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1. WHAT IS WINE?
Wine is fermented grape juice. Wine can be made from grapes, fruits, berries etc. Most wine, though , is made from grapes. And no matter what the wine is made from, there must be fermentation, that is, that sugar be transformed into alcohol. If the amount of alcohol is relatively low, the result is wine. If it is high, the result is a "distilled liquor," something like gin or vodka There are red wines, pink wines (also known as "rose" or some-times "blush") and white wines. Red wine result when the crushed grape skin pulp and seeds of purple or red varieties are allowed to remain with juice during fermentation periods. Pink / rose wine can be produced by removing the non-juice pumace from the must during fermentation. White wines can be made from pigmented grapes by removal of skins, pulp and seeds before juice fermentation. Wines might be "fortified," "sparkling," or "table." In fortified wines, brandy is added to make the alcohol content higher (around 14 to 30 percent). These are less perishable and may be stable without pasteurization. Wines are termed still or sparkling depending upon the amount of CO2 they contain. The carbon dioxide may be formed naturally during fermentation or may be added artificially.
Think of raisins. Table wine (which can also be called "still") are the most "natural".") Every year the wine grape grower plays a game of chance and must decide when to harvest. the short-term effects of weather are quite important. but the best wine grape is the European Vitis vinifera. INITIAL PROCESSING OF THE GRAPE JUICE . Simplistically. If it rains just at the point the wine grapes are ready. and before the grapes can be harvested. there may be too much sugar. if you knew it wasn't going to rain. To produce great wine. was there enough heat during the growing season to lead to enough sugar? At harvest time. 2. For example. These wines will be "thin. which leads to too low acid content. the additional water will cause the water level to increase. HOW IS WINE MADE? GROWING GRAPES. why not just add some sugar in the wine making process? Some do. As the fruit dries. and the brix will go down. like Champagne. you would just test the brix until it was just right. then harvest. It is considered optimal because it has the right balance of sugar and acid to create a good fermented wine without the addition of sugar or water. The alcohol concentration itself is not sufficient to preserve natural wines. If you harvest too soon. (You might ask.10 %. The term light wine is also used to describe wine having alcohol content from 5 . the water evaporates. Sparkling wines are the ones with bubbles ( greater CO2 ) . HARVEST Weather is a major factor is determining whether a year is going to be a "good vintage" (or "year").Both table and sparkling wines tend to have alcohol contents between 7 and 14 percent. Grapes grow on vines. What is left is the sugary fruit. There are many different types of grapes. Also considered "not good. the fruit should have a high (but not overly high) sugar content ("brix"). they are pasteurized. Not good. you will probably end up getting a wine too low in alcohol content (there won't have been enough sugar to convert to alcohol)." If you delay harvest. This also affects the taste (and the aging possibilities) of the wine.
(See Aging Wines. leaving behind the rest of the grapes. removes the stems). OPERATIONS IN A WINERY . You can also separate solids from juice through the use of a centrifuge. Pressing will then occur. Maceration (the time spent while skins and seeds are left with the juice) will go on for a few hours or a few weeks." a large cylindrical container that contains bags that are inflated and deflated several times. Skin and seeds might immediately be removed from the juice. But a more practical way is to use a machine which does the job (and at the same time. each time gently squeezing the grapes until all the juice has run free.Grapes can (and might still) be crushed by stomping on them with your feet in a big vat.) The skins also determine the color of the wine (see WHAT IS WINE). since skins and stems are an important source of "tannins" which affect wine's taste and maturity through aging. What you get may or may not get immediately separated. Separation may not immediately occur (especially for red wines). One way to press the grapes is to use a "bladder press.
FERMENTATION .TURNING GRAPE JUICE INTO ALCOHOL .
A less modern. The skins and pulp which remain in a red wine vat will rise to and float on top of the juice. this is accomplished by pumping juice from the bottom of the vat over the top of the cap. The grape juice will have fermented. but still wide widely used way to ferment wine is to place it in small oak barrels.Grape juice is turned into alcohol by the process of "fermentation. usually at least twice a day. known as "lees and various other substances. it causes grape juice ("must") to get hot. which can survive in higher and higher levels of alcohol. acetic bacteria on the grapes can cause the wine to turn to vinegar).). This causes problems (if it dries out. By putting grape juice into a container at the right temperature. the yeast won't work." also known as the Brettanomyces strain of yeast (which can be added or come from wild yeast fermentation). most commonly by using the "universal disinfectant. Cooling coils are necessary to maintain a temperature below 30 C. can take over and contribute their own flavor to the wine-as well as converting a bit more sugar to alcohol). The most common wine yeast is Saccharomyces. mold and bacteria. But if there's too much heat. Other things on the outside of a grape are not good for wine (for example. "Barrel fermentation" is usually done at a lower temperature in temperature controlled rooms and takes longer. it's a perfect breeding ground for injurious bacteria). perhaps around 6 weeks. ." sulfur dioxide. The winemaker has many different yeast strains to choose from (and can use different strains at different times during the process for better control fermentation ). This is a good point to stop and mention "Brett. As yeast works." Grapes on the vine are covered with yeast. Unfortunately. Eventually the yeast is no longer changing sugar to alcohol (though different strains of yeast. the sulfites which remain in the wine may cause a lot of discomfort to some wine drinkers. so the winemaker will push this "cap" back down into the juice. But the yeast that is on the grape skin when it is harvested may not have the desired flavor. and purposely create wines that are subject to the vagaries (and different flavors) of the yeast that pre-exist on the grapes ("wild yeast fermentation"). yeast ( SACCHROMYCES ELLIPSOIDUES ) will turn the sugar in the juice into alcohol and carbon dioxide. After all this is completed what you have left is the wine. In large vats. The longer fermentation and use of wood contributes to the flavor (and usually expense) of the wine. Fermentation is carried out in stainless steel vessels. (See ALLERGIC REACTIONS TO WINE. molds and bacteria. Yeast also gives flavor to the wine. "dead" yeast cells. The winemaker can eliminate unwanted yeast's. Some winemakers prefer NOT to do this.
This involves the wine to stand still until most yeast cells and fine suspended material settle out. These tartarates present in the grape juice tend to crystallize in wine and if not removed completely can slowly reappear as glass like crystals in final bottles on storage. . Ignoring any additional processing that might be used.MALO-LACTIC FERMENTATION The winemaker may choose to allow a white wine to undergo a second fermentation which occurs due to malic acid in the grape juice. during the winery aging. to give it a more complex flavors. So the winemaker will probably "blend" wine from different barrels. STABILIZATION. you could empty the barrels into bottles and sell your wine. FIRST RACKING After fermentation completed naturally or stopped by addition of distilled spirit. The wine is then filtered without disturbing the sediment or the yeast. PASTEURIZATION If the wine has an alcohol content less than 14% it may be heat pasteurized or cold pasteurized through microporous filters just before bottling. This process is used for sparkling wines. WINERY AGING The winery may then keep the wine so that there can be additional clarification and. Flavor can come from wood (or more correctly from the chemicals that make up the wood and are taken up into the wine). the winemaker may blend together different grape varieties to achieve desired characteristics. When malic acid is allowed to break down into carbon dioxide and lactic acid (thanks to bacteria in the wine). in some wines. Stabilization with respect to tartarates may involve chilling of wine that can crystallize tartarates and these crystals can be removed by filtration. FILTRATION Stabilization is carried out to remove traces of tartaric acid. A "buttery" flavor in some whites is due to this process. the smaller containers may develop differences. Also. first racking is carried out. However." which imparts additional flavor to the wine. to achieve a uniform result. it is known as "malo-lactic fermentation. The wine may be barrel aged for several months to several years. No air is allowed to enter the barrels during this period.
a cellar should have proper :Temperature which does not have rapid fluctuation. Colored bottles help to reduce damage by light. (Light assists in oxidation and breakdown of the wine into chemicals. Therefore most white wines don't age well. or within a few years. this is known as "cellaring" wine. throughout the world. The fact is. The bad news is that you shouldn't drink it young since it will taste too harsh (and probably cost too much. acid and all the myriad other substances that make up the wine's character will come into greater balance. A fair average for many "ageable" whites would be about 5 to 7 years (some might go 10). such as mercaptan.) Bottle sizes can also vary. While some wines will "mature" and become better over time. besides). most wine is drunk "young" (that is relatively soon after it is produced. it is red wines that are the ones that CAN (but do not have to be) produced with a fair amount of tannin with an eye towards long term storing and maturation. like in a cool damp underground cellar. the better it will get Since its best to store wine under certain conditions. others will not and should be drunk immediately.BOTTLING WINE Producers often use different shaped bottles to denote different types of wine. The good news is that after a number of years. Generally. Additional tannin can come from the wood during barrel aging in the winery. stems and skins of grapes. This gives the wine tannin and aging capacity. what you get is a prized. White wines may have no contact with the stems and skins and will have little tannin (though some can be added. through barrel aging). but you can live with 50 to 57 degrees Fahrenheit (10 to 14 degrees Centigrade). It is a misconception that you MUST age wine. Tannin is a substance that comes from the seeds. complex and balanced wine. 3. again. Even the ones which do get better through time will not last nearly as long as their red cousins. Remember that red wines get their color from the stems and skins of the grape. STORING WINE For wines that should be aged. Wide swings in temperature will harm the wine. really "ageable" reds can easily be kept for 30 years and longer 4. Having too high a temperature will age the wine faster so it won't . tannin (which has a bitter flavor) will precipitate out of the wine (becoming sediment in the bottle) and the complexity of the wine's flavor from fruit. 55 degrees Fahrenheit is a good. which are undesirable. On the other hand. It is a preservative and is important to the long term maturing of wine. CELLARING WINE Most people assume that the longer that you keep a wine. perhaps 12 to 18 months). even wines that are "better" if aged. Through time.
About 60 percent is right. Having too low a temperature will slow the wine's maturation. Whatever it is that is causing the odor stands a good chance of getting through the cork and into the wine REFERENCES 1. CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES – R. If the cork dries out. The wine will oxidize if the air (and its oxygen) gets to it.op. Norris Shreve. Brink.net/cgi-bin/doctxt/FAQs/wine . Joseph A. INTERNET. The wine itself will help keep the cork moist.get as complex as it might have. This is another reason to keep the bottles on their sides.www. IV Edition 2. Lack of light.Humidity. it can shrink and let air in. Lack of strong odors.. This helps keep the cork moist. Lack of vibration.
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