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MAE 320 Thermodynamics

HW 5 Assignment
Feb.28, 2011
The homework is due on Friday, March 11, 2011. Each problem is worth the points indicated. I
encourage you to work in small groups to learn this material. However, copying of the solution from
another is not acceptable.
1. Multiple choice (4 points/each)
(1a). Among the following statements regarding the control volume, is invalid
(A) Both the mass and the energy can cross the boundary of a control volume.
(B) Under the steady-flow condition, the volume, the mass and energy contents of a control volume
remain constant.
(C) Under the steady-flow condition, the fluid properties at an inlet or exit remain constant (do not
change with time).
(D) Under the steady-flow condition, the intensive properties must be identical (uniform)
everywhere in a control volume.
(E) Gas turbines, throttling valves, nozzles and diffusers can be treated as the steady-flow control
volume.
(1b). Which one is valid among the following statements regarding heat exchangers?
(A) Heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams are mixed together.
(B) Heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams exchange mass.
(C) Heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams exchange heat without
mixing.
(D) Heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams exchange work without mixing.
(E) None of the above
(1c). Nitrogen at 300 K and 20 kPa is throttled by a valve to a pressure of 10 kPa. If the valve is
adiabatic and the change in kinetic energy is negligible, the temperature of air after throttling will be
(A) 150 K
(B) 300 K
(C) 450 K
(D) 600 K
(E) None of the above
(1d). Which one is valid among the following statements regarding uniform-flow device?
(A) The mass inside the control volume always remains constant with time
(B) The energy inside the control volume always remains constant with time
(C) The fluid properties may change with time or position over the cross section of an inlet or exit.
(D) The fluid flow at any inlet or exit is uniform and steady and the fluid properties do not
change with time or position over the cross section of an inlet or exit.
(E) None of the above
1
(1e). For diffusers, we generally consider
(A)

W
0
(B) ke 0
(C)

Q
>0
(D) pe 0
(E) None of the above
(1f). Steam (H
2
O) flows through a pipe with an inner diameter of 10 cm at a pressure of 200 kPa and
temperature of 300
o
C. The specific flow energy of steam in the pipe is mostly close to is .
(A) 263.3 kJ/kg
(B) 2808.8 kJ/kg
(C) 3072.1 kJ/kg
(D) 3072.1 kJ
(E) None of the above
Steam is superheated vapor at 200 kPa and 300
o
C. From Table A-6, you can calculate the flow
energy pv=h-u=3072.1kJ/kg-2808.8kJ/kg=263.3 kJ/kg
Alternatively, w=Pv=200kPa 1.31623
m3
/kg=263.3 kJ/kg
2
2. Air expands steadily with a mass flow rate of 10 kg/s through a turbine from 5 bar, 900 K to 1 bar,
600 K. The inlet velocity is negligible as compared to the exit velocity of 100 m/s. Heat transfer and
potential energy effects are negligible. Calculate
(a) Power developed by the turbine, in kW.
(b) Cross-section area of the exit, in m
2
.
(16 points)
Analysis (a) There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus
m m m
1 2

. We take the turbine as the
system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this
steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as
The inlet velocity is negligible. Heat transfer and potential energy effects are also negligible.
h
1
(900K)=932.93 kJ/kg and h
2
(600K)=607.02 kJ/kg are obtained from Table A-17
0) pe (since Q

, Hence,
kW s m kg kJ kg kJ s kg
V h h m W
out
3209 ] 1000 / ) / 100 ( 5 . 0 / 02 . 607 / 93 . 932 )[ / 10 (
) 2 / (
2
2
2 2 1

(b) The mass flow rate at the exit:


According to the state equation of ideal gas:
2 2 2
RT P
The gas constant R=0.287 kPa.m
3
/kg.K can be obtained from Table A-1, Hence,
2
3
2 2
2
2
1722 . 0
) 100 )( / 100 (
) 600 )( / 287 . 0 )( / 10 (
m
kPa s m
K K kg m kPa s kg
P V
RT m
A


3
2 2 2 2 2 2
/ v A V A V m

3. Air at 80 kPa and 127


o
C enters an adiabatic diffuser steadily at a flow rate of 6000 kg/h at 230 m/s
and leaves at 100 kPa at 30 m/s. Determine
(a) the exit temperature of air
(b) the exit area of the diffuser
(16 points)
Properties The gas constant of air is 0.287 kPa.m
3
/kg.K (Table A-1). The enthalpy of air at the inlet
temperature of 400 K is h
1
= 400.98 kJ/kg (Table A-17).
Analysis (a) There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus
m m m
1 2

. We take diffuser as the
system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this
steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as


2
0
0) pe W (since /2) V + ( ) 2 / (
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
2 2
2
1 1
V V
h h
Q h m V h m

+
+


,
or,
( ) ( )
kJ/kg 426.98
/s m 1000
kJ/kg 1
2
m/s 230 m/s 30
kJ/kg 400.98
2
2 2
2 2 2
1
2
2
1 2

,
_


V V
h h
From Table A-17,
T
2
= 425.6 K
(b) The specific volume of air at the diffuser exit is
( )( )
( )
/kg m 1.221
kPa 100
K 425.6 K /kg m kPa 0.287
3
3
2
2
2



P
RT
v
From conservation of mass,
2
m 0.0678
m/s 30
) /kg m 1.221 )( kg/s 3600 6000 ( 1
3
2
2
2 2 2
2
V
m
A V A m
v
v

4
P
1
=1MPa
T
1
=500
o
CC
s
=12kg/min
P
2
=1MPa =
s
=12kg/min
T
3
=15
o
CC
w
=?
T
4
=20
o
CC
w
=?
AIR
1
2
4. Steam at 3 MPa and 400
o
C enters an adiabatic nozzle steadily with a velocity of 40 m/s and leaves
at 2.5 MPa at 300 m/s. Determine
(a) the exit temperature
(b) the ratio of the inlet-to-exit area of the nozzle
(16 points)
Properties From the steam tables (Table A-6),
kJ/kg 3231.7
/kg m 0.09938
C 400
MPa 3
1
3
1
1
1

h
T
P
v
Analysis (a) There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus
m m m
1 2

. We take nozzle as the system,
which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this steady-flow
system can be expressed in the rate form as

2
0
0) pe W (since /2) V + ( ) 2 / (
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
2 2
2
1 1
V V
h h
Q h m V h m

+
+


or,
kJ/kg 3187.5
/s m 1000
kJ/kg 1
2
) m/s 0 4 ( ) m/s 300 (
kJ/kg 3231.7
2
2 2
2 2 2
1
2
2
1 2

,
_


V V
h h
Thus,
/kg m 0.11533 kJ/kg 3187.5
MPa 2.5
3
2
2
2
2

v
C 376.6 T
h
P
(b) The ratio of the inlet to exit area is determined from the conservation of mass relation,
6.46
) m/s 40 )( /kg m 0.11533 (
) m/s 300 )( /kg m 0.09938 ( 1 1
3
3
1
2
2
1
2
1
1 1
1
2 2
2
V
V
A
A
V A V A
v
v
v v
5
P
1
=1MPa
T
1
=500
o
CC
s
=12kg/min
P
2
=1MPa =
s
=12kg/min
T
3
=15
o
CC
w
=?
T
4
=20
o
CC
w
=?
Steam
P
2
= 2.5
MPa
V
2
= 300 m/s
P
1
= 3 MPa
T
1
= 400C
V
1
= 40 m/s
5. A condenser (heat exchanger) is designed to condense 12 kg/min of water vapor at 1 MPa and 500
o
C to a saturated liquid at 1 MPa. The cooling water is taken from a local river at an inlet at 15
o
C.
After passing through the condenser, the temperature of the cooling water is restricted by the
environmental code requirement not to exceed 20
o
C. Considering the cooling water is incompressible
liquid, determine the mass flow rate of cooling water taken from the local river.
(14 points)
Solution:
This is a steady-floe device. Heat transfer and work are negligible. The energy balance equation is:
4 3 2 1
h m h m h m h m w s w s

+ +
) ( ) ( ) (
3 4 3 4 2 1
T T C m h h m h h m
w
w w s

From Table A-6, h
1
=3479.1 kJ/kg; From table A-5, h
1
=762.5 kJ/kg
From Table A-3, C
w
=4.2 kJ/kgK
Hence:
min / 3 . 1552
) 15 20 )( / 2 . 4 (
/ ) 5 . 762 1 . 3479 min( / 12
) (
) (
3 4
2 1
kg
C C kg kJ
kg kJ kg
T T C
h h m
m
o o
w
s
w

6
P
1
=1MPa
T
1
=500
o
CC
s
=12kg/min
P
2
=1MPa =
s
=12kg/min
T
3
=15
o
CC
w
=?
T
4
=20
o
CC
w
=?
6. A 0.12 m
3
rigid tank initially contains the saturated liquid-vapor mixture of refrigerant-134a. At the
initial state, 25% of the volume is occupied by the liquid phase and the rest by the vapor phase. The
valve at the bottom of the tank is opened now, and liquid is withdrawn from the
tank at constant pressure of 800 kPa until no liquid remains inside. The valve is
closed when no liquid remains inside and the vapor just start to come out.
Determine the amount of heat transfer during the process (14 points).
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are
changing during the process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since
the state of fluid leaving the device remains constant. 2 Kinetic and potential
energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The direction of
heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of R-134a are (Tables A-11 through A-13)
kJ/kg 95.47
liquid sat.
kPa 800
kJ/kg 246.79
/kg m 0.025621
vapor sat.
kPa 800
kJ/kg 79 . 246 = kJ/kg, 79 . 94
/kg m 0.025621 = /kg, m 0.0008458 kPa 800
kPa 800 @
kPa 800 @ 2
3
kPa 800 @ 2 2
3 3
1


f e
e
g
g
g f
g f
h h
P
u u
P
u u
P
v v
v v
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. Noting
that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal
energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be expressed as
Mass balance:

2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e

Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
+

pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
e e


The initial mass, initial internal energy, and final mass in the tank are

( )( ) ( )( )
kg 684 . 4
/kg m 0.025621
m 2 0.1
kJ 2 . 4229 246.79 3.513 94.79 35.47
kg .98 38 .513 3 .47 35
/kg m 0.025621
m 0.75 0.12
/kg m 0.0008458
m 0.25 0.12
3
3
2
2
1 1 1
3
3
3
3
1

+ +
+

+ +
v
V
v
V
v
V
m
u m u m u m U
m m m
g g f f
g
g
f
f
g f
Then from the mass and energy balances,
kg .30 34 684 . 4 98 . 38
2 1
m m m
e
( )( ) ( )( ) kJ 201.2 + kJ 4229 kJ/kg 246.79 kg 4.684 kJ/kg 95.47 kg 34.30
in
Q
7
R-134a
Sat. vapor
P = 800 kPa
V = 0.12 m
3
Q