MASTURA Production Activity Control Introduction
Production activity control (PAC) is responsible for executing the master production
schedule and the material requirements plan. At the same time, it must make good use of labor and machines, minimize work-in-process inventory, and maintain customer service.
The material requirements plan authorizes PAC: to release work orders to the shop for
manufacturing, to take control of work orders and make sure they are completed on time, to be responsible for the immediate detailed planning of the flow of orders through manufacturing, and to manage day-to-day activity and provide the necessary support. The activities of the PAC system can be classified into planning, implementation, and control functions.
The flow of work through each work center must be planned. PAC must ensure that the
required resources are available to manufacture the components as needed and develop a load profile for each work center to ensure the timely completion of orders by the scheduled date.
Next we implement the plan. PAC will gather the information needed by the shop floor to
make the product and release orders to the shop floor as authorized by the material requirements plan (dispatching).
Monitor the process and determine the necessary corrective action. PAC will rank the
shop orders in desired priority sequence by work center and establish a dispatch list, track actual performance to plan and take corrective action by replanning, rescheduling, or adjusting capacity to meet delivery.
Understand the characteristics and differences between flow, intermittent and
project manufacturing (see pages 143 and 144).
Material and capacity availability must be checked. When parts are needed so the completion date can be met. planning and control. The item master file contains all of the pertinent data related to each part number. What the available capacities of the various work centers are.
These database files are of two types. product structure file (bill of
material file). the order must be scheduled to see when the capacity is needed. What operations are required to make the product and how long the operations will take. First. Order Preparation
Once authorization to process an order has been received. PAC must have the following
information: What and how much to produce. the load on work centers must be checked in that period
. The product structure or BOM file contains single-level BOM’s listing components and quantities needed to assemble a parent. Each
active manufacturing order has a record in the shop order master file to monitor production performance for each shop order. A routing exists for each part number and consists of a series of operations and instructions required to make the item.
The two control files are the shop order master file and the shop order detail file.
The four planning files needed are the item master file. The work center master file collects relevant data on a work center. and second. It forms a basis for a “pick list”.Data Requirements
To plan the processing of materials through manufacturing.
PAC must have data. PAC is responsible for
planning and preparing its release to the shop floor. to drive the information systems. The shop order detail file contains the performance record for each operation. usually stored in databases. routing file and work center file. Checking capacity availability is a two-step process. The order should be reviewed to be sure that the necessary resources are available.
PAC must manage both the input of orders to the production process and the available capacity to control queue and work-in-process. competing jobs. PAC is responsible for managing the queue by regulating the flow of work into and out of work centers.4 & 6.
Forward scheduling assumes that material procurement and operation scheduling for a component start when the order is received.4 & 6.7).5).
. To develop a reliable schedule. It involves establishing start and finish dates for each operation required to complete an item. The result is completion before the due date. and manufacturing lead times at each work center involved.4 & 6.
Cycle time (throughput time) is the length of time from when material enters a production facility or operation until it exits.
Manufacturing lead-time is the time normally required to produce an item in a typical lot quantity and consists of five elements (see pages 148 & 149 and figure 6.6).6 & 6.3).Scheduling
The objective of scheduling is to meet delivery dates and to make the best use of manufacturing resources.
Infinite loading assumes infinite capacity will be available (figures 6. required and available capacity. the planner must have information on routing. which usually results in a buildup of inventory (see figures 6.6) schedules the last operation on the routing first and is scheduled for completion at the due date. and that operations are scheduled forward from this date. The largest of the five elements is queue time. Finite loading assumes there is a defined limit to available capacity at any workstation (figures 6. Previous operations are scheduled back from the last operation. whatever the due date.
Backward scheduling (figures 6.
Theory of Constraints and Drum-Buffer-Rope The fundamental concept behind Theory of Constraints. there is one process that limits or constrains (bottleneck) the throughput from the entire operation. Focus on balancing
. Goldratt. developed by Eliyahu M. please review the principles on page 156 and how
to manage bottlenecks on page 157. department. Bottlenecks
control the throughput of all products. is that every operation producing a product or service is a series of linked processes.
Operation splitting is the process of splitting orders into two or more lots and run simultaneously on two or more machines.
Throughput is the total volume of production passing through a facility. This reduces the total manufacturing lead times because the second operation starts before the first operation finishes all the parts in the order.
The load profile for a work center is constructed by calculating the standard hours of
operation for each order in each time period and adding them together by time period (figure 6. and that in virtually every case. It is a facility. or resource whose capacity is equal to or less than the demand placed upon it. Each process has a specific capacity to produce the given defined output for the operation.
Since bottlenecks control throughput. function.10). Scheduling Bottlenecks
Bottlenecks are overloaded workstations where the required capacity is greater than the
available capacity. Increased costs are possible from move costs and the impact of queue and leadtime for other orders. the next operation is allowed to begin before the entire lot is completed on the previous operation.
In operation overlapping.
The scheduling system for Theory of Constraints is described as Drum-Buffer-Rope. (2) exploit the constraint. If what is actually happening (what is measured) varies significantly from
. A shop packet accompanies a shop order release to manufacturing. Once constraint has been identified. The five steps are: (1) identify the constraint. Since it is so important that the constraint never be “starved” for needed inventory. The time lost at a no constraint is a mirage. The analogy is that the rope “pulls” production to the constraint for necessary processing. It represents the master schedule for the operation. find the new one and repeat the steps.the flow through the shop. a “time” buffer is often established in front of the constraint. engineering drawings. Orders that do not have all of the necessary resources. bills of material. materials issue tickets or pick list. there is a five-step process that is recommended to help improve the performance of the operation. job tickets for each operation to be performed. (4) elevate the constraint. Once work orders have been issued to manufacturing. To control progress. and move tickets that authorize movement of work between operations. their progress has to be controlled. material. tooling. and capacity. and transfer batches do not have to be the same size as process batches. performance has to be measured and compared to what is planned.11). (3) subordinate everything to the constraint. The primary focus of the scheduling system is on effective management of the organization’s constraint to throughput and sales. routing sheets. which is focused around the pace of throughput as defined by the constraint. This packet may include the shop order. It is called a time buffer because it represents the amount of time that the inventory in the buffer protects the constraint from disruption. The drum of the system refers to the “drumbeat” or pace of production. should not be released because they only cause excess work-in-process inventory and may interrupt work on orders that can be completed (see figure 6. tool requisitions. (5) once the constraint is a constraint no longer.
PAC must balance the flow of work to and from different work centers. Cumulative variance is the difference between the total planned for a given period and the actual total for that period (Cumulative variance = previous cumulative variance + actual – planned). and (5) critical ratio (CR = (due date – present date) / lead time remaining) (see definitions on page 166 and examples on pages 166 & 167).what was planned. a plan must be devised along with a method for comparing what actually occurs against what was planned. and lead times are controlled. Dispatching is the function of selecting and sequencing available jobs to be run at individual work centers. (2) earliest job due date (EDD). Control of priorities is exercised through dispatching.13). The output rate is controlled by increasing or decreasing the capacity of a work center (see figure 6. either the plans have to be changed or corrective action must be taken to bring performance back to plan. Planned and actual inputs monitor the flow of work coming to the work center. Planned and actual outputs monitor the performance of the work center. The input rate is controlled by the release of orders to the shop floor. This is to ensure queue. (4) shortest process time (SPT). This information is shown on an input/output report (see figure 6. Planned and actual backlogs monitor the queue and lead-time performance.
. work-in-process. To control input and output. (3) earliest operation due date (ODD). The dispatch list is the instrument of priority control. Some commonly used rules are: (1) first come. Theinput/output control system is designed to balance the input rate in hours with the output rate.12). Operation sequencing is a technique for short-term planning of actual jobs to be run in each work center based on capacity and priorities. It’s a listing by operation of all the jobs available to be run at a work center with the job listed in priority sequence. first served (FCFS). The ranking of jobs for the dispatch list is created through the application of priority rules.