q+1
2
u,q
X
1
u,q
X

Figure 3. Receiver Model
Denote N
u
the number of user in the system. Considering
the system quasi-synchronous as in micro cell environment, the
received signal for each OFDM codeword can be represented as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 1
1 2
1
u
N
u u
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
u
h h
=
κ = ⊗ κ − ⊗ κ + κ

y X X N

(5)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 1 2
1 2
1
u
N
u u
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
u
h h
=
κ = ⊗ κ + ⊗ κ + κ

y X X N

(6)
where ( )
p
u,q
κ X represent the κ
th
OFDM codeword from
the matrix
p
u,q
X (or the κ
th
column from the same matrix) and
⊗ denotes the convolution operator.
Following [5], the above equations can be written in matrix
form as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 1
1 2
1
u
N
u u
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
u=
κ = ⋅ κ − ⋅ κ + κ

y H X H X N

(7)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 1 2
1 2
1
u
N
u u
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
u=
κ = ⋅ κ + ⋅ κ + κ

y H X H X N

(8)
With a proper cyclic extensions and sample timing, and
tolerable leakage,
u
j ,i
H is a K×K circulant matrix, and from a
basic result from the matrix theory,
u
j ,i
H can be eigenvalue
decomposed as

u * u
j ,i j ,i
= ⋅ ⋅ H Q Λ Q (9)
with
( )
u u
j ,i j ,i
diag = ⋅ Λ Q α and ( ) ( ) 1
T
u u u
j ,i j ,i j ,i
L
(
= α α
¸ ¸
α … .
After DFT operation related to OFDM modulation, we have
p p
i ,q i,q
= ⋅ r Q y , and

1 1 2 1
1 2
1
u
N
u u *
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
u=
= ⋅ − ⋅ +

r Λ s Λ s n (10)

2 2 1 2
1 2
1
u
N
u u *
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
u=
= ⋅ + ⋅ +

r Λ s Λ s n (11)
At this stage, each line in the
p
i,q
r K×θ matrix represents
the superposition of all spread user symbols sent over a distinct
subcarrier during a STBC codeword. Due to our code
repartition system, and analog to a single carrier CDMA
system, we can retrieve any noise added user symbol by
multiplying the received vector by a user code. We can
therefore discriminate all user symbols by multiplying vectors
received at each sub carrier by C. C is defined by

1
u
T
T T
N
(
=
¸ ¸
C c c … (12)
Hence

1 1
1 2 2
1 2
1
u
T
i ,q i ,q
N
u T u * T T
,i u,q ,i u,q q
u=

= ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅

z r C
Λ s C Λ s C n C
(13)

2 2
2 1 2
1 2
1
u
T
i ,q i ,q
N
u T u * T T
,i u,q ,i u,q q
u=

= ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅

z r C
Λ s C Λ s C n C
(14)
In synchronous system, all users are fully separated and
each user symbols will be located in a distinct column of
p
i ,q
z .
We can safely rewrite 13 and 14 as
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1 1 2 1
1 2
u u u * u
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
= ⋅ − ⋅ + z Λ B Λ B n (15)

2 2 1 2
1 2
u u u * u
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
= ⋅ + ⋅ + z Λ B Λ B n (16)
p
u
i ,q
z a diagonal matrix obtained from the corresponding
column of
p
i ,q
z for the user u. Since
p
u
i ,q
z and
u
j ,i
Λ are
diagonal matrices, we may write, for individual sub carrier k,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 1
1 2
u u u * u
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
z k k b k k b k n k = Λ ⋅ −Λ ⋅ + (17)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 1 2
1 2
u u u * u
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
z k k b k k b k n k = Λ ⋅ +Λ ⋅ + (18)
Equations 17 and 18 are presented in identical form of a
single user STBC over a fading channel first proposed by
Alamouti [3]. Hence, we only need to know the channel state
information (CSI) of the desired user to proceed the decoding.
The equations 17 and 18 show that the proposed receiver
uncouples the users entirely and we obtain the single user
STBC form for each user after multi-user detection. Any
techniques applicable to the Alamouti scheme can be applied
without major modification.
III. OVERLOADED SYSTEM
In today’s multimedia scenario, a high rate transmission is
very appreciable. While the combined array processing
technique can provide a high rate system [4][5], the number of
receiver antenna deployable is physically limited over an area
thus limiting the number of possible users sharing the system
simultaneously. Furthermore, as stated previously, each
receiver antenna set up for each user does not provide any
diversity gain. Traditional CDMA with antenna diversity does
provide diversity gain with transmission rate tradeoffs. For very
high number of users in a system, a long spreading code is
needed and this makes the system unattractive for high rate
application.
We propose in this section a code sharing CDMA system
exploiting the space diversity to deal with the high rate needed
in multimedia application while obtaining a good diversity gain.
The transmission rate is increased by reducing the CDMA code
length with one or more users sharing the same code. This is a
compromise between the number of receiver antenna to be
deployed and the code length. We may obtain more diversity
gain by increasing the number of receiver antenna while
maintaining constant the spreading code length and the number
of users in the system. In parallel, the system can cope with
more users while increasing either the number of receive
antennas or the code length. If the Walsh Codes are shortened
by half, the rate doubles with slightly less diversity gain. These
flexibilities can be obtained without any major structure
changes at the transmitter. Dynamic configuration of the
transmitter can be envisaged. This configuration is made
possible with the basic transceiver proposed in Section II. The
new receiver structure is presented in Figure 4.
We impose the following constraint on the system: there is
no more than
u
N
Φ
users using the same code. The same
transmit and channel model is used for each user. At the
receiver, we have the same equation as10 and 11. When the
received signal is applied with the code matrix, we have

1 1 2 1
1 2
1
u
N
u T u * T T
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
u=
= ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅

z Λ s C Λ s C n C (19)

2 2 1 2
1 2
1
u
N
u T u * T T
i ,q ,i u,q ,i u,q q
u=
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅

z Λ s C Λ s C n C (20)
The difference with the previous system is that, for each
branch, there is still at most N
r
users signal superposed after the
match filter. Knowing that the STBC symbols are orthogonal
for each user after dispreading, we can use therefore the linear
STBC multi-user decoder proposed in [4] condition that we
have at least N
r
receive antennas and that over each antenna, the
dispreading has been applied.

Figure 4. Overloaded receiver model
Let
u
φ
Φ be the set of users sharing the spreading code C
φ
.
u
N
Φ
is defined by
{ }
( ) ( )
1
u
u
, ,
N max size
Φ
φ
φ∈ Θ
= Φ

with Θ denotes
the number of spreading code available. Since we have
uncoupled the users having different code in
p
i ,q
z , we will
concentrate on one spreading code to uncouple the rest of the
users.
As illustrated in Figure 4. , the system has N
r
receive
antennas with
r u
N N
Φ
≥ . We have

1 2 1 1
1 2
u
u u * u
,i u,q ,i u,q q i ,q
u
φ
φ
Φ
∈Φ
= ⋅ − ⋅ +

z Λ B Λ B n (21)

2 1 2 2
1 2
u
u u * u
,i u,q ,i u,q q i ,q
u
φ
φ
Φ
∈Φ
= ⋅ + ⋅ +

z Λ B Λ B n (22)
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2 1 2
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 2 2 1
u
u
T u u
u, q ,i ,i
i i K
u* u* T*
K
,i ,i u, q
u
K K K
u T
i u i
u
φ φ
φ
φ
φ
Φ Φ
×
×
+
∈Φ
× ×
Φ
∈Φ
( (

= ⋅ ( + (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= ⋅ +


b Λ Λ
z n
Λ Λ b
Λ b n
(23)
Similar to [5], our system can be reduced to K individual
problem, and we can write

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
1 2
2 1
u
T
u
T u u
u,q ,i ,i
i i
u* u* T*
,i ,i u,q
u
u T
i u i
u
b k k k
k k
k k b k
k k n k
φ φ
φ
φ
Φ Φ
∈Φ
Φ
∈Φ
( (
Λ −Λ
( = ⋅ + (
Λ Λ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= ⋅ +


z n
Λ b
(24)
with ( )
u
j ,i
k Λ representing the k
th
element of the diagonal
matrix
u
j ,i
Λ . Considering input from all antennas, we obtain

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
2 1
1
1 1 1 1
1
2 2 2 1 2 1
r
r
u
u
r
u r r
r u u r
T
T T
k N
N
N T
T
N
N
N N N
N N N N
k , , k
k k k k
k k
k k
k k k
φ φ φ
Φ
Φ
Φ
Φ Φ
Φ Φ Φ
×
× × ×
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
= ⋅ + (
(
(
(
(
(
( ( ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
= ⋅ +
Z z z
Λ Λ b n
b n
Λ Λ
Λ b n

(25)
Supposing that the channel state information is perfectly
known, the above equation can be solved iteratively. To
simplify our demonstration, we consider here
r u
N N
Φ
= .
Let Q, the number of user left to be detected at current
iteration. Initially, let
Q
k
φ
Φ
= Y Z , ( )
Q
k = Λ Λ and ( )
Q
k = β b .
We partition

1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
Q Q
Q
Q Q
Q Q Q
Q Q
Q Q
Q Q Q
Q Q


− − −
×

×
(
Λ Λ Λ
(
( (
= =
( (
Λ Λ Λ
¸ ¸
(
Λ Λ Λ
(
¸ ¸
A B
Λ
Γ ∆

(26)
and we look for a filter
Q
W such as

1 2
3 4
Q Q Q
Q Q
Q Q Q
( (
⋅ = =
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
W W P 0
W Λ
W W 0 V
(27)
Arbitrary, we impose
1
Q
W and
4
Q
W equal to identity matrix
( ) 2 1 Q−
I and
2
I respectively. We obtain, after straightforward
calculation

1
2
1
3
1
1
Q
Q
Q
Q




=− ⋅
=− ⋅
= − ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅
W B ∆
W Γ A
P A B ∆ Γ
V ∆- Γ A B
(28)
Finally, we uncouple one user from the other (Q-1) users
when
Q
W is applied to
Q
Y .

1 1
2 1
Q Q Q
Q Q
Q Q
Q
Q
ˆ
N
ˆ
− −
×
( ( (
⋅ = = ⋅ +
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Y P 0 β
W Y
b
Y 0 V
(29)
we obtain

( )
1 Q Q
Q Q Q Q
ˆ

= + = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + Y V b N ∆- Γ A B b N (30)
The equation 30 can be used to decode a STBC codeword
based on conventional Alamouti scheme. We set
1 Q Q
ˆ

= Y Y
and
Q Q
= Λ P and iterates from 26 until Q=1. We restart all
over again for each subcarrier. Note that the decoding for each
subcarrier can be done in parallel.
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
We first examine the system performance without any
overloading. We consider a multi-user system using Walsh-
Hadamard spreading code in a multi-path Rayleigh channel
environment. We voluntarily limit the spreading code length to
8. We simulate 8 users communicating quasi synchronously to
the receiver. Each user has two transmit antennas. In Figure 5. ,
we present the performance for some of the users over various
multipath Rayleigh channel configuration when one receive
antenna is used. The channels between users and between
transmit antennas are independent and uncorrelated to each
other. Perfect channel state information is available at the
receiver and we idealize that we are able to obtain perfect time -
frequency synchronization. We also consider that each OFDM
codeword is sufficiently prefixed. As we can see in Figure 5. ,
the system performance is comparable to the single user case of
Alamouti scheme in a fading channel. 128 OFDM tones are
used. The obtained results have been compared with the upper
bounds derived in [14] to check the compliance of the results.
It has been shown that the linear decoding technique
performs similarly to single user STBC case [4]. It is therefore
interesting to compare our overloaded architecture performance
to the results obtained in [4].
From the previous simulation configuration, we add an
additional receive antenna and we double the number of users
IEEE Communications Society / WCNC 2005 442 0-7803-8966-2/05/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE
in the overall system to 16. Therefore, 2 users are sharing the
same spreading code at any time. The performances of two
random users out of 16 are shown in Figure 6. We observed
that the performance of our overloaded architecture is similar to
the single user case as is [4]. This is not surprising since our
basic multi user architecture uncouples all users to individual
problems without any significant performances losses. The
obtained results validate the framework of the system.

Figure 5. BER of multi-user user multi-carrier STBC over various Rayleigh
multi-path channels (Walsh Code)

Figure 6. Performance of the overloaded system with two users sharing a
spreading code and with receive antenna equal to two
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we proposed an overloaded multi-user CDMA
system with space-time diversity for high rate uplink
application. We have shown that with a combination of classic
CDMA detection and linear decoding, the rate can be easily
increased while keeping the number of required receiver
antenna to perform linear decoding very low. This is made
possible by our basic multi-user STBC-CDMA design that
uncouples each user equivalently to single user STBC case. The
reduced number of required antenna is appreciated when space
is a practical problem. The overall system is with low
complexity and can be easily paralleled. Computer simulations
have shown that, high rate application is possible and show
promising results without significant performances losses.
There is almost no limitation to make the rate even higher and
render this design appealing for multimedia wireless systems.
VI. REFERENCES
[1] V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank, “Space-time codes for
high data rate wireless communication: Performance criterion and code
construction,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 44, pp.744-765, Mar.
1998.
[2] V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and R. A. Calderbank, “Space-time block
codes from orthogonal designs,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 45,
pp. 1456–1467, July 1999.
[3] S. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless
communications”, IEEE Journal of Selected Areas In Communications,
vol. 16-8 pp. 1451-1458, Oct 1998
[4] A. Stamoulis, N. Al-Dhahir and A.R. Calderbank “Further results on
interference cancellation for space-time block coded systems” , Proc.
Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Nov. 2001
[5] Ayman F. Naguib, “Combined interference suppression and frequency
domain equalization for space-time block coded transmission”, ICC2003,
May 2003
[6] Zhiqiang Liu; Giannakis, G.B., “Space-time block-coded multiple access
through frequency-selective fading channels», IEEE Trans. On Comm.
vol. 49-6, pp. 1033-1044, June 2001
[7] A. Stamoulis, Z. Liu, G.B. Giannakis, “Space time block coded OFDMA
with linear precoding for multirate service”, IEEE Trans. On Signal
Processing, vol. 50, pp. 119 - 129, Jan. 2002
[8] Zigang Yang, Ben Lu, and Xiaodong Wang, “Bayesian monte carlo
multi-user receiver for space–time coded multi-carrier CDMA Systems”,
IEEE Journal On Selected Areas In Communications, vol. 19-8, pp.
1625-1637, August 2001
[9] Baum, K.L.; Thomas, T.A.; Vook, F.W.; Nangia, V, “Cyclic-prefix
CDMA: an improved transmission method for broadband DS-CDMA
cellular systems”, WCNC 2002, March 2002
[10] Vook, F.W.; Thomas, T.A.; Baum, K.L, “ Cyclic-prefix CDMA with
antenna diversity“, VTC Spring 2002, May 2002
[11] Auffray, J.M.; Helard, J.F.,”Performance of multi-carrier CDMA
technique combined with space-time block coding over Rayleigh
channel”, Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, 2002 IEEE
Seventh International Symposium on , Sept. 2002
[12] M.J Syed, G. Ferré, V. Meghdadi, J.P. Cances, “ Performances of LDPC
based multi-user space frequency diversity system design for uplink
multi-carrier CDMA”, 9
th
International Conference On Communication
Systems, Sept. 2004, Singapore
[13] Ben Lu, Xiaodong Wang and Krishna R. Narayanan, “LDPC-based
space–time coded OFDM systems over correlated fading channels:
performance analysis and receiver design”, IEEE Trans. On Comm. vol.
50-1, pp. 74-88, Jan 2002
[14] G. R. Mohammad-Khani, V. Meghdadi, J. P. Cances, L. Azizi ,
“Maximum likelihood decoding rules for STBC generalized framework
for detection and derivation of accurate upperbounds”, ICC 2004, June
2004, Paris

IEEE Communications Society / WCNC 2005 443 0-7803-8966-2/05/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE

q2 { } {−Xu.q } over the second antenna. with 2 1 Xu . τm is the maximum delay in any user   frequency selective channel. Computer simulations are exhibited in section IV whereas the main conclusions are given in section V. We send two matrices at each STBC time slot. Let bu = bu .q1 . The system functions in blocks of 2×K symbols. we will send over the first antenna and successively Xu . In our two transmit antennas configuration.q2  the 2×K   u with symbols to be sent by user bu . Considering the channel response of uth user between his jth transmit antenna and ith receiver antenna. A fully orthogonal real valued spreading code such as Walsh Code is used. we will first present a simple system where different spreading codes are allocated to each user. These superposed signals are affected with an additive complex Gaussian noise with variance σ2 per dimension. Note that the OFDM codeword time reversal is not the same as spreaded sequence time reversal as the OFDM codeword time reversal is done immediately after the parallel/serial converter in the OFDM modulator. In an uplink configuration. The index q p represents   p∈{1. and ∆f the whole bandwidth of the OFDM system.q .q p ⋅ Cu (1) ( ) and K ×θ B. each user will have its own frequency selective channel between each transmit and each receive antenna. II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION In this section. We consider that appropriate OFDM cyclic prefix is used to avoid inter-block interferences. {Xu . resume the transmit operation. Figure 2. propagate through their respective frequency selective channel and reach the ith receiver antenna.q p (2) Q is a K×K DFT matrix with Qm. the channel is modeled as with Cu is K×θ matrix. A.q p = Q* ⋅ su . Receiver The receiver structure is represented in Figure 3. IDFT is then applied to each column of each matrix su .i (l ) ⋅δ  τ −   l   ∆f  (4) with L = τm ∆f + 1 . and TABLE I. Xu . Data transmission over time and antenna (CP denotes cyclic prefix) If we note Bu .Section III is devoted to the case of overloaded systems.n = 1 / K ⋅ e− j⋅2 π⋅m⋅n K .2} invariantly symbols for any timeslot within a STBC codeword. Each line in su .q .q p )K ×K cu = cu (1) … cu ( θ) the spreading code of user u.q1 .q p = B u . the   spreading operation can be modeled by a matrix multiplication su . Xu . and the matrices are specially formed so that the symbols obtained after multi-user interference (MUI) elimination are orthogonal. αu .q } 1 2 ( ) represent a STBC codeword.i ( l ) is the lth complex value tap j gain.00 © 2005 IEEE .i ( τ) = j ∑α l =0 L−1 u j . Transmitter Model Figure 2. On each branch of S/P output. Transmitter We limit our scope to two transmit antennas system as generalization to N antennas is straightforward. We suppose that the OFDM sub carriers are sufficiently spaced and there is no inter carrier interference.q p = bu . Our STBC All user signals emitted from all transmit antennas. Figure 1. the 2 symbols are spreaded using a code of size θ.q p = diag bu . Xu .q p u (3) 1 0  is a skew eye matrix representing the and J =    1 0  OFDM codeword time reversal. The 2×K symbols are rearranged to form two vectors of K symbols using the serial to parallel converter (S/P).q p (1) … bu . construction differs slightly from the symbol based STBC system proposed in [1]-[3] or vector based STBC system as in [5]. to form θ OFDM codewords of K tones hu. The transmitter model for any user u is represented in Figure 1. bu .q p . Xu .q p represents the sequence to be sent over a distinct sub carrier and each column indicates the time of transmission. K denotes the number of tones in the OFDM modulation. with each line of the matrix contains the spreading code of the user u. It is assumed that all channels are not n IEEE Communications Society / WCNC 2005 439 0-7803-8966-2/05/$20.q p ( K ) .q p = J ⋅ X* .

i is a K×K circulant matrix. C is defined by T C = c1 … cT u  N   T y i.q2 ( κ ) + h2 .i ⋅ su.i ⋅ su .q1 ( κ ) − H u .q2 + Λu .i ⋅ Xu.i = diag Q ⋅ α u .i = αu .i = Q* ⋅ Λ u .q2 ( κ ) + H u .i u ⊗ Xu .q2 ( κ ) + N q1 ( κ) (5) y i.q2 ( κ) = ∑h u =1 Nu u 1.i ⋅ s* . TABLE I.q2 (9) T 2q+1 with Λuj .q 2 (11) Denote Nu the number of user in the system.i ⋅ su. and Nu ( ) ri.q p K×θ matrix represents the superposition of all spread user symbols sent over a distinct subcarrier during a STBC codeword.q1 ⋅ CT − Λu .q1 ( κ) + N q2 ( κ ) (8) 2 In synchronous system.q1 ( κ) + N q2 ( κ ) (6) (12) where Xu .i and αuj . the above equations can be written in matrix form as ∑Λ u=1 Nu u 1. we can retrieve any noise added user symbol by multiplying the received vector by a user code.i ⊗ Xu . Considering the system quasi-synchronous as in micro cell environment.i ⋅ Q j Antenna 1 2q time Antenna 2 − Xu .q p (or the κth column from the same matrix) and Hence z i. each line in the ri.q1 = ∑Λ u=1 Nu u 1.q2 = ∑Λ u=1 u 1.i ⋅ Xu. and the channel is invariant during our STBC codeword.q p . and analog to a single carrier CDMA system.i ⋅ s* 1 + n q2 u.q2 ⋅ CT = ∑Λ u=1 Nu u 1.q 2 (10) Figure 3. and tolerable leakage. j  j  After DFT operation related to OFDM modulation.q1 Xu.i can be eigenvalue decomposed as H uj .q1 ( κ ) − h2 .q1 ( κ ) = ∑H u=1 Nu u 1. Receiver Model ri. Due to our code repartition system.i ⊗ Xu . all users are fully separated and each user symbols will be located in a distinct column of z i.i u ⊗ Xu.q1 ⋅ CT + n q2 ⋅ CT u 2 (14) y i.i ⋅ s* 2 + n q1 u. H uj .q1 = ri.q p . H uj . the received signal for each OFDM codeword can be represented as At this stage.q2 = ri.q p = Q ⋅ y i.q2 ⋅ CT + n q2 ⋅ CT u 2 (13) y i.i (1) … αuj . We can safely rewrite 13 and 14 as IEEE Communications Society / WCNC 2005 440 0-7803-8966-2/05/$20. TRANSMIT OPERATION OVER SPACE AND TIME With a proper cyclic extensions and sample timing.q1 Xu .i ( L ) .correlated to each other. We can therefore discriminate all user symbols by multiplying vectors received at each sub carrier by C. we have ri.i ⋅ su .q1 ⋅ CT = ⊗ denotes the convolution operator.q2 Xu .i ⋅ s* .i ⋅ Xu.q1 − Λ u .q1 ( κ ) = ∑h u =1 Nu u 1.q2 ( κ) = ∑ u=1 Nu u H1. and from a basic result from the matrix theory.i ⋅ Xu .00 © 2005 IEEE .q p ( κ ) represent the κth OFDM codeword from the matrix Xu. Following [5].q2 ( κ ) + N q1 ( κ) 2 (7) z i.q2 ⋅ CT + Λu .

i ( k ) ⋅ bu . the rate doubles with slightly less diversity gain.i ⋅ s* .q2 ⋅ CT + n q1 ⋅ CT 2 u (19) u zi.q u q (15) possible with the basic transceiver proposed in Section II. we only need to know the channel state information (CSI) of the desired user to proceed the decoding.q p . we may write. The new receiver structure is presented in Figure 4. . These flexibilities can be obtained without any major structure changes at the transmitter. Hence. each receiver antenna set up for each user does not provide any diversity gain.q1 ⋅ CT + n q2 ⋅ CT 2 u (20) Equations 17 and 18 are presented in identical form of a single user STBC over a fading channel first proposed by Alamouti [3].q1 ( k ) − Λ u . Since we have uncoupled the users having different code in z i.q1 + nu2 2 u q (22) IEEE Communications Society / WCNC 2005 441 0-7803-8966-2/05/$20.q1 ( k ) = Λ1.i 2 (k ) * ⋅ bu .i are i. the system has Nr receive Φ antennas with N r ≥ N u . φ Φ Φ N u is defined by N u = max φ∈{1. there is still at most Nr users signal superposed after the match filter. we have the same equation as10 and 11.q u = Λ1.q1 ⋅ CT − Λ u .q2 ⋅ CT + Λu .q1 = ∑Λ u =1 Nu u 1. The same transmit and channel model is used for each user.i ⋅ s* . we can use therefore the linear STBC multi-user decoder proposed in [4] condition that we have at least Nr receive antennas and that over each antenna.q2 + nu1 2 i. Knowing that the STBC symbols are orthogonal for each user after dispreading.q ( k ) 2 + Λ u . We propose in this section a code sharing CDMA system exploiting the space diversity to deal with the high rate needed in multimedia application while obtaining a good diversity gain.qφ = 2 Φ u 1. the dispreading has been applied. u u * u zi.i ⋅ B* . Any techniques applicable to the Alamouti scheme can be applied without major modification.q2 = ∑Λ u =1 Nu u 1. At the receiver. III.q1 − Λ u .q2 + nu1 2 u q (21) z i .qφ = 1 Φ u∈Φ u φ ∑Λ ∑Λ u 1. Overloaded receiver model Let Φ u be the set of users sharing the spreading code Cφ . Furthermore. we have zu 2 i.q1 − Λu .i ⋅ Bu . we will concentrate on one spreading code to uncouple the rest of the users. In today’s multimedia scenario.q2 + Λu .i ⋅ B* .i ⋅ su .u z u 1 = Λ1. While the combined array processing technique can provide a high rate system [4][5]. Since z u p and Λuj .i ⋅ B* . We have z i .q1 (k ) u + nq2 ( k ) (18) z i .i u∈Φu φ ⋅ Bu . a high rate transmission is very appreciable. Dynamic configuration of the transmitter can be envisaged. When the received signal is applied with the code matrix.q2 ( k ) + nq1 ( k ) (17) 2 z i. as stated previously.i ⋅ su .i ( k ) ⋅ bu .q1 u + n u2 q (16) z u p a diagonal matrix obtained from the corresponding i. OVERLOADED SYSTEM The difference with the previous system is that. As illustrated in Figure 4.… .q2 (k ) u = Λ1. for each branch.i ( k ) ⋅ bu .i ⋅ Bu .q p for the user u.q column of z i. the number of receiver antenna deployable is physically limited over an area thus limiting the number of possible users sharing the system simultaneously. Traditional CDMA with antenna diversity does provide diversity gain with transmission rate tradeoffs. a long spreading code is needed and this makes the system unattractive for high rate application. This is a compromise between the number of receiver antenna to be deployed and the code length. for individual sub carrier k. The transmission rate is increased by reducing the CDMA code length with one or more users sharing the same code. The equations 17 and 18 show that the proposed receiver uncouples the users entirely and we obtain the single user STBC form for each user after multi-user detection.Θ} ( size (Φ )) u φ with Θ denotes the number of spreading code available.q2 + Λu .00 © 2005 IEEE .i 2 ⋅ B* . We impose the following constraint on the system: there is Φ no more than Nu users using the same code. This configuration is made Figure 4.i ⋅ Bu . In parallel. the system can cope with more users while increasing either the number of receive antennas or the code length.q diagonal matrices. For very high number of users in a system. If the Walsh Codes are shortened by half. We may obtain more diversity gain by increasing the number of receiver antenna while maintaining constant the spreading code length and the number of users in the system.

the number of user left to be detected at current iteration. As we can see in Figure 5. let Y Q = Z k φ . we impose W1Q and W4 equal to identity matrix I 2 (Q−1) and I 2 respectively. the above equation can be solved iteratively. we add an additional receive antenna and we double the number of users (27) IEEE Communications Society / WCNC 2005 442 0-7803-8966-2/05/$20. We voluntarily limit the spreading code length to 8. Each user has two transmit antennas. we obtain we obtain ˆ Y Q = V Q b Q + N Q = ∆ . We obtain.i Λ1. our system can be reduced to K individual problem. Let Q. It has been shown that the linear decoding technique performs similarly to single user STBC case [4].q ( k )  Φφ 2  + ni ( k )  u*  ⋅  T* 1 u* Λ k Λ1. SIMULATION RESULTS Supposing that the channel state information is perfectly known. and we can write T u  Λ1. we uncouple one user from the other (Q-1) users when WQ is applied to Y Q .q2 ( k )   u∈Φu  2 . The channels between users and between transmit antennas are independent and uncorrelated to each other. Note that the decoding for each subcarrier can be done in parallel. after straightforward calculation Q W2 = −B ⋅ ∆−1 Q W3 = −Γ ⋅ A −1 u∈Φu φ Similar to [5].i  bu . The obtained results have been compared with the upper bounds derived in [14] to check the compliance of the results.Φ zi φ u  bT 2 q   Λ1. IV. Perfect channel state information is available at the receiver and we idealize that we are able to obtain perfect time frequency synchronization. ˆ Y Q−1  PQ 0  βQ−1  WQ ⋅ YQ =  Q  = ⋅ +N Q  ˆ  Y  2Q×1  0 V   bQ  with (k ) representing the k element of the diagonal th (29) matrix Λuj .i ( k )  bu . We partition  Λ1 1   = 1 Λ Q−1  1  ΛQ  Q Q Λ1 −1 Λ1    ΛQ−1 Λ Q−1  Q −1 Q  ΛQ−1 Λ Q  Q Q  2 Q×2Q Φ  A B ΛQ =    Γ ∆  2Q×2Q (26) and we look for a filter W Q such as Q  W Q W2  PQ 0  W Q ⋅ Λ Q =  1Q = Q  Q  W3 W4   0 V      We first examine the system performance without any overloading. We simulate 8 users communicating quasi synchronously to the receiver. we present the performance for some of the users over various multipath Rayleigh channel configuration when one receive antenna is used. We set Y Q = YQ −1 Q Q and Λ = P and iterates from 26 until Q=1.2 q+1   2 K×2 K  u∈Φu    2 K ×1 φ  ∑ ∑ = Λu i ⋅ bT u Φ + ni φ (23) Q Arbitrary. To Φ simplify our demonstration. z N φ ( k )  r  2 Nr ×1 ( ) T ( ) (30) NΦ  Λ1 k T Λ1 u ( k )  b1 ( k )   n1 ( k )   1( )      = ⋅ +  (25) Φ  1  bT k  n k  Nu ( ) Φ ( ) Λ N ( k )  N u Λ N r ( k )   Nr  r    = Λ ( k )2 N ×2 N Φ ⋅ b ( k ) 2 N Φ ×1 + n ( k )2 N ×1 r u u r The equation 30 can be used to decode a STBC codeword ˆ based on conventional Alamouti scheme.i ( )  φ P Q = A − B ⋅ ∆ −1 ⋅ Γ zi Φφ (28) (k ) = = Λ uj . We restart all over again for each subcarrier. We also consider that each OFDM codeword is sufficiently prefixed. From the previous simulation configuration.Γ ⋅ A −1 ⋅ B ⋅ b Q + N Q  Φ Φ Z k φ =  z1 φ ( k )  ( ) T T Φ . In Figure 5. the system performance is comparable to the single user case of Alamouti scheme in a fading channel. We consider a multi-user system using WalshHadamard spreading code in a multi-path Rayleigh channel environment.i .00 © 2005 IEEE .Γ ⋅ A −1 ⋅ B (24) u∈Φu φ ∑Λ u i ( k ) ⋅ bT ( k ) + niΦ ( k ) u T Finally.… . ΛQ = Λ ( k ) and βQ = b ( k ) .i ( k )  bu . . 2 = ⋅  T*  + ni φ 2 K×1  u*  u* 2 K ×1 Λ 2 . . It is therefore interesting to compare our overloaded architecture performance to the results obtained in [4]. Initially.i − Λu .i ( k ) −Λ u .i ∑ V Q = ∆ .i  Φ u. 128 OFDM tones are used. Considering input from all antennas. we consider here N r = Nu .

There is almost no limitation to make the rate even higher and render this design appealing for multimedia wireless systems. pp. Asilomar Conference on Signals. June 2004. June 2001 A. 50-1. 2002 Zigang Yang. G. Singapore Ben Lu. Calderbank “Further results on interference cancellation for space-time block coded systems” . Performance of the overloaded system with two users sharing a spreading code and with receive antenna equal to two [12] V. The reduced number of required antenna is appreciated when space is a practical problem. Cances. Ferré.B. The obtained results validate the framework of the system. Systems and Computers. Vook. “Space time block coded OFDMA with linear precoding for multirate service”. J. Paris IEEE Communications Society / WCNC 2005 443 0-7803-8966-2/05/$20. 74-88. 19-8.. We have shown that with a combination of classic CDMA detection and linear decoding.129.A. and A. F. “Bayesian monte carlo multi-user receiver for space–time coded multi-carrier CDMA Systems”. “LDPC-based space–time coded OFDM systems over correlated fading channels: performance analysis and receiver design”. 1998. the rate can be easily increased while keeping the number of required receiver antenna to perform linear decoding very low. 1451-1458. T. Oct 1998 A. 9th International Conference On Communication Systems.. 2002 IEEE Seventh International Symposium on . “Combined interference suppression and frequency domain equalization for space-time block coded transmission”.R. Helard. VI. The overall system is with low complexity and can be easily paralleled. On Comm. ICC 2004. R.”Performance of multi-carrier CDMA technique combined with space-time block coding over Rayleigh channel”.M. Thomas. “ Cyclic-prefix CDMA with antenna diversity“. vol. Proc. ICC2003. Azizi . Naguib. Giannakis.W. Jan.B.P.. vol. J. “Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communication: Performance criterion and code construction. 49-6. IEEE Journal On Selected Areas In Communications. May 2003 Zhiqiang Liu. 2001 Ayman F. vol. Cances. “Cyclic-prefix CDMA: an improved transmission method for broadband DS-CDMA cellular systems”. “Maximum likelihood decoding rules for STBC generalized framework for detection and derivation of accurate upperbounds”. V. On Signal Processing. IEEE Journal of Selected Areas In Communications. 2002 M. Xiaodong Wang and Krishna R. 2004. vol. F. H. Nov. A. “Space-time block codes from orthogonal designs. Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications. Z.. BER of multi-user user multi-carrier STBC over various Rayleigh multi-path channels (Walsh Code) [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] Figure 6.744-765. 45. Inform. Inform. “ Performances of LDPC based multi-user space frequency diversity system design for uplink multi-carrier CDMA”. Mar. Baum. 50.F. The performances of two random users out of 16 are shown in Figure 6. K. we proposed an overloaded multi-user CDMA system with space-time diversity for high rate uplink application.J Syed. Sept. 44. “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications”. July 1999. pp. N. G. Theory. Seshadri. WCNC 2002. J. V... vol. Alamouti.L. Nangia. May 2002 Auffray. Stamoulis. This is made possible by our basic multi-user STBC-CDMA design that [14] V.” IEEE Trans. V. CONCLUSION [13] In this paper. Jafarkhani. Meghdadi. pp. 2 users are sharing the same spreading code at any time. IEEE Trans. Thomas..00 © 2005 IEEE . high rate application is possible and show promising results without significant performances losses.W. uncouples each user equivalently to single user STBC case. J.” IEEE Trans. Jan 2002 G. N. On Comm. S. Tarokh. K. and Xiaodong Wang. Computer simulations have shown that. IEEE Trans.L. Giannakis. [1] REFERENCES [2] [3] [4] [5] Figure 5. and R. Therefore. Calderbank. VTC Spring 2002. 1033-1044. R. pp. Liu. vol. P.. 16-8 pp. vol. G.in the overall system to 16. Al-Dhahir and A. pp. Ben Lu. Tarokh. “Space-time block-coded multiple access through frequency-selective fading channels». Sept. Theory. V. Calderbank. Mohammad-Khani. T. Stamoulis. pp. August 2001 Baum. IEEE Trans. L. 119 . This is not surprising since our basic multi user architecture uncouples all users to individual problems without any significant performances losses. Meghdadi. We observed that the performance of our overloaded architecture is similar to the single user case as is [4]. March 2002 Vook. 1456–1467. Narayanan.A. 1625-1637.

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