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SARASVATI

River
Volume 3

Satellite image of River Sarasvati and the Yamuna tear at Paonta


Doon valley, Siwalik ranges. (NRSO, ISRO, Hyderabad)

Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
Babasaheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti
Bangalore 2003

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SARASVATI: River by S. Kalyanaraman

Copyright Dr. S. Kalyanaraman

Publisher: Baba Saheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti, Bangalore

Price: (India) Rs. 500 ; (Other countries) US $50 .

Copies can be obtained from:

S. Kalyanaraman, 3 Temple Avenue, Srinagar Colony, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600015,


India
email: kalyan97@yahoo.com
Tel. + 91 44 2350557; Fax 4996380

Baba Saheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti,


Yadava Smriti, 55 First Main Road, Seshadripuram, Bangalore 560020, India
Tel. + 91 80 6655238

Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti, Annapurna, 528 C Saniwar Peth, Pune 411030
Tel. +91 020 4490939

Library of Congress cataloguing in publication data

Kalyanaraman, Srinivasan.
Sarasvati/ S. Kalyanaraman

Includes bibliographical references and index


1.River Sarasvati. 2. Indian Civilization. 3. R.gveda

Printed in India at K. Joshi and Co., 1745/2 Sadashivpeth, Near Bikardas Maruti
Temple, Pune 411030, Bharat

ISBN 81-901126-3-0
FIRST PUBLISHED: 2003

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About the Author
Dr. S. Kalyanaraman has a Ph.D. in Public Administration from
the University of the Philippines; his graduate degree from
Annamalai University was in Statistics and Economics. His PhD
dissertation was on development administration, a comparative
study of 6 Asian countries, published as Public Administration in
Asia in 2 volumes.

He was a Senior Executive in the Asian Development Bank,


Manila, Philippines for 18 years from 1978 to 1995 responsible for the world-wide IT
network of the Bank and disbursements on a portfolio of US$60 million for over 600
projects in 29 developing countries of Asia-Pacific region. Prior to joining the Bank, he
was Financial Advisor on the Indian Railways (responsible, as part of a professional
team, for introducing computers on the Railways) and Chief Controller of Accounts,
Karnataka Electricity Board. He took voluntary retirement from the Bank five years'
ahead of schedule and returned to Bharat to devote himself to Sarasvati River
researches and development projects.

He is well-versed in many languages of Bharat: Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Hindi,


Sanskrit. He has compiled a comparative dictionary for 25 ancient Indian languages,
titled Indian Lexicon. He has set up a website on Sarasvati River and Civilization with
over 30,000 files (http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati ); he is the founder of the
yahoogroup, IndianCivilization, which has over 800 members (April 2003). His work,
Sarasvati, was published in 2001 a compendium on the discovery of Vedic River
Sarasvati. The present 7-volume enyclopaedic work on Sarasvati Civilization is a result
of over 20 years of study and research. He is Director, Sarasvati Nadi Shodh Prakalp,
Akhil Bharatiya Itihaasa Sankalana Yojana, Chennai 600015. The Prakalp is engaged
in researches related to Sarasvati Civilization and interlinking of national rivers of
Bharat. He has contributed to many scholarly journals and participated in and made
presentations in a number of national and international conferences including the World
Sanskrit Conference held in Bangalore in 1995. He delivered the Keynote address in
the International Conference of World Association of Vedic Studies, 3rd Conference
held in University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, in July 2002. kalyan97@yahoo.com

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Diacritical marks used

The Kyoto-Harvard convention is NOT used since the intermingling of English words
with Indian language words wll distort the representation of capital letters and is not
easy to read.

The standard diacritical marks are deployed but, instead of ligaturing them on top and
bottom of the alphabet, the diacritical marks FOLLOW immediately after the vowel or
consonant which is modified. For e.g., a_ connotes ‘long a’, n. connotes retroflex N.
After the UNICODE is standardized, the next edition will display the modified codes
for ease of representation on web pages on the internet.

a rut,at e bet d then


a_/ law e_ ate d. dot
a~_ long e~_ bane l. rivalry
/a~ un- /e~ when,whey n. and
i it o obese n- new
i_ bee o_ note r- curl
i~_ been o~_ bone,one r. rug
/i~ in m. mum r.. (zsh)
u you n: king s fuse
u_/ ooze n~ nyet s. shut
u~_ boon h-/k- what s' sugar
/u~ june c change t both
… c. so t. too

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List of languages and abbreviations

The languages of the linguistic area and the abbreviations used are as follows:

A.Assamese L. Lahnda_
Ap.Apabhram.s'a M. Mara_t.hi_
Ash. Ashkun (As.ku~_--Kafiri) Ma.Malayalam
Aw. Awadhi_ Mai.Maiya~_ (Dardic)
B. Bengali (Ban:gla_) Malt.Malto
Bal. Balu_ci_ (Iranian) Ma_lw.Ma_lwa_i_
Bashg. Bashgali_ (Kafiri) Mand.. Mand.a
BCE Before Common Era (BC) Marw.Ma_rwa_r.i_
Bel. Belari Md.Maldivian dialect of Sinhalese
Bhoj. Bhojpuri_ MIA Middle Indo-Aryan
Bi. Biha_ri_ Mj. Munji_ (Iranian)
Br. Bra_hui_ Mth. Maithili_
Brj. Brajbha_s.a_ Mu. Mun.d.a_ri (Munda)
Bshk. Bashkari_k (Dardic) N. Nepa_li
Bur.Burushaski Nahali
CE Common Era (AD) Nin:g. Nin:gala_mi (Dardic)
Chil. Chili_s (Dardic) Nk. Naikr.i (dialect of Kolami = LSI, Bhili of Basim; Naiki
D.. D.uma_ki of Chanda)
Dm. Dame~d.i_ (Kafiri-Dardic) OIA Old Indo-Aryan
G. Gujara_ti_ Or. Or.iya_
Ga. Gadba P. Punja_bi_ (Paja_bi_)
Garh.Gar.hwa_li_ Pa. Parji
Gau. Gauro (Dardic) Pali
Gaw.Gawar-Bati (Dardic) Pah. Paha_r.i_
Gmb. Gambi_ri_ (Kafiri) Pa_Ku. Pa_lu Kur-umba
Go. Gondi Pas'. Pas'ai (Dardic)
Gy. Gypsy or Romani Pe. Pengo
H. Hindi_ Phal. Phalu_r.a (Dardic)
Ir. Irul.a Pkt. Prakrit
K. Ka_s'mi_ri_ S. Sindhi_
Ka. Kannad.a Sant. Santa_li_ (Mun.d.a_)
Kaf. Kafiri Sh. Shina (S.in.a_.Dardic)
Kal. Kalasha (Dardic) Si. Sinhalese
Kand. Kandia (Dardic) Sik. Sikalga_ri_ (Mixed Gypsy Language: LSI xi 167)
Kat.. Kat.a_rqala_ (Dardic) Skt. Sanskrit
Kho. Khowa_r (Dardic) Sv. Savi (Dardic)
Khot. Khotanese (Iranian) Ta.Tamil
Kmd. Ka_mdeshi (Kafiri) Te.Telugu
Ko. Kota Tir.Tira_hi_ (Dardic)
Kod.. Kod.agu (Coorg) To. Toda
Koh. Kohista_ni_ (Dardic) Tor.To_rwa_li_ (Dardic)
Kol. Kolami Tu. Tulu
Kon. Kon:kan.i_ U. Urdu
Kond.a Werch.Werchikwa_r or Wershikwa_r (Yasin dialect of
Kor. Koraga Burushaski)
Kt. Kati or Katei (Kafiri) Wg. Waigali_ or Wai-ala_ (Kafiri)
Ku. Kumauni_ Wkh. Wakhi (Iranian)
Kui Wot..Wot.apu_ri_ (language of Wot.apu_r and
Kurub.Bet.t.a Kuruba Kat.a_rqala_. Dardic)
Kur.Kur.ux (Oraon, Kurukh) WPah. West Paha_r.i
Kuwi

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Abbreviations used for linguistic categories and other languages
Languages, Epigraphs etym. etymology
expr.expression
As'. As'okan inscriptions f./fem. feminine
Austro-as. Austro-asiatic (cf. Munda) fig. figuratively
BHSkt. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit fr. from
(Franklin Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid fut. future
Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, gen. genitive
Newhaven, 1953) hon. honorific
Dard. Dardic id. idem (having the same meaning)
Dhp. Ga_ndha_ri or Northwest Prakrit (as imper.imperative
recorded in the Dharmapada ed. J. incl. including
Brough, Oxford 1962) inf.infinitive
Drav. Dravidian inj.injunctive
IA. Indo-aryan inscr.inscription
IE. Indo-european lex. lexicographical works or Kos'as
Ind. Indo-aryan of India proper excluding lit. literature
Kafiri and Dardic (as classified by R.L. loc. locative
Turner) m. masculine
KharI. Kharos.t.hi_ inscriptions; Middle M Middle
Indo-aryan forms occurring in Corpus metath. metathesis (of)
Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol. II Pt.I, N North
Calcutta, 1929 MIA Middle Indo-aryan Na_ Na_ci Na_t.u usage
NiDoc. Language of 'Kharos.t.hi_ Naut. Nautical
Inscriptions discovered by Sir Aurel Stein nom.nominative
in Chinese Turkestan' edited by A.M. nom.prop. nomen proprium (proper name)
Boyer, E.J. Rapson, and E. Senart num.numeral(s)
Ar.Arabic NWNorth-west
Aram.Aramaic O Old
Arm.Armenian obl. oblique case
Av. Avestan (Iranian) onom.onomatopoeic
E. English p. page
Gk. Greek part. participle
Goth. Gothic pass. passive
Ishk. Ishka_shmi_ (Iranian) perf. perfect
Kurd. Kurdish (Iranian) perh. perhaps
Lat. Latin phonet.phonetically
Lith.Lithuanian pl. plural
OHG. Old High German pp. past participle (passive)
Orm. O_rmur.i_ (Iranian) pres. present
OSlav. Old Slavonic pron. pronoun

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Par. Para_ci_ (Iranian) Pudu. Pudukkottai usage
Pahl. Pahlavi (Iranian) redup. reduplicated
Pers. Persian (Iranian) ref. reference(s)
Port. Portuguese S South
Pr. Prasun (Kafiri) sb./subst.substantive
Psht. Pashto (Iranian) semant. semantically
Tib. Tibetan st. stem
Toch. Tocharian subj. subjunctive
Turk. Turkish syn. synonym
Yid. Yidgha (Iranian) Tinn. Tinnevelly usage
Tj. Tanjore usage
Abbreviations : Grammatical usu. usual(ly)
vais.n..vais.n.ava usage
* hypothetical vb. verb
< (is) derived from viz. videlicet (namely)
> (has) become W West
? doubtful
Xinfluenced by
+ extended by
~ parallel with
acc.accusative
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
aor. aorist
caus. causative
cent. century
cf. confer (compare)
cmpd.compound(ed)
com. commentary, t.i_ka_
conj.conjunction
dat. dative
dist.fr.distinct from
du. dual
E East
e.g. example

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Foreword

I had written a foreword for Dr. Kalyanaraman’s work titled Sarasvati in 2000. As
promised, he has now followed up this work with an additional five volumes to
complete the encyclopaedia on Sarasvati – the river, godess and civilization of
Bha_rata.

It is a privilege indeed to receive the seven volumes titled:

• Sarasvati: Civilization
• Sarasvati: R.gveda
• Sarasvati: River
• Sarasvati: Bharati
• Sarasvati: Technology
• Sarasvati: Language
Sarasvati: Epigraphs

This septet constitutes a fitting homage to Babasaheb (Uma_ka_nt kes’av) Apte,


particularly in the wake of the centenary celebrations planned for 2003 in memory of
this patriot who wanted a presentation of the history of Bha_rata from a Bha_rati_ya
socio-cultural perspective.

The dream of the late Padmashri Vakankar, archaeologist is also partly fulfilled with
the delineation of the peoples’ lives over 5,000 years on the banks of the Rivers
Sarasvati and Sindhu.

The Sarasvati Nadi Shodh Prakalp which is headed by Dr. Kalyanaraman under the
guidance of Shri Haribhau Vaze, All-India Organizing Secretary, Akhila Bharateeya
Itihaasa Sankalana Yojana should be complimented for bringing to successful
completion this important phase of writing of the history of ancient Bha_rata.

The River Sarasvati has not only been established as ground-truth (bhu_mi satyam),
but the vibrant civilization which was nurtured on the banks of this river has been
exquisitely unraveled in the five volumes, covering virtually all aspects of the lives of
the pitr.-s, many of whose a_s’rama-s are venerated even today in many parts of
Bha_rata.

The five volumes provide a framework for understanding the writing system evolved
ca. 5,300 years ago to record the possessions and items traded by metal- and fire-
workers, the bharata-s. The language spoken by the people is also becoming clearer,
with the existence of a linguistic area on the banks of the two rivers – the substrata and
ad-strata lexemes which seem to match the glyphs of inscribed objects are a testimony

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to this discovery. This calls for a paradigm shift in the study of languages of Bha_rata
with particular reference to the essential semantic unity of all the language families,
thanks to intense socio-economic and cultural interactions across the length and breadth
of Bha_rata.

Hopefully, this work should generate many more research studies of this kind to further
study the impact of the civilization on the cultural unity of the nation.

It is also heartening to note that work has started to revive the Rivr Sarasvati and to
interlink the rivers of the country. This will be a garland presented by the children of
the country to Bha_rata Ma_ta_ setting up a network of about 40,000 kms. Of National
Waterways which will complement the Railways system to further strengthen the
infrastructure facilities and to provide a fillip to development projects in all sectors of
the economy.

I understand that Kalyanaraman is now embarking on a project to write the history of


Dharma. I wish him all success in his endeavours.

M.N. Pingley

Kaliyugabda 5105. a_s.a_d.ha, Gurupurnima. July 13, 2003 CE.

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Publisher’s Note
On behalf of Baba Saheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti, it gives me great pleasure to publish
the set of seven volumes of the encyclopaedic work of Dr. S. Kalyanaraman with over 4,000 illustrations
and impressive documentation.

• Sarasvati: Civilization
• Sarasvati: R.gveda
• Sarasvati: River
• Sarasvati: Bharati
• Sarasvati: Technology
• Sarasvati: Language
Sarasvati: Epigraphs

This is a follow-up of the first work titled Sarasvati published in 2000 which focused on the River
Sarasvati. These five additional volumes focus on the language, writing system, technology – archaeo-
metallurgy, in particular, the lives of the people who lived between 3500 to 5300 years ago and the
importance of this legacy and heritage on the history of Bha_rata.

This compendium has been made possible by the contributions made by scientists and scholars of the
country from a variety of disciplines, ranging from geology and glaciology to atomic research and
language studies.

This comprehensive work on Sarasvati thus constitutes a golden chapter in the work of the Akhila
Bharateeya Itihaasa Sankalana Yojana, providing the foundation for future works on subsequent periods
of the history of the nation.

A principal objective of the Baba Saheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti is the authenticated
study of the history of our nation. For this purpose the Akhila Bharatiya Itihaasa Sankalana Yojana
affiliated with the Samiti, has been working with a number of scholars and institutions organizing
seminars and conferences and bringing out publications. The Samiti is a non-profit, voluntary
organization and is entirely supported by volunteers and philanthropists. I wish to thank all the well-
wishers and contributors to the Samiti’s work. In particular, I would like to acknowledge with gratitude
the contribution made by Shri G. Pulla Reddy, Shri Ramadas Kamath, and Basudeo Ramsisaria
Charitable Trust, ICICI, Government of Goa, in enabling this publication. Sincere thanks are due to K.
Joshi and Co., and Dr. C.N. Parchure who have undertaken the supervision of the publication.

Plans have been initiated to start a national center to study the history of vanava_si people, to produce an
encyclopaedia on the Hindu World and to organize research centers in all states of the country, to publish
a series of research volumes on various aspects of the Bharatiya itiha_sa in all languages of Bharat, using
multimedia presentations.

Haribhau Vaze
National Organizing Secretary, Akhil Bharatiya Itihaasa Sankalana Yojana and Trustee, Baba Saheb
(Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti, Bangalore. Kaliyugabda 5105. a_s.a_d.ha, Gurupurnima. July
13, 2003 CE

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Author’s Preface
At the outset, I offer my sincere thanks to Moropant Pingley and Haribhau Vaze for
their encouragement and support in pursuing this endeavour.

What can I say which has not already been said by eminent scientists, scholars and
thinkers of this great nation? All that I can do is to compile their thoughts and present
them as I see fit and as a tribute to the memories of our pitr.-s and ma_tr.-s, our
ancestors who have made us what we are and who have given us the vira_sat
(heritage).

The septet contains the following volumes:

• Sarasvati: Civilization
• Sarasvati: R.gveda
• Sarasvati: River
• Sarasvati: Bharati
• Sarasvati: Technology
• Sarasvati: Language
Sarasvati: Epigraphs

The enduring nature of the culture of the nation has been a source of awe and
inspiration for many generations of scholars.

The lives of the r.s.i-s and muni-s who contributed to the solidity of the Bha_rata
Ra_s.t.ra is a source of inspiration for generations of students of philosophy, politics,
sociology, spiritual studies, economics and culture.

The earlier work, Sarasvati, published in 2000 focused on the life-history of River
Sarasvati. This set of five volumes follow-up on this work to present a comprehensive
survey of the lives of the people who nurtured a vibrant civilization on the banks of
River Sarasvati. They were enterprising people who ventured to the banks of River
Sindhu and beyond and had established a network of interactions which extended as far
as Mesopotamia in the west and Caspian Sea in the north-west.

The River Sarasvati, flowing over 1,600 kms. from Mt. Kailas (Ma_nasarovar glacier)
and tributaries emanating from Har-ki-dun (Svarga_rohin.i or Bandarpunch massifs,
Western Garhwal, Uttaranchal), through Kashmir, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh,
Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujarat made the region lush with vegetation and
provided a highway for interactions extending through the Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of
Khambat, the Persian and Arabian Gulfs. The story of this riverine, maritime
civilization is the story of an enterprising group of people who were wonderstruck by
the bounties of nature and had organized themselves into a cooperating society to

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harness the bounties of nature. The Samudra manthanam imagery wherein the asura-s
and deva-s cooperate in churning the ocean for its riches is an allegory of this quest for
material well-being while strengthening societal bonds.

This march of history is a saga of adventure, a passion for discovery of new materials
and new methods of communication using a writing system and communicating orally
profound thoughts on the cosmic order in relation to humanity.

The next stop is Dharma: a history of Bharatiya Ethos and Thought.

Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
Former Sr. Executive, Asian Development Bank,
Sarasvati Nadi Shodh Prakalp, 5 Temple Avenue, Chennai 600015, India
Kalyan97@yahoo.com

Kaliyugabda 5105. a_s.a_d.ha, Gurupurnima. July 13, 2003 CE

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Table of contents

River Indo-brahm, River Sarasvati of quaternary periods 17


Riverine traditions of Bharat 63
Maritime traditions of Bharat 84
Seafaring artisans of Meluhha 97
Settlements and forts 109
Kot., fortified settlements in Sarasvati Sindhu River Basins 176
Sarasvati Civilization 160
Archaeological Sites 166
Bibliography 194
Index 237
End Notes 242

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River Indo-brahm, River Sarasvati of
quaternary periods
Late Quaternary tectonism in combination with the sudden increase of aridity related aeolian
activitiy disrupted and obliterated the courses of these rivers. As a result, today there exists only the
fragmentary relicts of the disrupted/destroyed rivers,
whose lower courses lie buried beneath the sands of
the Thar desert. On the basis of archaeological
evidences, studies on geological and climatic changes
and recent geo-chronological information, tectonic
changes have been envisaged which began around
7,500 years Before Present and continued righ up to
the 11th/13th century.

"One of the finest descriptions of the various ancient


rivers as mentioned in the Vedas and Sanskrit classics is
due to Bhargava (1964), who gave a comprehensive
account of the geography of Rigvedic India... According
to Bhargava, the present day Chautang is a relict of the
ancient Drishadvati... Sarasvati, perhaps the mightiest of
all the rivers, has been referred to several times in the
R.gveda and Mahabharata. It (lying north of Drishadvati)
is said to join the sea near Prabhasa, situated on the
western coast. In the Mahabharata however it is
mentioned to have disappeared near Vinasana; perhaps
the reference pertains to the relict Sarasvati after it was
disrupted...

"Pandya (1967) has stated that the very name saras-vati


means a river abounding in pools and lakes, explaining as
a result of flow over an irregular gradient, when the flow
got disrupted by earth movements. Interestingly, he has invoked the disappearance of Sarasvati due to
land uplift, around 2000 B.C. when the bed of Sarasvati and the floor of the sea at its confluence were
upraised... [Note: Brahmasar, Jyotisar, Sthanesar, Kalesvar sar in Kurukshetra and Ravatsar, Jagasr,
Dhanasar, Katasar, Datiyasar, Siransar, Pandusar, Vijarasar, Matasar, Batasar, Ranisar in Rajasthan
(Tripathi, 1995)].

LANDSAT composite; synoptic view of the river valleys of Sindhu and Sarasvati
showing the possible course of the Sarasvati beyond Marot through the Nara
into the Rann of Kutch. The Rann is conspicuous because of the high reflectance (white tone) of
the encrustation. (After Yashpal, et al., 1980, Pl. 214 in Lal and Gupta, 1984).

"Yashpal et al (1980)...Using LANDSAT images they stated that the presen dry bed of Ghaggar was that
of the ancient river Sarasvati and flowed westward probably extending through the Hakra/Nara to the
Rann of Kach. They further stated that Sutlej once flowed into the Ghaggar and that Yamuna flowing
westward also debouched into the Ghaggar. Tectonic events were considered to have divered the Sutlej

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westward and the Palaeo-Yamuna southeastward. This tectonism was also responsible for the subsidence
of the middle reaches of the river near Anupgarh causing Ghaggar to disappear...

"Ahmad (1986) has described both the ancient Sutlej and Sarasvati, but his account is rather vague in
respect of their relationship. Unlike most previous workers, he has shown the Eastern Nara to be an
offshoot of the Indus, ad he did not believe that the Shatadru ever flowed through it. The Sutlej according
to him flowed as an independent stream parallel to the Sarasvati. But then he has also suggested the
possibility of the Sutlej being a tributary to the Sarasvati at some point of time. Drishadvati, according to
him, was a major tributary of the Sarasvati and was fed by the Yamuna. Tectonic changes forced the
Yamuna to swing away to the east, beheading the Drishadvati and depriving Sarasvati of its waters
causing it to dry up...

"Valdiya (1996) while discussing the overall drainage change of Indian subcontinent as stated that the
legendary Sarasvai rose in the Great Himalaya and formed by the Shatadru. Whereas the Sarasvati and its
tributaries held sway in the northern part, the Lavanavati (Luni) had an organised drainage network in the
southern part. The Sarasvati was clustered with Harappan settlements dating back to 4600-4500 to 4200-
4100 BP. Around 3700 years BP, there was an upstream migration of these settlements, as the climate
worsened and salinity set in the lakes of Rajasthan. According to him, tectonic movements changed the
course of rivers, beheading them and finally making them disappear. The rise of the Aravalli and
concomitant subsidence of the land to the west deflected a number of rivers of the region, due to which
the Shatadru (Sutlej) joined the Sindhu (Indus) and he Sarasvati was left high and dry...

“However, when we attempt at tracing the former courses of these rivers we encounter difficulties...

"The ancient drainage system is classified into following four main groups:

1. Sindhu (Indus) and its tributaries Vitasa (Jhelum) and Asikni (Chenab).
2. Shatadru (Sutlej) and its two major tributaries Vipas (Beas) and Parasuni (Ravi).
3. Sarasvati and its several tributaries in its upper reaches viz. Markanda, Ghaggar and
Patialewali, and a major tributary in its middle course.
4. Dishadvati with Lavanavati (?) as one of its tributaries. (Sridhar et al. 1999).

Citing the geologists, Pilgrim and Pascoe who call the Sarasvati_ the Siwalik River and Indo-Brahm
River, respectively, Divaprasad Das Gupta notes that the Indo-Brahm river stretched at a time from
Assm to the west of Punjab and fell into a gulf of the Arabian Sea which had its shores on the
boundaries of the Punjab. Geological evidences such as boulder deposits, a particular kind of fossil
deposits alongside the foot of the Himalayas point to the existence of a very large river with big
tributaries. Ganga, Yamuna, Gan.d.aka of today are the outgrowth of these tributaries. Extending
this earthscience perspective, Das Gupta identifies the Indo-Brahm river with the ancient Sarasvati_
and notes that the ancient centers of civilization and places of historical importance, Harappa and
Mohenjodaro were situated by the Sarasvati_ river. The trace of the Indo-Brahm river is lost as the
ancient wide ditch occupied by it has been filled and raised up by the rise of the Himalayas.
(Divaprasad Das Gupta, Identification of the Ancient Sarasvati River, Proceedings and
Transactions of AIOC, 18th Session, Annamalainagar, 1958, p. 535-6).

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Pascoe reconstructed a hypothetical river
which he named “Indro-brahm”. Pilgrim
observed that the Siwalik conglomerates
become more and more massive towards
the northwest but disappear suddenly to
the west of Jammu at the mountain exit of
the Chenab river; from this observation,
he concluded that a big river must have
flowed parallel to the Himalayas as in the
southeast-northwest direction in the
Tertiary period and right upto the
Pleistocene; the river must have then
turned towards the Indus. Another surmise
is that one of the tributaries of Ganges
must have finally cut across the watershed
at the back (or backwards) and must have
diverted the old “Siwalik river” to the Bay
of Bengal. The reorientation of the river network is noticeable from the fact that several Himalayan
tributaries of the Ganges have upper courses flowing in th old westward and northwestward
direction and then turn sharply further below to the south and southeast. The view of both Pascoe
and Pilgrim is that, in the Eocene period, the Brahmaputra was the source river of the Indrobrahm
that flowed between the rising Himalaya and the old Gondwanaland, towards the northwest, the
river flowed into a bay of the Arabian sea which occupied, during the period, the major part of the
Indus lowland. In the Tertiary period, the Indus river was only the short lower course of this
Indobrahm flowing in the direction opposite to the present discharge direction of Brahmaputra and
Ganges. The Siwalik ranges were built up by the rubble masses of this river; the ranges arose only
in the Pleistocene period. This young tectonics in the foothill zone of the Himalayas has led to
convulsive changes in the hydrographic network. The river bed migrations continued right upto the
recent past. (Pascoe, E.H., 1920, The Early History of the Indus, Brahmaputra and Ganges,
Quarterly Journal of Geological Society, LXXV, 1919, pp. 138-157, London; Pilgrim, G.E., 1919,
Suggestions concerning the history of the drainage of Northern India, arising out of a study of the
Siwalik Boulder conglomerate, Journal and Proceedings of Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, N.S., v.
XV, pp. 81-99). Vats notes that the site of Harappa is located six miles south of the present course
of the Ravi river and the migration of the river Ravi might have been the cause for the destruction of
Harappa. “There was nothing to sustain a flourishing city like Harappa after the river had shifted far
away, for it must be remembered that the Dha_ya_ plateau on which the ancient ruins stand was
entirely uncultivated before the construction of the Lower Ba_ri Doab Canal which now bisects.”
(Vats, M.S., 1940, p.7).

Rivers of Vedic India (after A.A. Macdonell, India's Past, Oxford, Clarendon, 1927).

Rigvedic India was an area in the Punjab, an area of the sapta-sindhu (which is called haptahindu in
Vendidad, a handbook of the Parsee, the first of 16 holy ands created by Ahuramazda), bounded
between the Sindhu and the Sarasvati, bounded on the north by the Hima_laya. This is the same area
where Harappan culture was nurtured. India is the only land where the Rigvedic traditions of fire-
worship or yajn~a, are cherished even today, in a remarkable evidence of continuity. Rigvedic
language is more akin to Sanskrit and other Indian languages than it is to any other language family
of Europe.

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Saptathi, seven-streamed

Sarasvati_ is called saptathi_ (RV. VII, 36,6) and saptasvasa_ (RV. VI.61,10). She was a mighty
river which swetp away a ridge of the hills with its mighty waves (RV. VI.61,2) and moved with a
thundering roar (RV. VI.61,8). To Sarasvati_ are devoted one complete hymn (RV. VI,61), parts of
five hymns (RV. I,3; II,41; VII,95; 96; X,17) and several single verses in praise (RV. I,164,49;
VI.52,6; VII,36,6; X.64,9 etc.). "The great king Yaya_ti Na_hus.a ruled on its banks (RV. VII.95,2)
and the dynasty of his son Pu_ru continued to rule over the ancestral kingdom for generations (RV.
VII.96,2). The Tr.tsus also ruled probably on the southern bank of this river and one verse clearly
says that the Tr.tsu king Vadhryas'va got a son Divoda_sa by the favour of Sarasati_ (RV. VI.61,1).
It was on its banks that a very large number of Vedic hymns were composed. That is why the
Sarasvati_ is called the inspirer of good songs and promoter of good thoughts (RV. I.3,11). The
importance of Sarasvati_ was not only political and cultural but also economic and strategic. It is
called the prosperer of the five clans (RV. VI.61,12). It is described as a sure defence like a fort of
iron and the slayer of the enemy (RV. VII.95,1). With such associations it is no wonder that this
river is called holy (s'uci)(RV. VII.95,2), the best of mothers, the best of godesses (RV. II.41,16)
and the dearest among the dear ones (RV. VI.61,10). At the end of a long hymn the poet sums up
the feelings of the A_ryas towards this river by praying to it not to let them go away from her fields
to places not lovely like them. (RV. VI.61,14). ...In one verse of the Rigveda S'aryan.a_vat is
associated with Sus.oma_ river and soma is said to grow there. (RV. VIII.64,11)...S'aryan.a_vat sea
was situated in the northern Saptasindhu. (Bhargava, P.L., India in the Vedic Age, Lucknow, The
Upper India Publishing House, 1971, pp. 62-63).

On the banks of River Somb which is a tributary of River Sarasvati_, there is a place called
Lohargar.h where even today the revenue authorities licence gold-panners to pan for gold from the
river sands. Sarasvati_ was called hiran.yavartani_.

The eastern Hakra had the tributaries of (1) Chautang (Chitrung, as spelt by Oldham), (2) Sarasvati
or Markanda, (3) Ghaggar and (4) Wah or Sonamwal or Sirhind Nadi (this Wah tributary might
have led to the name of Wahind for Ghaggar-Hakra). Ghosh traced the ancient channel of Chautang
along Bhadra and Nohar upto Suratgarh, where Chautang joined Ghaggar. (Today, the Hansi branch
of the Western Yamuna cfanal runs through this palaeo-course). Another river also known as
Chautang running parallel to this Bhadra-Nohar Chautang joins the Sarasvati at the town of Pehoa.
(This course might have passed through the archaeological site of Banawali).

Sarasvati or Markanda joijned the Ghaggar at Rasula, a few kilometers south-east of the small town
of Shatrana. At Shatrana, the width of the palaeo-channel of River Sarasvati is seen to be 20 kms.!
Thanks to the confluence of the anchorage stream of S’utudri (Sutlej) and the trunk stream of
Yamuna (Tamasa) flowing through Bata-divide and through Sarsuti and Markanda!

Most sites are located along the earlier course of the River Sutlej (as the anchorage river of R.
Sarasvati) southwards from Ropar to Shatrana. Geological evidence shows the westward migration
of River Sutlej north-westwards to finally join the River Sindhu. It is significant that there are no
significant sites along the present course of River Sutlej west of Ropar.

The relatively large number of post-urban sites in this region is indicative of the migration from
south to north – i.e. toward the upstream of the Sarasvati River system –0-as the River Sarasvati
started drying up, deprived of the glacier waters which were earlier flowing through tributaries
Sutlej and Yamuna.

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It should be noted, however, that some remarkable artifacts have been discovered in the past from
sites as small as 0.5 ha. Thus, selection of sites for further survey/ excavation work has to be
governed by a number of criteria apart from the size of a site and its location on the banks of a
palaeo-channel.

Concentration of settlements on Sarasvati River Basin

A list of sites which are about 15 ha. in extent and with finds of inscriptions in the River Basins is
short-listed, based on a hypothesis that size of a site is an index of urbanism.

1. This short-list is made out of a total of 2,600 sites of varying sizes,ranging from 0.05 ha. to 15 ha.
(given in GL Possehl, 2000, Indus Age: the beginnings, Delhi, Oxford and IBH, pp. 727 to 845).

2.There is a remarkable clustering of relatively larger-sized site in the districts of Bhatinda and
Bahawalpur.

3. Most of these sites are on the Sarasvati River Basin.


4. Out of 6 sites which measured more than 100 ha., four sites are located on the banks of the River
Sarasvati: Lakhmirwala, Gurnikalan,and Hasanpur (all three in Bhatinda District, Punjab, India) and
Rakhigarhi (Hissar, Haryana, India); these four sites on the SarasvatiRiver Basin and two other
sites, Harappa (Sahiwal) and Mohenjo-daro (Larkana) on the left banks of River Ravi and River
Sindhu (Eastern Nara Canal) -- i.e. the two sites, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are accessible from the
right bank of the River Sarasvati -- are also very close to the Sarasvati River Basin, with access to
the mineral resources of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Badakhshan,Herat, Panjshir (Afghanistan), and
Kirtihar/Salt Ranges:

5. Out of six sites which measured more than 100 ha., four sites are located on the banks of the
River Sarasvati
Lakhmirwala (Bhatinda) [225 ha.
Rakhigarhi (Hissar) [224 ha.]
Gurnikalan One (Bhatinda) [144 ha.]
Harappa (Sahiwal) [100 ha.]
Hasanpur (Bhatinda) [100 ha.]
Mohenjo-daro (Larkana) [100 ha.]

Thus, the three Bhatinda district sites, and sites of Rakhigari, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
can be hypothesised to constitute the commercial hubs of the bronze age civilization.

6. Other sites ranging in size between 40 ha. and 81.5 ha. are as follows:

Ganweriwala (Bahawalpur) [81.5 ha.]


Kotada (Jamnagar) [72 ha.]
Nagoor (Sukkur) [50 ha.]
Nindowari (Jhawalan) [50 ha.]
Tharo Waro Daro (Sukkur) [50 ha.]
Mangli Nichi (Ludhiana) [40 ha.]

7. Other 'urbanised' sites of sizes between 23 ha. and 49 ha. are:

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Baglianda Theh (Bhatinda)
Bare Two (Bhatinda)
Budhel (Bhavnagar)
Butewala (Bahawalpur)
Chambrawala (Bahawalpur)
Chandnewala (Bahawalpur)
Dabar Kot (Loralai)
Daimabad (Ahmednagar)
Dalliwala One (Bhatinda)
Dalliwal Two (Bhatinda)
Datrana Eight (Banaskantha)
Derawar Ther (Bahawalur)
Devalio (Surendranagar)
Develiwala (Bahawalpur)
Dhalewan (Bhatinda)
Dholavira (Kutch)
Hirke (Bhatinda)
Judeijo-daro (Kachi)
Karanpura (Bhatinda)
Kudwala The (Bahawalpur)
Lathwala (Bahawalpur)
Lunida One (Bahawalpur)
Musafarwali (Bahawalpur)
Naru Waro (Khairpur)
Sihnewali (Bhatinda)

Could the site Sinewali (Dist. Bhatinda) be relatable to Sini_vali_of the R.gveda?

Harappan sites in North-West India, lakes in Rajasthan and the ancient river courses (After
V.N.Misra, 1984, Climate, a factor in the rise and fall of the Indus Civilization—Evidence from
Rajasthan and Beyond, in: B.B.Lal and S.P. Gupta, eds., Fronters of the Indus Civilization, Fig.
48.5; also: V.N.Misra, 1994, Indus Civilization and the Rgvedic Sarasvati_, pp. 511-525, in: South
Asian Archaeology 1993, Helsinki).

Distribution of Harappan Sites in NW India

State Early Mature Late Total


Harappan Harappan Harappan
Haryana 103 44 297 323
Punjab 26 37 129 147
Rajasthan 8 28 ... 29
Chandigarh 4 4
Himachal Pradesh 3 3
Delhi 1 1
Jammu 1 1

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Uttar Pradesh 31 132 133
Gujarat 110 130 230

Note: Some sites were occupied during more than one period. 46 sites in Sikar District in the
Aravalli Hills (Rajasthan) are excluded, which relate to the Ganeshwar culture, a variant of
Harappan culture.

The number of sites of Early Harappan culture on the Indus river is very small: Balakot, Amri, Kot
Diji and Mohenjodaro in Sind; Jalilpur, Harappa, Gumla, Sarai Khola in Punjab. Juxtaposed to this
distribution, the number of sites along the dry bed of the Hakra-Ghaggar is very dence. In 1981, 41
sites were identified on the Hakra in the Cholistan desert and over 60 sites were marked on the
Ghaggar and its tributaries in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. Thus, the early settlements were
dominantly on the Sarasvati river basin. The Ganeshwar metal cultures were also perhaps
contemporary to this early Harappan phase. The total number of settlements increases significantly
in the Mature Harappan cultural phase: Hakra valley, 166 sites; Gujarat, 18 sites; Indus valley, 16
sites; Haryana, 24 sites; Punjab, 34 sites. The distributio of sites of the Late Harappan phase: Hakra
valley, the sites decline to 72; Gujarat, the sites increase to 95; Haryana, the sites increase to 30;
Punjab, the sites increase to 85; suddenly 66 sites emerge in the Yamuna-Ganga doab while no site
of the Mature Harappan phase existed in this region. There is a pronounced shift to the upper
courses of the Ghaggar and Sutlej indicating a clear migratory path from the lower reaches of
Sindhu to the upper reaches of the Saravati and from the middle and lower reaches of the Sarasvati
and Rann of Kutch, to the hinterland of Saurashtra.

A compilation made in 1984 presents a picture comparable to the above analysis (Joshi, J.P., Madhu
Bala, and Jas Ram, 1984, The Indus Civilization: a reconsideration on the basis of distribution maps
in: B.B.Lal and S.P. Gupta, eds., Fronters of the Indus Civilization, New Delhi, Books and Books,
pp. 511-539):

Distribution of sites in States along the Sarasvati River Valley

Early Harappan (ca. 2500-2200 BC)


Punjab 23
Haryana 103
Rajasthan 8
Total 134

Harappan (ca. 2200-1700 BC)


Punjab 32
Haryana 44
Rajasthan 24
Total 104

Late Harappan (ca. 1700-1000 BC)


Punjab 102
Haryana 297
Total 399

Note: The date for Early Harappan has been pushed back to ca. 3500 BC thanks to the excavations
by Kenoyer and Meadow at Harappa in February 1999. Late Harappan is a dedvolutionary stage of
the Civilization with a number of regional, variations; but, common heritage is shared, for e.g., a

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few inscribed seals and sealinga or potsherds, faience, agate and carnelian beads and bangles, a few
terracotta cakes, balls and bangles, copper-bronze objects; sites were on small rivers, monumental
structures had yielded to mud-brick or mud houses in small sites of 1 to 2 hectares.

It is seen from this North-West India map that no Harappan archaeological sites are located in the
arid belt of Rajasthan, near the salt-water lakes. Most of the sites are clustered around river banks.
This map has been prepared taking into account the distribution of over 800 sites of various
Harappan phases based on Jansen’s analysis. (Jansen, M., 1980, Settlement Patterns in the Harappa
Culture, in: South Asian Archaeology, H. Hartel ed., 251-269, Berlin: dietrich Reimer Verlag). Out
of these 800 settlements, over 530 settlements are located on the Hakra-Ghaggar (Sarasvati) system.
Adding 200 Harappan sites of the Kutch-Saurashtra region and 70 late Harappan sites of the
Yamuna valley in Uttar Pradesh (mainly Saharanpur district), only about 100 sites are seen located
on the Indus Valley proper and in Baluchistan.

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Early and mature Harappan settlements in Cholistan – Hakra sector of Sarasvati River:
Ganweriwala. [After Mughal, 1974].

Density of settlements
in Siwalik foothills,
upper reaches of River
Sarasvati. This denotes
upstream migration.
Note: absence of
settlements west of
Ropar on Sutlej. [After
Joshi and Bisht, 1994].

Archaeological
settlements in Kutch
and Saura_s.t.ra.
Recent finds of two
sunken E-W flowing
rivers in Gulf of
Khambat point to the
possibility that there was
an uplift of Saura_s.t.ra
due to tectonics.
Sarasvati could have flown west of

Lothal to Prabha_s (Somnath). [After


Joshi and Bisht, 1994].

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Relatively large-sized sites in Bhatinda District (Size in ha. shown in middle column):

Alida Theh Dalliwala Two 25 Lakhmirwala 225


Alike 4 Danewala One 4 Lalianwali 4
Alipur Mandran Danewala Two 4 Lalu Wala 4
Baglianda Theh 30 Dhalewan 40 Nahriwala 16
Bare Gurnikalan One 144 Naiwala Theh 16
Bare Two 25 Gurnikalan Two 16 Nehriwala Theh
Bhikhi 9 Hasanpur Two 100 Sahnewali
Chhoti Mansa 9 Hirke 25 Sihnewali 25
Dalliwala One 25 Karanpura 25 ---

11m. thick sediments in


Sarasvati River Basin.
Himalayan-derived sediments
– 10,500 to 12,500 years
Before Present -- occur in the
Ghaggar (Sarasvati) channel
upstream of Sirsa/ Kalibangan
(Courty, 1995). These sediments
are similar to that of Yamuna
implying connection of Sarasvati
and Yamuna (Raikes, 1968) Clay
deposits in upper part of the
succession of sediments (terminal
phase of Sarasvati) denote lake
formation by the river (After
Singhvi and Kar, 1992).
Preparing an atlas of the major
sites on the banks of River
Sarasvati

Many scientists have drawn maps detailing the changes in the courses of rivers over the last 5
millennia. Some of these maps are attached, in broad outline.

The recent advances in satellite imaging and analyses have rendered it possible to delineate the
palaeo-channels of rivers and tectonic fault lines which can be matched with the locations of the
archaeological sites identified in the attached table.

The first step is to map these palaeo-channels tentatively (subject to further detailed ground
geomorphological studies, and test tube well drillings, following the precedent of the Sarasvati
Project successfully undertaken by the Central Ground Water Authority in Rajasthan region of the
Sarasvati River Basin using IRS 1-C and 1-D satellite images) on a 1: 50,000 scale and plot the
archaeological sites on this map.

For this purpose, the assistance of Regional Remote Sensing Services Centre, Jodhpur and ISRO,
Ahmedabad, may be obtained considering that they have built up consideratble expertise in remote
sensing applications for water management and location of archaeological sites.

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Selection of sites has to be governed by a number of criteria which have to be determined by the
experts. Some criteria may include: cultural markers such as bathing ghats at Pehowa,
Brahmasarovar; a_s’rama-s of r.s.i-s in whose memory cultural events are held; the archaeological
typology of sites using categories such as pottery types (OCP, NBP, Kot Diji, Sothi-Siswal, PGW,
Copper Hoard) which provide a scientific basis for preliminary outlines of relative chronologies of
and inter-relationships among sites, types of artifacts found during the preliminary surveys such as
those undertaken by Aurel Stein, Majumdar, Ghosh, Dikshit in earlier years.

Culture and Tourist Promotion: celebrating Sarasvati Vira_sat (Heritage)

The River basin abounds in pilgrimage sites and archaeological sites. Both can be further developed
as culture and tourist promotion sites.

Pakistan has embarked on Desert tourism in Cholistan (western part of Marusthali or Great Indian
Desert).

Bharat can embark on river-based tourism promotion projects as the projects unravel to ensure the
flow of waters through the river channels and navigability of channels. The Rajasthan Nahar was
originally intended to be a navigable channel; but has been implemented only as a water distribution
channel. A redesign of the Nahar as a navigable channel will help promote a water-way based
tourism in NW Bharat.

For this purpose, coordination with National Water Development Agency, Ministry of Water
Resources and National Highways Authority of India, Ministry of Transport, Govt. of India will be
most helpful and essential. There is also a critical need to improve the drainage system in
NorthWest India to compensate for the situation created by th4e desiccation of the Vedic River
Sarasvati due to tectonic reasons and resultant river migrations. NWDA has drawn up a perspective
plan for revival of River Sarasvati by linking the Sutlej river waters with Sarada river waters and
extending the Rajasthan Nahar upto Sabarmati in Gujarat. The implementation of this Himalayan-
Peninsular River link will have to be coordinated with the National Highways project to coordinate
the work related to environmental impact analyses, land acquisition and to arbitrate on disputes as
they arise. Such coordination will make for cost-effective and timely implemetation of National
Waterways projects in the Sarasvati River Basin.

There are pilgrimage sites which are visited by millions of pilgrims, for example, Brahmasarovar,
Kapalamochan, Thanesar, Pehowa and many other cultural sites. Archaeological museums can be
further improved with well-trained tour guides in sites such as Ropar, Rakhigarhi, Banawali, Kunal,
Bhatinda, Bhatner, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Surkotada,Lothal, Rangapura, Rojdi, Somnath, Dwaraka.

A Sarasvati Museum may be set up at a suitable location together with a Sound and Light (Son et
Lumiere) show on Vedic cultural heritage and a_gama traditions.

Annual melas are held on Ma_gha Shukla Panchami; this day is celebrated as the Sarasvati Nadi
Janma Divas. Facilities have to be provided to tourists who participate in such melas in the Sarasvati
River Basin and in all other parts of the country.

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Tirthasthanas on Sarasvati River

An event unparalleled in the history of human civilization is taking shape in Bharat, an event which
should make every Indian feel proud not only of our ancient heritage but also demonstrate to the
world the technological capabilities of India in taking on the extraordinary challenge of reviving a
mighty Himalayan River which nurtured the civilization of Bharat for thousands of years. As the
river gets revived to benefit over 200 million people in NW India, India will awaken to the
imperative of ensuring water security for developing India to greater heights in all fields of human
endeavour. This should provide for re-discovering the tirthasthanas on Sarasvati River.

Projects are ongoing which will have a long-term beneficial impact on major parts of North West
India and revive memories of over 5,000 years ago, by reviving the mighty Sarasvati River. A
mighty perennial river which had nurtured an ancient civilization which has given us the Vedas, had
been desiccated due to tectonic causes, river migrations and aeolean activity (aandhi phenomenon).
This is an unparalleled event in the history of human civilization. Today technological means are
available to revive this sacred river and to make the legacy of Sarasvati meaningful not only to
entire Bharat but to the whole world. The project to revive Sarasvati River will be a superb project,
of international significance.

Three projects to revive the legendary Sarasvati River were inaugurated during the the early years of
the 21st century CE.

• One project is to link re-activate the ancient channels of the river from Adh
Badri (Yamunanagar Dist.) to Pehoa (referred to as Pruthudaka in the Great
Indian Epic, Mahaabhaarata)

• The second project to provide a piped feeder from the Bhakra Main canal to
Pehoa, using the perennial waters of the Sutlej emanating from the
Mansarovar glacier in Mt. Kailash. 50% of the cost is financed by a private
philanthropist.The river channel from Adh Badri to Pehoa is mentioned as
Sarasvati Nadi on the Survey of India topo-sheets. This project is financed by
the World Bank as part of the package of $139 million US Dollars for
rejuvenation of the water systems of North West India. The re-activation of
this section will keep the river flowing all 365 days of the year upto Pehoa and
beyond. Pehoa has the ancient Vasishtha ashram where the Sarasvati River
becomes east-flowing and Sarasvati Ghats where homage to ancestors (pitru
tarpan.a) is offered by pilgrims. The ghats are more ancient than the
pilgrimage ghats in Varanasi on the Ganga River. This pilgrimage site was
also visited by Balarama during his pilgrimage from Dwaraka to Mathura
along the course of the Sarasvati River which is described in the shalya
parvam of the Great Indian Epic.

• The third project is to map the ancient drainage system of the Sarasvati River
and identify groundwater aquifers and sanctuaries, over a stretch of 1600 kms.
from Bandarpunch massif in Western Garhwal (Har-ki-dun glacier) to the
Arabian Sea near Somnath (Prabhas Patan, Gujarat) using the remote sensing
application centre in Jodhpur, Rajasthan and tritium analysis by atomic scients

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in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre This is a pre-requisite for re-designing the
drainage system of NW India to benefit over 200 million people of the River
Basin.

Sarasvati-Sindhu Research Centre, Chennai A number of organizations are involved in the


(Kalyanaraman) has established in a technical research and project work:National Remote
monograph (by Dr. K. R. Srinivasan, ex- Sensing Agency, Geological Society of India,
Director, Central Ground Water Board) that the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Central Water
central Sarasvati River basin in Rajasthan alone Commission, State Water Resources Agencies,
can support one million tube wells on a Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Central
sustainable basis with recharge principally from Arid Zone Forest Research Institute, Indian
the Rajasthan canal. Itihaas Darpan (April Space Research Organization. Satellite images
1998) has brought out a special issue on from LANDSAT, EOSAT, IRS -A to -D have
been put to extensive use in the research
Sarasvati river.
studies.
In the central Sarasvati River Basin, in
Rajasthan alone, it is feasible to have one Many challenges lie ahead in completing the
million sustainable tube wells, using the rejuvenation of the Sarasvati River Basin from
groundwater sanctuaries, the legacy of the Har-ki-dun glacier in W. Garhwal upto
Sarasvati River and the waters of the Sutlej Somnath, Gujarat stretched over four ecological
through redesigned Rajasthan Canal and NW zones: receding Himalayan glaciers, Siwalik
India drainage systems. Development activities: foothills, semi-arid Marusthali and marshy
Ground water management/Land-use systems; Rann of Kutch and Saurashtra. The ambitious
NW India Drainage System; improvements to project profile includes: a comprehensive
sub-surface drainage (antah salila_ sarasvati_: design of the NW India Drainage System and
there are many groundwater sanctuaries and review of land-use patterns and afforestation
aquifers); afforestation, growing crops such as programmes (including growing of
salicornia brachiata (edible oil seeds), halophytes—salt-resistant cash crops such as
almonds, olives, avoiding crops such as rice, Salicornia brachiata), action to stop the
wheat or sugar-cane to avoid use of surface receding glaciers in Uttar Pradesh (W.
water (to eliminate evapotranspiration); use of Garhwal) and Himachal Pradesh, resolving
solar- and wind-power. water-logging problems in Haryana and Punjab,
recharging of the groundwater resources in
The participation of the scientific community in Rajasthan and Kutch by extending the
the studies is highlighted by the publication Rajasthan Canal beyond Jodhpur, using the
(Feb. 1999) by Geological Society of a book waters of the Rajasthan Canal (which draws the
titled Vedic Sarasvati describing the waters from the perennial source of Sutlej –
palaeodrainage system of North West India. Manasarovar)—to recharge the groundwater
resources, provision of additional wells in the
entire Basin, use of solar and wind-power to
power the pumpsets for tubewells, and,
improvement of subsurface drainage system in
the entire Sarasvati River Basin. Conjunctive
development of watershed projects in Rajasthan
and Gujarat using the groundwater resources
and recharge facilities using perennial surface
waters will be essential to evolve changes in the
land-use patterns in the region and to provide
the basic need of drinking water facilities in the

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semi-arid and marshy ecological zones of “It is proposed to complete the feasibility reports
Bharat.. of the remaining Peninsular and Himalayan
Rivers Components in a period of about 5 and 10
To effectively regulate the implementation, in years respectively. Implementation of the
an integrated manner, of the range of projects in interbasin water transfer link schemes can be
complex ecological zones and some zones taken up in a phased manner depending on the
subject to tectonic disturbances, it is essential to priorities of the Govt. ad availability of funds. But
constitute a Sarasvati River Basin Authority. before this, certain other steps, viz. negotiations
and agreements amongst the states involved in
interbasin transfer, preparation of Detailed Project
National Water Grid
Reports (DPRs), Techno-economic appraisal of
DPRs and investment clearance of the schemes,
Excerpts from: National Water Development funding arrangements and fixing agencies for
Agency, Government of India, 2000, Inter- execution etc. would be necessary…
basin water transfer proposals, New Delhi.
“The National Water Policy adopted by the
This document describes the status of the project Government of India in September 1987…It
investigations by the Agency which was set up in states: ‘Water should be made available to water
1982 for this purpose. Since over 20 years’ short areas by transfer from other areas including
development work has successfully proved the transfers from one river basin to another based on
feasibility of the project, it is suggested that National Perspective after taking into account
implementing agencies be constituted to start with requirements of the areas/basins.’
the implementation of components as announced
by the Minister for Water Resources in the “Himalayan Rivers Development
Parliament on 11 May 2000. The total estimate
kms. of river links and canals will exceed 5000 “Himalayan Rivers Development envisages
kms. of waterways. In addition to this many minor construction of storage reservoirs on the principal
irrigation works and storage facilities will be tributaries of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in
constructed in ALL states of the country as part of India, Nepal and Bhutan, along with inter-linking
the plan since the links cover virtually ALL states canal systems to transfer surplus flows of the
of Bharat. eastern tributaries of the Ganga to the west, apart
from linking of the main Brahmaputra and its
Two maps prepared by NWDA in August 2000 tributaries with the Ganga and Ganga with
are attached: 1. Links envisaged as per National Mahanadi.
Perspective Plan which clearly show that
Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and West Coast basins “The Himalayn component would provide
are water-surplus areas; 2. Proposed Interbasin additional irrigation of about 22 million hectare
water transfer links which include 14 Himalayan and generation of about 30 million MW of
components and 16 Peninsular components. hydropower, besides providing substantial flood
control in the Ganga and Brahmaputra basins. It
It is suggested that the project implementation would also provide the necessary discharge for
does not have to await the completion of augmentation of flows at Farakka required
feasibility studies for ALL links; the work can interalia to flush the Calcutta Port and the inland
begin NOW in stages by designating a project navigation facilities across the Country.
implementing agency and appropriate
arrangements for sourcing of funds outside the “Peninsular Rivers Development
government budgets through peoples’
participation (as was done for the Konkan The Peninsular component is expected to provide
Railway project). additional irrigation of about 13 million hectare
and is expected to generate about 4 million KW of
power.

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“This component is divided into four major parts: diversion of other west flowing rivers

interlinking of Mahaadi-Godavari-Krishna- Heavy rainfall on the western side of the ‘Western


Cauvery rivers and building storages at Ghats’ runs down numerous streams which empty
potential sites in these basins into the Arabian Sea. Construction of an
interlinking canal system backed up by adequate
This is the major interlinking of the river systems storages could be planned to meet all
where surpluses from the Mahanadi and Godavari requirements of keral as also for transfer of some
are intended to be transferred to the needy areas in waters towards east to meet the needs of drought
the south. affected areas.

interlinking of west flowing rivers, north of Benefits


Bombay and south of Tapi
“The National Water Development Plan would
This scheme envisages construction of as many provide additional irrigation benefits of 35 million
optimal storages as possible on these streams and hectare i.e. 25 million hectare from surface waters
interlinking them to make available appreciable and 10 million hectare by increased use of ground
quantum of water for transfer to areas where waters over and above the ultimate irrigation
additional water is needed. The scheme provides potential of 140 million hectare from Major,
for taking water supply canal to the metropolitan Medium and Minor projects and generation of 34
areas of Bombay; it also provides irrigation to the million KW of power, apart from the benefits of
coastal areas in Maharashtra. flood control, navigation, water supply, fisheries,
salinity and pollution control etc.”
interlinking of Ken-Chambal rivers

The scheme provides for a water grid for Madhya


Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and interlinking canal
backed by as many storages as possible.

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Riverine traditions of Bharat
River run-offs and water Management

Sarasvati and Sindhu rivers, together with the long coastline of Bharat have been waterways for
long-distance contacts established by the people of Sarasvati Civilization. The contacts established
involved travel on boats across the Persian Gulf to travel further upstream into the Tigris-Euphrates
river valleys in Mesopotamia.i

The river run-offs also provided a technological challenge to manage the waters to create irrigation
structures for soil management and for organized farming. Rishi Gritsamada in Rigveda adores
River Sarasvati in ecstatic terms as: ambitame, naditame, devitame Sarasvati (best of mothers, best
of river and best of divinities). River Sarasvati was a great mother, because she nurtured a
civilization on the river banks.

The history of science and technology in Bharat is replete with examples of the use of scientific
water management techniques and the setting up water grid to support a regulated irrigation system
and flood control mechanisms. Aapah, sacred waters have united the nation for millennia and
Manasarovar, Mount Kailas has always been the cultural capital of Bharat.

A profile of a Gabarband, on river Hab.

With this Bharatiya tradition, we can confidently move


forward with the programme for creating a National
Water Grid and use of water harvesting and
conservation procedures to ensure optimum utilization
of the country’s water resource and to ensure the
equitable distribution of the resource to all parts of the
country and as a corollary, mitigate the recurrent
phenomena of twin problems of flooding in some parts
and of drought situations in other parts. Such a national
perspective in managing the water resource will help
achieve the target of doubling of agricultural production
in the next 5 years to cope with the anticipated growth
in population. The National Water Grid project by itself
has the potential of taking Bharat into a developed
country status by the year 2010.

Irrigation in the Sarasvati Civilization period

At Mehergarh Period II (Burj Basket Market period): "The charred seeds of wheat and barley
belonging to the species triticum sphaerococcum and hordeum phaerococcum that, according to L.
Costantini, grow only on irrigated fields, also were collected from the ashy layers" of P:eriod II
(Jarrige, Jarrige, Meadow and Quivron, 1995, Mehrgarh: Field Reports 1974-1985, from Neolithic
times to the Indus Civilization, Karachi, Department of Culture and Tourism of Sindh, Pakistan,
Department of Archaeology and Museums, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, pp. 318-19)."

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An irrigation system used involved bunding including the construction of a low earthen or stone
wall, known as kach or gabarband. There are many gabarbands in Sindh Kohistan, Kirthar area and
Baluchistan (Gedrosia). Gabarband means a 'Zoroastrian dam' because gabars are Zoroastrians or
fire-worshippers. Gabarbands, as shown in the figure, are L-shaped, were used to slow down the
flow of water in a stream, and to direct the flood waters and to allow the build up of alluvium
behind the structures. Louis Flam (1981, The Palaeogeography and prehistoric settlement patterns
in Sind, Pakistan, (4000-2000 BC), PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania) notes that the
gabarband began in the Amri-Nal phase in the first half of 3rd millennium BCE. The gabarbands
ensured the conservation of soil and created an agricultural field with alluvial soil.

The kallanai or Grand Anicut on River Kaveri is patterned like a gabarband.

Rajendra Chola (1014-1044). He was victorious upto the banks of River Ganga. Gangaikonda
Cholapuram is the name of the place, 61 kms. from Tiruchirapalli, where he built a temple for
Brihadees’vara to commemorate his victories. Gangaikonda Cholapuram means, ‘the city of the
Chola who took the Ganga’.

After his victorious campaign, he did not ask for tribute of


land or gold or riches; he asked for and brought back,
water from the river 'Ganga' in a golden pot, and sanctified
the reservoir or the temple tank called 'Ponneri or
Cholaganga'. Thus he was given the title of
'Gangaikondan'(the one who brought the Ganga).

North of Gangaikonda Cholapuram is the Grand Anicut (or


Kallanai) – 24 kms. from Tiruchirapalli -- built of stone in the second century AD by King
Karikaala Chola.

L-shaped Kallanai or Grand Anicut on River Kaveri

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th
Chola king of 11 century, who brought sacred Ganga waters to the temple tank,
Cholaganga at Gangaikonda Cholapuram. A frieze in the temple depicts King Rajendra being
crowned by Somaskanda S’iva accompanied by Parvati. The serpent adorning the neck of S’iva
becomes the crown.

Chola king who built 2000 years ago, the world’s earliest water-regulator structure in
stone at Kallanai (Grand Anicut)

Gangaikonda
Cholapuram.
Brihadees’vara
th
temple (11
century)

This is the oldest


stone water-
diversion or water-
regulator structure in
the world. The L-
shaped structure, 329
m. long and 60 m. wide was intended to regulate the flow of Kaveri river waters to the northern
parts of Tamilnadu, towards Kolladam, to bring more land of the Kaveri delta under irrigation
channels. The L-shaped structure is comparable to the ‘gabar bands’ (dated to circa 5000 years
before present) which were used to fork out the water flows on the River Sindhu to provide for
regulated water supply to the settlements; the ‘gabar bands’ perhaps constitute the earliest water-
regulator systems in the world. At an archaeological settlement of Kalibangan on the banks of River
Sarasvati (tributary, Drishadvati), a ploughed-field was also discovered attesting to the early
agricultural systems of the civilization, using the waters drawn from the River Sarasvati. It is
notable that Rishi Gritsamada talks eloquently about Sarasvati as ambitame, naditame, devitame
Sarasvati, i.e. best of mothers, best of rivers and best of divinities. She was indeed a mother because
she nurtured a civilization on her river banks and gave raise to new technologies related to material
phenomena harnessed with due regard to the ecological system.

The water-regulator has stood the test of time. This 2,000 year old water-regulator stands firm even
today and is considered an engineering marvel. Similar water management structures have been
found in Southern Africa and it is surmised that these were built by the descendants of the people
who constructed the Kallanai. The stone structure is still in use and a road bridge has been built on
top where visitors can drive through or walk along. Another dam called the Upper Anicut, which is
685 m long, was constructed across the river Kollidam (Coleroon), the branch of River Kaveri, in
the 19th century.

Kallanai was built to harness the waters of River Kaveri in times of drought. Before this dam was
built, the waters were flowing directly into the sea. The ancient engineers of Bharat have created
irrigation system with innumerable interconnected small resevoirs with networks of irrigation
channels. This system nassured supply of water even in the summer season and avoided
devastations caused when the rivers were in spate.

Legacy of water-management of Sarasvati Civilization (circa 5300 years before present)

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Inner layout of the North Gate, Dholavira http://asi.nic.in/album_dholavira2.html
(Archaeological Survey of India website) Dholavira is an archaeological site of the civilization in
the Rann of Kutch (Gujarat). This site revealed the most remarkable water management systems,
which are perhaps the
earliest systems of
their kind in the
world, dated to about
5300 years before
present.

Dholavira. Huge
reservoir.

Dholavira. Covered
storm-water drain.

Dholavira. Broadway
and the drain outlet.

The photographs depict the top-view and the inside of a stone-lined


water drain to carry water into the street.

Dholavira. Rock-cut reservoirs.

A remarkable find at Dholavira excavation was a unique water-


harnessing system, together with a storm-water drain. A 7-metre
deep rock-cut reservoir with a confirmed length of 79 metres was a
significant discovery. This is an awesome structure because it has
been cut through rock, together with a storage tank and 50 stone-
steps. Another, equally deep reservoir of fine stone masonry was
also found. The reservoirs skirted around the metropolis which was
fortified with stone-walls while the citadel and baths were centrally
located on raised ground.
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Giant reservoirs at Dholavira (the largest measuring 263 feet by 39 feet and 24 feet in
depth) that together held more than 325,000 cubic yards of water.
http://www.archaeology.org/0011/newsbriefs/aqua.html
http://asi.nic.in/album_dholavira9.html

Dholavira. Well and other water structures.


Dholavira. Bathing tank.
http://asi.nic.in/album_dholavira4.html

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A large well was discovered, equipped with a stone-cut trough to connect the drain meant for
conducting water to a storage tank. Circular structures
found at the site, conjoining like the figure eight are
surmised to be used for bathing. Most notable is a
bathing tank with steps descending inwards. Water
from the nearby streams were harnessed and gathered
into a reservoir and further moved to charge the dug
wells which supplied water to parts of the metropolis.

Dholavira, fort, north-gate

These structures for effective water conservation and irrigation management are exemplified by the
pushkarini in Mohenjodaro. The pushkarini is not unlike the Chola Ganga tank in front of the
Brihadis'vara temple in Gangaikonda Cholapuram and many such pushkarinis in front of many
temple all over Bharat.

Mohenjodaro Pushkarini with steps


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The floor of the tank is water tight due to finely fitted bricks laid on edge with
gypsum plaster and the side walls were constructed in a similar manner. To
make the tank even more water tight, a thick layer of bitumen (natural tar)
was laid along the sides of the tank and presumably also beneath the floor.
Brick colonnades were discovered on the eastern, northern and southern
edges. The preserved columns have stepped edges that may have held
wooden screens or window frames. Two large doors lead into the complex
from the south and other access was from the north and east. A series of
rooms are located along the eastern edge of the building and in one room is a
well that may have supplied some of the water needed to fill the tank.

A brick-lined drain. Mohenjodaro

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Maritime traditions of Bharat

Terracotta toy boat with a shallow draught, high prow, flat stern. Harappa. Similar boats
are used even today on the Sindhu river. (After JM Kenoyer/Courtesy Dept. of Archaeology and
Museums, Govt. of Pakistan).

Bullock cart with solid wheel and boat with high prow in use today on the River Sindhu.
(After JM Kenoyer/Courtesy Dept. of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Pakistan).

Boats like these could have plied not only on the Sindhu and Sarasvati rivers but also along the
coastline of the Gulf of Khambat, Gulf of Kutch and the Persian Gulf and upstream on Tigris-
Euphrates rivers. The rivers and the long coastlines thus constituted veritable water-ways for
creating the most expansive civilization of the times for two millennia between 3500 to 1500 BCE.
Bas relief of the 12th-century temple of Angkor Wat, Cambodia.

This is emphatic evidence that even in the days of the Rigveda (ca. 5000 to 7000 years Before
Present), River Sarasvati had attained the status of a divinity and was venerated as an apri devata in
the yajn~a-s. She was adored because she nurtured a civilization on her banks and saw the

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emergence of new arts and crafts, a bronze-age civilization and a writing system to transport
artefacts made by artisans across large distances in a maritime, riverine cultural setting.

This is exemplified by the Amri-Nal phase of the civilization along the coastline of Gulf of
Khambat, Gulf of Kutch and Makran Coast. The s'ankha (turbinella pyrum) industry which was in
vogue in 6500 BCE continues even today in Kizhakkarai, Tiruchendur in Gulf of Mannar. A
valampuri s'ankha is priced at Rs. 25,000 and there is an office of the West Bengal Development
Corporation which buys the s'ankha picked up from the shallow coastls; an average s'ankha is priced
at Rs. 10 and the s'anha kris'aana works on the s'ankha to produce bangles, conch-trumpets and
oblation vessels. The s'ankha adorns the hands of Narayana and Bhairava symbolising the treasures
of the waters as do the images of samudra manthanam painted on a cave in Ellora and on a frieze in
Ankor Wat temple in Cambodia.

The historical tradition of social dharma in Bharat, connoted by samudra manthanam, the dharma of
cooperative enterprise will help organize for optimum utilization of water resources in the country
for many years to come.

Samudra or ks.i_rasa_gara manthanam, 'Churning of Ocean of Milk' Deva and Da_nava


churn the ocean, using Va_suki, the serpent as the rope and Mandara, the mountain as
the churning rod. Ganesh Lena, Ellora, ca. 11th cent. AD.

The tradition which began in the coastal sites close to the Gulf of Khambat, Gulf of Kutch and the
Makran Coast – all of which may be subsumed by the term for a region called Meluhha – continued
as a heritage in the arts and crafts related to the working in s’ankha to create ornaments, sacred
ladles and trumpets, working in large stones to create sculptures and architectural monuments and
working in small stones to
create etched beads and
ornaments.

The body of water called


the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden,
Arabian Gulf, Gulf of
Oman and the Arabian Sea
were referred to by
Herodotus as the
Erythraean Sea.

Dilmun is identified with


Bahrain, Magan with
Oman and Melukkha with
the Indian Civilization.
Sargon of Akkad boasts
that ships from Dilmun, Magan and Melukkha docked at the quay of his capital Akkad. This
inscription affirms that Melukkha was accessible by the sea-route, through the Arabian gulf.
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There is significant evidence for the presence of people and goods from and frequent interaction
with the Indian Civilization in the Mesopotamian and Gulf areas. There is, however, little evidence
of a Sumerian, Akkadian or Babylonian presence in India.

River Sarasvati: Drainage system in northern region of Bha_rata and ancient sites; the migratory
paths of River S’utudri (Sutlej) with a 90-degree turn at Ropar are vividly shown by the satellite
images; the present runs close to River Beas, without joining it. [After Fig. 1 in: BK Thapar, 1982,
The Harappan civilization: some reflections on its environments and resources and their exploitation
in: Gregory L. Possehl, Harappan civilization: a contemporary perspective, Delhi, Oxford and IBH
Publishing Co.]

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An artist's reconstruction of ancient port town of Lothal depicting the use of the dock and the
warehouse. [After Pl. XXXIX Lothal: Artist’s view of the port-town].

Dr. Nigam of the National Institute of Oceanography conducted an analysis for the presence of
foraminifera in the ‘dockyard’ rectangular structure by collecting representative samples from the
lowest sediments. “Foraminifera are almost exclusive marine organism having widespread
geographic (horizontal) and bathymetric (vertical) distribution in the oceans including marginal
marine bodies like estuaries, lagoons, bays etc. Their presence or absence could be a decisive factor
in interpreting whether any ancient water body was filled with fresh or marine (including brackish)
water…Study of sediment samples reveals a fairly well preserved assemblage of
foraminifera…indicates that it was a part of marine environment…Hyper-saline conditions are also
indicated by presence of large number of gypsum crystals which is known to occur in high
evaporation condition…connection (to high tidal range) was probably cut off due to shoaling of the
Gulf of Cambay as a result of the Holocene sea level rise, which finally led to evaporation of marine
water locked inside the rectangular body.” [R. Nigam, 1988, Was the large rectangular structure at
Lothal (Harappan Settlement) a ‘Dockyard’ or an ‘Irrigation tank’? in: Marine Archaeology of
Indian Ocean Countries: Proceedings of the First Indian Conference on Marine Archaeology of
Indian Ocean Countries, Oct. 1987, Goa, National Institute of Oceanography].

“At the end of the last Kalpa, there occurred a Pralaya caused by reason of Brahma’s slumber, when all
the worlds, the earth and the rest were deluged by the Ocean.” (S’ri_mad Bha_gavatam, Book 8, Chapter
24, S’loka 4-9).

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“Another instance of a reference to sea level change was during Lord Rama’s time, when Nal and Neel,
who were the architects in the army provided the bridge between Rames’varam and S’ri Lanka. This can
be explained when one realized that during the period of the Ra_ma_yan.a, position of the mean sea level
during that time was lower to bridge the gap. The stones to bridge the gap which they used attained the
property of floating after their touch. They may have been pumice stones which have this characteristic
of floating in water and bridging was possible due to the then shallow sea (shallower than present).
During the ‘Dwa_para Yuga’ Lord Kr.s.n.a established ‘Dwa_raka’ in the coastal belt with a word of
caution that Dwa_raka will submerge as described in S’ri_mad Bha_gavatam: ‘The race has been already
burnt up by the curse, and is going to perish by mutual strife. Seven days from now this city will be
submerged by the ocean.’ (S’ri_mad Bha_gavatam, Book 11, Chapter 7, S’loka 3 and 4). This leads us to
two possible inferences: (i) there was an understanding that sea level was not stable and that their
knowledge at the time was advanced enough to provide prediction. One may ask if he knew pretty well
that the city is going to be submerged then why did he build it? May be based on the concept of ‘Cost
and effect’? (ii) the technology was available to reclaim the land from the sea for urgent use.

“Reasons for the drowning of land as reported in religious books can be classified as flood due to sea
level changes or rainfall. Emiliani (C. Emiliani, 1976, Glacia surges and flood legends, Science, 193,
1268-1271) based on a study of marine sediment from the Gulf of Mexico indicated that there was indeed
a universal flood and this flood came from the sea rather than from the sky…

“Records of sea level fluctuations and related climatic changes are preserved in seabed in the form of
layered sediments and can be studied through proxy data like faunal contents and sedimentological
characteristics of the sediments. Longer geological records show that once upon a time, about 280
million years ago there was a major marine transgression when an arm of sea reached deep into Madhya
Pradesh. There are several evidences which show that over 200 million years ago in place of Himalayas
there was a large sea known as the ‘Tethys’. However, our immediate interest is with the relatively
shorter time span of the last 11,000 years BP (known as Holocene in geological literature) as it covers
recent human history and culture.

“Our earlier geological studies from the west coast of India indicate that about 10,000 years BP, sea level
was 60-90 m below the present and climate changed from warm to warm and humid (Nair and Hashimi,
1980; Hashimi and Nair, 1986). A subsequent intensification of monsoon was also inferred. Historical
records also indicate that total rainfall during the Indus Valley civilization was double than the present
(Singh et al., 1986) and the sea level was about 2-6 m higher than the present.[R. Nigam, NH Hashimi
and MC Pathak, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, Sea Level fluctuations: inferences from
religious and archaeological records and their oceanographic evidences, Marine Archaeology, Vol. 1,
January 1990]

Lothal: photo essay by Srinivasa Sanagavarapu (1999)

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Dock; marine shells were found confirming that the brick-lined reservoir was indeed a dock for
marine vessels.
Brick-lined drain

Lothal: Dock, another view


Lothal: street and residential complex
Lothal: Acropolis
Lothal: fortification wall surrounding the settlement?

Dockyard made of a large brick basin. Lothal. (After


Dinesh Shukla)

Boat on a Mohenjodaro tablet

Silver model of a boat from the Royal Graves at Ur (Crawford, H., p. 119)

Mohenjo-daro.
Unfired steatite sweal
showing a flat-bottomed boat with a cabin
(having ladders to the leaf and a high-
seated platform at the stern from which
the large rudder could be manipulated);
the motif is incised. [After Fig. 5.16 in JM
Kenoyer, 1998].

Aegean shipping in the third millennium


BCE

Egyptian representations of sea-faring


craft: 1) from Ipi at Saqqara, c. 2500
BCE; 2) from Abibi at Saqqara, c. 2500
BCE. Fig 7.4.1. The higher end is most
often the stern and is usually accompanied
by a steering oar.
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Lead boat models from he Cyclades. Ashmolean Museum. Ref. Nos. 1938.725 and 1929.26. Fig.
7.4.2.1

Clay models of dugouts from (a) Mochlos; and (b) Palaiokastro, Crete.
Herakleon Museum. Fig. 7.4.2.2 Two clay models are from Crete. One
dates to the late neolithic/beginning of the early Minoan period; the
other dates to the middle of the early Minoan period.

Models comparable to the clay model boat from Palaiokastro (shaped


like a sledge), Crete were also found in Chanhujo-daro.

Phaistos disc. Herakleon Museum.


(7.6.1); ‘Boats’ from the Phaistos
disc (7.6.2); Parallels for these boats: a)
a Nile boat from the Amratian period
(4th millennium BCE); b)
square ‘Mesopotamian’ boat from
Wadi Hammamat (4th millennium BCE); c)
crescentic ‘Egyptian’ boat from Wadi Hammat (4th
millennium BCE); d) ‘Mesopotamian’ or square sailing
vessel from the late Gerzean period (c. 2900 BCE).

In the Aegean, the earliest evidence for the use of the sail comes from early Minoan III, the last
centuries of the third millennium BCE. Engravings on seals and gems from several sites which date
to the beginning of he middle Minoan period are similar to those om the preceding early Minoan
period, Fig. 7.5.1. The masts are clearly show and the craft having hulls which suggests hat they
were plank-built. The rigging is typically Egyptian. In these engravings, the prow is high and the
stem is low, usually wih a projecting keel.

The earliest evidence for contact between Crete and Egypt dates to the end of the neolithic in the
Aegean (equivalent of the Predynastic/First intermediate periods in Eypt).

Early Minoan III and middle Minoan Sailing Craft represented on seals and gems.
Ashmolean Museum. Fig. 7.5.1
The enigmatic Phaistos disc (Fig. 7.6.1), a unique inscribed object of terracotta, dating to about
1600 BCE, but as yet undeciphered, bears
representations of what appear to be ships (Fig.
7.6.2). The bar at the top of the stern may be
taken to represent a yardarm -- in which case
these representations are of plank-built vessels.
They can be compared to Egyptian and near
eastern parallels (Fig. 7.6.3). The ships on the
disc seem to occur on initial and terminal
sequences.

[Veronica McGeehan Liritzis, 1996, The role and

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development of metallurgy in the late neolithic and early bronze age of Greece, Paul Astroms
Forlag].

Maritime, riverine trade in Vedic times

Rigveda has a number of allusions to the use of boats.

The maritime/riverine nature of the Sarasvati Sindhu civilization is borne out by the archaeological
finds of contacts with Sumeria, particularly in the trade of copper/bronze weapons exported from
ancient India.

The vedic people had used ships to cross oceans: anarambhan.e... agrabhan.e samudre... s’ata_ritram
na_vam... (RV. I.116.5; cf. VS. 21.7) referring to as’vins who rescued bhujyu, sinking in mid-ocean
using a ship with a hundred oars (na_vam-aritraparani_m). There is overwhelming evidence of
maritime trade by the archaeological discoveries of the so-called Harappan civilization, which can
now be re-christened: Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization. Some beads were reported to have been
exported to Egypt from this valley (Early Indus Civilization, p. 149); Sumerians had acted as
intermediaries for this trade (L. Wooley , The Sumerians, pp. 46-47; cf. Ur Excavations, vol. II, pp.
390-396).which extended to Anatolia and the Mediterranean.

Boats drown in the river Sarasvati when the river was in spate (RV. 6,61,3); Devi Aditi comes in a
boat for the reciters to board (RV. 10,63,10); Soma, the king of the waterways, who covers the
universe as a cloth, has boarded the boat of sacrifice; the su_rya descends the heavens on a boat
(RV. 1,50,4; 5,45,10; 7,63,4; 10,88,16,17). Sudasa built an easily pliable boat to cross the Purus.n.i
river (RV. 7,18,5); Agni is a boat which carries the sacrificers over the difficult path of sacrifice
(RV. 1,9,7, 7-8: 5,4,9); Agni is the boat of the reciters in troubled times (RV. 3,29,1), to ford enemy
lines (RV. 3,24,1); Agni is the carrier-boat of oblations to the gods (RV. 1,128,6); Agni is the boat
of all wishes (RV. 3,11,3); Indra was like a ferry-boat (RV. 8,16,11); Indra protected the boats (RV.
1,80,8); Indra is invoked to carry the reciters over the ocean of misfortune (RV. 3,32,14); Indra
takes the reciters in his boat across the ocean (RV. 8,16,11); Indra saved the ship-wrecked Naryam,
Turvasu, Yadu, Turviti and Vayya (RV. 1,54,6); Indra-Varun.a sail on the boat on the celestial
ocean (RV. 7,88,3); Purus.an’s golden boat moves on the sky (RV. 6,58,3) Varun.a’s boat will carry
the reciter on to the mid-ocean of the sky (RV. 7,88,3); Maruta helped the reciters to cross the ocean
of war in a boat (RV. 5,54,4); Maruta was compared to a tempestuous ocean in which had sunk a
laden ship (RV. 5,59,2); there are references to: house boat (RV. 1,40,12); long boat (RV. 1,122,15);
well-furnished boat with oars (RV. 10,101,2); boats carrying foodgrains for overseas markets (RV.
1,47,6; 7,32,20; 7,63,4); boats fit to cross the ocean with oars (RV. 1,40,7); ocean-trading boats
(RV. 1,50,2). [See also Swami Sankarananda, Hindu States of Sumeria, Calcutta,
K.L.Mukhapadhyay, 1962 for the story of Bhujyu who was the son of a king named Tugra (a
worshipper of As’vina) whose boat was sunk in the mid-ocean, p. 32].

Riches are obtained from the samudra (i.e. by maritime trade) (RV. 1,47,6); there were two winds
on the ocean, one to put the boat to the seas and the other to bring it to shore (RV. 10,137,2).

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Civilization sites on the banks of the Sarasvati River, ca. 3500 to
500 BC (After Parpola, 1994)

Decoding soma as electrum provides a seamless back, the person perched on a branch like a spy, the
chronological link from the processing of gold and person ligatured to the back of a bovine, the person
silver mineral ores to the processing of minerals related ornamented with bangles and twigs on head-dress, the
to other metals such as copper, zinc, arsenic and tin. person seated in a yogic posture of penance. Many
Soma used a pavitram, a purifying filter, the pictorials evolve into ‘signs’; one ‘sign’ dominates the
purificatory filter being agni, fire. Metallurgists, ‘sign-list’: the neck or rim of a short-necked jar. It is
lapidaries and smiths of the civilization used alloying, a possible to tag each of these orthographic features of
mixing process to create new alloys and new metals. the glyphs to homonyms of lexemes to unravel the
This process of mixing results in the orthographic substantive messages of the epigraphs. The language
representation of composite animals and ligatured gets decoded, as mleccha; so does the writing system as
glyphs as composite ‘signs’. Every orthographic mlecchita vikalpa, cipher writing.
element thus conveys a semantic value: for example,
the one-curved-horn, the pannier, the rings on the neck
of an animal, the heifer, the tiger or antelope looking

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Submergence of Dwaraka
Earthquakes in Kutch and
Saura_s.t.ra, with E-W trending
faults. Bet Dwaraka and Dholavira
are close to these faults. [After
Biswas, 1987; Rajendran and
Rajendran, 2000]. This tectonic event
resulting in the incursion of sea into
land and submerging the city of
Dwaraka is described in great detail in
Mausala Parva of Mahabharata. Gulf of
Khambat was created circa 10,000 years
ago due to a similar event, combined
with the Cambay graben, resulting in
the subsidence of the coastline from
Bharuch to Kerala..

Nal Sarovar in Gurat – a relic of the River Sarasvati_. The palaeo-channels of Sarasvati
beyond Jaisalmer upto Lothal and west of Lothal towards Prabhas Patan (Somnath) are to be
identified.The Revival of River Sarasvati will help reach glacier, perennial waters to the Rann of
Kutch and to Saura_s.t.ra.

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The Nal Sarovar in Gujarat could be a relic of terrainof the peninsular region of Saurashtra
the Vedic River Sarasvati and could represent could have permitted such a flow of the river
the course of the river into Saurashtra upto course westwards from Lothal.
Lothal and turning westwards through
Rangpura to Somnath (Prabhas Patan) since the

The plate tectonics result in migrations of Himalayan river courses as evidenced by the migraitons
of Kosi and Brahmaputra rivers. The patterns of glacier recharge also may result in variations in the
quantities of water which flow through the tributaries of River Ganga making it essential to
establish arrangements for inter-basin water transfers of the type contemplated by National Water
Development Agency to ensure continued support to command area of irrigation in the Ganga basin.
This will also help cope with the variations in water runoffs in the river basins of the country.

The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau to the north have risen very rapidly. In just 50 million years,
peaks such as Mt. Everest have risen to heights of more than 9 km. The impinging of the two
landmasses has yet to end. The Himalayas continue to rise more than 1 cm a year -- a growth rate of
10 km in a million years! If that is so, why aren't the Himalayas even higher? Scientists believe that
the Eurasian Plate may now be stretching out rather than thrusting up, and such stretching would
result in some subsidence due to gravity.

Tectonic Uplift of the Coastline

Plate tectonics which impacted the land-mass of Bharat not only resulted in the evolution of the
dynamic Himalaya (still growing at the rate of 1 cm. per year) and the ongoing upward thrust of
dynamic Deccan plate (still moving northwards at the rate of 6 cm. per year), but resulted in uplift
of the coastline along the Sindhu sa_gara (Arabian Sea) and a secular sequence of cycle of earth
quakes along the plate boundary between the Deccan (Indian) plate and the Eurasian plate. Earth
quakes resulting from plate movements is exemplified by the earthquake which struck Bhuj on 26
January 2001 with the intensity of 8.2 on the Richter scale, a measure of energy equivalent to the
simultaneous explosion of 220 hydrogen bombs. Such a terrestrial upheaval also resulted in the
tilting of the entire terrain of north-west Bharat northwestwards and consequent river migrations.
Streams west of Aravalli ranges migrated westwards; streams east of Aravalli ranges migrated
eastwards.

Yamuna migrated away from Sarasvati to join Ganga on the east; Sutlej migrated away from
Sarasvati to join Sindhu on the west. These events occurred circa 4500 and 3500 years Before
Present respectively.

Tectonic uplift on a grand scale is evident at seaports along the Makran coast, such as Sutkagendor,
Sotka Koh, and Bala Kot; these sites are now about 50 km inland. "These displaced ports made it
evident that the coastline of Pakistan had risen considerably during the past 4,000 years, with the
initial rise apparently having occurred during the Harappan period" (Dales 1966: 95).

This uplift is accompanied by the incursion of the sea into the present-day Rann of Kutch resulting
in the formation of the Rann and fusing of many islands, such as the Khadir island on which is
situated Dholavira (Kotda), into the peninsula of Saurashtra. The resulting sinking of Dwaraka,
submergence of river channels in the Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat in Gujarat led to
disruption of sea-trade networks would have disrupted many industrial activities (such as the

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s’ankha (turbinella pyrum) based on the marine resource and carnelian/agate beads from Gujarat-
Rajasthan region) of the maritime-riverine civilization. The proximity to Arabian sea trade routes is
surmised as the raison d'etre for sites such as Sutkagen Dor and Sutkha Koh.

The uplift of the coastline resulted in the formation of the Gulf of Khambat circa 12,500 years
Before Present and the submergence of palaeo-channels (ancient courses) of Rivers Narmada and
Tapati.

Event Years Before Reference


Present
Uplift of Yamuna terrace in Dun Valley < 3663+ - 215 Wesnousky, 1999
Deviation of Yamuna, Paonta Sahib 3900 Wakankar, 1987
3700 Valdiya, 1996
Deformation of underground sediment at Kalpi, <5000 Singh et al, 1997
Yamuna plain
Earthquake at Hastinapur, Yamuna plain 2664 Wilhelmy, 1969
Eastward diversion of Yamuna river 3750 Raikes, 1968
Abandonment of Kalibangan and downstream Mid Third Mughal, 1995
settlement in Ganganagar and Cholistan, due to millennium
drastic decline in river discharge BCE
Westward shift of Sutlej Mid Second Mughal, 1995
millennium
BCE
Deflection of Sutlej, Ropar 2600 Wilhelmy, 1969
Earthquake at Dholavira, Kutch 4200 Bisht, 1993
Earthquake in Mahi valley, Gujarat 3320 + - 90 Maurya et al, 1998
2850 + - 90 Kusumgar et al 1998
Sinking of Dwaraka 3600 Rao, 1996
Sea-level fluctuation on Gujarat coastline 5000-4000 Gaur and Vora, 1999
Tectonic events in the later Holocene periods in North-west Bharat (After KS Valdiya, 2002, Table
5.1).

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Recent History of the Sindhu River

D. A. Holmes, 1968, The recent history of the Indus, Geographical Journal, 134: 367-382: ``..
Lambrick (H.T., 1967, The Indus Flood-plain and the `Indus' civilization, Geographical Journal,
133,4: 483-95) believes that the union of the Sutlej with the Beas (and thence with the Indus) in the
West Punjab had already occurred prior to the time of Alexander. It must be assumed that the Nara
was continuing to flow as a result of seasonal overspill from both the Indus and the Sutlej, the latter
floods using the now dry Ghaggar channel (which is a
remnant of the Sutlej-Nara system) ...

Former courses of Indus

Lower Indus Plain: Course of Sindhu ca.


3000 BCE

"... The western arm of the Hakra is formed by


a combination of three rivers each of which is
known as Naiwal. They are designated eastern,
middle and western Naiwal. According to
Oldham (1893: 58) these streams meet near
Kurrulwala (29.33N 73.52E) south of the town
of Abohar in Punjab… In the map published by Pande (Pande, B.M., 1977, fig. 2.21) the eastern and
middle Naiwals are shown joining the Ghaggar south of Hanumangarh, as well as the western Naiwal a
little further west. Between the western Naiwal and the Sutlej, Oldham has shown two more dry beds
both of which join the Sutlej. The eastern of these beds is known as the Dhunda. Oldham was of the
opinion that the Sutlej flowed into the Hakra or Sarasvati through each of these dry beds, gradually
shifting its course from east to west. When the Sutlej shifted its course westward ‘and abandoned the

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eastern arm of the Hakra, the Sarasvati, which had been a tributary, was left in possession of the deserted
channel, in the sands of which its waters were swallowed up (Oldham 1893: 59)”(Misra, V.N., 1984).

"This paper proposes to outline the probable courses of the River Indus through the former provinces of
Sind, West Pakistan, over the past 2000 years, using the evidence obtained from aerial
photographs...channels that were still clearly visible as distinct scars...

"Ghotki. The Khangar flood-plain is rather flat and featureless, and the old channel scars are narrow,
shallow and poorly defined; their meanders have a smaller radius than the modern river, and are not
oriented consistently parallel to it. It is believed that they belong to the Sutlej system, formerly flowing
directly to the Nara Valley, before the Sutlej joined the Indus further north Further to the south-east...two
drainage lines, the Raini and Wahinda 'rivers', run south-west to join the Nara Valley...Lambrik shows
that they are traceable back to the Ghaggar river bed in East Punjab. There is strong evidence of an
independent river system running from the Ambala area to the sea via the Eastern Nara, although the date
at which this system dried up remains conjectural... The modern Nara canal is aligned along the course of
the old Nara river, which probably had its origin in the waters of the Sutlej, and perhaps even the Jumna,
in East Punjab...

"Upper Sind right bank. Several distinct river courses can be traced on the right bank, from Kashmore
south to Sehwan...severe floods for which this area is famous. Several of these courses become
submerged in the cover flood-plain sediments along along the trough that separates the Indus and
piedmont alluvial plains. The most northerly is the 'Jacobabad Course'; which emerges from a confused
zone near Kandhkot, running west as a broad channel
to near Jacobabad, where it is lost in trough sediments.
Although very distinct on the photographs, it is
believed that it is a comparatively ancient course,
represented by wide areas of coarse-textured sub-
strtum to the north of this channel... South of this
channel, there is a broad area of meander flood-plain,
indicating a prolonged phase of riverain activity, but
two distinct river courses emerge, the 'Shahdadkot' and
'Warah Courses'... Further south, there are two
conspicous inundation canals, the Ghar Branch and
Western Nara. They are now incorporated into the
modern irrigation system, but formerly they diverged
from the Indus below Sukkur...

"Central Sind left bank (Khairpur-Nawabshah). In the


Kot Diji hills, the limestone cuesta that extends south
from Sukkur, there is a small gap, the Aror gap,
through which the modern Nara canal runs from
Sukkur barrage to suply the old Eastern Nara. The old
city of Aror was sited on the sides of this gap. The
modern Indus runs through a similar but large rgap
between Sukkur and Rohri...

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"The chronology of former river courses... The remains of the southern capital, Mohenjo-daro, lie south
of Larkana, but its proximity to the right bank of the modern river is purely coincidental... 326-325
BC....it is believed that the Indus flowed north-west of Sukkur (See map)...The Indus is described as
forming two large islands, Prasiane in the north and the rather small Patale in the south...(D.A. Holmes,
The Recent History of the Indus, in: Geographical Journal, London, 1968, Vol. 134, Part3, September
1968, pp. 367-383).

Bimal Ghose et al (1979) use images taken in 1972. Plate V traces the wide valley of the Sarasvati
running from Suratgarh through Anupgarh to Fort Abbas and Ahmadpur East. From Anupgarh
another wide belt of discontinuous patches of
dark grey tone runs southwestward upto
Sakhi. From Sakhi, the remnant of a former
valley can be traced towards the west ... the
imagery reveals the presence of a narrow
zone of saline/alkaline fields, partly
obliterated by the overlying sand dunes,
extending upto Khangarh. To the south of
Khangarh, a narrow strip of green
vegetation, producing a slightly darker tone
than the surroundings, can be identified. It
runs from Islamgarh, through Dharmi Khu,
Ghantial, Shahgarh, Babuwali and Rajar to
Mihal Mungra. This was the course of the
Sarasvati from the Himalaya to the Rann of
Kutch after the river severed relations with
Luni. South of Mihal Mungra, the course
could be traced up to the present Hakra
channel and there are indications of its having even crossed the Hakra channel (Plate VI). This
signifies that the course of the old Sarasvati might have been somewhere to the west of the present
Hakra ... The other major courses of the Sarasvati could be identified further to the west, through
Mithra and Sandh, the remnants of which are now
known as the Raini and the Wahinda rivers. Here
also the river shifted its course several times, and,
at one time, flowed to the east of the Wahinda
river, through Mundo. Finally, the river ceased to
flow southward and met the Sutlej to the west of
Ahmadpur East.

The Ancient River Valley on the Eastern


Border of the Sindhu Plain and the Sarasvati
Problem

Watershed region between the Indus and


the Ganges (After Wilhelmy, H., 1969, Das
Urstramtal am Ostrand der Indus ebene und das
Sarasvati Problem, Zeischrit fur Geomorphologie,
Supplementary Band 8, pp. 76-95; English tr.
extracts in: B.P. Radhakrishna and S.S. Merh,
eds., Vedic Sarasvati, 1999, pp. 95-111; Fig. 1).
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"...The watershed between the Sutlej which flows into the Indus and the Jumna which flows into the
Ganges attains a height of just 220-320m above sea level (Fig.1). The watershed region between the
two rivers is about 130 km wide and has no water flow above ground. The few rivers that flow
down the Siwaliks carry water only during the rainy season in summer (June-September) and
disappear in the sand during the major part of the year...

"...there exists a river bed at a distance of 40-110 km to the East of that part of the Indus that flows
North-South; the course of the old river bed is surprisingly parallel to the present mainstream
)(Fig.4)... This dry bed is indeed the holy river "Sarasvati" known to Indian tradition (Barnett, 1913,
p. 25; Stein, 1942, p. 173) or the famous "Lost River of Sind" (Raverty, 1892); once upon a time
this was a genuine solitary river which reached the ocean without any tributaries on its long way
through the desert. In its native land, this river has been known as Hakra, Ghaggar, Sagar, Sankra or
Nala Sankra. Inside Sind, the various parts of the river were called Raini Nullah, Wahinda, Nara
(Nara or Naga = snake in the Sindhi language, indicates the winding course of the river bed) and
Hakra...

Palaeogeography of Sind (ca. 4000-2000 BC. (After Flam, Louis, 1986, Recent explorations in
Sind: paleogeography, regional ecology, and prehistoric settlement patterns (ca 4000 – 2000 BC),
in: Jacobson, Jerome, ed., Studies in the Archaeology of India and Pakistan, New Delhi, Oxford and
IBH Publishing Co.Fig. 1)

Weather studies

Based principally on palynological studies, Gurdip Singh suggested that the Rajasthan desert region
should have had a more wet climate between ca. 3000 and 1800 B.C. with at least 50 cm more than
the present rainfall; the first sedimentation in the lakes is noticed from ca. 8000 B.C. with estimated
rainfall of at least 25 mm more than the present rainfall. (G. Singh, 1971, The Indus Valley Culture
(Seen in the context of post-glacial climate and ecological studies in North-West India),
Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania, 6(2): 177-189; Singh, G., Joshi, R.D., Chopra,
S.K., and Singh, A.B., 1974, Late quaternary history of vegetation and climate of the Rajasthan
Desert, India, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Biological Sciences), 267
(889): 467-501). Palynological evidence for Singh’s theory was taken from one fresh water lake:
Pushkar lake (260 29’N, 740 33’E) located in a semi-humid belt (50 cm rainfall) and three salt lakes:
Sambhar lake (17 N 75’E), Didwana lake (270 20’N, 740 35’E) and Lunkaransar (280 30’N, 730
45’E), located in semi-arid/arid belt (25 cm rainfall); all the lakes are in Rajasthan.

Locations of the palynological studies indicating the lakes of Rajasthan (After Possehl, G.L., 1999,
Fig. 3.112) The study of Gurdip Singh et al (Singh, G., Joshi, R.D., Chopra, S.K., Singh, A.B.,
1974, Late quaternary history of vegetation and climate of the Rajasthan Desert, India.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, Biological Sciences, 267(889): 467-
501) is based on palynological research at four Thar Desert Lakes. The results are summarized as
follows:

8000-7500 BC Pollen indicates fresh water lakes; moist phases with more rain than today
ca. 7500 BC Indication of large scale use of fire by man. Probable beginning of cultivation;
cerealia-type pollen
7500-3000 BC Poor plant cover; dry phase; but not as dry as today

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3000-1800 BC Grassy steppe savanna with good tree growth; obstacle dunes, parabolic dunes
developed from the sand washed away from sand shields; moist phase with ca. 500 mm more rain
than today
ca. 1800-BC Lunkaransar Lake begins to dry-up; onset of aridity
1800-1400 BC Sambhar Lake begins to turn saline; increase in halophytes; aridity continues and
spreads east
1400-1000 BC Lakes contain freshwater; aridity ameliorates
1000 BC Lakes begin to turn saline; beginning of present aridity
1000 AD-today Rajasthan lakes saline; present aridity

[After Possehl, G.L., 1999, Table 3.11, p. 259].

Note on present rainfall: Indian Meteorological Department: (1962, monthly and annual norms of
rainfall and of rainy days based on records from 1906 to 1950. Memoirs of the India Meteorological
Department, Vol. 31, Part 3 Delhi): Sambhar Lake: 494 mm of mean annual precipitation (1901-
50); Didwana Lake: 357 mm.; Lunkaransar Lake: 233 mm. Northern tropics of Asia and Africa had
increased solar radiation between 10,000 and 4,000 BC which enhanced the contract between the
sea and land masses producing strong summer (southwest) monsoons. This explains the high lake
levels. (Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project, 1988, Climatic changes of the last 18,000 years:
observations and model simulations. Science, 241: 1043-52).

The Sambhar Lake is filled by surface drainage from four rivers: Menda, Rupnagar, Kharian and
Khandel with a catchment area of ca. 6500 sq. kms. (Holland, T.H. and Christie, W.A.K., 1909, The
origin of the salt deposits in Rajputana, Records of the Geological Survey of India, 5(38): 154-86:).
It is possible that the salinity levels of the lakes is conditioned by subsurface drainage which is
subject to changes caused by large-scale tectonic activity by the collision of the Deccan and Tibetan
plates. “…it is also true that at ca. 2000 BC there is geological evidence for major changes in
surface, and probably subsurface, drainage in northern Rajasthan, eastern Punjab, Haryana and
western Uttar Pradesh; an event that led to the desiccation of the Sarasvati Riverine system, the
rejuvenation of the Sutlej River and the creation of the Yamuna River.” (Possehl, G.L., 1999, Indus
Age: The Beginnigns, p. 263)..

Consistent with the findings of these studies, related to increased rainfall towards the close of the
Pleistocene period and increased duration of increased rainfall from the beginning of the Holocene
and the stabilization of the dunes, a widespread occurrence of microlith sites on the dunes is noticed.
“The widespread occurrence of microliths on dunes (including in the core of arid zone) is ample
proof that the climate was conducive to supporting larger human populations “ (Misra, V.N.,
Rajaguru, S.N., Raju D.R., Raghavan, H. and Gaillard, C.1982, Acheulian Occupation and Evolving
Landscape around Didwana in the Thar Desert, India, Man and Environment, 6: 72-86). The
microlithic sites in Rajasthan are shown on the map; the site clusters are in Mewar upland on rocky
terrain, dunes and alluvial flats along river banks. “The limited faunal material available from
Tilwara includes both domestic and wild forms. The far richer fauns from Bagor on the eastern side
of the Aravallis is composed largely of domestic sheep and goat.” (V.N.Misra, 1984, Climate, a
factor in the rise and fall of the Indus Civilization—Evidence from Rajasthan and Beyond, in:
B.B.Lal and S.P. Gupta, eds., Fronters of the Indus Civilization, p.466; loc.cit. Misra, V.N., 1973,
Bagor—A late Mesolithic settlement in North-West India, World Archaeology 5(1): 92-110);
Thomas, P.K., 1975, Role of animals in the food economy of the Mesolithic culture of western and
central India, in: Archaeological Studies, A.T. Clason, ed., 322-328, Amsterdam, North-Holland).

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“Post-Pleistocene Paleogeography of Sind. The Lower Indus Basin is a submerged geosyncline which
was supplementally formed as a foredeep between the upheaval and folding of the Himalayan Mountains
and the stability of the Peninsular Foreland Shelf, or Deccan Shield (Brinkman, Robert and Rafiq, Ch.M.,
1971, Landforms and Soil Parent materials in West Pakistan, Pakistan Soils Bulletin 2; Hunting Survey
Corporation, 1961, Reconnaissance Geology of Part of West Pakistan. Toronto, Govt. of Canada)...We
know from the writings of Arab geographers that the Indus River adopted its present course through the
limestone hills near Sukkur sometime between the tenth and thirteenth centuries AD...The evidence
suggests that during the prehistoric period under discussion two independent river courses flowed
through the Lower Indus Basin.

“The one in the western portion of the region I refer to as the Sindhu Nadi, and the one in the eastern
portion of the region the Nara Nadi. The Sindhu Nadi had its origin near the present-day town of
Kandhkot. A short distance west of Kandhkot, the river’s course turned southwestward, passing west of
Shikarpur and Ratodero, through Warah, and west of Mehar. South of Mehar the course continued its
path in a southerly direction down the western flank (or Sind Hollow) of the Lower Indus Basin, passing
through and just north of the present-day Manchar Lake; it then followed an easterly course near the
town of Sehwan. To the east of Sehwan, landforms of the Sindhu Nadi have been obliterated by the more
recent active courses of the Indus River. The path of the southernmost portion of the Sindhu Nadi can be
traced southeast of the present-day town of Nawabshah on the aerial photographs. In this area the Sindhu
Nadi followed a southeasterly course through the town of Samaro and joined the course of the Nara Nadi
south of the town of Naukot. In the eastern portion of the Lower Indus Basin, the Nara Nadi was a
perennial river, known by various names along its course.

“In its northerly reaches from Fort Abbas to Fort Derawar it is known as the Hakra River, and is marked
by a depression which is clearly visible on the aerial photographs of the region. Southwest of Fort
Derawqar, the course of the Hakra becomes increasingly unclear, and intermittently becomes ‘lost’
beneath sand dunes which have encroached upon the area. Remnants of the river’s course emerge where
the dunes are less numerous and thus it can be aligned with the Raini and Wahinda channels. South of
these latter two channels the Nara Nadi can be clearly traced as a depression southward along the eastern
edge of the Lower Indus Basin, where it was eventually joined by the Sindhu Nadi.

“There is little doubt that the coastline during the fourth and third millennia lay a good distance north of
its present-day location. However, on presently available evidence, we can only estimate its prehistoric
conformation. Several scholars have suggested that the Rann of Kutch and the Little Rann of Kutch (as
an extension of the present-day Gulf of Kutch) were inlets of the Arabian Sea. Sivewright concluded that
an inlet, of which the Rann of Kutch was part, extended a considerable distance northward into the
alluvial plain of the southeastern portion of the Lower Indus Basin. (Sivewright, Robert, 1907, Kutch and
Ran, The Geographical Journal 29 (5) : 528)

“Furthermore, in the south-eastern portion of the Little Rann of Kutch, an old channel, marked by
marshes and the Nal depression, links the Little Rann of Kutch with the Gulf of Cambay . (Frere, H.
Bartle E., 1870, Notes on the Runn of Kutch and Neighbouring Region. Journal of the Royal
Geographical Society 40: 181-207). The channel indicates that ‘Kathiawar may have been semi-insular
as late as the 17th century.’ This latter point requires much more field research for confirmation; it has
important implications for prehistoric settlement patterns in the region.” (Louis, 1986, Recent
explorations in Sind: paleogeography, regional ecology, and prehistoric settlement patterns (ca 4000 –
2000 BC), in: Jacobson, Jerome, ed., Studies in the Archaeology of India and Pakistan, New Delhi,
Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., p.68)

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Sarasvati River in Sind (Raini = Nara-Hakra channels) beyond Allahbund joining the Rann of
Kutch. “The fundamental idea—of tectonic uplift in the Lower Indus plain causing, or contributing to
cause, the destruction of Mohenjodaro by complete submersion—seems to have been first suggested by
the palaeontologist Dr. M.R. Sahni in 1952...The data on which his theory was based had been observed
by him in 1940-41: namely, a thick mass of alluvium containing shells of freshwater snails lying on
Budh-jo-Takar, a flat-topped rocky hill about 24 miles south of Hyderabad, Sind, at a level at least sixty
feet above the bed of the Indus flowing near by...I conceive than an avulsion and major change of course
by the Indus took place considerably up-stream of the city. The new bed being (ex hypothesi) lower than
the old one and, say, thirty miles away to the east and, close to the western flank of the Khairpur hills,
inundation spill thereafter did not apoproach within twenty miles of Mohenjodaro, and the surrounding
country, starved of water, immediately began to deteriorate.”(After Lambrick, H.T., 1967, The Indus
flood-plain and the ‘Indus’ civilization, in: Geographical Journal, vol. 133, Part 4, December 1967; Fig.
1, pp. 483-495).

Ground-truth: Neo-tectonics, archaeological evidence ca. 2500 BCE

This ground-truth alone establishes the patterns of ancient civilization settlements found on the
Sarasvati River Basin and the virtual absence of any archaeological site west of Rupar on the banks
of the present-day course of the River Sutlej.

Kalibangan : faulted walls and strata resulting from


an

earthquake. "Interest attaches to how the Period I


settlement at Kalibangan got abandoned. Towards
the end of the fifth structural sub-period there

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seems to have occurred an earthquake, the scars of which are left at the site in the form of faulted
strata and cleft walls." (B.B. Lal, 1997, opcit, p. 78).

In the upper part of the photograph, a black layer is seen ruptured at three places resulting in four
steps. Three near-vertical clevage lines are seen in between the ruptured parts of thiis layer. After
this quake, the site was abandoned. In between the ruptured parts of the layer are seen near-vertical
cleavage lines. These are an indication of some tectonic disturbance. After this shake-up, there was
no further occupation at the site and the site was abandoned. This evidence is substantiated in
another part of the site showing faulted mud-brick walls. Two successive mud-brick walls are
shown sunken and cleft, with a pronounced cleavage in the lower wall. "The most plausible
explanation seems to be the occurrence of an earthquake which not only destroyed the houses but
also forced the inhabitants to leave the site. This event may have taken place around 2700 BC, since,
after a break, the reoccupation of the site by the Mature Harappans is ascribable, on the basis of
radiocarbon dates, to ca. 26th century BC." (Lal, opcit., p. 66)

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In the photograph, two successive mud-brick walls are seen sunken and cleft. The cleavage is more
pronounced in the lower wall. The successive black and grey layers are seen immediately below the
lower wall. These layers are also ruptured and follow the near-vertical clevage line of the wall itself.
The quake could have occurred around 2700 BC since, after a break, the reoccupation of the site by
the Mature Harappans is ascribed on radio-carbon dating to ca. 26th century BCE.

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Kr.s.n.a fore-sees the upheaval in Dwaraka and advises Yadu-s to start on a pilgrimage, beyond
Prabha_sa (Somnath).After Kr.s.n.a’s soul departs the mortal body---

vivr.ddhamu_s.ika_ rathya_ vibhinnaman.ika_statha_ kes’a_ nakha_s’ca supta_na_madyante


mu_s.ikairnis’I (MBh., Mausala, 2.5)
Ci_ci_ku_ci_ti va_s’anti sa_rika_ vr.s.n.ives’masu nopas’a_myati s’abdas’ca sa
diva_ra_trameva hi (MBh., Mausala, 2.6)
anvakurvannulu_ka_na_m sa_rasa_ virutam tatha_ aja_h s’iva_na_m virutamanvakurvata
bha_rata (MBh., Mausala, 2.7)

Streets swarmed with rats and mice, earthen pots showwed cracks or were broken from no apparent
cause, sarika_s chirped ceaselessly day and night, sa_ras hooted like owls, goats cried like jackals,
pigeons departed from their homes, and asses brayed aloud in disconsonant and awful voices
(Ganguly, 1998).

nirya_te tu jane tasmin sa_garo makara_layah dra_raka_m ratnasampu_rn.a_m


jalena_pla_vayat tada_ (MBh., Mausala, 7.41)
tadadbhutamabhipreks.ya dva_raka_va_sino jana_h tu_rn.a_t tu_rn.ataram jagmuraho
daivakiti bruvan (MBh., Mausala, 7.43)

The sea, the abode of monsters, engulfed the gem-filled Dva_raka with waves soon after the people
departed the place. Seeing this astounding incident, the citizens of Dva_raka ran away, exclaiming,
‘O, our fate’. (Ganguly, 1998).

Himalayas stretching from Teheran to Hanoi: Great Water Tower for 250 crore people

Himalaya is the source of major rivers for 2.5 billion people; Manasarovar in Tibet yields Sindhu,
Sutlej, Sarasvati, Mahakali-Karnali-Sharada and Tsangpo-Lohitya-Brahmaputra rivers; other rivers
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flowing from eastern Himalaya are: Irawaddy, Salween, Mekong, Yangtse and Huanghe.
Precipitation levels increase along the Himalaya from Karakorm (250 cm. per annum) to
Cherrapunjee, Assam (1410 cm p.a.)

Archaeology, tradition and language provide an evidential framework for reconstructing the pre-
history and chronology of Bharata-s, defining Mahabharata as the sheet-anchor of Bharatiya
Itihasa, based on astronomical observations, of celestial epigraphs, recorded in the text. There is no
other historical text in the history of civilization which records events with such astonishing
accuracy – governed by ka_la gan.ana, a reckoning of time as an inexorable celestial clock. This is
why the texts called pura_n.a start with an exposition on creation of the universe and cosmic events
such as pral.aya or destruction. As the seas ingressed and submerged cities such as Dwaraka, the
Great Epic records the events in Mausala Parva. The san:gam literature of Tamil records that the
Cera kings trace their ancestry to 42 generations from Dwaraka – a time-line which matches with
the submergence of Dwaraka circa 1500 BCE. There may have been similar occurrences of
incursions of the sea in earlier millennia. This is evidenced by the creation of the Gulf of Khambat
circa 10,000 years Before Present as the sea submerged the extensions of the palaeo-channels of
Rivers Tapati and Narmada. This creation of the Gulf coincided with the creation of the monsoon
system in Bharat. Glaciological studies have shown that Bharat was not subjected to the formation
of ice-sheets during the glacial cycles, circa 18000 years Before Present. This was thus a region
where continuous habitation was possible, thanks to continuous availability of vegetation (without
ice cover) to support living beings and settlements.

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In this philological framework which speaks (sic) for itself, without any special pleading, Vedic,
Samskr.tam, Prakrits, Pali, all Dravidian and all Munda parole are seen as dialectically evolved
forms of the substratum lexemes used by the artisans, the authors of the civilization. The lingua
franca of the civilization is not far too distant from the lingua franca of the civilization area in use
even today. Thus, many lexemes from Telugu, Kannada, Santali, Mundarica, Marathi, Gujarati,
Sindhi, Punjabi, Maithili, Kashmiri can explain the rebus framework of the cipher writing system.
Many of these lexemes are exchanged across the borders of ‘language families’ since the cultural
and social interactions among the people of Bharat were both intense and extensive. The terracotta
image of a lady wearing sindhur on the parting of her hair dated to 4,500 years Before Present is an
emphatic reminder of the continuity of the culture for the last 5 millennia; the cultural trait of
wearing sindhur, continues even today in all parts of Bharat. The stone sculpture of a ‘priest’
wearing an uttari_yam, an upper garment presents the same sartorial style in vogue even today
according to the Bharatiya or Avestan tradition, leaving the right-shoulder bare. Many terracotta
figurines show a remarkably civilized people, clean-shaven or trimmed beards, trimmed and
coiffured hair-styles, wearing textiles made of cotton.

There was no decline of the civilization. It dispersed all over Bharat and is a living tradition. The
dispersal was inevitable because of growing pressures on land created by increases in population
and by loss of a waterway to carry on long-distance trade, caused by the desiccation of a great river
system – the desiccation of River Sarasvati and the incursion of the Sindhu sa_gara (Arabian sea)
submerging many coastal regions of the Indian plate which is moving northwards dynamically even
today at a rate of 6 cm. per year, resulting in the dynamic Himalayas growing up 1 cm. per year.

A Himalayan, glacier river called Sarasvati and


collision of two continents

Plate-tectonic forces continue the creation of the lofty


Himalayas, which stretch over 7,000 kms. from Teheran
in Iran to Hanoi in Vietnam, including a 2,900 km
border between Bharat and Tibet. This immense
mountain range began to form between 40 and 50
million years ago, when two large landmasses, India and
Eurasia, driven by plate movement, collided. Because
both these continental landmasses have about the same
rock density, one plate could not be subducted under the
other. The pressure of the impinging plates could only
be relieved by thrusting skyward, contorting the
collision zone, and forming the jagged Himalayan
peaks.

“About 80 million years ago, India was located roughly


6,400 km south of the Asian continent, moving
northward at a rate of about 9 m a century. When India
rammed into Asia about 40 to 50 million years ago, its
northward advance slowed by about half.

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“The collision and associated decrease in the rate of plate movement are interpreted to mark the
beginning of the rapid uplift of the Himalayas.”

About 225 million years ago, Bharat was a dvi_pa (island) still situated off the Australian coast. A
vast ocean called Tethys Sea separated Bharat from the Asian continent.

The 6,000-km-plus journey of the Bharat landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with
Asia (Eurasian Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago. India was once situated well
south of the Equator, near the continent of Australia.

The Indian plate is still dynamically moving northwards at a rate of 7 cms. per year. The Himalayas
and the Tibetan Plateau to the north have risen very rapidly. In just 50 million years, peaks such as
Mt. Everest have risen to heights of more than 9 km. This immense mountain range began to form
between 40 and 50 million years ago, when two large landmasses, India and Eurasia, driven by plate
movement, collided. Because both these continental landmasses have about the same rock density,
one plate could not be subducted under the other. The pressure of the impinging plates could only be
relieved by thrusting skyward, contorting the collision zone, and forming the jagged Himalayan
peaks.

Sarasvati River between the Sindhu and Ganga Rivers in NW India: Dotted lines stretching
beyond Marubhu_mi (Tha_r) into Bahawalpur province. Bharata Bhu_racana. National Atlas
of India, Prel. Edn., Calcutta, 1957, Govt. of India.

The Indian Plate is still active tectonically and is moving at the rate of 7 cms. per year resulting in
the continuing rise of the Himalayas at the rate of 1 cm. per year.

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Mountains cause disturbances in airflow, altering global circulation patterns.

Evolutionary history of River Sarasvati and Himalaya

It is no coincidence that the majority of the Earth's glaciers are found in the American Cordillera
(Andean, Rockies, and Alaska/BC), Alps, and Himalaya. Each of these are areas of geologically
recent (less than 100 million years) mountain building associated with Plate Tectonics.

Remote Sensing to Understand Palaeo Drainage Evolution

Many ancient courses of River Sarasvati emanated from the Himalayas and joined the Sindu sa_gara
(Arabian Sea). The evolutionary history of the river has to be studied in the context of the
evolutionary history of the drainage system of NW Bharat.

Sindhu (Indus) river has a very wide flood plain (upto 100-120 km) in the east and southeast. There
is indication of a preferential migration of the river towards northwest in the northern part and
towards west in the central southern part (Rajawat and Narain, 1996). The course of the river
Markanda/Sarasvati/Ghaggar could be traced in the south of Sutlej upto to Fort Abbas in Pakistan.
Further continuity and the linkage of this river to the Indus is, however, missing. Faint trace of the
river amuna in the south of Sarasvati/Ghaggar/Markanda seems to be main course of the river
Sarasvati. To the north of Delhi, the river Yamuna and Sarasvati migrated in opposite directions i.e.
eastward and westward, respectively. Shifting of Yamuna eastward has rendered the
Sarasvati/Ghaggar as an underfit river. This may be the initiation of drying up of Sarasvati/Ghaggar
rive which subsequently became accentuated due to prevailing dry climate. It is also possible that
during the late Quaternary, due to neotectonic movements, the Delhi-Hardwar ridge might have got
uplifted causing deflection of Yamuna river to the east.

It is noted that the Yamuna was a tributary of the Sarasvati River and took an easterly course to join
with the Ganga at Prayag. When such a migration occurred, the river was named the Yamuna. “It
becomes fairly clear that the Jamuna was at one time a contributor, by way of the ancient bed of the
Chitang (Chautang), itself a mile wide. The low watershed between the Indus-Hakra and the Ganges
basins at the present time runs between the Chitang and the Jamuna; but the latter, an ‘alluvial’ river
from the High Himalaya, formerly ran along this ridge, and overspilled indifferently to either hand,
later slipping off the ridge to the eastward. The Chitang unites with the Ghaggar or Hakra at
Bhatwar.” (Lambrick, H.T., 1964, Sind: A general introduction. History of Sind Series, Vol.1.
Hyderabad (Pakistan): Sindhi Adabi Board: 30).

Evolution of River Sarasvati in North-west Bharat is closely linked with the emergence of the
Himalaya in geological time.

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Settlements of the stone-age in the Palaeolithic to Neolithic period

Rajasthan: Mesolithic sites.

“Western rajasthan—including the Thar tract—was a wetter region some 40,000 years ago. Periods
of dryness alternated with phases of wetness. This is testified by pollen grains buried and trapped in
the sediments of the Lunkaransar and Didwana lakes and by thermoluminescence of sands in dunes
and floodplains. The Sarasvati and its tributaries held sway in the northern part, and the Lavanavati
(Luni) had an organized drainage netgwork of perennial streams in the southern part. It was in this
well-watered, presumably fertile and congenial land of the Sarasvati, Dris.advati and Luni that the

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stone-age people established their settlements, and developed their Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and
Microlithic cultures.” (After
Valdiya, K.S., 1996, River Piracy:
Sarasvati that Disappeared, in:
Resonance, Vol. 1, No. 5, May,
Bangalore, Indian Academy of
Sciences, pp. 21-22; Fig. 5; and
V.N. Misra, 1995,
Geoarchaeology of Thar Desert,
Northwest India, in: S. Wadia et
al, eds., Quaternary Environments
and Geoarchaeology of India,
Geological Society of India,
Bangalore 210-230).

Neolithic and Harappan period


settlements in the cradle of the
Sarasvati Civilization. The delta
area is now called Rann of
Kutch. [KS Valdiya, 2002, Fig.
1.3]

Several sites have recorded the


indigenous evolution of palaeo-
lithic to Neolithic phases in the
Ganga flood-plain (BK Thapar,
opcit., p. 25):

Belan and Son river vallyees:


Upper Palaeolithic tools (23000
to 17000 Before Present)
Adamgarh: 5500 BCE
Bagor (Rajasthan): 8395 BCE
Belan Valley (Uttar Pradesh):
Wild rice, cattle; meslithic
period 9th to 8th millennia BCE
Koldihwa, Belan Valley (Uttar
Pradesh): Domesticated rice 7th
to 5th millennia BCE
Mahagara, Belan Valley (Uttar
Pradesh): Neolithic, 5000 BCE.
[The site deposit was 8 ft. thick
in six structural phases of 20
huts. (BK Thapar, opcit., p.
41.)]

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Mitathal near Khetri was a culture closely parallel to that of Kalibangan. Many copper hoard sites
(Atranjikhera, Lal Quila, Jhunjhuna and Narsipur) are associated with Ochre Coloured Pottery (ca.
2650 BCE) (BK Thapar, opcit., p. 101).

The pre-

Sarasvati and Sarasvati cultures are seen to be urban and rural aspects of a homogenous and
interacting cultural phenomenon and not as two distinct entities. (A. Ghosh, Harappan Pottery,
Puratattva, No. 6. 1972-73, p. 38).

Microlithic Sites in Rajasthan

Microlithic Sites in Rajasthan (After V.N.Misra, 1984, Climate, a factor in the rise and fall of the
Indus Civilization—Evidence from Rajasthan and Beyond, in: B.B.Lal and S.P. Gupta, eds.,
Fronters of the Indus Civilization, Fig. 48.2).
However, in eastern Rajasthan, which is a semi-humid region, “in the valleys of the Banas and its
tributaries in the districts of Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara, Ajmer and Tonk, a large number of
settlements of the Ahar culture dated between 2100 BC and 1200 BC have been found. (loc.cit.
V.N.Misra, 1984, Climate, a factor in the rise and fall of the Indus Civilization—Evidence from
Rajasthan and Beyond, in: B.B.Lal and S.P. Gupta, eds., Fronters of the Indus Civilization, p. 468).
Further north in Bharatpur, Jaipur and Sikar districts, a number of settlements of Ochred Coloured
Pottery (OCP) and Ganeshwar cultures have been found in the valleys of the rivers Banganga,

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Gambhir, Dohan, Krishnavati and Kantli that rise in the northern flanks of the Aravallis and flow
north-east into the Yamuna or northward into the sandy plains of Haryana. The Ganeshwar culture
sites in this area, particularly those in Sikar district, are very rich in copper objects.” (Agrawala,
R.C., 1981, Recent explorations in Rajasthan, Man and Environment, 5: 59-63).

A circular potter's kiln, waste products of marine shells, conch, waste of semi precious stones,
unfinished beads all suggest some kind of crafts specialisation of the people of Rakhigarhi, who also
seem to have brought lapiz beads from Afghanistan and conch from Kutchchh. "They must have had
extra regional contacts," infers archaeologist Amrendranath. A copper fishing hook and plenty of
animal bones have been found. While the identification process is still on, bones of buffaloes, goats,
neelgai, antelope, peacocks have been confirmed. Among the metal objects are gold beads, a gold
head band, a white metal bangle, possibly of silver, and copper bangles. A cylindrical seal with five
Harappan characters on one side and a symbol of an alligator on the other is an unusual find from
this Harappan site.

Among the terra-cotta, animal figurines outnumber others: they include cattle stock, and seals of
dogs with collars. They found a few human figures that were crude as also some balance, weights,
utensils. One of the mounds has yielded extended burials, but without the associated finds like pots
and pans. "What is bothering us is that below the burial levels, we have found regular habitational
deposit. It shows that at a very late stage, the site was deserted and used as a burial ground." says
Amrendranath. The five mounds by themselves make Rakhigarhi unique, though they are
interconnected. "It seems some site had the grid iron, identical planning. And some like Banawali
and Rakhigarhi had different kind of planning," he adds.

Kunal: Excavations in Kunal on the banks of the ancient-now dry-Sarasvati, in Haryana, exposed
three phases of habitation of early Harappan culture. In the earliest phase man lived in pits, in the
next the pits were lined with mud bricks, and finally the bricks were piled one on top of the other,
and houses were square and rectangular in shape. Among the important things found were two silver
crowns with a tiara each, an armlet, a necklace, some bangles, six disc-shaped gold beads weighing
a total of 34 grams, and more than 12,000 beads of semi-precious stones like carnelian, agate,
steatite, shell, and lapis lazuli. Pre-Harappan and Harappan are not two different cultures, but one
continuing process of a single civilisation, excavations at Kunal have shown. Typically, the pre-
Harappan phase is marked by the absence of seals and writing. The patterns on the pottery were
geometrical, biochrom paintings in black and white. The dimension of bricks was 1x2x3, and there
was no sign of the peepal leaf. There were no triangular terra-cotta cakes to be seen. In the Harappan
culture there were seals and utensils with writing, pottery carried motifs of trees, plants, birds,
animals and fish, and the dimension of the brick was 1x2x4. Pipal leaf was a standard motif, and
triangular and other terra-cotta cakes were strewn on many Harappan sites. In Kunal, archaeologists
found all these in one go! There were seals without scripts, but pottery with graffiti from which have
clearly evolved many of their scripts. There were geometric patterns as well as natural motifs like
peacocks, cranes, bull, and a variety of pipal leaves. Bricks of the pre-Harappan type were found in
the second phase and the third phase has houses each of which has used both types of bricks. "Kunal
demonstrates the technological development of a culture over a time period," says archaeologist
Acharya.

Once upon a time, there lived in Mohenjodaro and Harappa on the Indus Valley a highly organised
and urbanised people. Their towns and cities were so well planned that we have not been able to
replicate that in India today. Their residences were in blocks and their drainages were far superior to

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the dirty open nullahs you see in Amritsar or Delhi. They had private granaries, forts and
fortifications, sprawling upper, middle and lower towns. They were great mariners, manufacturing
goods and trading them far and near. They may not have had currency, but their seals, pottery, arts
and crafts suggest that they had a sense of mathematical proportion, standardisation, precision and a
writing system. Overnight, their towns were destroyed, and they were driven out, probably by a
hoard of horse-riding, fair-skinned aliens. Then followed the Dark Ages, till the birth of Buddha in
600 BC. That is roughly what children learn about ancient Indian history. There is not a clue in the
textbooks as to who built that fabulous civilisation, and where they came from. And why did the
aliens destroy the towns instead of occupying them? The chapter on the Indus Valley civilisation,
and much of ancient Indian history, has to be rewritten, say archaeologists who have been working
on the Harappan sites.

Pattan
Minara,
Hindu
Temple
on the
banks
of

Sarasvati River (as seen in pre-


Independence days before
conservation) (After Mughal, 1997,
Pl. 23) This could possibly be one of
the oldest temples comparable to the
later-day Durga Temples,
anticipating the stu_pa, s’ikhara-
and gopura-styles. The association
of Sarasvati_ River with homage to
the ancestors is notable. (cf.
Balarama’s pilgrimage along the
banks of the Sarasvati River, as
recounted in detal in the Great Epic,
discussed elsewhere).

Pattan Minara, Temple (of


Sarasvati_ or Su_rya_) on the banks
of Sarasvati River. (Brick
decorated). (After Mughal, 1997, Pl.

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22)

The lesson being taught is based only on the excavation of Mohenjodaro and Harappa, the first
Indus sites to come to light, in 1921-22. Excavations in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan in the last
50 years have shown that the Indus Valley civilisation was not just the story of two towns, it
touched Manda on the Beas in the north,
Bhagattrao on the Tapti in Maharashtra, stretched
to Alamgir on the Hindon in the east, and in the
west to Satkangedor near eastern Iran! An area of
1.25 million square kilometres. The civilisation
included metros like Mohenjodaro, Harappa,
Ghaneriwala (in Pakistan), Dholavira and
Rakhigarhi; towns like Lothal, Surkotda, Banawali
and Kalibangan, and villages like Kunal. The
excavations exposed not just a town or city, but an
earlier settlement beneath it, and an even earlier
one further down. According to archaeologist
Ravindra Singh Bhist (pic: above), before the
mature Harappan stage, many regional cultures-
Amri, Kot dirji, Kalibangan, Dholavira and Lothal-had coalesced into the cultural umbrella of
Harappa. They were strongly bound by common
economic compulsions, system and cultural ethos. Could
it have been an internal conflict-a civil war of sorts-that
brought them to ruin? Bhist says: "Every raja wanted to
be the emperor. And so the break-up. And now we have
the continuous history of India, from 7000 BC to 600
BC to date. No dark ages." History books have to be
revised not only in the context of the Harappan culture,
but also other things, these archaeologists suggest. "If
we followed history books, the whole civilisation would
start and end with Harappa and Mohenjodaro," says
Amarendranath. "Nobody teaches students about
Kalibangan, which was exposed in the early 60s." He
also laments the fact that there is no matching of
literature and excavations. [THE WEEK, July 26,
1998].

Pattan Minara Temple. Close-up of the niche one one


side. (After Mughal, 1997, Pl. 21).The Sarasvati Quest
1985.

Early Historical Sites and Forts along the Ghaggar-


Hakra in Bahawalpur province and Sind (After Mughal,
1997, Fig. 7) Dr. LP Tessitori recorded a number of
ancient sites and monuments in Bikaner, during 1916 and 1918 and excavated mounds (theris)
connected with the ‘necropolis of the Johiyas, the descendants of the ancient Yaudheyas.’ (Annual
report of the Archaeological Survey of India, 1917-18, Calcutta, 1920: 21-23). Aurel Stein further

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explored sites in Bikaner and Bahawalpur, in 1940-41; the Bikaner area was resurveyed in 1951 and
1953 by A.Ghosh who recorded more than 100 sites. Rang Mahal, Kalibangan, Siswal and Mitathal
were later excavated. The forts located in Cholistan are: Bara, Bijnot, Bhagla, Derawar,
Duhienwala, Falji, Islamgarh, Jamgarh, Kandera, Khairgarh, Khangarh, Liara, Machki, Marot,
Mirgarh, Mojgarh, Murid, Nawan kot, Phulra. The early historical period settlement sites are at: 323
Basti Arain (710 9’ 48”N; 280 39’ 13”E), 2 Chak (730 0’ 25”N; 290 12’ 05”E), 190- Kakkarhar
Tibba (710 18’ 17”N; 280 49’ 50”E), 361 Pattan Minara (700 20’ 14”N; 280 19’ 51”E), 103 Sui
Vihar (Buddhist: Kanis.ka dynasty period) (710 28’ 47”N; 290 14’ 55”E), 103a Zahir Pir Tibba (710
21’ 25”N; 290 10’ 41”E); medieval period sites are at: Bhagla, Chak, Derawar, Islamgarh, Jamgarh,
Kandaiwali (Kandera Ther), Khairgarh, Khangarh, Kot Ghunia, Kotla Musa Khan, Kot Murid,
Machki, Malka Dahar, Mirgarh, Mojgarh, Rajarwala Dara, Rukanpur, Sanrani Baluch,, Sukkarwala,
Swetra, Tillu Ther, Uchh Sharif. Further to the Northeast, there is the famous fortress of Sirsa
(Sarasvati Nagar). It will be interesting to re-visit all the early historical and medieval period sites to
evaluate the continuity of the settlements after the Late Harappan. The most significant monument
on the banks of the Sarasvati (Ghaggar-Hakra) are those in Pattan Minara, Marot and Sui Vihar.
There are scores of forts near Jaisalmer, the early historical site of Rang Mahal (near Suratgarh, on
the banks of the Sarasvati River)

Sirsa may refer to the Sarasvata Nagar, a place visited by Arjuna on his way back to Hastinapur
from Dwaraka where he witnessed the war between the Vr.s.n.is and
the Yadavas. The Sarasvata Nagar was west of Kuruks.etra and Arjuna
reached this place after crossing the five rivers of Punjab. He donated
this town to Yuyudhani, the son of Satyaki. During his journey, Arjuna
also visits Martikavat, Sakraprastha and Indraprastha. . This journey
was almost replicated by the Sarasvati Quest group led by M.N. Pingle
and V. S. Wakankar, between 19 Nov. 1985 and 20 Dec. 1985,
traveling from Adh Badri (Dist. Ambala) to Somnath (Prabha_sa,
Gujarat).

Buddhist Stupa, Sui Vihar, near Bahawalpur (Remains as seen in


1870). (Afther Mughal, 1997, Fig. 7A).

“The roots of ‘Sarhind ‘or ‘Vah’ (which join the Chautang at


Bhatnagar) are found near Roopad (Rupar) at the foot of the
Himalayas where Sutlej rises and flows down elsewhere leaving the aforesaid ancient course...The
bed of ‘Hakara’ or ‘Sotar’ is 5 to 8 kms. within the loength of 160 km. The bed is full of black
fertile soil and both the banks have a sandy surface. The local peo;le even today name it as
Sarasvati...Sri Yudhavir Singh, a Member of Parliament, personally verified in the Documentation
center of Hissar that ‘Sarasvati’ is recorded as ‘Sarasut’ in the British Period. Records are available
for the description of Abohar Fort built in bricks. They described that during the past several
thousand years human habitations were established in the region which flourished there and were
demolished later...Sir Cunningham records four ancient hillocks on the western side of Sirasa (ASI,
Part 23, p. 11).

The excavations here revealed a Sun Temple, Yaudheya coins and beautiful statues (now
disfigured). Cunningham records that the Sarasvati City (present-day Mustafabad) was destroyed 21
times since the third century AD (Indian Archaeology Today, p. 17)...’manus.’ in the R.gveda is the
present day ‘manasa’ near Bathinda. Dr. V.S. Agrawal is of the view that Bhadrakar, Toshayana,

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Ishukar and Roni, the four cities of the times of Pa_n.ini, are the present Tohana, Bhadra, Hissar and
Rosi. Asika is Hansi today. Agrodaka is Agroha between Sirsa and Hissar. The forts of Bhatinda
and Bhataner were supposed to be invincible even in Medieval period. Goga Chouhan and Gorvan
Teele are the ancient temples of Gogamari whereas the remnants of the Buddha period have been
found at Tosham...Alberuni has written in his memoirs that when Mohammed Gazni invaded
Bharath the learned citizens of Sarasvati Nagar escaped into Kashmir, Benares and other safer
places...a stone inscription describing clearly the Sarasvati Nagar, related to Parmar Bhoja Raja and
discovered at Sirasa (Sarasvat Nagar) was available at the Museum of Archaeology Department,
Gwalior...

Farishta and other writers have written, in the book Khitta-A-Sarasvati (Country of Sarasvati), on
how decisive wars were fought at Bhatinda and Nakhara. During the time of Ebnatoota, the first of
invaders, Sarasvati Nagar was a big city. He reached the city via Multan, Aabohar and Aajodhan
and reached Sarasvati. The third invader Firoj Shaha also reached Sarasvati Nagar through Multan
and Aajodhan. At Sarasvati Nagar he had collected lakhs of ‘taks’, the then currency, as tax and
changed the name of the city as ‘Fatehabad’. Akbar later included this city in Hissar District...In the
Punjab Gazetteer (Vol. 2A, p. 254) it is said that Sirasa was one of the most ancient of the cities of
Bharat. Sir Cunningham discovered a Surya Mandir (Sun temple) and the Yaudheya coins tghere. A
fort of the third century discovered there, he says, was perhaps demolished as many as twelve times.
This area of the city is presently recognized as Mustafabad...that day would be a golden day if the
name so close to Sarasvati culture is renamed Sarasvati Nagar...Ambaji mountain (Gujarat)...

At Koteshvar one stream of the Sarasvati flows underneath. After playing hide and seek the River
finally emerges up the surface at Siddapur to meet the Nalasarovar. The mountains, here, are known
as ‘Mainaka’. This range of the Ambaji mountains is the source of Gurjar Sarasvati.”

“This area would therefore qualify fot the most highly urbanized locality of the entire civilization,
beginning in the first half of the third millennium, not the second. Moreover, the demonstrated
presence of a 225 hectare site at Lakhmirwala in the Early Harappan Stage would demand a
thorough rethinking of the culture history of the Early Harappan. No one should believe that there is
so much known about Indus culture history, or the urbanization process that took place there in the
third millennium, that it would be impossible for a new discovery like this to be ruled out simply
because it does not fit present theory…the size of these settlements has important implications that
cannot be resolved without excavation.” (Possehl, G.L., 1999, p. 701).

The name ‘mansa’ for the tehsil and the name of a lake in the area called Manasa Sarovar, is also
significant in the context of the use of ‘manasa’ in R.gveda while describing the Sarasvati River.
There is a distinct possibility that the three large sites of Lakhmirwala, Gurni Kalan One and
Hasanpur Two were located on the old courses of Sutlej as the river started migrating westwards
with consequent migration of people along these palaeochannels (called Naiwals) which were
joining the Sarasvati River System. Definitive chronology can be established only after detailed
excavations are done. The excavations at Ropar did indicate a pre-Harappan phase with Sothi-
Siswal ceramics followed by or contemporaneous with Mature Harappan artifacts such as jars, celts,
terracotta bangles, beads of steatite, faience and carnelian (Sharma, Y.D., 1989, Ropar. In, A.
Ghosh, ed., An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. 2 Vols. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal
Publishers, Vol. 2: 377-81).

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The extent of the civilization area (about 700,000 sq. kms.) was twice the size of ancient Egypt and
Mesopotamia. With over 2,500 settlements discovered so far, about 2,000 of the ancient settlements
were on the Sarasvati River Basin. Most of these sites are small villages or hamlets (between 1 and
10 hectares) and a few were larger towns and cities (10 to 50 hectares).

Lakhmirwala (290 52’N, 750 22’E), Gurnikalan, Hasanpur Two in Mansa tahsil of Bhatinda District
(Joshi, JP., 1986, Madhu Bala, 1992, Archaeology of Punjab. Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan: 43-5)..
Sketch map (After Possehl, G.L. 1999, Fig. 4.169).

The eight large cities identified are: Mohenjodaro (+200 ha.), Harappa (+150 ha.), Dholavira (100
ha.), Ganweriwala (80 ha.), Rakhigarhi (224 ha.), Lakhmirwala (225 ha.), Gurnikalan (144 ha.) and
Hasanpur (100 ha.), the last three are in Mansa Tahsil of Bhatinda District, Punjab. The eight
centres supported hundreds of village settlements and farming or pastoral communities. Manasa (as
a lake) is mentioned in the R.gveda together with Dr.s.advati and Apaya_, firmly establishing the
locus of the Vedic civilization; the locus is coterminus with the archaeological sites on the Sarasvati
River Basin. The relative chronology of Vedic culture and Harappan civilization will unravel as the
meanings of inscriptions found in archaeological sites get unraveled.

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Archaeological settlements in Sarasvati River Basin: Kalibangan, Bana_wali, Ra_khigarhi.
[After Joshi and Bisht, 1994]. Palaeo-channel of Hakra, in Cholistan, as an extention of Sarasvati
flowing from Thar Desert, After Mughal 1997.

Excepting Mohenjodaro and Harappa, all the other six sites are on thee Sarasvati River Basin.
Harappa on the left bank of River Ravi was indeed on the right bank of the River Sarasvati (when
River Sutlej had joined the River Sarasvati at Shatrana, thus making it possible for people from
Kalibangan to commute by road to Harappa. Mohenjodaro was an island caught between the
Western Nara loop and the River Sindhu. As we have noted elsewhere, the River Nara was an
extension of the River Sarasvati in the province of Sind.

Rakhigarhi: This site was earmarked for excavation in the 60s, but work began only in December
1997. An area of 224 ha. has been acquired, making it the largest site of the civilization, almost
three times as large as Mohenjo-daro. The intervening years saw people lifting seals and other
antiquities and selling them off to foreigners. The first season of excavation has covered very little
ground: about 30 metres by 60 metres, small for a Harappan site that has the potential of being
another Dholavira. One of the five mounds atop the Harappan site belongs to the wakf board and
two are thickly populated. Yet the excavation yielded enormous archaeological evidence: a very
good granary, similar to the one at Banawali, was found. One of the cells had real barley.

Lots of other grains were also found. An animal sacrificial pit lined with mud bricks and triangular
and circular fire altars on the mud floor have also been excavated. Streets, lanes, and a covered
drainage system of the Harappan type are also there. Archaeologists also found hearths containing
evidence of shell burning for preparing lime (choona). They have yet to infer whether the residents
of Rakhigarhi chewed betel leaves with choona, but lime paste has other uses, and they presume it
was used to make paste beads, which have been found.

"According to R.D. Oldham (1886), it was Sutlej (Shatadru) not Sarasvati, whose lower course has
been referred to in literature as Hakra, Sankra, Wandan, Wahind and Nara. Ruling out that the
Eastern Nara was a deserted bed of the Indus, he stated that its upper portion comprised Hakra, a
channel along which Shatadru once flowed. In his map, an ancient channel continuous from Nara
can be traced with the dry bed of Hakra, following through Bahawalpur and Bikaner. According to
this worker, Hakra was thus the old bed of the Sutlej, which joined up with the Nara till the 11th

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century. Prior to the 11th century it did not join the Beas as it does today, but instead pursued an
independent course to the sea...

Derawar, Bahawalpur province; pile of potsherds and modern pottery kiln amidst habitation area
close to the Derawar fort; these are analogous to the pottery firing sites of the Harappan period.
(After Mughal, 1997, Pl. 28). (Dry bed of Wandan, Wahind, Sotra, Hakra or Sankra; and ancient
drainage of western Indian sub-continent, After
Oldham 1886).

Two significant aspects of PGW culture should be


noted: (1) the vast area covered; and (2) the PGW
assemblage is very limited. “From Lakhiyo Pir in Sind
to S’ravasti in Uttar Pradesh it is about 1,400 km., and
from Gharinda in Punjab to Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh,
about 900 km., a span which compares with that of the
Indus Civilization...Although the culture is designated
after Painted Grey Ware...this pottery constituted only
5 to 10 percent of the total ceramic assemblage.” (Lal, B.B.,1992, The Painted Grey Ware culture of
the Iron Age, in: Dani, A.H. and V.M. Masson, eds., The Dawn of Civilization: Earliest Times to
700 BC, UNESCO: 421-440). Most of the PGW pottery was in fact, red ware, some slipped but
mostly unslipped. Most of the PGW sites are small on an average, ranging from 1.1 to 2.1 hectares,
the largest site being Satwadi (13.7 hectares) in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. After the fall of the urban
centers on the banks of the Sindhu and Sarasvati Rivers, the move was to an equally large area as
the

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Harappan civilization but splintering off into smaller settlements compared to the size of urban
settlements of the Mature Harappan period.

Ancient settlement patterns

That there are no major sites west of Ropar on the River Sutlej is a clear indication that the present-
day course of the River Sutlej is a result of river migration and tectonic disturbances evidenced by
the almost westward 90-degree turn of the present-day course of River Sutlej at Ropar. The satellite
image analyses have established that the River Sutlej was the anchorage river of River Sarasvati,
joining the latter at Shatrana where the width of the palaeo-channel (ancient course) is as wide as 20
kms. In contrast to the absence of settlements west of Ropar, there are a number of settlements on
the palaeo-channels (Naiwals) of River Sutlej as they trend North-South toward River Sarasvati.

"This dense concentration of sites on dead rivers is in sharp contrast to their scarcity or absence on
the two perennial rivers of the region, namely the Sutlej and Yamuna_. Thus, for example, of the
Early and Mature Harappan periods, only two sites of each are found on the Sutlej, both near Rupar
where the river emerges from the Siwaliks. Of the Late Harappan period, only seven sites are found
on this river, all of them in the upper reaches close to the hills. There is a complete absence of sites
once the river enter the plains. Similarly, on the Yamuna_, Harappan sites of all periods are
conspicuous by their total absence whereas they are present in strength in the non-riverine region to
the west of the Yamuna_, and those of Mature and Late Harappan, particularly the latter, are present
in large numbers on small tributary streams between the Yamuna_ and the Ganges. It will be clear
from the above account that the focus of the Harappan Civilization was not on the Indus and its
tributaries but on the Ghaggar-Hakra and its tributaries which flowed between the Indus and the
Ganges rivers." (V.N.Misra, opcit., p. 514).

"Of the 1400 sites known in India and Pakistan (as of 1984), as many as 1097 (nearly 80%) are
located on the vast plain between the Indus and the Ganges, comprising the Cholistan region in the
Bahawalpur District of Punjab (Pakistan), The Ganganagar District of Rajasthan, Haryana, PUnjab
and western Uttar Pradesh. They range in time from the Hakra Ware Culture of the fourth-third
millennia BC to Late Harappan Culture (including its variant, Ochre Coloured Pottery (OCP) of the
late second millennium BC)... Two of the largestsettlements of the Harappan Civilization --
Ganweriwala Ther in Bahawalpur and Rakhigarhi in Haryana-- are located in this region... in the
Cholistan Desert the densest concentration of protohistoric sites...occurs...south of the confluence of
the Chenab and Sutlej rivers, roughly between longitudes 71deg. and 72deg. east. The oldest
protohistoric sites, namely those of the pre-Early Harappan Hakra Ware Culture, are confined to the
Cholistan region but some of their ceramic elements are known to extend into the adjoining
Ganganagar District of Rajasthan.. only 44 sites are located in Sind on, and in the vicinity of the
Indus... The total absence of Harappan sites and abundance of PGW sites on the Yamuna_ is
eloquent proof that this river was not flowing in its present channel during Harappan times but had
shifted to it during PGW times.

Internal southward migrations away from the Sarasvati river basin

Post-Sarasvati chalcolithic cultures emerge along river courses, in Western Bharat, characterised by
rectangular houses with foundation, plinth, mud bricks and burnt bricks, large culha-s (kitchen fire-
places), and copper smelting furnaces: Kayatha (2000 to 1800 BCE); Ahar (2000 to 1400 BCE);
Malwa (1700 to 1200 BCE), Prabhas (1800 to 1200 BCE), Rangpur (1500 to 1200 BCE); Navdatoli

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(1700 to 1200 BCE); Jorwe (1400 to 700 BCE); Nagda (1700 to 1400 BCE); and Eran (1700 to
1400 BCE). Evidence of a mudbrick basion and rampart was found at Nagda and a fortified wall
and moat were founda t Eran. Out of 200 sites of Jorwe culture, the regional centres were: Prakash
(Tapi rive valley), Daimabad (Godavari river valley), and Inamgaon (Bhima river valley). At
Inamgaon, over 130 houses were discovered indicating planned settlements, storage jars, pits,
separate houses for the chief, the artisans, potters, lime-makers, goldsmiths, indicating a
continuation of Sarasvati culture urban living patterns. (MK Dhavalikar, Chalcolithic cultures,
Puratattva, No. 13 and 14, 1985, pp. 64-65).

“The succeeding Mesolithic phase is represented by a large number of sites across the desert (Misra,
1977; Allchin et al, 1978). Virtually on every dune in the region Mesolithic artifacts can be found.
This proliferation seems due almost certainly to (1) amelioration of climate during late Pleistocene
to mid-Holocene and consequent increase in food resources and human population; and (2)the
introduction of new technological traits like the bow and arrow, mace-heads, slings, querns and
rubbers which contributed to greater successes in hunting and the processing of raw foods. The size
of the sites extends upto 10,000 sq. m. as at Tilwara in Barmer district in the Luni valley...Evidence
from Bagor in Bhilwara district (eastern Aravallis) indicates that the Mesolithic people had also
taken to stock-raising in addition to hunting and gathern...Radiocarbon dates from Bagor take the
antiquity of Mesolithic culture to –6500 BP (Misra, 1977), while TL dates from the Mesolithic
artifacts bearing buried dune soils near Didwana range from 16,000 to 6,000 BP (Wasson et al,
1983)…(agriculture in the desert)…the valley of the Ghaggar-Hakra (Sarasvati of the Rigvedic
period) river along the northern and western margins of the Thar which carried water till the end of
the second millennium BC” (Singhvi, A.K. and Kar, Amal, eds., 1992,Thar Desert, pp. 89-91)

Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat; rural settlements. The clusters link up the Little Rann of Kutch, Lothal

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and through Rojdi to Somnath (Prabhas). The typical finds were microbeads and dishes-on-stand.
(After R.N.Mehta, Some Rural Harappan Settlements in Gujarat, in: Possehl, ed., Harappan
Civilization, 1982, p. 169). It is surmised that the ancient course of the Sarasvati_ River did link up
with the Gulf of Khambat (Lothal) and also Prabhas.

There are indications of a pre-Harappan culture in Rajasthan. Bagor located on the left-bank of
Kothari river and 25 km. west of Bilwara in eastern Rajasthan had a microlith industry (5000-2800
B.C.)(Sankalia, 1974, The Pre-history and Proto-history of India and Pakistan, Pune, Deccan
College, 260-64); the chalcolithic phase at this side yielded bits of copper/bronze, one spearhead,

one thin rod and three arrowheads (ca. 2800 B.C.) Jodhpura located on the right bank of river Sabi,
near Jaipur and Ganeshwar, 15 km. from Neem-ka-Thana (37.40N and 75.51E) yielded over 1000
copper objects (ca. 2500 B.C.): arrowheads, spearheads, fish-hooks, spiral-headed pins, celts, thin
blades, bangles, chisels. Axes were cast in mould and edges bevelled by hot and cold forging. There
is a place near Ganeshwar called Kulha_d.e-ka_-Johad. (pond of axes). Round indentations made
with pointed copper drills, in combinations of 1-6 dots, totalling between 4-16 were noticed on the
butt of the celts, indicating some ancient system of numeration. Similar indentations wre noted in
later-day celts found at Kayatha and Navdatoli. Kantali river was close to these sites and this river
linked up with the Sarasvati near Kalibangan. A copper hoard was found at Kurada (Nagaur
district): 55 rings, 21 curved thin blade or choppers, 11 chisels, 9 bowls, 7 celts. (Agrawala,
R.C.,1984, Aravalli, the major source of copper for the Indus and Indus-related cultures, in

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Frontiers of the Indus Civilization, eds. B.B.Lal, S.P. Gupta and Shashi Asthana, Delhi, Books and
Books, pp. 157-62).

Early and
Mature
Harappan
settlements,
along Ghaggar-
Hakra-Na_ra
and in delta
area of Rann of
Kutch. [After
Joshi and Bisht,
1994].

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Har-ki-Doon, where the Tons River originates from Rupin glacier, as a tributary of
Sarasvati River is 20 kms. from Netwar and 20 kms. fromYamunotri

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Seafaring artisans of Meluhha
Mesopotamian economy was characterised by acquisition of resources from distant locations even
preceding the neolithic period; for example, seashells were obtained from the Mediterranean and are
found as far back as 15,000 BCE.

Meluhhans from Sarasvati Civilization used the rivers Sarasvati and Sindhu as waterways to
traverse further into the Persian Gulf and along the long coastline of Bharat.

Meluhhan traders across the Persian Gulf

Although Anatolia has copper mines, copper is not obtained from this part of the country. The high
costs of transport make copper out of Anatolia expensive. One prefers copper from the south, that is
supplied by ship.

[Was the copper imported through Sumer, perhaps from the Khetri mines of Sarasvati-Sindhu
doab?]

Mesopotamian records refer to the lands of Meluhha, Makkan, and Dilmun. Meluhha is identified
with the Sindhu-Sarasvati Valleys, Makkan with the Makran and Omani coasts, and Dilmun with
Bahrain, Failaka, and the adjacent Arabian coastline.:

• Sargon's inscription referring to Meluhhan ships docked at Akkad.


• References to a Meluhhan ship-holder and a Meluhhan interpreter.
• Gudea of Lagash inscriptions: 'the Meluhhans came up (or down) from their country to
supply wood and other raw materials for the construction of the main temple of Gudea’s
capital.'
• References to luxury items being imported from Meluhha.
• References to a Meluhhan workers village.

By the Ur III Period, the Meluhhan (Harappan) workers residing in Sumeria had Sumerian names;
Parpola, Parpola, and Brunswig comment that 'three hundred years after the earliest textually
documented contact between Meluhha and Mesopotamia, the references to a distinctly foreign
commercial people have been replaced by an ethnic component of Ur III society' (Parpola et al.
1977:152). One explanation offered for the absence of Mesopotamian products in Meluhha is that
the products imported were perishable, such as 'garments, wool, perfumed oil, and leather products'
from Sumer (Dales 1979:144). A gulf seal, perhaps of middlemen from Dilmun, was found by S.R.
Rao at Lothal. Cylinder seals with characteristic indigenous motifs thereon were found at Sibri and
Kalibangan. Thus traders from Meluhha has their own village in a far-off location maintained over a
long span of time.

(Based on: Chris J.D. Kostman, M.A., The Indus valley civilization in search of those
elusive centers and peripheries, Originally published in JAGNES, the Journal of the
Association of Graduates in Near Eastern Studies.
http://www.adventurecorps.com/centperiph.html)

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From the late Ubaid period, a monopoly of lapis lazuli importation was held by Tepe Gawra
(northeast of Nineveh). Its archaeologically attested contacts with the western Iranian sites of Tepe
Giyan, Tepe Sialk, and Tepe Hissar point to a northern route across the Zagros mountains to
Sulaymaiya, Araba’il (modern Irbil), and Tepe Gawra. The Sumerias of the late Uruk period shifted
the lapis lazuli trade to the continuation of the Great Khorasan Road, which crossed the Zagros to
the Diyala valley and followed it south into lower Mesopotamia. They established a colony on the
acropolis of Susa (biblical Shushan, modern Shush); this was the beginning of the southern Iranian
trade route to northwestern India. The trade with India was related to carnelian from the Gujarat
peninsula. Uruk pottery is present at Yahya Tepe which is a caravan city on this road. The city had
links with Susa.

After . 3000 BCE, proto-Elamites took over Susa, Godin Tepe and other sites in Iran. At these sites,
lapis lazuli and carnelian were processed; decorated stone vases were made for export to
Mesopotamia. One of these sites is Shahr-i Shokta which was close to an area of tin deposits. Elam
controlled the supply of tin which was a major commodity of international trade during the Bronze
Age. Proto-Elamites devised a script of their own similar to the proto-literate Sumeria script.
Elamites established the link by land and sea between Mesopotamia and the SSVC (which the
Sumerians and Akkadians called Melukkha).

Lapiz lazuli was acquired from Badakhshan, northeastern Afghanistan, more than 2,000 kms. from
Tepe Gawra where c. 3500 BCE, over 500 beads were found in mortuary deposits and also in the
royal cemetery at Ur. The city of Aratta (may be located in central Iran) was an intermediate point
for shipment of lapis. In Shahr-i Sokhta, a workshop revealed the processing of lapis for further
shipment to west and south. ‘Finds of lapis made along the Aabo-Persian Gulf indicate an
interregional trading network that, by the mid-third millennium BCE, extended from Central Asia to
the Iranian Plateau, to the Indus Valley, to the Persian Gulf, and to Mesopotamia.’ (p. 1391).

“Gulf Trade. By the late fourth millennium, goods from the Persian Gulf, especially shell artifacts are
consistently found in Mesopotamian sites. The most important resource of the Gulf region was copper,
which occurs in large quantities in Oman. In the early third millennium, copper was primarily a luxury --
for example, it was cast (by the lost-wax process) into ritual objects -- although it was also employed in
the making of agricultural tools and weapons. The pre-Sargonic kings of Lagash, at the end of the early
Dynastic period, reported trade with Dilmun, which includes the modern island of Bahrain, and Sargon
boasted that ships from Magan (the southern Gulf) and Melukkha (the Indus valley) sailed into his ports.
In the time after Sargon, copper became a necessity, being accounted in bureaucratic texts of the Ur III
and Old Babylonian periods by weight as well as numbers of, for example, agricultural implements.
Presumably, when the tools were broken in the field the pieces were brought into palace workshops and
resmelted. Since copper could be obtained not only from the Gulf but also from Iran and Anatolia,
southern Mesopotamians were favourably situated to exploit its traffic. The island of Bahrain served as
an entrepot for goods flowing through the Gulf hat could be transhipped to Mesopotamia. Today the
island is covered with tens of thousands of ancient tumuli (burial mounds) dating to the late third and
early second millennia...In Mesopotamian texts it is reported that massive shipments of barley were made
to Bahrain; indeed, one text records a load of 187,500 gallons (714,000 litres) of grain, enough to feed
the entire estimated population of Bahrain for ten to twenty weeks. As a result of its role n the copper
trade, therefore, Bahrain experienced prosperity and population growth, well beyond its local means to
support. When a collapse in the centralized Mesopotamian state occurred toward the end of the Old
Babylonian period ad trade to the south became impractical, both social and political organizations in
Bahrain were irrevocably altered.” (pp. 1391-1392).

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karai = 1. shore of a sea; 2. bank, bund as of a tank; 3. bound, limit; 4. ridge of a field; 5. border of a
cloth; 6. side, prozimity, usu, in compounds, as; 7. place; 8. word; 9. large division of co-parcenary land
in a village consisting of dry and wet lands and garden fields (Tamil.lex.)

ka_rum = dock or quay; the word came to mean ‘merchant quarter’ because merchants brought their
goods to the dock via rivers and canals; there they conducted their business and often lived. Karum
Kanesh is an Anatolian settlement where Assyrian merchants lived.

Economics of Ancient Tin

“Assyrian merchants...in a fifty-year period one hundred thousand bolts of textiles and eighty tons of tin
were transported. Some of the textiles were described as ’Akkadian’ and presumably were acquired from
Babylonia by Assyrian merchants. The source of tin was more mysterious, the best guess being
Afghanistan. (Although new research shows the presence of tin in the Taurus Mountains of Anatolia, the
texts clearly state that tin was brought to Anatolia...in Asshur, where was silver was scarce, the silver-to-
tin ratio was about 1: 15, whereas in Anatolia, where silver comparatively plentiful, the ratio was about
1:7. If fifteen units of tin could be economically transported from Asshur to Anatolia, two units of silver
could be obtained. These two units of silver could then be brought back to Asshur and turned into thirty
units of tin. Assuming a constant demand, the knowledge of where and how to get tin, and the technology
of how to move the tin to Anatolia, great profit could be and was made by the Assyrian merchants...

“Study of Old Assyrian trade has refuted notions of the economic historian Karl Polanyi, who thought
markets and entrepreneurial behaviour did not exist in the ancient Near East.” (p. 1393).

Kingship

“Third millennium...Mesopotamia...Kingship emerged not from a prior temple-dominated city-state but


alongside the temples. As a result of endemic warfare among city-states in the first half of the third
millennium, over the best arable land access to trade routes, kings gradually centralized their power, in
some cases buying land from extended families. Those community members were no necessarily
removed from their traditional lands but became dependents of the crown and had to pay taxes and do
service for the crown.” (p. 1394).

[Norman Yaffee, The economy of ancient Western Asia in: Jack M. Sasson, ed., 1995, Civilizations of
the ancient Near East, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons].

Location of Melukkha and contact zones with the Western regions

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“Gods could be carried by oxen-drawn wagons, But in general wagons were used for loads too
donkey-drawn light carts, or pack donkey. bulky and heavy to be carried on donkeyback.
(Camels we not domesticated until aout 1100.) It Mari tablets speak of wagon transport of battering
is believed that the invention of the wheel and its rams and siege towers, but most often they refer
application to carrying loads by wagon instead of to timber...Long-distance traffic was usually
by sled took place in Sumer during the Uruk conducted by means of packs carried by donkeys.
period. The construction of the wagons was Donkey caravans were able to follow the most
improved in the early Dynastic period. The solid primitive pats and the narrowest mountain
wheel was replaced by a spoked one, which trails...The load of an individual donkey, as
revolved on the axle instead of along with it. The attested by Old Assyrian texts, varied from 130
Vulture Stela of Eannatum of Lagash (modern minas (65 kilograms, or 143 pounds) to 150 minas
Tell al-Hiba) depicts the use of a four-wheeled (75 kilograms, or 165 pounds).
wagon as a battle vehicle. In Babylonia, with its
network of navigable rivers and canals, wagons “Water transport. As in all times, the cheapest
were used only for sort hauls -- for example, to way of carrying sizable quantities of goods was
bring grain to local granaries. Farther north, on by water...The two great rivers provided
the middle Euphrates, in upper Mesopotamia, and interregional water connections for Babylonia: the
in Syria, they played a greater role. The Ebla texts Euphrates with north-eastern Mesopotamia and
contain numerous references to two-wheeled, northern Syria, the Tigris with Assyria and the
four-wheeled, and, strangely, three-wheeled upper Tigris basin...It was much more economical
wagons (with the third wheel perhaps a spare). to sail only one way, downstream, by
We hear o a four-wheeled ‘house-wagon‘ of the dismountable crafts -- round boats of rawhide
queen (probably a covered wagon). In Mari stretched on a frame of osier, or rafts supported by
(modern Tell Hariri) of the middle Bronze age, inflated sheepskins -- and to return by land...”
wagons were also used for transport of
passengers, especially of high-ranking women.
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[Michael C. Astour, Overland trade routes in “Dilmun...Dilmun‘s importance lay rather in its
ancient Western Asia in: Jack M. Sasson, ed., role as a broker, for through it were channeled
1995, Civilizations of the ancient Near East, New goods from much farther afield. In the late early
York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, pp. 1401-1420]. Dynastic period (about 2500), Ur-Nanshe, king of
the Sumerian city-state Lagadh, ‘had ships of
Erythraean Sea Dilmun transport timber from foreign lands‘ to his
capital (modern Tell al-Hiba), just as a late
“Precious and base metals, semiprecious stones, governor of Lagash, named Gudea, did in the mid
exotic woods, shells, ivory, spices, aromatics, and twenty-first century. In the early twenty-fourth
many other items were only obtainable far from century, Lugalbanda and Urukagina, two kings of
the centres of political, religious, and economic Lagash, imported copper from Dilmun and paid
power in Egypt and Mesopotamia...many of the for it with wool, silver, fat, and various milk and
most desirable foreign materials arrived by sea, cereal products...It was not unknown at Lagash to
originating in the lands bordering on that vast belt dedicate bronze models of so-called Dilmun boats
of water that links, rather than divides east Africa, to the godess Nanshe in commemoration of a
the Arabian peninsula, Iran and the Indian successfully completed journey... Dilmun‘s
subcontinent. In the fifth century BCE the Greek particular character was expressed in economic
historian Herodotus christened this body of water transactions by the use of an immediately
the Erythraean Sea...the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, identifiable and at the same time highly decorative
Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and type of circular stamp seal. In the ancient near
Persian or Arabian Gulf... East both stamp and cylinder seals were employed
for the witnessing of an act, the validation of a
“Dilmun, Magan and Melukkha...the countries document, the confirmation of an agreement, the
which lay alongside the Lower Sea to the south of identification of a party to a transaction, the
Babylon...Even as late as the seventeenth century, certification of the accuracy of a stated quantity,
we find that when the Neo-Assyrian monarch and the protection of the rights of an individual or
Esarhaddon sough to surpass the grandiose title institution. While the cylinder seal was long the
‘king of kings‘, he styled himsel ‘king of the favoured means for sealing in Mesopotamia,
kings of Dilmun, Magan and Melukkha‘...In the different types of seals were developed in other
Sumerian myth Enki and the World Order, Enki regions, often with a form that made their
‘cleaned and purified the land of Dilmun‘ and impressions immediately recognizable. This was
declared, ‘Let the mooring posts be placed or the the case in Dilmun, where the round stamp seal of
Dilmun boats! Let the Magan-boats extend to the steatite with a raised, perforated back (or boss as
horizon!’ Further he cried, ‘Let the magilum-boats it is usually called) was common. Examples of
of Melukkha transport gold and silver for these seals have been found by the hundreds on
exchange!’ ...There are additional references that Failaka, a small island off the coast of Kuwait
describe the resources of these lands: ‘The land where a satellite settlement of Dilmunites from
Tukris shall transport gold from Kharali, lapis farther south was established early in the second
lazuli, and bright...to you. The land Melukkha millennium. Many seals are known from Bahrain
shall bring carnelian, desirable and precious, itself, where they have been found in the large
sissoo-wood from Magan, excellent mangroves, settlements of Qalat al-Bahrain and Sar and in
on big-ships! The land Markhashi will (bring) hundreds of grave mounds excavated in the
precious stones, dus‘ia-stones, (to hand) on the northern portion of the island. That these seals
breast. The land Magan will bring copper, strong, were used in economic transactions is proven by
mighty diorite stones, u-stones, s‘umin-stones to the discovery of two important tablets bearing
you!’ (Enki and Ninkursag, lines 1-9. Translated their impressions. One of these tablets was found
by B. Alster.)... at Susa, and dates to the first half of the second
millennium.

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C. 1925 BCE (10th year of Gungunum of Larsa).
Tablet with seal impression from the Persian Gulf.
The tablet attests to the administrative function for
which exported seals were used. Yale Babylonian
collection, Yale University. (Potts, 1995, p. 1454).
It is a receipt for goods including ten minas of
copper (about eleven pounds or five kilograms).
“The second tablet, in the Yale Babylonian
Collection, is dated to the tenth year of “...th primary economic function of Dilmun, seen
Gungunum of Larsa (modern Tell Senkereh), that from the Mesopotamia point of iew, was as
is, around 1925, and records a consignment of purveyor of goods coming from more distan
goods (wool, wheat, and sesame) prior to a sources. As the nature of timber coming from
trading voyage that almost certainly had Dilmun Dilmun is unspecified, it is difficult to judge
as its goal. Dilmun seals characteristically depict where it may have originated, but there is no
two men drinking what could be beer through doubt that the copper came principally from the
straws, or two or three prancing gazelles. Oman Peninsula, ancient Magan.
Unidentified objects, perhaps altars and standards,
are also commonly depicted, as are palm trees, “Magan. In the so-called Lipsur litanies, a
lyre players, and both solar and lunar motifs. collection of incantations for releasing people
from bans, Magan is called ’the home of copper’.
“The most extensive group of texts dealing with Even though copper was rarely mined after the
the import of copper from Dilmun, however, dates Middle Ages (from which time a number of
to the period extending from about 1900 to 1875. important sources preserving details of mining
The texts, which come from Ur, record the regulations have survived), many nineteenth- and
activities of a merchant named Ea-nasir, who is early-twentieth-century travelers to Oman came
identified as one of the a_lik Tilmun, or ‘Dilmun back with reports of old and disused copper
traders‘. Over a dozen texts naming Eanasir, most mines...Excavations at Maysar in the Wadi Samad
of them letters were found by Sir Leonard (sultanate of Oman) have revealed not only the
Woolley in the Isin-Laras period residential various stages of ore crushing and copper
quarter at Ur in what is thought to have been Ea- refining, but also the largest hoard of bun-shaped
nasir‘s house...For the most part Ea-nasir paid for copper ingots known anywhere in he Near East.
Dilmun copper with the textiles and silver that he Magan first appeared clearly on the
received from the great Nanna-Ningal temple Mesopotamian horizon in the old Akkadian
complex at Ur. In contrast, a badly damaged, period, when ships from Magan were said by
slightly later text from the reign of the Larsa Sargon of Akkad to have docked at the quay of
monarch Rim-Sin (aound 1820-1775) reveals the his capital...The ‘Standard Inscription‘ of the Old
palace’s direct involvement, for the king himself Akkadian king Maishtushi (circa 2250) preserves
was a principal in the copper trade conducted by an account of th king‘s campaign against an
another merchant names Ur-Nanna. After the unnamed country that involved crossing the
conquest of Ur by Hammurabi (aout 1775), Lower Sea (Arabian Gulf) in a fleet of ships from
however, this once lively trade seems to have the coast of Sherikhum (modern Iran); fighting a
come to a halt, or perhaps shifted away from Ur to coalition of thirty-two cities and their lords;
another city where the documentary evidence of it advancing to the ‘metal mines‘; quarrying black-
has yet to be discovered. In any case, the only stone in the mountains; transporting the stone by
mention of Dilmun copper that postdates this ship to the capital Akkad; and finally fashioning a
period comes from the fifth year of the reign of statue of Manishtushu for the god Enlil...
Samsu-iluna (about 1750), when Dilmun copper is
mentioned in the same text as copper from “In addition to copper, such items as ochre, semi-
Alashiya (Cyprus). This is both the latest precious stones, and ivoy were also acquied in
attestation of Dilmun copper and the earliest Magan by Lu-Enlilla. It is almost absolutely
attestation of Cypriot copper in Mesopotamia... certain, however, that these last two categories of
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goods originated further east, and, like the copper Persian Gulf group (the earliest stamp-seal group
of Dilmun, were not indigenous to Magan. For known in the Gulf region), may have belonged to
ivory, in particular, we must look to the Indian Harappan residents in Dilmun and Babylonia.
subcontinent, and this brings us to a consideration These seals are distinguished by the fact that they
of a hird important place-name, Melukkha. all bear short Harappan inscriptions, possibly
personal names. The fact that the precise sign
“Melukkha. During the Old Akkadian and Ur III sequences in these inscriptions are never attested
periods, in the last third of the third millennium, on seals found in the Indus Valley itself has led
Melukkha was certainly one of the most easterly some scholars to suggest that the names
countries on contact with Babylonia. Melukkha represented are not pure Harappan ones. It is
was a source of wood (including a black wood conceivable that these sign sequences represent
thought to have been ebony), gold, ivory, and Babylonian or Dilmunite names of accultured
carnelian...That Melukkha was accessible by sea Harappans or people originally of Harappan
is made clear by the aforementioned inscription of descent. The same may apply to a short Harappan
Sargon of Akkad in which he boasts that ships inscription engraved on a prism-shaped steatite
from Dilmun, Magan, and Melukkha docked at stamp seal found in a grave at Hajjar, on Bahrain.
the quay of his capital Akkad. However, when we In this connection it is also interesting to note that
read that lapis lazuli was also acquired from the word ‘Melukkha‘ appears occasionally as a
Melukkha by Gudea, and when we recall that the personal name in cuneiform texts of the Old
only source of this highly desirable, semiprecious Akkadian and Ur III periods.
stone was in Afghanistan, then it indeed appears
likely that not everything sad to come from “Recent discoveries also point to an extensive
Melukkha in Mesopotamian sources was Harappan presence in the Oman peninsula. A
necessarily native to the region... mud-brick storeroom containing a large amount of
bitumen, possibly destined to caulk reed or
“That the language of Melukkha was wooden boats, has been excavated at Ras al
unintelligible to an Akkadian or Sumerian speaker Janaysz on the southwest coast of Oman. The
is clearly shown by the fact that, on his cylinder same complex also yielded Harappan pottery, as
seal, the Akkadian functionary Shu-ilishu is well as a fragment of a vessel with part of an
identified as a ‘Melukkha translator.’ If one incised Harappan inscription. At Asimah, in the
accepts he identification of Melukkha with the interior of northern Ras al-Khaima, more than half
Harappan civilization in India, then it follows that of the pottery recovered from a recently excavated
the language which Shu-ilishu could translate is settlement was Harppan, while at nearby Shimal a
he language known o us largely on the basis of the grave of the early second millennium contained a
inscribed, square stamp seals found by the large painted jar thought to be Harappan, as well
hundreds at the large metropolitan centres of the as a highly characteristic, polished cubical chert
Indus Valley, such as Mohenjo-Daro, Chanhu- weight of Haappan ype. Further south, two
Daro, and Harappa and in smaller numbers at Harappan weights have been found in a late-third-
many other sites. A handful of such seals, along millennium context at the large settlement of Tell
with etched carnelian beads, dice, figurines, and Abraq in Umm al-Qaiwain. Thus, all of the
various other small objects of obvious Harappan evidence points to the presence of Harappans in
origin, have been found at sites in Mesopotamia, Mesopotamia and the Arabian Gulf during the late
where they are usually interpreted as a reflection third and early second millennium, and it stands to
of contact between Babylonia and he Indus reason that at least some of them contributed to
Valley. Just as significant, however, is the the growth and maintenance of long-distance
testimony of a toponym in the territory of Lagash trade between the regions.”
during the Ur III period that may be translated
literally as ‘Melukkha village.’ This may The Location of Meluhha. In the Sumerian myth
represent a settlement of people from the Indus Enki and Ninkhursag, Melukkha figures as a
Valley, and i is equally possible that a group of supplier of ivory. Although much if not most of
eleven stamp seals, belonging to the so-called the early ivory found in Mesopotamia originated
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in the Indian subcontinent, we cannot be certain near Eastern trade with south Asia and
that the ivory of Melukkha did not come from northeast Africa, in: Jack M. Sasson, ed., 1995,
farther afield, just like the copper and timber of Civilizations of the ancient Near East, New
Dilmun. Other literary attestations of the names York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, pp. 1451-1463].
are more specific, however. In the ‘Lipshur
litanies’ we read, ‘Melukkha...is the land of Early cuneiform writing used pictograms.
Carnelian’ [Sumerian NA.GUG, Akkadian
sa_mtu]. One of the hallmarks of the Harappan http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/writing/home_s
civilization, the ancient civilization of Indus
et.html
Valley, was its extensive use of carnelian beads,
particularly those decorated with white bands,
achieved by a process of chemical etching.

Several Assyriologists and Sanskrit scholars have


suggested that the Sanskrit term mleccha Boats were used to transport
(compare Pali milakkha), meaning ‘barbarian,’ goods from southern Mesopotamia to the Gulf.
may reflect the name of the original pre-Aryan These boats were probably larger and stronger
inhabitants of India transmitted in Sumerian and than river boats. Some were made of bundles of
Akkadian as Melukkha... reeds and others After the battle, captives are
[D.T.Potts, led away by an Assyrian soldier. Three women
Distant hold their hands to their heads, weeping at the
shores: defeat of their city. One woman rests her hand
ancient on a child's head.

Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization

“...Excavations in India and Pakistan at countless sites have


revealed a civilization with a technologically sophisticated ceramic industry; a sophisticated architectural
tradition capable of construction of enormous public and private buildings out of mass-produced baked
bricks; an abundantly represented if as yet undeciphered script; a standardized system of weights and
measures; a sophisticated metallurgical technology; a highly developed level of craftsmanship in the
working of semiprecious stones, including carnelian; and a widespread technique of sealing using
beautifully carved, square stone stamp seals.

“A lengthy prehistoric sequence has been established at the important site of Mehrgah in Pakistani
Baluchistan, where an aceramic occupation beginning around 7000 BCE that formed the foundation for
the later ceramic Neolithic and Chalcolithic culture in the region has recently been documented. Despite
innovations and changes in the prehistoric sequence of the greater Indus Valley, there is an essential
thread of unity and a strong stamp of cultural identity throughout that underscores the essentially
indigenous, deeply rooted nature of Indian civilization. While points of contact with other regions are
attested, they can hardly have accounted for the strength and individuality of civilization in the
subcontinent.

“By the middle of the third millennium, what has come to be known as the Mature Harappan period
(about 2500-1900) began, and it is here that we witness the true flowering of Harappan civilization. It
was during this period that Harappan settlement reached its greatest territorial extent, with the foundation
of new towns as far north as Shortugai in Afghanistan and the establishment of maritime contacts
extending to Babylonia, Elam, Bahrain, and the Oman Peninsula. A sprinkling of finds of undoubted
Harappan manufacture outside the Indus Valley was one result of these far-flung enterprises. For
instance, the distinctive square seals of the Harappan civilization have been found in Mesopotamia and
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Iran at Kish (modern Tell Ingharra), Ur, Tell Asmar, Nippur (modern Nuffar), and Susa; Indus seal
impressions are known from Umma (Tell Jokha) and Tepe Yahya. Unmistakably Harappan cubical
weights of banded chert (based on a unit of 13.63 grams) are known from a number of sites located
around the perimetre of the Arabian Gulf, including Susa, Qalat al-Bahrain, Shimal (Ras al-Khaimah),
and Tell Abraq (Umm al-Qaiwain). An inscribed Harappan shard has been found at Ras al-Junayz, the
souheastern extremity of the Oman Peninsula, and Harappan pottey has been found at several sites
throughout Oman and the United Arab Emirates (for example, Ras al-Junayz, Asimah, Maysar, Hili 8,
Tell Abraq, and perhaps Shimal).

“On the other hand, it was not jus goods that moved around. A small number of typical Persian Gulf
stamp seals found in both Mesopotamia and the Gulf region bear short inscriptions in the Harappan script
that are thought to represent the names of acculturated Harappans living in the region. A ‘Melukkhan
village’ in the territory of the ancient city-state of Lagash, attested in the thirty-fourth year of the reign of
Shulgi (2060), may have been a settlement of Harappans, if the identification of Melukkha with the
civilization of the Indus Valley is correct.

“But while all these finds attest to the movement of Harappans into Mesopotamia and the Gulf area, there
is little evidence of a Sumerian, Akkadian, or Babylonian presence in the Indus Valley. Nonetheless,
evidence is steadily accumulating that points to constant interaction between the Iranian plateau,
Baluchistan, and the Indus Valley, and between all of these regions and the Bronze Age civilization of
Central Asia centred in what is today known as Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and
Tajikistan. Ceramics, stone objects, bronzes, and seals all attest to regular and intensive contacts between
these regions and the Indo-Iranian borderlands during the late third and early second millennia. Whether
the southward spread of central Asian material culture is linked to the diffusion of the Indo-European
languages is one of the most importan and controversial questions raised by this exciting new subfield in
Old World archaeology. What implications such movements may have had for the decline of urban
society in the Indus Valley after abou 1900 and on the appearance of the Indo-Aryans are topics that are
already being addressed by archaeologists and historians concerned with this area. It is often suggested
that the language of the undeciphered Harappan inscriptions may belong to he Dravidian family (a non-
Indo-European group of languages such as Tamil and Brahui) and many scholars believe that the
population of the Harappan civilization represented that indigenous, non-Aryan element that was
eventually defeated and for all intents and purposes driven to extinction by the heroes of Vedic culture.”

[D.T.Potts, Distant shores: ancient near Eastern trade with south Asia and northeast Africa, in: Jack
M. Sasson, ed., 1995, Civilizations of the ancient Near East, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons,
pp. 1457-1458].

Anatolia and the Caucasus

“Precious metals such as silver, gold, and tin attract merchants to the
Anatolian plateau, particularly from the northern Mesopotamian city of
Ashur. These merchants establish trading centers (karum)—such as the one
at Kanesh (modern Kültepe)—and the details of their transactions are
documented in cuneiform tablets, the earliest texts found in the region.
During the fourteenth century, the Hittite kingdom, with its capital at
Hattusha (modern Bogazköy) and religious center at Yazilikaya, creates an
empire extending into northern Syria. By around 1200 B.C., Hattusha is
violently destroyed and the Hittite empire collapses. In the Caucasus, the
earlier culture of Kura-Araxes gives way to the Trialeti culture, known for
its particular form of burial. Large mounds with extensive underground
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graves contain bronze weapons, tools, and unique artifacts in gold and silver.”
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/03/waa/ht03waa.htm

Cuneiform tablet case, 1920–1840 B.C.; Old Assyrian Trading Colony period Central Anatolia,
Kültepe (Karum Kanesh) Clay; L. 6 5/8 in. (16.8 cm) “When the merchants from Ashur in Assyria
came to Anatolia early in the second millennium B.C., they brought with them the writing
techniques invented in Mesopotamia: the script known as cuneiform ("wedge-shaped") and the
medium of clay tablets encased in clay envelopes. The merchants also brought their art in the form
of cylinder seals, which marked the traded goods, storerooms, and written records. The Assyrian
merchants wrote in the Assyrian language, but tablets and cuneiform were later adopted in Anatolia
by the Hittites, who wrote their own language with the imported techniques. The records of the
Assyrian trading colonies, of which Kültepe (ancient Karum Kanesh) was one, provide detailed
information about one part of a lively international trade in the early second millennium B.C. that
extended from Egypt to the Caucasus to Central Asia and the Indus Valley. The Assyrian tablets
describe the exchange of tin and textiles from Ashur for silver from Anatolia as well as detail the
specifics of contracts and lawsuits, and about bandits and other misfortunes. The tablet contained in
this case (MMA 66.245.5a) is the record of court testimony describing an ownership dispute of a
business firm. The case is sealed with two different cylinder seals rolled across the front and back of
the envelope in five parallel rows separated by plain clay. Both seals illustrate presentation scenes in
which worshippers approach a larger seated figure holding a cup. The obverse, shown here, is also
inscribed in cuneiform.”

Central and North Asia

“The vast expanse of Central and North Asia is rich in mineral resources of many kinds, which are
extracted for use by the inhabitants of the area as well as those of lands far away. By the fourth
millennium B.C., lapis lazuli from Badakhshan in Afghanistan is imported into Mesopotamia, and jade
found in a royal Chinese tomb of the second millennium B.C. comes from Xinjiang. In the second
millennium B.C., the people of the Andronovo culture are making their bronzes from copper and tin,
which they mine from sources from the Urals to Tajikistan. Recently rediscovered tin mines contain
pottery from both the Andronovo culture and the Bactrian-Margiana Archaeological Complex,
suggesting that trade in ores or metal ingots was wide-ranging in the early centuries of the second
millennium B.C. In this period, ceramic traditions generally are relatively local, while, over the whole
expanse of North and Central Asia, as well as in bordering areas, various new metal complexes are more
widely spread. Agricultural production becomes more extensive over the millennium.
• ca. 2000 B.C. The Andronovo culture develops, characterized by weapons and tools made of tin-
bronze, with distinctive curved knives and shaft-hole axes. Although there are many regional variations
among products of the Andronovo culture, Andronovo metalwork is found as far southeast as Xinjiang,
as far southwest as the Kopet Dagh mountains, and as far north as the Minusinsk Basin of Siberia. The
people of Andronovo raise cattle, have wagons and horses, and practice agriculture.
• ca. 2000/1900 B.C. The Bactrian-Margiana Archaeological Complex develops distinctive bronze stamp
seals with geometric designs and stone sculptures, including polished miniature columns of alabaster,
marble, and other materials, and composite figurines of several types of stone. Graves containing these
distinctive artifacts have been found in Iran and Baluchistan, which are signs of the contact between
southwestern Central Asia and areas to the south.
• ca. 1500 B.C. In eastern Xinjiang several cemetery sites, including Yanbulaq, contain many copper and
bronze artifacts, some of which, such as mirrors, are similar to types also found in southern Siberia.
Bronzeworking seems to have been introduced into Xinjiang about 2000 B.C. but little is yet known
about the preceding periods there.

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• ca. 14th–10th century B.C. The Karasuk culture of the Minusinsk Basin, as well as the cultures of the
Mongolian plateau north of the Gobi, and in Transbaikalia in Buryatia share some weapon, tool, and
ornament types with the peoples of the "northern zone" of China.

“The landscape and climate of Central and North Asia is divided into zones that extend east-west across
the broad expanse of Eurasia. In the far north is an arctic zone with tundra vegetation, which can support
only small numbers of people with hunting and reindeer-herding economies. Next, a forest zone called
the taiga has coniferous trees of varying kinds over its extent; the landscape supports hunting, fishing,
and the gathering of plants. In most places, the taiga is separated from the next zone—the steppe—by a
mixed forest that includes deciduous trees (sometimes called the forest-steppe). The steppe itself is a
relatively flat grassland occasionally broken by hills, rivers, lakes, and seas. The southernmost part of
Central Asia, both east and west, is desert, edged by mountain ranges. It is in the steppe, the oases of the
desert, and the foothills of the mountains that cultures change most rapidly from 8000 to 2000 B.C.

“Although in southern Central Asia the relative chronological positions of various cultures are generally
clear, the absolute chronological dates remain a matter of scholarly debate. For consistency across
timelines, "calibrated" carbon-14 dates are used here, resulting in dates up to 500 years earlier than
traditional dates for these periods.

“In this timeline, "neolithic" indicates cultures whose food sources are based on hunting, gathering, and
fishing, and stone tools and weapons more sophisticated than in the previous "mesolithic"; "eneolithic"
denotes cultures with some food production from domesticated plants and/or animals; and "bronze age"
means cultures with economies producing their food with developed technologies such as irrigation
agriculture or systematic stockbreeding of domesticated animals.

• ca. 2200 B.C. Irrigation agriculture begins to be used in southwestern Central Asia, allowing the
population to move from the foothills into oases along the rivers that flow into the Central Asian desert.
The new settlements include large fortified buildings. This new technology, presumably learned from the
ancient Near East, permits population growth and fosters the formation of a new culture: the Bactrian-
Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC), also known as the Oxus civilization, beginning ca.
2000/1900 B.C.

• ca. 2200/2100 B.C. Several sites in the Southern Urals and northern Kazakhstan contain graves of
warriors who are accompanied in death by burials of vehicles with two spoked wheels (defined either as
chariots or light carts) and teams of horses. These burials are associated with the Sintashta-Petrovka
culture, which has walled towns, usually located in the bends of rivers. The economic base is a mixture
of herding (horses, cattle, and sheep) and agriculture. Whether the chariot originated on the steppe, where
horses were first domesticated, remains an open question. It is possible that the idea of the chariot
eventually reached Shang China along the route where these burials were found.
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/02/nc/ht02nc.htm

Gonur Tepe

View of the palace complex at Gonur North.

Margianan Archeological Expedition, was directed today


by the Russian archeologist Victor Sarianidi. Dr. Sarianidi's
work focused on the Late Bronze Age sites, dating to the
first half of the second millennium BC, located in the
ancient delta of the Murgab River, in the southeastern part

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of present day Turkmenistan. Gonur Tepe was the largest of dozens of scattered Bronze Age sites
established here in the early second millennium. Gonur appears to have served as an administrative
and religious center for the region, and as a hub for long distance trade. Its monumental architecture,
and material remains in art and ornament indicate the high culture achieved before a variety of
factors led to the movement of its peoples further south.

Bronze belt stud, 2200-1800 BC, Northern Afghanistan Bronze Age, depicting
a winged female figure poised between two griffins. This may be called a
‘compartmented seal’ perhaps worn on belts. Statuettes with female figurines
are interpreted as related to Sarasvati (Bharat) and Anahita (Iran: cf. Yasht 5,
Avesta).

A pit grave in the necropolis. Ceramic vessels and a bronze mirror lie next to
the skull. The skeleton shows knees and elbows flexed. In one grave, a
fine, carved alabaster cylinder seal was unearthed; the seal showed a
seated figure wearing a Sumerian kaunake garment. In a tomb was found
a lamb, a huge scepter and a long pin of silver with a seated female figure
at its base wearing a similar garment.

In the Gonur Tepe palace, a youth was found buried inside a large ceramic
vessel which included rich grave goods. Lapis, talc and a single, inch and a half long carnelian bead
carved in chevron patterns were found encircling the neck. A single gold earring was embedded near
the ear, and a half-dozen large, finely polished banded agate beads lay in the bottom of the vessel.
Graves had only ceramic bowls, large, long-stemmed, undecorated goblets, long spouted vessels,
ceramic strainers, bronze mirror.

Small Talc stone head of a


composite statue, Gonur. Torso is
made of dark steatite.

In Gonur south were found a


religious complex—called fire
temples -- which housed sacred
fires, storage areas for pure white
ash taken from the hearths. Also
found were miniature columns
made of various marble-like stones. There were many
large rooms with walls 8-foot thick. Some small rooms had a large mud brick shelf covered with
white plaster and often held a large clay vessel. The vessels seemed to contain the remnants of a
drink; chemical analysis of remnants showed a mix of hemp, poppy and ephedra (which may be the
precursor of Avestan haoma).

Dashli

Plan layout of palace at Dashli. (After Sarianidi, V. I., Die Kunst des Alten Afghanistan, Leipzig,
1986, p. 53; Brentjes, B., "Das Ur-Mandala" (?) from Daschly-3, Iranica Antiqua, XVIII / 1983.)
According to Asko Parpola, this mandala is related to the Tantric Mahakali Yantra (Parpola, A.,
Margiana and the Aryan Problem, in, IASCCA Information Bulletin 19, Moscow, 1993.)
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In Dashli, a circular building was found with three concentric walls. The building had many rooms.
Three fireplaces on platforms, together with charred remains of animals, were discovered.

It is notable that similar charred remains of animals have been found in Kalibangan in the context of
fire-altars.

Prior to Zarathurstra’s influence, Iranians were fire-worshippers and not unlike the practices of
yajn~a mentioned in the Vedic texts. It is, therefore, reasonable to argue that the fire-altars found in
BMAC cultures could be related to migrations out of Bharat. Asko Parpola refers to the finds of
ephedra as related to ‘haumavarga shaka’ (scythians) referred to in Zoroastrian texts. (Asko Parpola:
“The coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the cultural and ethnic identity of the Dasas”, in
Studia Orientalia, vol.64 (Helsinki 1988), p. 195-265.) Asko Parpola also notes that the fire-
worshippers who used the circular structures are Iranian and that similar structures with three
concentric walls survived in Iranian Bactria until Achaemenid times. (Asko Parpola, “The problem
of the Aryans and the Soma”, in G. Erdosy: The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia, p.368.) Is it
reasonable to correlate these structures with tripura mentioned only in the Brahmanas (and not in the
Rigveda)?

A vase found in Dashli showed men wearing a kind of upper garment leaving one shoulder
uncovered. (Bernard Sergent: Genèse de l’Inde, p.163.) Wearing sacred thread (yajn~opavitam) is a
Vedic and a Zoroastrian trait and so is the wearing of a uttariyam leaving the right-shoulder bare.
The parallel is found in the statuette of the ‘priest king’ found in Mohenjodaro.

Some vases also depict horned snakes carrying one or more suns inside them. These are interpreted
as the Vrtra dragon slayed by Indra (Rigveda RV 1:51:4, 1:54:6) or Azhi Srvara (the horned one)
killed by Keresaspa (Avesta).

R. Ghirshman notes that proto-Iranians traveled “to the south”. (R. Ghirshman: L’Iran et les
Migrations des Indo-Aryans et des Iranians ,1977). It is possible that migrants from Bharat moved
through the Amu Darya (Oxus) valley to the Aral Lake and proceeded south. This is however only a
conjecture unattested by archaeological proof for any types of migrations through Central Asia or
from Bharat via Amu Darya to Caspian region and Iran. Dasa and Pani are referred to as Iranian and
Paktha – referred to in the battles on Parushni or Ravi river -- as Pathan. [This may attest to the early
north-west movement of people from Sarasvati River basin before they moved further west through
Bactria to the Aral Lake!] In Alexander’s time, Parnoi and Dahai (Pani? and Dasa?) are located
south of Aral Lake. (Bernard Sergent: Genèse de l’Inde, p.241-244.) Painted Grey Ware pottery
types which evolved in the Ganga doab circa 1500 to 800 BCE are not found in Central Asia, thus
negating any archaeological evidence for migrations from Central Asia into Bharat. There is also no
archaeological evidence to assert that Indo-Europeans emigrated out of Bharat sometime between
circa 6000 and 2000 BCE. Even the theories of elite dominance to explain the Indo-Aryan
languages as branch of Indo-European family have to conjecture that “[This] episode of elite
dominance which brought the indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family to India (…) may
have been as early as the floruit of the Indus civilization” (C. Renfrew: “Before Babel: Speculations
on the Origins of Linguistic Diversity”, Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 1 (1), p.3-23, spec.
p.14.)

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Sergent points to Indo-Aryans as responsible for the disruption of Mesopotamia caused by Hurrian
and Kassite invasions and for the disruption of Indus Valley civilization, coming from Bactria, as
disrupters of trade. Sergent notes that Indo-Aryan names were common in Syria and Palestine in
15th-13th century BCE (e.g. Birishena (Virasena) ruled Sichem, the Palestine town and Suardata (gift
of heaven) ruled Qiltu near Jerusalem. Bernard Sergent: Genèse de l’Inde, p. 198-199, p.206 ff.).
This is seen by Sergent, as evidence of separate Indo-Aryan presence outside the Mitannic kingdom
until at least the 13th century BC. The thesis is that once the long-distance trade was disrupted and
disappeared, the cities of Indus Valley had no reason to exist and hence, declined cities into
unplanned settlements.

Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex

Amulets and seals made of soft stone and pierced lengthwise often have a swastika engraved on one
side. (Sarianidi, V. I., Die Kunst des Alten Afghanistan, Leipzig, 1986, Abb. 100; Fig. 1 after
Sarianidi, V. I., Bactrian Centre of Ancient Art,
Mesopotamia, 12 / 1977, Fig. 59 / 18; Fig. Of inter-locked
snakes after Sarianidi, V. I., Seal-Amulets of the Murghab
Style, in: Kohl, Ph. L., ed., The Bronze Age Civilization of
Central Asia, New York, 1981, Fig. 7.). The endless knot
motif is a feature also found on seals of Sarasvati-Sindhu
valleys.

Compartmented seal: a female figure seated on a feline. (After Sarianidi, V. I.,


Reperti ineditti da tombe battriane depredate, Mesopotamia, 28 / 1993, Fig.
7.) The detail of the bronze center piece of a shield found in Luristan and
dated to the 7th or 8th century BC (Fig. 7) shows a human figure, again with
raised arms, riding on a lion. (After: 7000 Ans d'Art en Iran, Paris, 1961, Pl. XX).

BMAC Compartment seal; double-headed eagles.

Two seals of Susa; two opposed animal-/bird-heads on


each end. Some animals may be seen between the arms
of the cross. (After Le Brenton, Louis, A propos de
cachets archaïques susiens, Revue d'Assyriologie et
d'Archeologie orientale, 50 / 1956, Fig. 11, 2)

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Megalithic graves had weapons and ancient poetry in Tamil provides evidence for adoration of
warriors. (Asko Parpola: Deciphering the Indus Script, Cambridge University Press 1994, p. 171.)
Harappans had weapons and had fortified settlements. (Shereen Ratnagar: Enquiries into the
Political Organization of Harappan Society, Ravish Publ., Pune 1991.) Bactria is the basin of Oxus
or Amu Darya river, in southern Uzbekistan. This could be the region of Balkh associated with
Zarathushtra or Bahlika of Vedic texts. Balkh was the historical heartland and Iranians were moving
westward towards the south-Caspian area as evidenced by Namazga culture in Turkenistan getting
influenced by BMAC. (Bernard Sergent: Genèse de l’Inde, p.179.) Margiana is eastern
Turkmenistan. Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) has produced ceramics (for e.g.,
at Shortugai) which resemble the ceramics of Chanhujo-daro. BMAC sites are in present-day
Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Iran. Shortugai (circa 1800 BCE) is located
on a tributary of Amu Darya close to Badakshan hills and close to gold, lapis lazuli, silver, copper
and lead mines. Many BMAC settlements also produce evidence of metal weapons. Settlements
such as those of Shortugai are temporary settlements, with short-lived occupations, hastily
constructed following the plan layouts of Harappan cities. Akhmadali A. Askarov notes that BMAC
similarities to Harappan town layouts evidence: “influence of northwestern India on Bactria by
means of a migration of Indus people to Central Asia after the end of their civilization.” (A.A.
Askarov: “Traditions et innovations dans la culture du nord de la Bactriane à l’age du bronze”,
Colloque Archèologie, CNRS, Paris 1985, p.119-124.)

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The Bronze Age displays of the museum in Mary, Turkmenistan, include several small imported
south-east Iranian carved softstone bowls and bottles (Gonur, Togolok 21), a curious metre-long
softstone sceptre with a hollow bronze head (Gonur), a square bronze stamp seal and several clay
figurines showing two-humped camels, local ceramic copies of Iranian sheet-metal spouted jars
(Gonur), a lapis bead necklace found around the neck of an eighteen-year-old girl (Togolok 21), an
Indus etched carnelian bead (Altyn-depe) and Victor Sarianidi's excavations at the Bronze Age sites
of Gonur-depe and Togolok 21. Ephedra was discovered in Togolok. (Harri Nyberg: “The problem
of the Aryans and the Soma: the botanical evidence”, in G. Erdosy: The Indo-Aryans in Ancient
South Asia, p.382-406.)

The Altyn Depe ('Golden Hill') fortress dates back to the the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE.
During the excavations a monumental cult complex with ziggurat dedicated to the God of Moon was
opened. In its structural relation "the town" consisted of living quarters of handicraftsmen with
narrow (1-1.5 m) lanes between the close many-room houses, quarters of townspeople, with lanes of
1.7-2.1 m and the quarters for citadel with strict distinct planning, wide and straight streets (up to
2.5 m).

Anau

Anau (means: ‘new water’) seal (black stone 1.3 X 1.4 cm.) belonged where it was found, by Dr.
Fredrik T. Hiebert of the University of Pennsylvania, in a layer of the ruins dated at 2300 B.C., in
excavations of ruins of a settlement near Ashgabat, Turkmenistan's capital. The inscription was
emphasized with a reddish pigment. Was the seal used for marking trade goods?

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Anau southern Turkmenistan near Iran. The fortress-like
buildings in Anau outsize the biggest structures of
ancient Mesopotamia some are equivalent to the base of
the pyramids.

"Bone tube" carved with stylized head, circa 2,000 B. C. What was the tube used for? Hiebert makes
a guess: “We're not exactly sure, but it was found in piles of dirt we have analyzed that had a
tremendous amount of ephedra. Ephedra is a type of plant that ancient Zorastrians used to create a
ritual drink that allowed them to hallucinate and get closer to God. It may well be that the tube was
used in some pre- Zorastrial ritual involving ephedra. Ephedra has medicinal factors. The
decongestant Sudafed is made from the same ephedra chemical. But if you take it in some quantity
and mix it with a poppy or opium, it would have the effect of giving you visions or hallucinations.”
(Archaeologists Find Central Asia Civilization As Old As Sumeria
http://www.crystalinks.com/firstasians.html)

Many objects with epigraphs and other artifacts


of the civilization are collected outside Pakistan
and Bharat as may be seen from examples of
collections: D. T. Potts, A "Lost" Seal from
Harappa in the Nicholson Museum (Sydney) in:
Klaus Karttunen and Petteri Koskikallio ed.,
2001, Vidyarnavavandanam. Essays in Honour
of Asko Parpola, Studia Orientalia 94, Suomen
Itämainen Seura

Glyhs on Epigraphs

“The earliest archaeological evidence for the use of


cylinder seals comes from the trash pits of a small
site in southwestern Iran called Sharafabad, where
impressions of engraved cylinder seals were found
mixed with Middle Uruk pottery dated to around
3700 BCE. From slightly later, both at the large site of Uruk (modern Warka in southern Mesopotamia
and at Susa (biblical Shushan, modern Shush) in Iranian Khuzestan, we find preserved the full range of
administrative documents and tools, including abundant evidence for seals. While locks for the doors of
storage rooms and sealings over the cords securing the contents of vessels and other containers continued
to be marked with seals, the Uruk and Susa evidence clearly indicates a need to record information that
would soon lead to the invention of writing. Cylinder seals are closely associated with that process. By
the Late Uruk period (end of fourth millennium), a complex system of recording was devised that used
‘tokens’ enclosed in hollow clay balls (figure), tablets marked with tally signs, or biconical tags that were
probably suspended from containers. All of these devices were impressed on the outside with one, two,
or three different cylinder seals. During the more than three thousand years in which clay was used as the
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primary medium for cuneiform writing, the cylinder was the predominant shape for seals…Although
cylinders tended to dominate throughout the millennia, stamp seals are always used, particularly in the
regions surrounding Mesopotamia. Among the Hittites, stamp seals were carved for private, but most
notably for royal use…The Sumerian term for seal cutter is BUR.GUL; the Akkadian is purkullu…In a
second millennium text from Alalakh (modern Tell Atchana) in Syria, seal cutters are listed among other
artisans, such as carpenters, stonemasons, carpet weavers, leather workers, and metal smiths…At Shahr-
I-Sokhte (Shah-I-Sokhta) in eastern Iran, a place through which large quantities of lapis lazuli from the
Hindu Kush must have passed, worn stone drills and masses of chips of worked stone were found over
large areas of the site…

[cf.A word cognate with Akkadian purkullu is: por-kollan- = kamma_l.an-, goldsmith
(Tamil.lex.)]

Indian archer shown on a coin (provenance unknown).

Arabian Peninsula and Sarasvati Civilization

The Arabian Peninsula comprises the modern countries of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, the United
Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait.

An anthropomorphic figure kneels in front of a ‘fig’ tree with hands raised; another
anthropomorphic figure stands inside the ‘fig’ tree. Both the anthropomorphic figures wear ‘horned
crowns’. On a stool beneath the ‘fig’ tree, a human head is placed; the hair of this head is bound into
a double-bun (similar to the hairstyle on the electrum helmet excavated at the Royal cemetery at Ur,
suggesting a ‘warrior’) The personage within the fig tree has armlets on both the hands. There is a
kneeling person with a ‘fig’ tree head-dress similar to the one worn by the personage inside the ‘fig’
tree; there is also a markhor goat. In the lower register, there are seven anthropomorphic figures,
wearing their hair in a single long plait and dressed in skirts.
The electrum-gold helmet of a warrior found in the Royal Tombs of Ur also depicts a
similar bun at the back of the head.

Sumerian electrum helmet from the Royal cemetery at Ur (tomb PG/755); early dynastic III period,
c. 2400 BCE. After Pritchard, James,1969, The ancient Near East in pictures, relating to the Old
Testament, 3rd. edn., Princeton,: 49, no.160. This helmet was made of beaten gold, in the form of a
wig with a most elaborate hair-style. There is a knot of hair tied at the back, a twisted plait and a
headband, and there are guards for ears and cheeks. It belonged to Mes-kalam-dug, the 'Hero of the
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Good Land'; he was perhaps a prince; a cylinder-seal with his name was later found in a queen's
grave.. Gold dagger with lapis lazuli hilt and filigree sheath, Ur. Mes-kalam-dug's grave chamber
had: a shield, two gold-mounted daggers, chisels and other tools, copper jugs, silver bowls and a set
of arrows.

The hair-style with a double-bun is typical and is echoed on other artifacts.

Side view and back view of three steatite male heads showing hair-bun (Nos. 1 and 2 are casts),
Mohenjodaro (Marshall 1931: 342, pl. XCV, no. 9; During Caspers 1985, More on the Stone
sculpture from Moenjo-daro, AION 45, pp. 409-426). The knobbed hair is paralleled in Early
Dynastic II-III cylinder seals from Fara in southern Mesopotamia (Parpola, A. 1984, New
correspondences between Harappan and Near Eastern glyptic art: South Asian Archaeology, 1981,
pp. 176-195).

Woman's head in diorite found in Nin-Gal temple at Ur, ca. 250 BCE; note the
engraved modulations of the hair, elaborate bun at the back of the head and the
fillet around the forehead.

Equipping a Mesopotamian warrior, ca. 3500 BC: from armouries of Sarasvati civilization?

Imageries of warriors, armour and weapons (1) carrying two weapons, (2) carrying three weapons;
(3) 'owning' multiple weapons

Scripting the products of the armoury; ligature of multiple animals or animal heads or ligature with
head turned back (e.g. tiger and antelope) indicates multiple armour: two, three, more than three.

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Maris Mesopotamia. Warrior carrying a battle-axe on his right hand a
curved sword or adze on his left and a dagger or knife tucked in his
belt.

‘The first 300 years of the second millennium B.C. mark the height of Dilmun's prosperity and the
greatest geographical expansion of its culture. The island of Failaka is settled soon after 2000 B.C. Trade
along the Gulf declines following unrest in Mesopotamia with the collapse of Hammurabi's kingdom and
the Indus Valley civilization. Sources of copper from Anatolia and Cyprus now undercut Gulf supplies to
Mesopotamia. From around 1500 B.C., the Kassite rulers of Babylonia extend their power along the
Gulf—a governor is established on Bahrain (his official correspondence is found at Nippur). In 1225
B.C., the Kassites are defeated by the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I, who takes the title "king of
Dilmun and Meluhha…• 4000–3000 B.C. Domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats appear in eastern Arabia.
The region is called Dilmun in Mesopotamian records of the late fourth millennium B.C. Copper mining
begins in Oman (possibly referred to as Magan in later Mesopotamian texts).

• 3000–2500 B.C. Material of Mesopotamian origin once again appears along the shore of the Gulf,
primarily ceramic jars that are imitated locally. At Tarut, a limestone Mesopotamian-style worshipper
figurine, a copper bull's head, and chlorite vases are discovered. The vases, carved in the so-called
Intercultural Style, are at various stages of manufacture and suggest that Tarut is a production center for
examples found at Khafaje, Nippur, Kish, and Ur in Mesopotamia. In the southwest, a sculptural tradition
emerges, characterized by extreme simplification and the containment of the figure within a rectangular
space.
• 2400–1700 B.C. Hundreds of tumuli on Bahrain represent the largest burial site of the Bronze Age.
Men, women, and children are buried as individuals with ceramics, personal ornaments, copper weapons
and cups, and stone vessels.
• 2200–1800 B.C. The Gulf is the locus of trade routes linking Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley
civilization. The most distinctive products of this trade are Persian Gulf circular stamp-seals decorated
with animals and abstract motifs. Some show a humped bull with an Indus inscription above it. Normally
made of soft stone, they are characterized by a high back boss, always pierced horizontally for
suspension. From around 2000 B.C., the Persian Gulf–type seals are superceded by the so-called Dilmun
seal, characterized by a low boss decorated with three parallel incised lines down the middle running
perpendicular to the perforated boss.

Around 3100 B.C., domesticated cereals and dates appear at Abu Dhabi. The Umm an-Nar culture
dominates the Oman peninsula during the second half of the third millenium B.C. Close to a round
building at the site of Hili 8 is a coppersmith's working area. Copper may have been smelted on an
industrial scale during this period. By the end of the third millenium B.C., the Gulf is the focus of
contacts between the civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley."
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/03/wap/ht03wap.htm

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The Bronze-age Weapons Crescent: Mesopotamia, Dilmun, Makan, Meluhha

“Hittite scribes wrote both in cuneiform script (borrowed from Mesopotamia) and in hieroglyphs, a local
development that continued after the end of the Hittite empire into the Neo-Hittite kingdoms.
Unfortunately, the hieroglyphs on this silver ingot are not legible, so the writing cannot help us determine
the ingot's function. It has been suggested that the ingot belonged to a silversmith, who might have used
it to make or repair jewelry, sculpture, or drinking vessels or other ceremonial containers, such as the
stag-headed cup... On the other hand, we know that in the earlier Assyrian Trading Colony period (ca.
1950&150;1750 B.C.), specific weights of Anatolian silver were traded for the goods imported from
Assyria. Perhaps this ingot, or pieces from it, were weighed and used as currency in Hittite times, since
coins as we know them were only invented in the mid-seventh century B.C. Precious metals such as
silver, gold, and tin attract merchants to the Anatolian plateau, particularly from the northern
Mesopotamian city of Ashur. These merchants establish trading centers (karum)—such as the one at
Kanesh (modern Kültepe)—and the details of their transactions are documented in cuneiform tablets, the
earliest texts found in the region. During the fourteenth century, the Hittite kingdom, with its capital at
Hattusha (modern Bogazköy) and religious center at Yazilikaya, creates an empire extending into
northern Syria. By around 1200 B.C., Hattusha is violently destroyed and the Hittite empire collapses. In
the Caucasus, the earlier culture of Kura-Araxes gives way to the Trialeti culture, known for its particular
form of burial. Large mounds with extensive underground graves contain bronze weapons, tools, and
unique artifacts in gold and silver.”
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/03/waa/hod_1989.281.16.htm

Anatolia, the westernmost part of Asia, is a peninsula bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the
Aegean Sea to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Caucasus Mountains to the east.
In the southeast lie the Taurus Mountains separating Turkey from Syria. The peninsula is dominated
by the Anatolian plateau, which is crossed by numerous mountains interspersed with valleys, some
filled with lakes. A few passes through the mountains from the interior allow contact with the West.
Today Anatolia is part of the modern state of Turkey.”
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/m_waa/hd_m_waa.htm

It is likely that the Meluhhan settlers who had settled in Mesopotamia (ca. 3rd millennium BCE)
moved into Anatolia, in search of minerals. This may explain the spread of PIE languages including
the Proto-Indo-Aryan Substratum.
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“The term ‘chalcolithis’ is sometimes used to define cultural stages of the fifth and fourth millennia,
those of the Dalma, Pisdeli, and Godin IX, VIII, and VII level cultures…The Chalcolithic period is
best documented in the Solduz Valley and in Kurdistan, where exvcavations at Godin Tepe and its
neighborhood have revealed many sites…Painted wares continued to be made at Luristan through
the third millennium. Copper and bronze weapons and tools, as well as pottery recovered in
cemeteries there, indicate interaction with both Mesopotamia and Khuzestan…Iron Age…Nush-I
Jan (a site in Media) consists of a fort or storehouse, a twelve-columned hall, and two temples, one
of which, the Central Building, is towerlike with two stories, and has a lozenge-shaped interior that
housed a fire altar. The whole site may have been enclosed by a protective wall. Striking and
unique, but a mystery, is the fact that after some use, and before the abandonment of the site, the
fire-altar temple was carefully buried with mud, stone chips, and bricks. We can only assume that
the burial reflects some sacred activity, perhaps one related to a broken taboo. The Nush-i Jan fire
temple remains unique in Iran. It is hotly debated whether it was a Zoroastrian temple, where later
religious texts inform us fire was kept and revered, but if so, it is the earliest so far known. Only one
other temple-sanctuary (but not a fire temple) site is currently known in western Iran, that of Surkh
Dum in Luristan. At Nush-i Jan a hoard of about two hundred silver objects in the form of broken
and whole bars, spiral beads, rings, and one earring was recovered in a bronze bowl buried below a
floor. It may have been a jeweler’s hoard or a deposit of bullion…”[Oscar White Muscarella, Art
and Archaeology of Western Iran in Prehistory, in: in: Jack M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the
Ancient Near East, pp. 981-999].

Muhly (1973: 220ff.; 1976: 104 ff.) has thoroughly reviewed the ancient textual sources for the use
of copper and its trade in Mesopotamia, with extensive commentary on their relation to known
deposits in the area. Archaic texts from Uruk (III) indicate that already by the later fourth
millennium BC Dilmun was engaged in the metals trade (Englund 1983). In the third millennium
Sumerian texts list copper among the raw materials reaching Uruk from Aratta (Pettinato 1972: 82-
3, 128) and all three of the regions Magan, Meluhha and Dilmun are associated with copper, but the
latter only as an emporium (Limet 1960: 85ff.; Waetzoldt 1981). Gudea refers obliquely to receiving
copper from Dilmun: 'He (Gudea) conferred with the divine Ninzaga ( = Enzak of Dilmun), who
transported copper like grain deliveries to the temple builder Gudea...' (Cylinder A. XV. 11-18:
Englund 1983: 88, n.6). Magan was certainly a land producing the metal, since it is occasionally
referred to as the 'mountain of copper'. It may also have been the source of finished bronze objects
(Limet 1972: 1417).

In the early second millennium BC Mesopotamia may have lost direct contact with Magan, and with
Meluhha, also earlier mentioned in relation to copper. Copper now came through Dilmun and its
traders. Gudea refers to mining copper in the mountain of Kimas' (Falkenstein 1966: i.50 ff.; Statue
B.VI: 21-3). This region is assumed to have been somewhere between the Jebel Hamrin and the
Lesser Zab (Edzard and Farber 1974: 100-1); an old identification with Ergani Maden in Anatolia is
no longer regarded as tenable. If this location is correct, it may have been just an entrepot for copper
from mines deep in Iran, or it might be a direct reference to the copper-mines visited by Layard in
the Tiyari mountains, north of Amadiyeh (Layard 1849: i.223)... Anatolia was not an exporter of
copper in the third and early second millennium BC... As already noticed, after the Ur III period
direct trade from Mesopotamia down the Gulf to Magan appears to stop and Dilmun becomes the
primary entrepot for all Gulf Trade, including metals, in the earlier second millennium BC. Copper
came this way until at least the eighteenth century BC, when there is a break in the records almost
exactly at the same time as the earliest surviving textual indications of copper from Alashiya

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(Cyprus) reaching Mari and Babylonia (CAD. alas'u; Schaeffer 1971: 547 ff.; Millard 1973). The
Mari texts also refer to a type of copper qualified by the term te-ma-yu, for which Dossin (1970a: 39
n.1) suggested an association with Teima in Saudi Arabia, serving as an entrepot for copper from
the Feinan/Wadi Arabah mines (cf. Hauptmann et al 1989). Muhly (1976: 109) was sceptical; but it
is not an impossibel routing.

It has been argued that it was the eclipse of the Indus Valley civilization in the second millennium
BC that brought to an end the flourishing Indus-Mesopotamian trade up the Gulf; but this has yet to
be satisfactorily confirmed. Stray indicators suggest continuing, if intermittent activity. In the
middle of the fourht century BC a Babylonian official was stationed on Dilmun, whence he reported
back on local threats to the date crop. Then Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria (c. 1243-1207 BC), after
his sack of Babylon, assumed the title 'King of Dilmun and Meluhha', emphasizing contemporary
Babylonian interest in these regions, even if the full implications of the ancient names no longer
applied (Brinkman 1972: 275-6; 1976: 314)...(Moorey, 1994, p. 217ff.)

Seal imageries travel; seal cutters, stone cutters and sculptors: Inscribed objects with west Asian
motifs

m0353 Two antelopes Seal with two antelopes lying one over the other. “The fine
seal illustrated in pl. C, figs. B and c, is certainly foreign in origin, both in the motif
upon it and because the fine, polished white marble of which it is made is a material
which was never used for making the Indus valley seals; nor has any other object of
marble been found there. The inverted position of the animals is unknown elsewhere
in the art of the Indus valley, but in Elamite art of the archaic period it is quite common…
Moreover, the animals on this seal were evidently engraved with the aid of a drill, of which traces
remain in the hooves and muzzles. This technique is well known on the early Sumerian and Elamite
seals. It was necessitated by the hardness of the materials of which the seals of those countries were
generally made. On the softer stones that were used for seal making in the Indus valley it was
unnecessary to employ a drill; nor have we found any evidence of its use except for details. The
perforated boss at the back of this seal is also unlike those of the Indus valley seals, and on this
ground, together with the design, material and technique, we have no hesitation in pronouncing this
seal as of foreign origin.” (Mackay, 1938, pl. XCV). Cf. Dilip K. Chakrabarti, 1990, The External
trade of the Indus civilization, Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Typical motifs of seals with Asian motifs are: cross, svastika, compartmented motifs.

Cylinder seals

Marshall notes five seals if ivory Marshall, 1931, pl. CXIV, 529-33

Three ivory seals from Mohenjodaro are noted. Mackay notes three cylinder seals.: No. 78. ‘at one
there is a swastika and at the other two or more pictographs which it is impossible to make out.’ No.
376 has two scorpions, one at each end. At the center is an eight-legged creature with pincers,
analogous to the pictorial on Susa cylinder seal. No. 488 shows two quaqdrupeds with short tail and
horns (may be goats). Between them is a tree or bush and a bird is on their backs. In front of the first
animal is a vertically set mythical long-tailed creature with something in its mouth (gharial with
fish?) [Mackay, 1938, pls. LXXXIV, 78; LXXXIX, 376; XCIV, 488]

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One cylinder seal is from Kalibangan.A composite figure, half human and half animal with an elaborate,
flowing head-dress. The human has spiky hands and a sort of beaked face. The animal portion has stripes,
claws and inwardly curved pointed tail. A spiky plant in the background. In fron tof this tree is a tree with
rounded trunk and branches. A sign is represented by three vertical strokes. A female is between two
males who hold her hand. Another hand is upraised in a sort of striking posture. The upraised hand of one
male seems to hold a spear-shaped weapon. Two sword-shaped weapons occupy the space above the
head of the female. Another square steatite seal has the same composite figure. “…the cylinder seals
which can positively be related to Indus-west Asia interrelations are the following: one from Tell Asmar,
two from Ur, one from Susa, one from Hissar (?), three from Mohenjodaro and one from
Kalibangan…They were more likely to be used in the Indus-Persia-Mesopotamia trade which passed
overland.” (Chakrabarti, DK, 1990, p. 47).

“While Curtius considered seal engraving to be an independent, minor art, Frankfort thought that in
Mesopotamia ‘From Early Dynastic times decorative art in all its branches utilized the inventions of the
seal cutters’ (Cylinder Seals, p. 308). I agree with him to the extent that I do not believe there was a clear
division within the craftsmanship of the Mesopotamian sculptors. That ivory workers could, on occasion,
also work on major stone sculpture is demonstrable from India. An inscription on the south gatewy of the
Sanchi Stupa states that the work was done by the ivory carvers of Vedisa, the nearby capital. The
sculpture on the gateway was certainly larger than the usual scale of ivory working and there was, of
course, considerable difference in the technique. Yet my colleage Vidya Dehejia informs me that in India
the same craftsmen worked in both stone and bronze until about the ninth century CE. Ludwig Curtius
began his study of Mesopotamian art with an analysis of cylinder seals of the Early Dynastic period; his
insights and thoroughness were unmatched until the work of Frankfort and Moortgat. Curtius’s study was
centered on seal impressions deriving from the court of the Sumerian ruler Lugalanda of Lagash
(figure).” [Edith Porada, Understanding ancient Near Eastern art: a personal account, in: Jack M.
Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, pp. 2708-10].

Demonstrating a connection between Dilmun and Syria based on seal imagery, Buchanan observes:
"It seems possible that around 2000 BC, the Persian Gulf merchants had a relationship, other than
one involving trade, with some ethnic element in Syria (merchants or colonists)". (Briggs Buchanan,
1965, A Persian Gulf Seal, Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger, 199-209, Chicago, p. 207). A
similar conjecture can be made in relating the pictorial motifs of sites in the Tigris-Euphrates valley
(Ur, Jamdet Nasr, Uruk), Dilmun, Failaka and Susa with the pictorial motifs depicted on SSVC seals
and tablets.
Uruk Period; BM 119308. Bull throwing lion; talc; Wiseman,
Cylinder Seals, 1; cf. Frankfort, Diyala, 36; Plate 1b Catalogue of
the Western Asiatic Seals in the British Museum, Cylinder Seals
Early Uruk-Dynastic Periods: D.J.Wiseman, London, British
Museum, 1962. Jamdat Nasr, Proto-Elamite type cylinder seal; BM
116720; Animal file; bulls,
goats. In field: plants, 'cross';
Frit; cf. Iraq XIX,
1957, p. 107, fig. 24
(Susa Cc). D. J.
Wiseman, opcit, 1962,
Plate 7a.

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Jamdat Nasr, Proto-Elamite type cylinder seal; BM 128862; Bulls. In field: twin rhomb or 'fly'; grey
steatite; Wiseman, Cylinder Seals, 13 (Early Dynastic I);
Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Plate 7b.
Jamdat Nasr,
Proto-Elamite
type cylinder seal;
BM 119306; Two
goats. In field:
cross, circled
dots; Steatite;
BMQ III, 1929, p.
13, pl. IV (Suss-Jamdat Nasr-Early Dynastic I period);
Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Plate 7e.

Cylinder seal showing running goats turning their heads, appearing in perpetual motion; ca. 2800
B.C. (Uruk IV) (M.E.L.Mallowan, 1965, Early
Metopotamia and Iran, London, Thames and
Hudson); the antelope with its head turned
backward is a typical motif on the seals of the
Sarasvati Sindhu civilization.

BM 89538; Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Plate 14a.


Contest scenes: hero with a pair of lions; hero with a
pair of one-horned bulls.

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BM 89035; Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Pl. 14d; Hero holds lion and bull, a goat (?) crossed lion and goat
held by bearded hero. Legend (directly cut): MUS'EN GAN. Translucent white marble (worn).
motif. Early Dynastic II/III seal. [After MEL
Mallowan, 1961, The birth of written history, in:
S. Piggott, ed., The dawn of civilization, 65-96,
New York; p. 75, no. 34].

BM
104487;

Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Pl. 14f; Crossed goats attacked by


lion itself grasped by bull man; hero with curled
hair holds two goats; Legend: AL?-a-den?-lil.
Marble.

BM 102503; Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Plate 14b;


Two animals falling or attacking smaller animal;
hero between two lions; crossed lion held by hero
holding a reversed lion crossed with another
attacked by further hero. In field: dagger. Marble.

BM 102437; Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Pl. 14e; Lion attacks two bulls held apart by man in long skirt,
second bull atacked by lion: reversed stag held by man; Gypsum (recut later?)

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BM 121157; Early Dynastic Period cylinder seal
impression; Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Pl. 23a; Two
registers: file of goats; Jamdat Nasr period? Red
marble.

BM 122560; Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Pl. 23c; Ur


(U.11868); UE II, p. 575, pl. 203, 131; Lapis lazuli;

Two registers: goats in file.


Ur (no excavation no.); BM 123573;

Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Pl. 22a; bull attacked by lion crossing


goat. Lioness, bull-man (?) and bull. Limestone, rejoined.

Ur (no excavation no.); BM 123197; Wiseman, opcit, 1962, Pl. 22b; Bull-man, leopard, hero.
Terminal: crossed goats? over illegible figure. Marble (worn).

Lapis lazuli seals and sources

In Mesopotamian and Sarasvati-Sindhu valley sites, significant numbers of objects of lapis lazuli
have been found. In the 'royal' tombs, lapis lazuli, carnelian and gold are the three important
materials used; lapis lazuli has been used for many seals.

Lapis lazuli is a rare stone found in Badakhshan mines (NE Afghanistan, currently known as
Kerano-Munjan), in the Pamirs and near Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia (F. Rutley, Elements of
Mineralogy (rev. by H.H. Read 948), pp. 380-38). "Darius states that his lapis lazuli came from his
satrapy of Sogdia, in which province Badakhshan was located; and finally, the colour range from
Sar-i-Sang is closely comparable to that of archaeological lapis lazuli. The varying shades of the
pieces of veneer on the 'Standard' of Ur, for instance, can be exactly paralleled by modern
specimens from Badakhshan...

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14772 cl Fig. 4 The lapis lazuli seal W. 14772 cl
relates to the Uruk IV period. The unstratified
lapis lazuli seal G.7-205 (Fig. 4b) has the figures
of two salukis and a 'fox'... This is comparable to
the impression of another seal found at that level
(Fig. 4a)... Also comparable are the seal
impressions shown in Fig. 4c and 4d. Fig. 4c has
two superimposed dogs on the left and the hunted
animal with turned head in front of them. Fig. 4d,
if divided horizontally also shows a similar
scene... Porada has noted that filling motifs of
'disembodied heads of horned animals are another
feature of the period'.[A.J.Tobler, Excavations at
Tepe Gawra, II, Levels IX-XX, 1950, p. 192;
Georgina, Herrmann, Lapis Lazuli: the early
phases of its trade, in Iraq 30, 1968, pp.21-54]

NE Afghanistan, 4 lapis-lazuli mines are at heights


ranging from 6000 to 17000 ft.: Sar-i-sang, S (Stromby),
C (Chilmak) and R (Robat-i-Paskaran); Sar-i-sang mine
is worked even today. [After Georgina, Herrmann, Lapis
Lazuli: the early phases of its trade, in Iraq 30, 1968.

Harappan contacts with Central Asia are now beyond doubt especially after the discovery of; () a
few Harappan pottey types in Namazga V sites, (2) a
Harappan inscribed seal at Altin Depe, (3) comparable
ivory objects at Altin Depe, and (4) a close similarity
in a few copper artefacts (Gupta
979: Vol. 2).

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Manda. Double-spiralled copper hair-pin. Harappan level.
Ma_nda_ is a 9.2 m high mound near the town Akhnoor on the
right bank of river Chenab in Dist. Jammu abutting the foothills
of the Pirpanjal range. The site revealed cultural deposits ranging
from the Harappan times to the Kushan times. This type of pin is
found in West Asia and Central Asis during the 3rd millennium
BCE. Other antiquities found include tanged arrow-heads of
bone terracotta cakes and bangles potsherds with Harappan
characters in graffiti.

This type of pin is found in West Asia and Central Asis during the 3rd millennium BCE. Other
antiquities found include tanged arrow-heads of bone, terracotta cakes and bangles, potsherds with
Harappan characters in graffiti.

Namazga IV period; all identical to the Parkhai examples and considered an import from the
Sumbar Valley; the remainder---two from the southern mound at Anau, two from Namazga-depe
and one from Shor-depe -- had small loops twisted only 1.5-2 times. They were found in Namazga
V levels from cemeteries in northern Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Slightly twisted spiral-head pins
from Mundigat (periods IV, I-IV, 3) and multi-looped spiral-headed pins from Tepe Hissar (period
IIB), which are identical to those from Parkhai II, are also related to this period; the dates of Parkhai
finds are ca. middle of the third millennium BCE.

Bronze artefacts found in Parkhai cemetery II: double-edged knives, small fragments and spiral-
headed pins; the pins of different sizes had spirals no fewer than four lops; six spiral-headed pins are
known from the northern foothills of Kopet Dagh; one came from Kysyl Arvant and dated to
Namazga IV period; all identical to the Parkhai examples and considered an import from the
Sumbar Valley; the remainder---two from the southern mound at Anau, two from Namazga-depe
and one from Shor-depe -- had small loops twisted only 1.5-2 times. They were found in Namazga
V levels from cemeteries in northern Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Slightly twisted spiral-head pins
from Mundigat (periods IV, I-IV, 3) and multi-looped spiral-headed pins from Tepe Hissar (period
IIB), which are identical to those from Parkhai II, are also related to this period; the dates of Parkhai
finds are ca. middle of the third millennium B.C.

Aratta. Enmerkar, the king of Uruk (Early Dynastic Period II) wanted from the state of Aratta: gold,
silver and semi-precious stones, particularly lapis lazuli, to beautify shrines and temples, especialy
the Apsu temple in Eridu. He implored Inanna: " O my sister, Inanna, for Erech Let them (the
people of Aratta) fashion artfully gold (and) silver, Let them... pure lapis lazuli from the slab,.... Of
the holy giparru where you have established (your) dwelling... Let the people of Aratta, Having
brought down the stones of the mountains from their highland, Build for me the great chapel, set up
for me the great shrine." (S.N.Kramer, Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, p. 9, line 38 ff.). To reach
Aratta, Enmerkar's herald had to traverse Anshan, a kingdom bordering Elam... and then cross seven
further 'mighty mountains'. (S.N.Kramer, Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, A Sumerian Epic Tale
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of Iraq and Iran, 1952, p. 17, line 166 ff.) Enmerkar was the second king of the first dynasty of Ur,
of which Gilgamesh was the fifth.

Seven EDII seals show contest friezes (Ashmolean Museum) The lapis lazuli seal shows in the
lower register geometric motifs reminiscent of the Jemdat Nazr Diyala seals. ram in the thicket has
not only horns, fringe, beard, eyes and eye-rims of lapis lazuli, but also part of its fleece is made of
overlapping sections of the blue stone. Lapis lazuli was also used in amulets sculpted as frogs, fish,
flies, calves, bulls, rams, ibex, monkey, seated bull, eagle. 37 Royal cemetery seals depict
banqueting scenes, (generally belonging to ED III) all except five depict these scenes in two
registers. Some seals have on one register a contest, spread eagle or animal row motif. Contest
friezes in the 'fara' style began in EDI.

The seal of Nin-banda. In the upper register, the central figure is a man who grasps two animals
around their necks. The animals are attacked from the rear by another animal, whom they turn to
face. The lower register shows two crossed lions attacking two animals whose bodies are sharply
angled. 53 lapis lazuli seals of EDIII date depict contest friezes; of these 17 are from Ur. A total of
138 lapis lazuli seals are assigned to this date.

The following seals of Mesopotamia contain


features reminiscent of themes depicted on the
seals of the Sarasvati Sindhu civilization.
Typical motifs are: rows of animals, combat,
antelope or tiger with head turned, woman with
thighs spread out, circle-and-dot, one-horned
bull, hare, plant, snake, bird, fish. All these
motifs have
been
explained as
related to
metallic
weapons, in
the context
of the
decipherment of Indus script pictorials and signs. In the
Mesopotamian motifs, there are clear images related to
WEAPONS.

The only motif that is remarkably unique in Mesopotamian seals is the LION. Only a tiger motif
appears on the seals of the Sarasvati Sindhu civilization. The closest to a lion motif is the bristled-
hair (like a lion's mane) on the face of the three-faced, fully adorned, horned, seated person
surrounded by animals and an inscription.

Beatrice Teissier, Ancient Near Eastern Cylinder Seals: From the Marcopoli Collection, Berkeley,
University of California Press, 1984.

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ca. 3
00-2900 BC; serpentine; cat. 3
3; top end converges into a squat
perforated handle; pattern on stamp
base of seal. Row of open double-
lined lozenges with circle and dot
motif in center. Circle and dot motif
along upper and lower edge and on base of seal.

ca. 2700-2200 BC; serpentine; cat. 343; a crossed lion and a bearded bull
between a rampant gazelle and a bull (?). In the field: drill holes, curved
shape resembling a pommel (handle of sword).

ca. 2000-1900 BC; serpentine; cat. 371; two figures stand beside
an antelope and a bull. In the field: serpent, dagger, ball staff. In
the sky: disc and crescent.

ca. 2000-1900 BC; serpentine; cat. 375;


two figures stand beside two rampant
hares. In the field: schematic plant, star.

ca. 2000-1900 BC; serpentine; cat. 379; a


figure drives a spear into a lion attacking a
bull. In the sky: bird, star, crescent.

ca. 1900 BC; serpentine; cat. 381; two figures stand facing each
other, holding a spear between them. Terminal: two schematic bull-
men, snake.

Mitannian seal; ca. 1450-1300


BC; pyro-phyllite; cat. 580; a
kneeling figure grasps an antelope
by the hind legs. A lion attacks the antelope from behind. In the
sky: fish.

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Mitannian seal; ca. 1550-1350 BC; composition; cat.
581; two crossed bulls. Terminal: laticed panel.
Mitannian seal;
ca. 1500-1300
BC; chert; cat.
584; two figures
stand grasping a
tree between
them. In the
field: ball staff,
drill hole. Terminal: fish, bull's head, drill hole above recumbent antelope
and star.
Mitannian seal; ca. 1500-1300 BC; hematite; cat. 585; two figures stand
before a seated deity holding a triple lightning fork. In the field: incomplete
ankh. In the sky: three stars.

(a) Cylinder seal impression of Pai-tes's'up (D. Stein); (b) Cylinder seal
impression of an administrator (D.Stein); (c) Cylinder seal impression of
Zuja, son of Tarmi-Tes's'up (D.Stein). These are in the ancient tradition of
Early Dynastic and Akkadian designs (a) figural bands; (b) heraldic
groups of predator and prey; (c) antithetic pairs flanking the winged disk-
standard (this is a new Mitannian feature). Tes's'up is the Storm God who
stands on a lion-dragon mount and holds a triple-pronged lightning fork.

Mitannian seal; ca. 1500-1300 BC; hematite;


cat. 586; a worshipper presents an antelope to
a deity standing on a lion which it holds by a
leash. A nude godess with hands clasped
under her breasts stands between them. In the
field: bird. In the sky: two rosettes. Terminal: inscription. IS'KUR.MU-

u-s.ur = Adad-sum-us.ur

Mitannian seal; ca. 1500-1300 BC; hematite; cat. 589; a lion atacks an
antelope. Recumbent antelope above the lion. In the field: animal head,
fish. In the sky: winged sun disc, drill holes.

Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr seal; ca. 3200-3000 BC;


serpentine; cat.
; boar and bull in procession; terminal: plant; heavily
pitted surface beyond plant

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Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr seal; ca. 3200-3000
BC; talc; cat.2; two gazelles (?) with heads turned
backward, an antelope, a recumbent antelope (?),
with two smaller indistinguishable animals above;
in the field: plant(?)

Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr seal; ca. 3200-3000 (?) BC;
marble; cat.3; loop bore; an antelope wiht two panchers, one
with head
turned.
Late Uruk
and Jemdet
Nasr seal;
marble; ca.
3200-3000 BC; cat.4; surface divided into 3 panels, from l.
to r.: (a) squatting figure with arms raised to pot, (b)
squatting figure with arms raised to pot, second pot on
ground, (c) two figures squat one behind the other with
their arms raised before them.

ca. 2334-2260 BC; serpentine; cat. 76; two groups in combat. a


hero wearing a kilt and a conical cap wrestles with a lion
attacking a bull. A urinating bull-man wrestles with a water-
buffalo.
ca, 2334-2260 BC (early); marble; cat. 77; a hero in combat with
a urinating, human-headed bull. A similar bull with forelegs
resting on a bush stands to one side.

ca. 233-2220 BC (early-mature); serpentine; cat. 78; two


kilted heroes, one wearing a feathered crown and other a
chignon, grapple with a
lion attacking a bull. In
the field: a small naked
bearded figure kneels
facing right.
ca. 2334-2260 BC
(Early); serpentine; cat.
80; six dieties in combat in groups of two. A deity with rays
issuing from the shoulders and holding a mace subdues a kneeling
deity. A third deity with a mace grapples with a deity also armed with a mace. A fifth deity with a
mace clutches an unarmed deity. In the field: mountain.

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ca. 2334-2220 BC (early-mature); serpentine; cat. 81; a deity with rays issuing from the shoulders
and holding a saw (?) and a mace ascends a mountain. A
worshipper carrying a kid salutes a deity opening a portal to
the ascending deity.
ca. 2334-2154 BC (mature);
serpentine; cat. 82; a deity
with rays issuing from the
shoulders and a human figure
sit opposite each other, each with an arm raised. An attendant stands
between them, saluting the deity. In the field: mace. In the sky:
crescent. Terminal: palm tree.

ca. 750-600 BC; chalcedony; cat. 285; a hero in a short kilt stands
between two ibexes and graps their horns. In the field: plant in vase. In
the sky: star, crescent.

ca. 900-700 BC; chert;cat. 188; a rosette


and a bull. Terminal: plant (the linear
striations on the bull's body are
reminiscent of certain seals of the late Kassite style). The bull is
pictured like the Indus one-horned bull, but in motion with 3 legs
seen in profile.

ca. 750-600 BC; chalcedony; cat. 286; lower edge chipped; a hero with a
quiver on his back, and
armed with a scimitar,
holds a rearing bull by a
horn. In the field: rhomb,
stylus, marru. In the sky:
ankh, star, crescent.
Achaemenian seal; ca. 521-
400 BC; agate; cat. 290;
slight chipping along upper and lower edge. A royal figure holds two
lions at bay. In the sky: winged sun disk.
Achaemenian seal; ca. 521-400 BC; lentoid; agate; cat. 293. A royal
figure holds two bearded ibexes at bay.

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Dilmun (Failaka)

Fig.96a; Dilmun seal from Barbar; six heads of antelope radiating


from a circle; similar to animal protomes in Filaka, Anatolia and
Indus.

Fig. 96b; Failaka no. 267; harp with taurine


sound-box

Fig. 96f: Failaka no. 260 Double antelope joined at the belly; in
the Levant, similar doubling occurs for a lion

Fig. 103; Failaka no. 206; serpents held in the hands

Fig. 105; Failaka no. 204; is the person seated on a


bull?

[Paul Kjaerum, The Dilmun Seals as evidence of


long distance relations in the early second
millennium BC, pp. 269-277.]

In 1977 the Arab Archaeological Mission and the Directorate of Archaeology and Museums of the
State of Bahrain excavated the mounds of Sar, near the causeway between the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia and the State of Bahrain. Shell seals were found. [Haya Al Khalifa, The shell seals of
Bahrain, pp. 255-259]

Barhain seal: ten circular depressions


surround the spiral

Bahrain seal: Two antelopes

Bahrain seal: four antelope heads


emanating from a star

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Seven antelopes. Fig.85; Susa, tablet: seal impression,
Louvre Sb 11221

Seated person; antelope, one-horned bull, ?bull. Fig. 86;


Susa, sealing: seal impressionl Louvre MDAI, 43, no.
240

Fig. 87; Susa, stamp seal from the Gulf, Louvre, MDAI, 43, No. 1716;
depicts two goat-antelopes crouching head to tail, inside and outside an
oval. Incised eyes are saucer-shaped.

Fig. 88; Susa, stamp seal from the Gulf, Teheran museum, MDAI, 43, no.

1717; an animal tamer wearing a skirt and grasping with one hand a
goat-antelope with its head turned back and with its feet bound; with the
other hand, the person holds a large object which looks like an
architectural feature or shield.

Fig.90; Susa, cylinder seal from the Gulf, Louvre, MDAI, 43,
no. 202 ; made of steatite; a person with a horned tiara, wearing
an unevenly chequered robe; the person is attended by a naked
man and alongside are two tamers grasping a pair of crossed
animals.

Fig. 9 ; Susa, cylinder seal from the Gulf, Teheran


Museum, MDAI, 43, no.
975; steatite; three figures with stylised heads in the
form of notched arches, wearing boldly chequered
skirts; one is seated; the other two stand with backs
turned, hold an enormous feathered arrow, and one of
them extends a hand towards a stylised goat-antelope.

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Fig. 92; Susa, stamp seal made of
bitumen compound, Louvre, MDAI,
43, no. 726; a tamer with three
heavily hatched animals.

Fig. 93; Susa stamp seal made of


bitumen compound, Louvre, MDAI,
43, no. 1720

A general map of the


Ancient "Oxus Indus
Heartland," which
reaches from the
southern Caspian Sea
to Malwa and Kutch to
the Southeast and is
bisected by the Khyber
Pass over the Hindu
Kush.

“Susa…profound affinity
between the Elamite people
who migrated to Anshan
and Susa and the Dilmunite
people…Elam proper
corresponded to the plateau
of Fars with its capital at
Anshan. We think, however
that it probably extended
further north into the
Bakhtiari Mountains...
likely that the chlorite and
serpentine vases reached
Susa by sea... From the
victory proclamations of the
kings of Akkad we also
learn that the city of Anshan had been re-established, as the capital of a revitalised political ally: Elam
itself... the import by Ur and Eshnunna of inscribed objects typical of the Harappan culture provides the
first reliable chronological evidence. [C.J. Gadd, Seals of ancient Indian style found at Ur, Proceedings of
the British Academy, XVIII, 1932; Henry Frankfort, Tell Asmar, Khafaje and Khorsabad, OIC, 16, 1933,
p. 50, fig. 22). It is certainly possible that writing developed in India before this time, but we have no real
proof. Now Susa had received evidence of this same civilisation, admittedly not all dating from the
Akkadian period, but apparently spanning all the closing years of the third millennium (L. Delaporte,
Musee du Louvre. Catalogues des Cylindres Orientaux..., vol. I, 1920, pl. 25(15), S.29. P. Amiet,
Glyptique susienne, MDAI, 43, 1972, vol. II, pl. 153, no. 1643)... B. Buchanan has published a tablet
dating from the reign of Gungunum of Larsa, in the twentieth century BC, which carries the impression
of such a stamp seal. (B.Buchanan, Studies in honor of Benno Landsberger, Chicago, 1965, p. 204, s.).
The date so revealed has been whollyconfirmed by the impression of a stamp seal from the same group,
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fig. 85, found on a Susa tablet of the same period. (P. Amiet, Antiquites du Desert de Lut, RA, 68, 1974,
p. 109, fig. 16. Maurice Lambert, RA, 70, 1976, p. 71-72). It is in fact, a receipt of the kind in use at the
beginning of the Isin-Larsa period, and mentions a certain Milhi-El, son of Tem-Enzag, who, from the
name of his god, must be a Dilmunite. In these circumstances we may wonder if this document had not
been drawn up at Dilmun and sent to Susa, after sealing with a local stamp seal. This seal is decorated
with six tightly-packed, crouching animals, characterised by their vague shapes, with legs tucked under
their bodies, huge heads and necks sometimes striped obliquely. The impression of another seal of
similar type, fig. 86, depicts in the centre a throned figure who seems to dominate the animals, continuing
a tradition of which examples are known at the end of the Ubaid period in Assyria... Fig. 87 to 89 are
Dilmun-type seals found at Susa. The boss is semi-spherical and decorated with a band across the centre
and four incised circles. [Pierre Amiet, Susa and the Dilmun Culture, pp. 262-268].

Western Oxus-Indus Heartland (3rd to 2nd millenium B.C.)

Map of the western


portion of "Oxus-
Indus Heartland." Here
was located the
Namazga and Altyn
Tepe civilizations.

Central to the western


Oxus-Indus Heartland
region is the Kopet Dagh
mountain range, left
center on this map. The
Kopet Dagh range marks
the northern edge of the
Iranian Plateau. Draining
west from it to the
southeastern corner of
the Caspian Sea are the
Atrek and Gurgan
Rivers. The drainage
system of these two
rivers forms modern
Turkmenistan, but in the
ancient world was the
locus of an Early Bronze (ca. 3000 - ca. 2600) proto-urban culture. The central region of the Kopet
Dagh is drained by the Murghab and Tedjen Rivers, the drainage system of which defines ancient
Margiana and modern Uzbekistan. To the West of the range is the drainage system of the Oxus
River (modern Amu Darya River). It was the location of Proto-Bactria (modern Afghan Turkestan).

In the Western Oxus-Indus region was located the Early Bronze (proto-urban) culture of Namazga
IV (ca. 3000 to ca. 2600). The Middle Bronze culture of the region (Namazga V and early VI, Altyn
Tepe 3-1) (ca. 2600-2200) was fully urban, had social classes and apparently an urban government
centered at a temple on a platform pyramid not unlike Near Eastern ziggurats.

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Khyber pass (After Encarta
Encyclopaedia).

Namazga civilization

1. Cast copper grave


good. Mirror with palm-
tree incised handle.
Lacking provenance, but
probably Namazga V.
(New York: Metropolitan Museum of
Art). 27 cm.
2. Coppy-alloy cast Bactrian camel. Stylization includes massed hair at
top of forelegs, at neck and top of head, and a short tail curling up to meet the
rump. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 8.7 cm. The casting is hollow
and attached to the base. The use of these typical grave-good animal figurines is
unknown. No provenance, but probably Namazga V-VI.
3. Cast copper-alloy cosmetic container. A stylized moufflon. (New York:
Metropolitan Museum). The body is rather schematized with exagerated horns
and chest hair. 7.8 cm. The head has a hole in which to put a precious cosmetic,
probably lead-based black paste. No provenance, but probably Namazga V-VI
grave good.

4. Square chlorite or steatite cosmetic container with incised geometric motif.


(New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Typical Namazga V-VI grave good.

5. Chlorite or steatite and marble container in form of a seated female figure. (New
York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 9.5 cm. Representational sculpture in the
Western Oxus-Indus region is rare but an exception are some female figures seated
or squating on a platform and wearing an enveloping robe
decorated with a sheep's fleece pattern. (New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art). There seems to be affinities with
the Iranian Plateau and the figure could well be divine. No provenance but
probably Namazga V-VI grave good. 6. Copper-alloy garment pin. Two
recumbant markhor caprids lying back to back on the top of a sphere. Garnet
pins whether plain or with a decorative head are common in the Near East but this is a particularly
elaborate example. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). No provenance but probably
Namazga V-VI grave good.

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7. Electrum cup with cast birds of prey riveted to the rim. (New
York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 2 cm. Chased geometric
designs on metal and ceramic vessels is typical, but a decoration in
the round like this is rare. Birds of prey are typical of the region's
iconography. Presumably this vessel was used for ritual rather than
drinking because the birds would have made drinking from it
impractical. No provenance, but probably Namazga V-VI grave good. 8. Silver goblet. (New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art). 11.5 cm. This goblet was made by hammering from sheet silver. It
may have been used for rituals or for an aristocratic display of wealth. No provenance, but probably
Namazga V-VI grave good.

9. In Western Oxus-Indus Middle Bronze there appeared


stone or metal compartmentalized stamp
seals. (New York: Metropolitan Museum
of Art). 6.9 cm. Such seals may have been
exported to areas in the Near East. While
possibly indicate ownership of traded
goods they are more likely amuletes or
suspended from the belt as a tribal identifiers. o
provenance but probably Namazga V-VI grave good. 10.
Two-sided stamp seal of chlorite or steatite with clay
impressions. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art).
Glyptic art in this region goes back to the Early Bronze
and was highly developed especially in Margiana and
Proto-Bactria where there were both cylinder and stamp
seals either drilled or ingraved. Stamp seals such as this usually had animal designs and a
longitudinal hole for stringing for suspension from the belt. Here a winged dragon with a heart is on
one side and a snake behind a plant on the other. These may have been tribal identifiers. No
provenance, but probably Namazga V-VI grave good.

11. Two-sided chlorite or steatite stamp seal with clay impressions. On


one side a winged nude hero with boots overcomes snakes; on the other,
a winged dragon with raised tail approaches a tree. (New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art). 4.7
cm. No provenance, but probably
Namazga V-VI grave good.
12. Shaft-hole battle axe of copper
alloy. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 7.9 cm.
Copper alloy weapons are common grave goods in the area. It
accomodates a wooden shaft that is held in by a rivet through
the hole on the side. No provenance, but probably Namazga V-
VI grave good.

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13. Copper-alloy shaft-hole battle axe. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 12.7 cm. A
dragon spits out the blade between its jaws. From the butt
emerge a bird's head and a pair of folded wings. The
iconography is obscure, but the axe may have been a dynastic
symbol. No provenance, but probably Namazga V-VI grave
good.

14. Ceremonial battle shaft-hole


axe with two eagles, boar, and
tiger. Silver with gilt foil. (New
York: Metropolitan Museum of
Art). 15 cm. No provenance, but
probably Namazga V-VI grave good.
http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ucb/

Proto-Bactria (2nd millenium)

Gold armletes terminating in fantastic griffin lion heads. 2nd millenium B.C.
Tillya-tepe necropolis Bactria. Reflects the local gold working tradition having
its origin in Proto-Bactria.

Uruk Era (mid 4th to late 3rd mill. B.C. South


Mesopotamia) Both sides of a limestone tablet
from Kish. c. 3500 B.C. (Dept. Antiquities
Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK). Included in
this earliest example of pictographs is the sign
for head hand foot a threshing sledge and
numbers. -Bactria.

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Settlements and forts
Vedic house and house in Sarasvati culture

We can only conjecture on how an ancient house of the Sarasvati civilization would have looked
like. This conjecture may be based on the continuing tradition of house-building usually stone,
baked brick and wooden planks.

An evidence comes from a wall painting in Ajanta. The tapered roofing shown on this painting is
comparable to the house of Gautama r.s.i found in Himachal Pradesh, not far from Kas'mira.

Kr.s.n.a's visit to Kas'mira before the Mahabharata war

A link with Kashmir of the pre-Mahabharata war period comes from Nilamata Purana (which is
also mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini). Janamejaya, the supporter o the family of Pariks.ita
asks Vya_sa's pupil Vais'ampa_yana: 'Kings of various countries – the great heroes – came to the
great Bharataa war of my forefathers. Say, why did not the king of Kas'mira come there? Why was
that king not chosen by the sons of Pa_n.d.u and Dhr.tara_s.t.ra? The region of Kas'mira, of course,
occupies an important place in the world.' Vais'ampa_yana said: 'Accompanied by his four-fold
armies (the king of Kas'mira) went to the Svayamvara to fight with Ma_dhava, the son of
Va_sudeva. A fight between him and the wise Va_sudeva took place there as had taken place
between Naraka and Va_sudeva. Consequently, he was thrown down by Va_sudeva in that good
combat. Out of respect for that country, Va_sudeva coronated his pregnant queen, so that the
posthumous son might rule. Afterwards, she gave birth to a male child who was named Gonanda.
Being a child, he was brought neither by the Pa_n.d.ava nor by the Kauravas.' Thus is historically
attested the visit of Kr.s.n.a to Kas'mira prior to the Mahabharata war. [Ved Kumari, 1965, The
Nilamata Purana, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass]

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Wood carving of tribal art around the portal This panel in the Gautam Rishi temple, Goshal
of Gautam Rishi Temple, Goshal; on the left shows na_ga (snakes) carved in; the glyph is
panel is sculpted an antelope looking back and also reminiscent of the glyphs Sarasvati
on the right panel a jumping tiger is depicted; Hieroglyphs.
both glyphs are reminiscent of Sarasvati
Hieroglyphs.

Gautam Rishi Temple at the end of Goshal village, on the bank of River Beas, near
Rohtang Pass, Kullu valley, Himachal Pradesh; Naga shrine is on the right

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Wall Painting showing a Wooden House in detail, Cave 17 of Ajanta, 5th century
( from "The Ajanta Caves, Ancient Paintings of Buddhist India" by Benoy K. Behl, 1998, London )

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Settlement – 250 hectares --at Mohenjodaro, circa 2600 to 1900 BCE. An aerial view.
‘Citadel’ area is on a separate mound seen on the right center of the aerial photo. (After
Georg Helmes/German Research Project at Mohenjodaro).

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Mohenjodaro. Western mound built on an artificial platform, 11 m. above the plain.
Includes the Great Bath. The stu_pa is built above the ruins. (After JM Kenoyer/Courtesy
Dept. of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Pakistan).

Settlements, citadels and forts

A characteristic feature of the urban realm of Sarasvati Civilization is that the settlements were well
planned and created. In settlements such as Lothal, and Kalibangan, mudbrick foundation platforms
of massive dimensions were laid out before the settlement was constructed upon them, to ensure that
the settlement was well above the level of the flood waters, in the case of settlements on river-banks
and well above the level of high waves resulting from sea incursions, in the case of settlements close
to the coast. A term ‘citadel’ is normally applied to such areas of the settlement constructed on a
walled mound on a higher elevation. The following list provides the list of such identified citadels.

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Settlement Estimated Locus
size
Harappa 150 ha Ravi river
Mohenjodaro 250 ha Sindhu River
Ganweriwala 80 ha Sarasvati River
Rakhigarhi 80 ha Drishadvati River
Dholavira 100 ha Port, Gulf of Kutch
Sotka Koh 16 ha Shadi Kaur River, Makran coast
Sutkagen Dor 4.5 ha Dasht River, Makran coast
Surkotada 1.4 ha Gulf of Kutch
Balakot 2.8 ha Coast west of Sindhu
Banawali 16 ha Sarasvati River
Desalpur 1.3 ha Gulf of Kutch
Lothal 4.8 ha Bhogava River, Gulf of Khambat
Kalibangan 11.5 ha Sarasvati River
Mitathal 7.2 ha Drishadvati River

The forts on the banks of River Sarasvati and River Sindhu constructed during the historical periods
is a continuity of this phenomenon of protecting settlements with durga ‘forts’.

Computer Graphics Reconstruction of Dholavira (2001)

A view of the entire city with its "Citadel", "Lower Town" and "Middle Town"
surrounded by square walls

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The "Citadel" (left), and the "Lower Town" and "Middle Town" (right)

Close-up of the "Citadel"

“The city was surrounded by a series of square walls, with a "Citadel" which rises 15 meters above
the "Middle Town" and the "Lower Town". A signboard with ten huge Indus signs found on the
floor of a room at the North Gate was probably originally displayed above the gateway. Although
the Indus script written on the signboard is still undeciphered, it is likely that the inscription
represents the name of the city or the name of a god or a ruler.” [Supervisor for the computer
graphics: R. S. Bisht (Archaeological Survey of India) Computer graphics: Osamu Ishizawa,
Yasuyo Iwata and Nobuyuki Matsuda (Taisei Corporation) in collaboration with NHK. Photos
courtesy: http://bosei.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/~indus/english/2_4_03.html See Ancient Civilization City
State Virtual Trip by Tasisei Corporation: http://www.taisei-kodaitoshi.com/index.html]

Harappa. Curved re-entrant and gateway

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Harappa was a fortified settlement with a re-entrant
gateway Also shown is the
flood deposit against the
fortification walls. [After Pl. I,
II and III in: SR Rao, 1991,
Dawn and devolution of the
Indus Civilization, New Delhi,
Aditya Prakashan]. The
fortification may have been
necessitated by the
control flood deposits
and also to protect the metal product storages
(granary, worker platforms).

Harappa. Flood deposit (behind the


standing figure in the upper terrace sealing the
structure.

There are statuary showing bearded persons with hair-knots tied into a bun at the back. [Marshall,
MIC, Pl. XCIX, 4 to 9].

Marot. Fort. The remains of fortifications and abandoned


dwellings. Southern fortification wall of Marot fort. “Marot
was once an important commercial centre located on an
ancient route between Multan and Delhi, which passed
through Sirsa and Hansi during the Medieval period. The
existing ruins of Marot reportedly occupy an ancient place
which according to traditions was founded by one of the
rulers of Chittor during pre-Islamic times. It contained a
number of religious shrines including a temple of the Jains.
Ornamental pillars of yellow sandstone with excessive
carvings (now in Bahawalpur Museum) reflect the former
significance of the shrines. By twelfth century CE, Marot
assumed strategic importance as well and emerged as a strong
military outpost. Nasiruddin Qabacha, the local ruler of Uchh
was once stationed at Marot. The place was visited by the
famous historian Minhajuddin Siraj in 1250 CE. During
Akbar’s time, a contingent of 200 horsemen and 1l000 infantry was stationed at Marot.” [After Pl.
129 and 130 in: Mohammad Rafique Mughal, 1997, Ancient Cholistan: archaeology and
architecture, Rawalpindi, Ferozsons Pvt. Ltd., pp. 132-3]. There is an apparent need for further
archaeological work in this fort area to excavate the sites related to the SSVC and proto-historical
periods prior to CE.

A_gama heritage of the Sarasvati Sindhu Valley Civilization

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The earliest shrine of
Bha_rata may perhaps be
related to the finds of a
shrine at Mohenjo-daro.

Temple: Mesopotamia
(Left), Garbha-gr.ha:
Bharat (Right):

Paved with glazed bricks


and having a conduit or
drain (B) resembles the shrine at Mohenjo-daro. The
picture taken at Ur shows a Babylonian sactuary : A is the altar; and C is the upper court adjacent to
the shring (B). [After Pl.V in: Gregory L. Possehl, ed., 1979, Ancient Cities of the Indus, Delhi,
Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.]

Mohenjo-daro. With flooring and


conduit of glazed bricks resembling
those of Ur; a pre-historic shrine .
This may be the earliest
representation of a garbha-gr.ha
which becomes the standard practice
in temple construction according to
the a_gama-s. [After Pl.I in: Gregory
L. Possehl, ed., 1979, Ancient Cities
of the Indus, Delhi, Vikas Publishing
House Pvt. Ltd.]

The brick-work at Mohejo-daro is


comparable to the brick-work found
in the outer wall of Ur, with a drain
of burnt bricks. [After Pl.V in:
Gregory L. Possehl, ed., 1979,
Ancient Cities of the Indus, Delhi,
Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.]
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While burnt-brick construction is the vogue in settlements such as Mohenjodaro and Harappa, in the
settlements such as Dholavira, Kot Diji and Surkotada, limestone masonry is used extensively,
adapting to the locally available building materials.

(Photos courtesy: http://bosei.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/~indus/english/2_1_02.html)

The techniques which evolved in Dholavira for creating rock-cut reservoirs continued into the
historical periods with the construction of man-made caves in mountains and building pus.karin.i-s
(water-tanks) comparable to the bathing tanks found in Mohenjodaro.

Ringstone bases for


wooden columns
found in several side
verandahs in the
gateways of the citadel
at Dholavira. ASI, New
Delhi.

Massive ringstones of
limestone found along
one street in HR area of
Mohenjodaro. ASI,
New Delhi.

This ability to carve into large stones finds an application in


later historical periods: construction of man-made caves, over
200 of which are found in Vidarbha region alone.

Mohenjo-daro. DK Area. Jewellery find area is in the


centre, close to the lane. Block numbers in Arabic, house
numbers in Roman and Room numbers in small Arabic
numerals. [After Pl. LXV, MIC].

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The Great bath within the citadel area.

Kalibangan: Pre-harappan houses.


Mohenjo-daro: Peripheral wall with This settlement also had a citadel as
salients; this could have served as a distinct from a lower town. A fortification
fortification wall with gateways and guard wall skirted the citadel which is seen on
rooms as in many other settlements of the the right.
civilization. Mohenjo-daro: A street in the citadel.

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Computer graphics reconstruction of the "Lower Town" of Mohenjodaro.

http://bosei.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/~indus/english/2_1_01.html

Computer
graphics

reconstruction of the "Great Bath" and the "Granary" by Fujitsu Co. Aerial photograph of the Great
Bath and the
Granary :
Courtesy of

Prof.M.Jansen(RWTH, Aachen

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City planning

“The "Lower Town" was divided into a number of blocks


by a grid of straight streets running north-south and east-
west, and each block was further divided by small lanes.
Some houses had rooms with wells, bathing rooms (paved
with baked bricks) and even toilets. Waste water was
drained out of the houses through drain chutes built into
the side walls that fed into a system of drains built
alongside the lanes and streets.” http://bosei.cc.u-
tokai.ac.jp/~indus/english/2_1_04.html

Mohenjo-daro. Great Bath showing access routes.


[After Jansen 1993, fig. 50].

Plan of the granary at Mohenjo-daro. [After Wheeler,


1968, fig. 9].

It may be seen the bath drain from the Great bath


runs at the edges of the granary. If the granary was a
place where the copper/bronze weapons were stored
for trade, the drain can be explained as the water-
body used to cool the moulded copper/bronze
objects. This possibility is re-inforced by the
perception that the great bath may not have served as
a public bathing place. “Rooms are located along the
eastern edge of the building (surrounding the bath):
in one room is a well that may have supplied some of
the water needed to fill the tank. Rainwater also may have been collected for this purpose, but to
inlet drains have been found. It is unlikely that this elaborate building was used simply for public
bathing, because just to the north is a substantial building containing eight small rooms with the
more common bathing platforms. Most scholars agree that this tank was used for special religious
functions where water was used to purify and renew the well being of the bathers…

Baked brick buildings with 9 m. wide street. DK-G area in Mohenjodaro. (After Fig. 3.1,
Kenoyer, 2000).

“Located on the western edge of the mound at


the southwest corner of the great bath, the
foundation of this building (granary) appears
to have been constructed before the great bath,
whose exit drain cuts across the northeast
corner of the foundation. Built on top of a
tapered brick platform, this building had a
solid brick foundation that extended for 50
meters east west and 27 meters north south.
The foundation was divided into 27 square and
rectangular blocks of narrow passageways,
two running east west and eight running north
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south (one additional north south passageway was added at a later stage). Some of these blocks had
square sockets for holding wooden beams of pillars. We think the entire super structure was made of
timbers. Wheeler identified a brick-paved staircase 4.5 meters wide that led from the southwestern edge
of the structure to the plain level. A brick-lined well was located at the foot of the stairs, and a small
bathing platform was found at the top of the stairs. To the north of the structure was a terraced platform
with numerous sockets for wooden beams and an alcove that Wheeler interpreted as a loading dock. To
the north of the terrace was a low courtyard or open area and two additional wells…A more appropriate
name for this structure would be the great hall, since it was clearly a large and spacious building with
wooden columns and many rooms.” (JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 64).

View of the Bath in the


northern half of the citadel
mound at Mohenjo-daro which
evokes the tradition of pus.kara
as a sacred pun.ya ti_rtha close
to a temple. The so-called
granary of Mohenjo-daro is
visible in the background as
square blocks.

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Terracotta model
providing architectural
features such as windows
or doorways of a house.
“The house depicted in this
model may have originally
had two stories since part of
an upper threshold is
preserved.” http://bosei.cc.u-

tokai.ac.jp/~indus/english/2_2_04.html

made it

stronger
and more durable.

Brick, Mohenjodaro.

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Mohenjodaro. House excavation, perhaps that of a merchant. The initial impression of the
civilization was that of great commercial cities, such as
Mohenjodaro and Harappa, that linked economic regions, but now
it seems these cities were marginal to the true focus further East
and South, among a large number of settlements on the banks of
River Sarasvati not far from the Khetri copper mines and the
coastal regions of the
Gulf of Khambat and
Gulf of Kutch.

Terracotta scale,
showing graduations. Kalibangan.

Street flanked by single story houses in Kalibangan, Period I


(2450-2300 B.C.).

Recent excavations at Harappa were begun in 1986 by the American


team of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project jointly with the
Department of Archaeology and Museums of Pakistan.

The site was inhabited continuously from at least 3300 B.C. until several hundred years after the
decline of the Civilization (the "Cemetery H" Culture at Harappa), which represents one of the
longest periods of occupation at any Indus site. Courtesy, Harappa Archaeological Research Project.

Mohenjodaro. Water-
Mohenjodaro, lane between borne sewerage
houses. system Drain, Mohenjodaro.

Each house, large or small, was provided with earthenware pipe fitted crossways into the walls and
opening into a small individual gutter. This in turn, joined central covered sewers. At intervals there
were decantation ditches where the main sewers joined. These were designed to collect the heavy
waste so that it would not obstruct the mains.

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A street plan of Mohenjo-daro

Several wide streets run from north to


south and from east to west through the
city.

Smaller streets and alleys intersect the


main roads. Doorways of houses
generally open onto these alleys rather
than the main roads.

Mohenjodaro. Urban settlement built upon a platform.

Most urban settlements are divided into different areas. Usually, there is one area of the city built on
a high platform. This area is often surrounded by walls and entered by passing through a gate.

This higher area of the city may have been the center for religious or administrative activities, or
trading.

Kot Diji

Kot Diji fort.

The site of Kot


Diji is located
at the foot of a
range of
limestone hills
in northern Sind on the eastern bank of the
Sindhu River, some 60 kilometers northeast of
Mohenjo daro. Excavated in 1955 by F. A. Khan,
it is the type-site of Kot Diji Culture, which
represents the first evidence of habitation at the site. This culture is characterized by the use of the
red-slipped globular jar with a short neck painted with a black band. Briefly coexisting with the
Harappan Culture, the Kot Diji Culture eventually gave way to the blossoming Sarasvati
Civilization.

During the peak of the Kot Diji Culture, the site was divided into a "Citadel" and a "Lower Town".

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Standardized bricks, terracotta cakes, fish-scale and intersecting-circle designs on pottery and other
traits found in the Indus Civilization were already in use at the site. On the basis of this evidence
and the fact that similar artifacts were found over much of the vast area of the later Sarasvati (or
Sarasvati-Sindhu) Civilization, Dr. M. R. Mughal suggested calling this early stage at Kot Diji and
at other sites the "Early Harappan Culture".

Amri
Amri is also located in Sind (Pakistan) on the western bank of
the Indus River, approximately 150 kilometers south of
Mohenjo daro. The site was excavated by N. G. Majumdar in
1929 and by J.-M. Casal between 1959 and 1962. The site
reached its maximum extent of over six hectares under the
influence of the Balochistan Culture. A number of structures
identified as granaries were constructed, which suggests that
there were farm surpluses and population growth. Pottery
from the early period at this site is similar to the Nal pottery
of southern Balochistan and is thus sometimes referred to as "Amri-Nal" pottery.

During the transitional phase with the Harappan Culture (or Indus Civilization), a wall encircled the
site and a platform made of sun-dried bricks was constructed inside. A thick layer of ash over parts
of the site suggests an incident with fire, after which the site exhibits the exclusive influence of the
Harappan Culture.

http://bosei.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/~indus/english/1_2_01.html

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Balochistan hills

”Early farming village cultures developed throughout the Balochistan hills after 7000 B.C. Situated
geographically between the Iranian plateau and the Indus plain, the area is a natural zone for interaction
between the two regions, and evidence for cultural influence from the West is found even in these early
settlements.”

Mehrgarh

”Mehrgarh is located at the foot of the Balochistan hills on the Kachi plain
southeast of Quetta, situated strategically near the Bolan Pass. Consisting of
four mounds, the site was excavated by the French team for eleven seasons
between 1974 and 1985. The habitation of the site has been divided into
seven periods, the first being the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period that dates to
circa 7000 B.C. or even earlier. The site was abandoned between 2000 and
2500 B.C. during a period of contact with the Indus Civilization and then
reused as a burial ground for some time after 2000 B.C.

Perhaps the most important feature of Mehrgarh is the fact that one can witness its gradual development
from an early village society to a regional center that covered an area of 200 hectares at its height. In the
course of this development, a huge platform that may reflect some form of authority was constructed at
the site. Mehrgarh was also a center of manufacture for various figurines and pottery that were
distributed to surrounding regions.”

Nausharo
”Situated on the Kachi plain approximately 10 kilometers
southwest of Mehrgarh is Nausharo, excavated by the French
team between 1980 and 1998. The site was first occupied at
around 2800 B.C. before the Harappan period under the
influence of the early farming cultures of Balochistan. The
material culture of the site indicates that the site fell under
Harappan influence or occupation by circa 2500 B.C. and
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reverted to the Balochistan cultures by 2100 - 2000 B.C. This is the period when new summer crops
such as rice were introduced into the Kachi plain in peripheral regions where the Indus Civilization
had formerly flourished.”

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Lothal. Ware-house with intersecting air-vents and passages between cubical platforms
[After SR Rao, 1985]

Granary/Public building? The series of stacking


places on either side of the aisle indicate that some heavy, perhaps metallic products might have
been stored in this warehouse.

The ancient Indus cities were built with baked


brick and included some monumental buildings
such as the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro. In the
background is a later Buddhist period stupa. Courtesy of
the Department of Archaeology and Museums,
Government of Pakistan. The ‘great bath’ is the model
for many stone step wells of Bharat constructed during
historical periods.

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Map of Bharat showing locations of the architectural styles
( from "History of Indian and Eastern Architecture" by James Fergusson, 1st ed. )

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Woodcut of Kali Temple in Bankura in Dasyu
style ( from "History of Indian and Eastern
Architecture" by James Fergusson, 1st ed. )

The architecture of this Kali temple of Bankura is comparable to the ‘pre-islamic’ shrine, a minara
at Pattan Minara on the banks of River Sarasvati. The architectural history of Bharat has to be re-
written from the perspective of continuity of the traditions which evolved on the banks of River
Sarasvati, a personified divinity adored as the divinity of arts and crafts.

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Suraj Pol (Gate of the Sun) to the Citadel of Jaisalmer comparable to the gateway with a
sign-board at the northern gate of Dholavira
Photo courtesy: http://www.ne.jp/asahi/arc/ind/jaisalmer/xgate.htm

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View of a part of the citadel from old palace, Jaisalmer; the brick constructions resemble
the brick-linings of wells in Mohenjodaro.

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Stone step-wells of Bharat

The conception of space below the earth and above the earth on mounds as a stepped series in
harmony with spiritual nature of waves of water and the nature of the mound itself is a profound
architectural principle in Bharatiya architecture, a tradition which dates back to the construction of
pus.kara in Mohenjodaro or a scooped out rock-cut reservoir for storing water in Dholavira or the
use of ‘citadels’ on massive platforms to organize for life-activities of Bharatiya, as a cooperative
endeavour. The key architectural organizing principle which continues as an abiding Bharatiya
tradition, is: spiritual harmony with the cosmos and the pun.yabhu_mi, sacred earth, a_pah, sacred
waters.

Great kun.d.a (stepped cistern or well) at Abaneri, 9th century CE

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Jaina temple city, atop Mount Shatrunjaya, Palitana

Jaina temple city, Mount Girnar

An outstanding achievement of Bharatiya civilization is the architecture in stone adorned with stone
sculptures and rock-cut viha_ra-s and many forts built in stone. Breath-taking are the stepped wells
of Gujarat and Rajasthan many of which are over 1,000 years’ old. Over 120 such wells are
founding Gujarat. These are called bawari or baoli in Rajasthan. [cf. ba_vi stepped well (Telugu)]
“From the 5th to the 19th centuries, the people of western India built stone cisterns to collect the
water of the monsoon rains and keep it accessible for the remaining dry months of the year. These
magnificent structures - known as stepwells or stepped ponds - are much more than utilitarian
reservoirs. Their lattice-like walls, carved columns, decorated towers and intricate sculpture make
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them exceptional architecture, while their very presence tells much about the region's ecology and
history.” The ability of a stone mason to chisel into rock and to create a rock-cut reservoir at
Dholavira continues into the historical periods in Bharat as a cultural identity celebrating a_pah as
sacred waters to be conserved and celebrated as the gift of Sarasvati.

Hadi Rani Rani-ki-


Well, Toda vav,
Raisingh, Patan,
Rajasthan Gujarat

Stepped well in
S’iva vadi temple,
Bikaner

Nimrana stepwell, Rajasthan


Cistern,
Nahgarh Vasant Garh
fort, stepped-pond,
Jaipur Rajasthan

Panna Mia stepped pond.

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[Source: All photographs on stepwells, after Morna Livingstone, Milo Beach, 2002, Steps to
Water; The Ancient Stepwells of India.]

Diffusion of domesticated agricultureii

Kalibangan. The earliest ploughed field in the world so far known. The techniques of
furrowing, use of ploughs and solid-wheel carts drawn by
bullocks are in use even today, attesting to the continuity
of agricultural practices since over 4,000 years Before
Present. (After Georg Helmes/German Research Project
on Mohenjodaro)

Plough. Terracotta model. Banawali. S-shaped with a


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sharp edge at the point, with a hole at the end of the central component to fasten it to a yoke. The
model plough is identical to the shape of the ploughs used even today in Bharatiya villages and
villages in the sub-continent.

A remarkable finding of domesticated agriculture is the discovery of a ploughed field in Kalibangan,


on the banks of River Drishadvati (a tributary of River Sarasvati). The Latin/Greek word, oryza, is
derived from Tamil arici, Kannada akki. Roxburgh (Flora Indica, ii. 200) notes that a wild rice,
known as Newaree [Skt. nivara, Telugu. nivvari] grows abundantly about the lakes in the Northern
Circars, and he considers this to be the original plant. Jarrige and Meadow note an indigenous
Mehrgarh culture with cereal cultivation circa 6500 BCE and its gradual spread south-east to the
Sindhu to develop into Harappan culture circa 3000 BCE. (‘The ancetecedents of civilization in the
Indus Valley,’ in Scientific American, Aug. 1980, pp. 122-133). “Prolific use of rice (Cultivated-
Oryza sativa; wild annual - Oryza nivara; and wild perennial- Oryza rufipogon) husk and chaff as
pottery temper at Koldihwa ( PRL 224, ca. 6570 ± 210 BC) and Mahagara (PRL-100, ca.5440 _+
240 B.C., 4530 + 185 BC), and the discovery of rice grains of cultivated rice at Mahagara establish
the cultivation of rice. Electron microscopic studies conducted by Vishnu-Mittre showed that both
cultivated and wild species of Oryza were present at Mahagara. Neolithic settlement at Mahagara
marks a considerable advance in the pattern of settlement perhaps as a result of an altered economy
which led to the emergence of separate family house units planned around cattle pens.”
(K.L.Mehra, http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/Agriculture1.doc Agricultural foundation of Indus-
Sarasvati Civilization).

The diffusion of rice cultivation together with black-and-red ware is demonstrated from Lothal
eastwards to Bengal.

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Kot., fortified settlements in
Sarasvati Sindhu River Basins
Kunal, Dholavira (Kotda -- lit. fort), Banawali, Kalibangan, Surkotada (lit. warrior-fort or, fort of
the valiant heroes), and Lothal: all these six settlements are on the banks of rivers/tributaries along
the course of the Sarasvati river. In these Early Harappan sites, there is evidence of town-planning
(i.e. laying-out of streets and houses along cardinal directions), fortification of settlements and the
concept of dividing the settlement into two parts: the citadel and the Lower Town.

A number of hypotheses can be postulated to explain the reasons for the fortifications. In some
settlements, the fortifications might have been flood-control bunds; in some, they might have been
defensive in nature, to protect against the incursion of wild animals and marauders. In some
settlements such as Surkotada and Dholavira (Kotda), there are indications (e.g. guard rooms
adjoining the citadel gateways), that the fortifications were related to armed camps or troops
(vra_tya) or armourers. This provides a key to the decipherment of inscriptions as (1) property lists
of arms and armour of soldiers or (2) bills of lading of arms and armour traded by armourers.

It would appear that the Vedic harmya, vrata and gra_ma were paralleled in the ancient settlements
of the civilization with vra_tya (armed troops) engaged in san:gra_ma or warfare or engaged in
manufacturing weapons and armour using the bronze-age metal resources.

It is not a mere coincidence that in the cultural-philological tradition of


Bha_rata, a fort is called a durga_ (lit. difficult to enter), or kor-r-avai
(Tamil) and durga_ or kor-r-avai is depicted as a divinity with multiple
hands and carrying multiple weapons in her hands and portrayed as s'akti
(power or spear). Early temples (as in Aihole, 7th cent. AD) are dedicated to
Durga_. Many forts had temples for Durga_ depicted as
mahis.a_suramardini_.
http://hindunet.org/saraswati/devi/durgatemples.htm
http://hindunet.org/saraswati/devi/durga.htm
kot.ad.i or kot.a connotes a wall of a compound. Many archaeological
settlements dated c. 3300 to 2500 BCE contain with mud-brick walls
surrounding the settlements which are laid out as citadels and 'lower towns'.
In Harappa, the 'citadel' area had 'workers' platforms' which were circular
burnt-brick-lined platforms. http://hindunet.org/saraswati/peacock.html
The following table is a list of 28 Harappan archaeological settlements (cf.
Gregory L. Possehl, 2000, Indus Age: the Beginnings, Appendix A Gazetteer of Sites, pp. 727-845)
on Sarasvati Sindhu River Basins with place names containing the morpheme, -kot indicating that
the settlement has a citadel, a continuing legacy of town-planning with fortified segments -- a legacy
which dates back to c. 5000 years Before Present (BP).:

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Settlement Name, Co-ordinates, Area (ha.)

Balakot (Las Bela) 25-28-30N 66-43-30E 2ha.


Birkot Ghwandai (Swat) 34-41-00N 72-12-00E .0.05ha
Dabar Kot (Loralai) 30-05-00N 68-41-00E 24.30ha.
Dad Kala Kach Kot Dherai (Bannu) 32-57-20N 70--36-15E
Dhillamjo Kot (Dadu) 25-37-00N 68-02-00E
Dhulkot (Jamnagar) 20-50-00N 71-02-00E
Khar Khoda (Meerut) 28-50-00N 76-45-00E
Kot (Kachi) 29-30-00N 67-26-00E
Kot Alabad (Dera Ismail Khan) 32-08-00N 70-18-50E
Kot Diji (Khairpur) 27-16-00N 68-40-00E 2.20ha.
Kot Kori (Thar Parkar) 24-25-00N 69-02-00E
Kot Mandlal (Ludhiana) 30-47-00N 76-03-00E
Kot Raja Manjhera (karachi) 24-58-00 68-08-00E
Kot Waro Daro (Sukkur) 0.60ha.
Kota (Jamnagar) 22-10-00N 69-42-00E 0.80ha.
Kota (Saharanpur) 29-54-00N 77-38-00E
Kota One (Jamnagar) 22-10-00N 69-42-00E 0.50ha.
Kotada Bhadli (Kutch) 23-22-00N 69-26-00E 8.00ha.
Kotada (Jamnagar) 22-12-00N 70-22-00E 72.00ha.
Kotada (Kutch) 23-18-00N 70-06-00E
Kotar Khana (ropar) 30-13-00N 77-13-00E
Kotara (Kutch) 23-58-00N 69-47-00E
Kotarkhana (Ambala) 30=13-35N 77-13-16E 3.00ha.
Kotda (Jamnagar) 23-14-00N 70-21-00E
Kotiro (Larkana) 27-21-00N 67-25-00E
Kotla Nihang Khan (Ropar) 30-56-00N 76-34-00E 2.60ha.
Kotli (Ropar) 30-53-00N 76-29-00E
Kotra (Kachi) 28-34-00N 67-24-00E
Surkotada (Kutch) 23-37-00N 70-50-00E 1.40ha.

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On the Sindhu River Basin

In the Salt Range (North West Province) North Kafirkot and


South Kafirkot (Bilot) each has a citadel and a temple. Many
temples in the region were built between 6th and 11th cent.
AD.
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/arth/meister/expedtxt.htm
Temple at Kafirkot Site plan of the Fort at Kafirkot encircling
four monuments, may be seen at:
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/arth/meister/kk/site2.html

On the Sarasvati River Basin

The ancient city and Fort of Sirsa (Sarasvati_ Nagara), the ruins of which adjoin the present town,
are said to be of great antiquity and are said to have been, founded some by Raja Saras in 7th cent.
AD. There are forts at Bhatnair, Abohar and Bhatinda. The fort at Bhatinda (semant. : Bhattian da
kot or Bhattian da adda), meaning the fort of the Bhattisis reputed to have been built by Raj/a Dab in
the second century AD. Pathankot fort is reputed to have been built in the 12th century AD by Raja
Jet Pal. Kangra Fort (Nagarkot city between Rivers Sutlej and Ravi) was built in the 2nd cent. AD.

The fortifications of Kotda (Dholavira) and many other archaeological sites are echoed in the forts
built in Kutch in the historical periods.Many
forts were constructed in the Rann of Kutch
during the 7th to 19th centuries:

7th Century : Maniaro


8th Century : Patgadh
9th Century : Kanthkot
10th Century : Angorgadh, Boladigadh, Kerakot,
Padhargadh.
17th Century : Alampannah, Bhuj, Mundra Fort,
Dhoramnath,
Rayan, Mandvi, Fort, Bhujia Fort.
18th Century :
19th Century : Tera, Bhadreswar, Than
The arched entance of many forts in Kutch is
analogous to the corbelled arch found in the
Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro to drain out the
water.

kos.t.ha_ga_ra: A key to decipherment of


inscribed messages

Is the one-horned heifer a depiction of kot.va_l.u


(Sindhi), the military guard of the fortified
settlement of the civilization?
Tera fort
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Possibly, if the pictograph is seen as a ligature of a horn and a heifer; the rebus homonyms are: kot.
= horn; va_hr.u = heifer; the pannier is ji_na; ji_nas'a_le is an armoury. The semant. of the ligatured
pictograph may, therefore, be explained as a military guard of the armoury in the citadel of the
settlement of the civilization.

Police officer; one who watches crops: kos.t.ha-vya_pa_ra, the revenue department;
ko_t.t.va_la, kut.t.ava_la police officer (Pkt.); kot.t.a (EI 24), a fort; kot.t.ai and kot.t.am of
ko_t.t.apa_la commander of a fort (Skt.); the South Indian Inscriptions; kot.t.ai (ASLV) a
kut.awa_l captain of a fort, chief of police, city fort; kot.t.am (IE 8-4, EI 27), Tamil: a district, a
magistrate (K.); kot.a_ru district officer, who district within a man.d.ala or province;
watches crops, police officer (S.); kut.va_l a (ASLV), a division of the ra_jya, sometimes
kind of village constable (L.); kut.wa_l hon. subdivided into na_d.u-s; kot.t.a-nigraka (EI 8;
title of a T.hakkur (WPah.); kot.a_l watchman, IA 30; BL) commander of a fort; kot.t.anigrahin
constable (B.); kat.ua_l.a town policeman (Or.); (IA 30), probably the commander of a fort;
kot.wa_r, kot.wa_l police officer (H.); kot.va_l kot.t.apa_la (IE 8-3, EI 12, 18, 25, 30; BL)
(L.); kot.va_lu (S.); kot.va_l. (G.)(CDIAL officer in charge of a fort, governor of a fort; cf.
3501). kottava_l < kotwa_l (U.) chief police the Bhagalpur plate of Na_ra_yan.apa_la (Ind.
oficer for a city or town, superintendent of Ant. Vol. XV , p. 306); sometimes spelt
markets; kottava_r--ca_vat.i police station or kot.apa_la (cf. the Nalanda plate of Devapa_la,
residence of a kottava_l; central place in some in Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321); same as
towns serving as a market for provisions, etc. kot.t.apati; (EI 25), the city prefect, same as
(Ta.); kotwa_l-ca_vat.i id. (Te.); kottava_r-- kotwal; kot.t.apati (IE 8-3), same as
ce_vakan- police constable under a kottava_l kot.t.apa_la; kot.t.a-vis.aya (IE 8-4; CII i), a
(Ta.lex.) kontakan- commander of an army vis.aya or district around a fortress; a district
(Tiruva_lava_. 30,45); konta-kulam the family with its headquarters in a fort; kotwa_l (IE 8-2,
of ve_l.a_l.as in Kontakai near Madura, 8-3), same as Tala_ra or the prefect of the city
formerly commanders under Pa_n.d.yas police; the chief police officer of a city or town
(Tiruva_lava_. 39,1) (Ta.lex.) (Indian Epigraphical Glossary).

kos.t.ha_ga_ra royal granary (HRS, EI 29); cf. ko_t.a a fort; a hut, shed; ko_t.aka a builder of
Tamil kot.t.aga_ram, kot.t.a_ram (EI 22; SITI) sheds, thatcher; a mixed caste (offspring of a
treasury or store-house; Tamil kot.t.aga_ram mason by a daughter of a potter); ko_t.i_-pa_la
stables (SII2); kos.t.ha_ga_ra-karan.a (LP) the guard of a strong hold; ko_t.t.a_ra a
department of the collection of the king's share fortified town, strong-hold (Skt.lex.) ko_t.t.ai-
of grain; kos.t.ha_ga_rin officer in charte of the ve_l.a_l.ar a sect of ve_l.a_l.as living in a fort at
treasury or store-house; cf. Srivaikuntam in Tinnevelly district (Ta.lex.)
maha_kos.t.ha_ga_rin; kos.t.haka (BL; LP) a Image: watchman: kot.al a watchman
granary or store-house; kos.t.ha-karan.a (EI 29) (Santali.lex.) cf. ko_s.t.hapa_la storekeeper
a treasury accountant; also the revenue (Skt.); kot.hval.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 3547).
department; kos.t.ha-vya_pa_ra (EI 29) the
revenue deparemtnt; kos.t.hi cf. Prakrit kodhi 1828.Fort: ko_t.t.a fort, residence (Ma.);
(LL) a hall; kos.t.hika_-karan.a (LP) the royal ko_t.t.ai fort, castle (Ta.); ko_t.e fort, rampart
treasury; kot.a (LP) also called kot.ad.i wall of (Ka.); ko_t.u stronghold (Ta.); fort (Ma.); ko.t.
the compound; kotad.i-sahita (LP) together with castle, palatial mansion (Ko.); ko_n.t.e fort
walls of the compound; kot.aka (Ep. Ind. Vol. (Ka.); ko.t.e palace (Kod..); ko_t.e fort (Tu.);
XIV, p. 313) a district; same as kot.t.aka; cf. ko_t.a, (Inscr.) kot.t.amu fort (Te.); ko_t.a
kot.t.a-vis.aya; kot.apa_la (EI 17), same as palace, fort (Kuwi); kot.t.a-, kot.a- fort,
kot.t.apa_la; kot.ha-vya_pa_ra (EI 28), same as stronghold (Skt.)(DEDR 2207-a). ko_t.t.a_ra a

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fortified town, strong-hold; ko_t.i a class, (Kui); gud.d.i temple (Go.)(DEDR 1655). cf.
department, kingdom; ku_t.amo_hana an ku_t.u receptacle for grain (Ta.)(DEDR 1883).
epithet of Skanda (Skt.lex.) Fort, palace: X Shop, factory; granary: kot.hi_ shop, brothel
ko_n.t.e-ka_l.aga a fight on the ramparts (L.); big well-built house, house for married
(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: bastion, bulwark: women to prostitute themselves in (P.);
kottal.a, kottala bulwark, bastion (Ka.); stone kot.t.hi_ (P.); ko_s.t.ha granary, storeroom
pavement (Tu.); kottal.am bastion (Ta.); (MBh.); inner apartment (Skt.); ko_s.t.haka
bulwark, bastion, stone pavement (Ma.); treasury (Skt.); kot.t.ha storeroom (Pali);
krottal.amu, k(r)ottad.amu bastion (Te.)(DEDR kot.t.haka storeroom (Pali); kot.t.ha, kut.t.ha,
2090). kottal.am part of a rampart, bastion, kot.t.haya granary, storeroom (Pkt.); ko_t.ha
defensive erection on the top of a rampart granary; kut.hu granary, storehouse (K.);
(Ta.Ma.); kottad.amu (Te.); kottal.a kot.hi_ storeroom (S.); kot.ha_ hut, room (L.);
(Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kot.t.haka (Pali)(Ta.lex.) house (L.); house with mud roof and walls,
koend.a gar., gar., gar.h a fort (Santali.lex.) granary (P.); kot.t.ha_ id. (P.); kut.hi_ house
koen.d.a gar. a fort mentioned in the traditions (WPah.); kot.ho large square house (Ku.);
of the Santals; koen.d.a rapaj the race of kings chamber (N.); ko_t.hi room, building (Ku.);
who reigned at the traditional fort of Koen.d.a kut.hi shop (N.); kot.ha_, ko~t.ha_ room (A.);
gar. (Santali.lex.) kot.a fort, fortified town kut.hi_ factory (A.); kot.a storehouse (K.);
(As'.); kot.t.a, kut.t.a id. (Pkt.); kut. tower kut.hi_ bank, granary (B.); kot.hi_ factory,
(?Kt.); kot. tower (Dm.); ko_t. (Kal.); fort (Sh.); granary (Or.); granary of straw or brushwood in
village (Dardic); kut.h, ku_t.as fort (K.); kot.u the open (Bi.); grain-chest (Mth.); granary,
(S.); kot. (L.); fort, mud bank round a village or large house (H.); factory (G.); granary, factory
field (P.); ko_t.h stockade, palisade (A.); kot. (M.); kot.ho room (Marw.); jar in which indigo
fort (B.H.Marw.G.M.); rampart (G.); kut. fort is stored; warehouse (G.); kot.ha storeroom
(B.); kut.a (Or.); kot.h fort (M.); kot.uva (OAw.); ku_t.huru small room (K.); kot.hr.i_
(Si.)(CDIAL 3500). ko_t.t.ai-k-ku_li wages on small side room (L.); room, house (P.);
nuts; prob. charges for the upkeep of forts kot.her.i_ small room (Ku.); kothr.i_ room,
(Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ko_t.t.ai-magamai tax for the granary (H.); kot.hd.i_ room (M.); kut.hari_
maintenance of forts (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) chamber (A.); kut.hri_ (B.); kot.hari (Or.); kotul
wattle and mud erection for storing grain (Sh.);
1833.Image: granary; monk's cell; brick-built kot.hla_, kot.hli_ room, granary (H.); kot.hlo
house: kot.ha_ brick-built house (B.Or.); wooden box (G.)(CDIAL 3546). kut.ru tent
granary (H.); large granary (M.); kot.t.ha (B.)(CDIAL 3548). cf. ku_t.a_ram tent (Ta.);
monk's cell (Pali); da_ntar-kut.ha fire-place id., camp (Ma.); gud.a_ra, gud.a_re, gun.d.a_ra,
(Sv.); kut.hu room (K.); kot.ho large room (S.); gu_d.a_ra tent (Ka.); gud.a_ra id. (Tu.);
kot.ha_ hut, room, house (L.); kot.ha_ house gud.a_ramu, gud.a_ru, gu_d.a_ramu id. (Te.);
(L.); kot.ho room (Marw.); kot.hari_ chamber kut.aru id. (Skt.); gud.d.ara id. (Pkt.); gud.ha_r
(Or.); kut.hari_ chamber (A.); kut.hri_ (B.); id., howdah (M.)(DEDR 1881). Image: sack;
kot.hari (Or.); kot.hla_ room (H.)(CDIAL grainstore: kotthali_ sack (Pali); kotthala bag,
3546). ko_t.t.am temple; ko_r..i-cce_var- grainstore (Pkt.); ko_ha bag (Pkt.); kothul,
kot.iyo_n- ko_t.t.amum (Cilap. 14,10); room, kothulu large bag or parcel (K.); kothuju small
enclosure (Man.i.6,59); camp; prison; place; bag or parcel (K.); kothiri_ bag (S.); kuthlo
cow-shed; herd of cows (Ta.lex.) cf. kut.i large bag, sack (Ku.); ku_thli_ satchel, wallet
house, abode, home, family, town, tenants; (B.); kuthal.i, kuthul.i, kothal.i, kothil.i wallet,
kut.ikai hud made of leaves, temple; kut.ical pouch (Or.); kothla_ bag, sack, stomach (H.);
hut; kut.icai; kut.iai small hut, cottage; kut.il kothli_ purse (H.); kothl.o large bag (G.);
hut, shed, abode; kut.an:kar hut, cotage (Ta.); kothl.i_ purse, scrotum (G.); kothl.a_ large
gud.i central room of a house, living room sack, chamber of stomach (M.); kothl.e~ sack

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(M.); gothiri_ bag (S.); gutthla_ (L.); kothl.i_ upright on edge (Ta.); kut- (kuty-) to build up
small sack (M.)(CDIAL 3511). ko_tu covering, stones into wall (Ko.); kus't- (kus'ty-) to build
capsule, pod (Tailava. Taila. 18)(Ta.lex.) Sack: (wall of pen, etc.) with stones
go_n.i a sack, a pack-sack (Ka.Skt.M.); go_n.i, (To.); kutukal, kotokal memorial menhir
go_ne (Te.); ko_n.i (Ma.Ta.); ko_n.ikai, (Go.)(DEDR 1720). cf. kunda a pillar of bricks,
ko_n.iyal (Ta.); gavasan.ike, gavasan.i (Ka.); etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 1723). Granary: kot.t.u
gavasan.isu to inwrap, to cover (Ka.); granary (Par..a. 388, Urai.); basket made of
gavasan.ige a cover, a cloth, a sack; any cover rattan; trunk of palmyra (Ta.); kot.t.il shed; hut
or case (Ka.); kavican-ai (Ta.); kaviyan (Ma.); (Perun.. Ucaik. 43,199)(Ta.lex.) cf. kot.t.a_ram
gavisane (Te.); kacul.i (Ta.); go_ta a sack (Te.); (Perun.. Makata. 14,19)(Ta.); id. (Ma.);
kavi to cover; kavavu to put in, enclose (Ta.); kot.a_ramu (Te.); kot.t.a_ra (Tu.Ka.);
go_n.itat.t.u sackcloth (Ka.); go_n.ta_t.a (M.); kot.t.a_ram place where paddy or other grains
go_n.i a burden of wares (M.); ragged clothes are husked (Ta.); kot.a_ru_ id. (Ka.); kot.t.am
(Ka.); the measure of a dro_n.a (Ka.lex.) small ola basket (Cir-upa_n.. 166);
Granary: kutir large earthen receptacle for kot.t.aka_ram store-room, granary (Periyapu.
storing grain (Ta.); kudir receptacle for grain It.an:kar..i. 7); kot.t.aka_ram id. (Ma.);
made of earthen hoops or bamboo mats, a kot.a_ramu (Te.); kot.t.a_ra id. (Tu.); kot.t.at.i
granary (Ka.)(DEDR 1710). kuduru recovery of room, as kitchen, store-room (Ta.); ko_t.had.i
health, adjustment, fitness, beauty, symmetry, (M.); ko_t.hari (U.)(Ta.lex.) ko_s.t.ha an
steadiness, a ring of straw, rope, etc., placed apartment; a granary; ko_s.t.ha_ga_ra,
under a pot to prevent its rolling over, a ko_t.a_ra, ko_t.t.a_ra a store-room; a treasury;
support, a rim of stone or other material placed ko_s'a, ko_s.a a storehouse, a treasury; a
under a mortar to prevent spilling of rice; well- treasure, a store, provisions; ko_s'agr.ha a room
formed, beautiful (Te.); to settle, recover from in which valuable things are kept or contained;
illness, be set, arranged, fixed, settled, set right, a treasury; ko_s.t.haka a surrounding wall;
be reformed, become firm, resolute, prosper, kot.t.age a stall or out-house (Ka.)(Tadbhava of
succeed; n. (also kudri) settlement, symmetry, kut.an:ka or kut.aka_ a hut?)(Ka.lex.) kottu:n a
orderliness, health, a rim preventing grain storeroom, barn (Sora.); kottu:dolai Bisoyis'
flying out of a mortar [cf. kundi (Te.)], a ring of storekeeper (Te.) (Sora. lex.) Storekeeper:
cord to prevent a pot from rolling over (Ka.); ko_s.t.haga_rika storekeeper (BHSk.);
kudurcu, kudirincu to arrange, adjust, settle, kot.t.ha_ga_rika (Pali); kot.ha_ri_ one who in a
cure, rectify; kudirika state of being well- body of faqirs looks after the provision store
adjusted, steadiness; kodaru to increase, (S.); treasurer (Or.); storekeeper (Bhoj.);
abound; kudut.a-bad.u to become settled, well- kut.hiya_ri_ (H.)(CDIAL 3551). kot.hval.a_
grounded, arranged, quieted, pacified (Te.); storekeeper (M.); ko_s.t.hapa_la (Skt.)(CDIAL
kuduruni to recover from sickness (Tu.); kutir (- 3547). kot.t.an.a, kot.n.a beating the husk from
v-, -nt-) to be settled, determined, fixed up paddy (Ka.); kot.t.amu (Te.); kot.t.an.age_ri a
(Ta.); kud-id.- (-it.-) to fix firmly in ground, street where people live who perform kot.t.an.a;
tamp earth around (post), hammer end of iron kot.t.an.agitti a female who beats husk from
bar to shorten it, apply force (Ko.)(DEDR paddy (Ka.); kot.t.a_ri the officer in charge of a
1709). kudi fixed, settled (Tu.)(DEDR 1709). granary or warehouse, a steward (Ka.); cf.
Image: pial: guduri a long pial in the house to kot.t.a_ra, kot.a_ra (Tadbhava of
keep waterpots, etc. on (Kond.a); kudru top of ko_s.t.ha_ga_ra a store-room, a treasury) a
fireplace (Kuwi); kudut.abad.u well-grounded, threshing-floor (Ka.lex.) Treasury: cf.
quieted, pacified (Te.)(DEDR 1709). To plant, kot.t.haka the stronghold over a gateway, used
fix: kuttu (kutti-) to plant, set, fix in the ground, as a store-room for various things, a chamber,
set on edge (as bricks in arching, terracing); treasury, granary; kot.t.hake pa_turahosi
kutta_n.-kal, kutt-kkal stone or brick laid appeared at the gateway, i.e. arrived at the

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mansion; kot.t.ha a closet, a monk's cell, a 1913.Costus arabicus: ko_t.t.am costus shrub,
storeroom; kot.t.ha_gara storehouse, granary, saussurea lappa (ko_t.t.amum kun:kumamum
treasury; paripun.n.a-kosa- kot.t.ha_ga_ra 'with parantu : Ci_vaka. 1905); putchock, fragrant
stores of treasures and other wealth'; explained costus root (kat.alit.aik ko_t.an te_yttuk
as threefold, viz., dhana-, dha_a-, vattha- kar..ivatu : Kampara_. Kumpaka. 145);
treasury, granary, warehouse; kot.t.ha_sa share, patchouli, paccilai; arabian costum (Ta.); cf.
division, part; kosa-kot.t.ha_ga_ra explained as: kus.t.a (Skt.); ven.-ko_t.t.am a fragrant
koso vuccati bhan.d.a_ga_ran, i.e. a treasury substance (Cilap. 4,77, Urai.); ven:ko_s.t.am
and granary; kosa-a_rakkha keeper of the king's arabian costum, costus speciosus; ven:ko_t.t.am
treasury (or granary)(Pali.lex.) ko_s.t.ha_ga_ra id. (Perun.. Ucaik. 50,29)(Ta.lex.) ko_s.t.ha,
storeroom, store (Mn.); kot.t.ha_ga_ra kus.t.ha costus speciosus (Ka.lex.) kus.t.a the
storehouse, granary (Pali); kot.t.ha_ga_ra, plant costus speciosus or arabicus; kol.anja id.
kot.t.ha_ra storehouse (Pkt.); kut.ha_r wooden (Ka.lex.) kot.t.a (Jain.Skt.); kus.t.ha (AV.); said
granary (K.); kot.ha_r (WPah.); kut.hari_ to be grown in the snowy mountains of the
apartment (A.B.); kot.hari (Or.); kot.ha_r north, Kashmir and taken to the people in the
zemindar's residence (Aw.); kut.hiya_r granary eastern part (Moti Chandra, Journal of the
(H.); kot.ha_r granary, storehouse; kot.ha_riyu~ Indian Society of Oriental Art, VIII, 1940,
small granary, small storehouse (G.); kot.ha_r, p.71). kebuka costus speciosus (Car. Su. 4.15,
kot.ha_re~ large granary; kot.ha_ri_ small 23.20). Costus speciosus: kemuka (M.); keu
granary (M.); kot.a_ra granary, store (H.B.); kushtha (Skt.); kuravam (Ta.,);
(Si.)(CDIAL 3550). Room near the gate of a chengalvakoshtu (Te.Ka.); root: bitter,
palace: prako_s.t.ha the room near the gate of a astringent, purgative, stimulant, tonic,
palace; a court in a house, a quadrangle or anthelmintic; root rich in starch; habitat:
square (surrounded by buildings; prako_s.t.haka throughout India upto an altitude of 4,000 ft.,
a room near the gate of a palace (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) particularly common in Bengal and Konkan;
prako_s.t.ha a court in a house, an open space often cultivated as an ornamental plant (GIMP,
surrounded by buildings (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kor-r-u pp. 78-79). Costus speciosus kus.t.ha or utpala
masonry, brickwork; mason, bricklayer; the is the fragrant herb called kuth. It is much used
measure of work turned out by a mason in preparing perfumes and was an important
(Ta.lex.) cf. kottava_l chief police officer for a article of export to the Roman empire (H.G.
city or town, superintendent of markets (Ta.); Rawlinson, Intercourse between India and the
kotwa_l (U.); kottava_r-ca_vat.i central place in Western World, p.124). kus.t.ha saussurea
some towns serving as a market for provisions lappa (Car. Su. 4.3,20,25); pa_kala synonym of
etc. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ko_t.t.a much, plenty kus.t.ha (Car. Ci. 7.161). "Costo, costus arabis,
(Ma.)(DEDR 2208). ko_t.t.ai a land-measure is the root of aucklandia costus, aplotaxis
(I.M.P.Tn. 278); a straw-covering with paddy auriculata, saussurea lappa. Its eastern names
stored in (Tiruva_lava_. 50,13); stack of straw are kushta, Sanskrit; kut Hindustani; pachak,
or hay (Tanippa_. i,4,3); abundance, plenty; Mahratti; kost, Persian; and kust, Arabic... in
bundle, as of tamarind, plantain leaves, et., Arabic costo is called cost or cast. In Guzerati it
enclosed in matting or other covering; ko_t.t.ai- is uplot, and in Malay, where there is a great
kat.t.u to store paddy-seeds in bundles; trade in it and it is much used, it is called
ko_t.t.ai-p-po_r hay-stack; ko_t.t.ai-k-kat.an- pucho... it grows in regions which have often
short loan money returnable in kind after been subject to Guzerat, on the confines of
harvest; ko_t.t.ai virai-p-pa_t.u land measure Bengal, of Delhi, and of Cambay, that is, the
about 1.62 acres = the extent of land which land of Mandore (Malwa) and Chitor (Rajput
requires one ko_t.t.ai of seed for sowing state of Mewar)... The flowers have a sweet
(G.Tn.D. I, 238)(Ta.lex.) smell... They make a good deal into powder,
when the smell is less and bitter... The Indian

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physicians use it in many prescriptions. The horns; lazy: ku_t.i_ hornless (?Br.); ku_r..ai-k-
merchants take it to Ormuz, whence it is carried kompan- ox with blunt horns (Ta.); ku_r..aiyan-
in to Persia and Coracone. It is also taken into short, stunted person (Ta.); ku_r..ai that which
Persia and Arabia, by way of Aden... many is short (Ta.)(DEDR 1914). ko_n.d.a hornless
merchants of Arabia, Turkey and Persia said... (Kal.); ko_n.d.a_ bald (Pas'.); kon.t.ha crippled
that the greater part of costo from India was (Pali)(CDIAL 3508). ku_t.a hornless
used in Turkey and Syria... Arabs and Persians (Skt.)(CDIAL 3396). kun.d.hi_ crooked-horned
also told me that they made a profit by bringing (of buffalo)(P.); kun.t.ha blunt (MBh.)(CDIAL
it to their respective countries... physicians of 3261). kun.d.a_ a bullock whose horns have
Nizamaluco... had never seen any other costo been turned (L.); kun.d.i_ crooked (of buffalo's
than that of India... the country where it horns)(L.)(CDIAL 3260). khun.d.ha_ blunt
grows..." (G. De Orta, pp.148-161). Costus (P.)(CDIAL 3899). khun.d.a_ blunt, crooked-
root: kot.t.am costus root (Ci_vaka. 2575); horned (L.); khu~r.o blunt (N.); khun.d.a_ (H.);
ko_t.t.am id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kus.t.ha the plant khun.d.i_ crooked-horned (P.)(CDIAL 3901).
costus speciosus (used as a medicine for Tailless he-buffalo; ox with blunt horns:
takman-, a wasting disease with skin ku_r..ai that which is short; dwarf snake,
eruptions)(AV.); kut.hika (Skt.); kut.t.ha costus calamaridae; ku_r..ai-k-kit.a_, ku_r..ai-k-kat.a_
speciosus (Pali); a partic. drug (Pkt.); kot.h, tailless he-buffalo (Ta.)(DEDR 1914). ko_t.u
kot.hu aucklandia costus (K.); kut.hu drug (in cmpds. ko_t.t.u-) horn (Ta.); ko.r. (obl.
made from costus speciosus (S.); kut.t.h a bitter ko.t.-) horns (one horn is kob), half of hair on
aromatic tonic made from the plant aucklandia each side of parting, side in game, line marked
costus and used in fever (P.); kut.t.h a partic. out (Ko.); kwi.r. (obl. kwi.t.-) horn (To.);
drug (WPah.); kut.h, kut.hi costus speciosus ko_d.u horn (Ka.); ko_r.. horn (Ka.); ko_d.u
(B.); kut.h, kut. root of costus speciosus or horn (Tu.); ko_d.u rivulet (Te.); ko_d. (pl.
arabicus (H.); kot.t.ha costus speciosus (Pali); ko_d.ul) horn (Pa.); ko_r (pl. ko_rgul) id. (Ga.);
kot.t.am (Si.); kur. (B.); kur.ha the plant and its ko_r (obl. ko_t-, pl. ko_hk) horn of cattle or
root (Or.)(CDIAL 3370). cf. kus.t.hin leprous wild animals (Go.); ko_r (pl. ko_hk), ko_r.u (pl.
(A_s'vGr..); kut.t.hin leper (Pali)(CDIAL ko_hku) horn (Go.); kogoo a horn (Go.); ko_ju
3373). kus.t.ha leprosy (Sus'r.); kut.t.ha (pl. ko_ska) horn, antler (Kui)(DEDR 2200).
(Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 3371). 1787.Image: horn: ku_t.a any prominence: a
horn (Ka.); ko_d.u, ko_r.. a horn of animals; a
1940.Image: horn; bone on the forehead; tusk (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ko_r.., ko_d.u a horn;
prominence; top: ku_t.a horn, bone of the ko_r..ke, ko_r..kil., ko_r..kil.im, ko_r..ge id.
forehead, prominence (Vedic); prominence, top (Ka.); ko_d.u kut.t.u to strike or gore with the
(Pali.lex.) ku_t.a a horn; an ox whose horns are horn or with the tusk (Ka.); ko_d.u a horn of
broken; ku_n.ika_ the horn of any animal animals; a tusk (Ka.); ko_d.u-vi_sa the
(Skt.lex.) sin:ghin horn projecting in front allowance of a vis of corn etc. for every
(Santali.lex.) ku_n.ika_ the horn of any animal; bullock-load that comes into town etc.; kud.u
ku_t.a bone of the forehead with its projections, the state of being crooked, bent (Ka.); kod.u
the crown of the head; end, corner (Skt.lex.) (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)
Image: crooked horned: khud.d.a_ blunt,
crooked horned; khud.d.ha_ blunt (L.)(CDIAL 1829.Image: headman: kor-r-avan- king,
3897). khu~t.ehra_ plough with small worn headman (Ma.); king, victor (Ta.); kor-r-avai
block (Bi.)(CDIAL 3900). khun.d.a_ blunt, goddess of war and victory, Durga_ (Ta.)(mur-
crooked horned (L.); khun.d.i_ crooked-horned r-avai ka_t.t.i-k- kor-r-avai par..icci : Perun..
(P.); khu~r.o blunt (N.); khun.d.a_ (H.)(CDIAL Ila_va_n.a. 2,31); kor-r-i id. (Ta.); kor-r-am
3901). kun.d.a_ a bullock whose horns have victory, success, bravery, power, *sovereignty
been turned (Punjabi.lex.) Image: ox with blunt (Ta.)(DEDR 2169). kor-r-avai-nilai these of

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offering sacrifice to Durga_ and worshipping goddess of parturition on the fifth day after
Her (Tol.Po.59)(Ta.lex.) Treasurer; headman: childbirth, by sending away the midwife to
gotga.rn treasurer of the village (Ko.); gottu some open place or jungle with the mat used by
appointment, rule, regulation; gottuga_r-a the mother and a morsel of each of the dishes
headman (Ka.); kottukka_ran- head of a she had tasted (Ta.lex.)
company of labourers (Ta.)(DEDR 2093). X cf.
ko_t.t.ai fort, castle; ko_t.u fort (Ta.)(DEDR 1829b.Image: woman with dishevelled hair:
2207). Troop: jun:gur in a troop (Santali.lex.) ko_t.t.avi_ a naked woman with dishevelled
jhun.d. flock, troop (P.H.G.M.); flock of sheep hair; name of the goddess Durga_ (Skt.lex.) cf.
or goats (Bi.); jhu~_r. id. (Bi.); jhun.d.ru band kor-r-avai (Ta.lex.)
of fakirs (S.); jhun.d.i flock, troop (Ku.); 1906.Image: dishevelled hair: kud.pal. a woman
jhun.d.a (N.); jhu~r.i crowd (Bhoj.); jhut, jhutti with uncombed hair; the name of a female
crowd (N.); jhutta crowd (B.)(CDIAL 5402). demon (Tu.lex.)
cut.t.amu relation, kinsman; cut.t.arikamu
relationship, kinship (Te.); cur-r-am friends, kot.t.ha a bird (woodpecker?); kot.t.haka (Skt.
attendants, kinsmen, relations, crowd (Ta.); koyas.t.ika) the paddy-bird (Pali.lex.)
friendship (Ma.)(DEDR 2715). Attack: jhaur. kos.t.haka = four (IE 7-1-2)(IEG).
attack (P.); jhaur.na_ to attack (H.); jhod.n.e~ to
destroy (M.); jho_d.ia hunter (Pkt.)(CDIAL
5335). Watchman: ko_r-r-akai-ma_kkal.
warriors armed with sticks? (ko_l + takai
+)(milai-c-caru cilatarun. ko_r-r-akai
ma_kkal.um : Perun.. Ucaik. 42,24); ko_r-r-
or..ilavan- guard or watchman armed with a
stick, stationed at the porch of a king's palace
(Perun.. Ucaik. 47,10); ko_r-r-or..il rule or
government of a kingdom, as symbolically by
sceptre-wielding (Perun.. Makata. 23,60); fine
workmanship (Kalit. 100, Urai)[cf. ko_r-r-ot.i
bangles of fine workmanship (Cilap. 26,121)];
ko_r-r-or..ila_l.ar king's attendants armed with
sticks, their duty being to disperse the crowd
and clear the way for the king to pass (Perun..
Ucaik. 58,76)(Ta.lex.) ko_r-al killing, slaying
(Kur-al., 321)(Ta.lex.)

1829a.Image: naked woman; goddess:


ko_t.ari_, ko_t.avi_, ka_t.avi_ a naked woman
(Skt.lex.) kudra than the place where the
Pargana bon:ga is worshipped; kudra one of the
Santal godlets; kudra dan.o bon:ga id.; kudri a
female godlet of the Santals (Santali.lex.)
Durga: ko_t.ari a naked woman; Durga_
(Ka.lex.) kor-r-i Durga_ (Ta.)(DEDR 2169).
kor-r-iya_r a sect of Vais.n.ava female
mendicants wearing basil garlands and other
religious marks; goddess of parturition; kor-r-
iya_rai-var..i-vit.utal to bid farewell to the

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Sarasvati Civilization
An overview

A historical project in search of River Sarasvati to discover our roots, has become a magnificent
opportunity for national resurgence and to make Bharat a developed nation.

This is presented in three sections: observations, conclusions and areas for further research.

Observations

Many sparks have emerged from the anvils of scholars and researches of a variety of disciplines –
all focused on the roots of civilization of Bharat.

Collated together, these sparks have become a floodlight which throws new light on the civilization
of Bharat.

It is a new light on the civilization because of the following reasons:

• A mighty river, a river mightier than Brahmaputra had drained in North-west Bharat for
thousands of years prior to 1500 BCE (Before Common Era).

• The collective memory of a billion people, carried through traditions built up, generation
after generation, recalls a river called Sarasvati; this memory is enshrined in the celebration
of a Mahakumbha Mela celebrated every 12 years at a place called Prayag where the River
Ganga joins with River Yamuna. River Sarasvati is also shown as a small monsoon-fed
stream in the topo-maps of Survey of India and in village revenue records in Punjab and
Haryana.
Yet, the tradition holds that there is a triven.i san:gamma (confluence of three rivers). The
third river is River Sarasvati. This tradition has now been established as a scientific fact –
ground truth -- thanks to the researches carried out using satellite imageries, geo-
morphological studies, glaciological and seismic studies and even the use of tritium
analysis (of traces of tritium present in the bodies of water found in the middle of the
Marusthali desert) by atomic scientists. The desiccation of the river was caused by plate
tectonics and river migrations, between 2500 and 1500 BCE.

These studies have established beyond any doubt that River Sarasvati was a mighty river
because it was a confluence of rivers emanating from Himalayan glaciers; the River Sutlej
and River Yamna were anchorage, tributary rivers of River Sarasvati. The river had
drained over a distance of over 1,600 kms. from Manasarovar glacier (W. Tibet) to
Somnath (Gujarat) with an average width of 6-8 kms. At Shatrana (south of Patiala),
satellite image shows a 20 km. wide palaeo-channel (ancient course), at the confluence of
five streams – Sutlej, Yamuna, Markanda, Aruna, Somb – referred to as Pan~ca Pra_ci_
Sarasvati in Bharatiya tradition. This becomes Saptatha Dha_ra Sarasvati when two other
streams – Dr.s.advati and Ghaggar – join the River Sarasvati at Sirsa
• A civilization was nurtured on the banks of this River Sarasvati as recognized through
the work of archaeologists and the geographical/historical facts contained in ancient
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texts of Bharat, such as the Mahabharata and Pura_n.a. This civilization was an
indigenous evolution from earlier than 10000 BCE and can be said to be one of the
oldest civilizations in the world, heralding the Vedic heritage.
Over 2,000 archaeological sites have been discovered in the Sarasvati River Basin. There is
a description, in 200 s’lokas, in the S’alya Parva of Mahabharata of a pilgrimage
undertaken by Balarama, elder brother of Kr.s.n.a, along the River Sarasvati from Dwaraka
to Yamunotri.
• The oldest extant human document is the R.gveda which is a compilation of 11,000
r.ca-s perceived by hundreds of seers. An understanding of this document is
fundamental to an understanding of the cultural ethos of Bharat.
• R.gveda presents a world-view in allegorical and metaphorical terms perceiving an
essential unity in cosmic phenomena and r.ta (a rhythm which modulates the terrestrial
and celestial events alike). While the document presents the early philosophical thought
related to dharma, it also describes the lives and activities of people – the Bharatiya.
R.gveda thus presents a variegated picture covering a variety of facets of a maritime-
riverine civilization, such as transport systems, agriculture, use of fire, minerals and
metals to produce household utensils, ornaments, tools and weapons. Archaeologists
have unearthed many examples of technology used in the days of the Sarasvati
Civilization (from circa 3500 BCE to 1500 BCE). These provide evidence for the
evolution of s’ankha industry in 6500 BCE, preparation of alloys such as pan~caloha,
bronze, brass, pewter and bell-metal.
• A dialectical continuum has existed in Bharat from the days of R.gveda and Sarasvati
Civilization. The civilization constituted a linguistic area, as it is even today in Bharat.
Mleccha was a language spoken by Vidura and Yudhis.t.hira as evidenced by
Mahabharata. Mleccha were vra_tya-s who worked with minerals and metals. The
semantic structures (words and meanings) of all languages of Bharat – Munda,
Dravidian or Indo-Aryan categories – present an essential unity among the speakers of
various dialects of Bharat. The seven volume work on Sarasvati substantially draws
upon the Indian Lexicon, which is a comparative dictionary of over 25 ancient
languages of Bharat.
• Using this lexical repertoire of the linguistic area called Bharat, it has been possible to
crack the code of the epigraphs of the civilization inscribed on over 4,000 objects
including seals, tablets, weapons and copper plates. The epigraphs are composed of
hieroglyphs (referred to as Mlecchita Vikalpa – picture writing --, one of the 64 arts
listed by Va_tsya_yana).

The code of hieroglyphs is based on rebus (use of similar sounding words and
depicted through pictures) and represent the property possessions of braziers –
possessions such as furnaces, minerals, metals, tools and weapons. These were also
traded over an extensive area upto Tigris-Euphrates river valley in Mesopotamia
and the Caspian Sea in Europe.

• The tradition of epigraphy evidenced in punch-marked coins and copper plate


inscriptions in the context of Sarasvati Epigraphs points to millions of manuscripts and
documents remaining unexplored all over Bharat.
• Ongoing projects for the rebirth of River Sarasvati has opened a new vista in water
management in Bharat, which has an ancient tradition of water management

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exemplified by the rock-cut reservoir in Dholavira, the grand anicut on Kaveri, the step
wells and pus.karin.is in all parts of Bharat.
• Desiccation of River Sarasvati is a warning to us about the unpredictability of the
impact of tectonics on hydrological systems sourced from the Himalayas, for e.g. the
Rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra.

Conclusions

• River Sarasvati is neither a legend, nor a myth, but ground-truth, a river which was flowing for
thousands of years prior to Vedic times.
• Bharatiya Civilization is an indigenous evolution and cultural continuity is established from the
Vedic times to the present day.
• For thousands of years before the days of Mahabharata War (ca. 3000 BCE), the Bharatiya had
contacts with neighbouring civilizations.
• The historicity of Mahabharata has been established making it a sheet anchoe of Bharatiya
Itiha_sa.
• After the desiccation of River Sarasvati (finally by about 3000 years ago), Bharatiya-s moved
to other parts of the world.
• The metaphor of Samudra manthanam (celebrated in the Bha_vata Pura_n.a) is a depiction of
the reality of a cooperating society which had united all the people of Bharat into life-activities
including the environmentally sustainable use of natural resource offered by Mother Earth
(Bhu_devi).
• Sarasvati is adored in Bharatiya tradition as a river, as a mother and as a divinity – ambitame,
nadi_tame, devitame sarasvati. This is an abiding spiritual foundation which resides in the heart
of every Bharatiya.
• The epigraphs evidence one of the early writing systems of the world.
• The search and discovery of River Sarasvati has revealed a thread of essential unity – a bond
among the people of Bharat. This has emerged from Vedic times and continues even today.
This is the unity of an integral society, a resurgent nation and a unified culture which can be
found in all parts of Bharat, from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean.
• Research Institutions have to be established in different disciplines of historical studies to study
the manuscripts and documents in the archival collections in all parts of the country.
• The initiation of a project for interlinking of rivers is a laudable, first step in creating a National
Water Grid which has the potential to ensure equitable distribution of water resources to all
parts of the country and to make Bharat a developed nation in 15 years’ time.

The establishment of the Water Grid is a national imperative and should be an


unmotivated action (l’acte gratuite) devoid of political overtones.
• The establishment of an inter-disciplinary Sarasvati Research Centre in Kurukshetra will help in
progressing further researches on water resources management, and study of our history,
heritage and culture.

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Areas for further researches

• Glaciological researches are needed in relation to the glacial source of River


Sarasvati which is referred to as Plaks.a Pras’ravan.a in the ancient texts.
• Seismological studies are needed to determine the chronology of events
connected with the submergence of Dwaraka, the Gulf of Khambat and other
coastal regions of Bharat.
• Meteorological, glaciological and seismological studies have to be related to
plate tectonics – the dynamic Indian plate and the evolving Himalayas – for a
better understanding of the hydrological systems, sustainability and
management of a National Water Grid for Bharat.
• Archaeological work on the 2,000 sites on Sarasvati River Basin have to be
related to the events described in the ancient epics: Ramayana and
Mahabharata
• The Vedic texts, epics and Purana-s contain historical information.which can
be validated through archaeological, astronomical and geographical studies.
• Epigraphical and language studies in relation to the evolution and spread of
languages and scripts of Bharat.
• Scholars have to be encouraged to study the unexplored manuscripts
lying in museums, libraries and private collections.
• Researches for establishing the National Water Grid should be
objective and provide a new vision to reach out the water and
agricultural resources of thecountry, equitably, to all people and for
the development of the nation.

*********

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Akrabas Bulandshahr
Archaeo Ambhilyar Jamnagar
logical Akru Ahmedabad Ambkheri Saharanpur
Sites
Akvada Bhavnagar Ambliana Jamnagar
Abha Saharanpur Ambrawal Rahimyar
Abdul But Jhalawan Ala Damb Jhalawan Ther Khan
Abdul Makran Ambrawali Bahawalpur
Abduwali Bahawalpur Amilano Karachi
Acchal Sahib Gurdarpur Amra Jamnagar
Adasta Damb Jhalawan Alam Khan Jhalawan
Accharwala Bahawalpur Shahr
Adatala Bhavnagar
Alamgirpur Meerut Amri Dadu
Adatjo-daro Larkana

Adeva Kheda

Adhi One Bahawalpur Alau Ahmedabad


Adhi Two Bahawalpur Ander Damb Jhalawan
Adhi Three Bahawalpur
Adinga Mathura Alduka Gurgaon Andheri Ropar
Andheri Ambala
Ali Bahawalpur Andheri Hoard Singhbhum
Agavibani Midnapur Mohammad Andhi Surat
Aghiana Saharanpur Wala Aneki Five Saharanpur
Ali Murad Dadu Angai Khera Hardoi
Ahar Bulandshahr Anjira Jhalawan
Ahicchatra Bareilly Alia Bada Jamnagar

Alida Theh Bhatinda


Ahmad Khan Jaisalmer Anupgarh Jind
Dheri Aligrama Swat
Alike Bhatinda Anwarpur Saharanpur
Ahmadwala Bahawalpur Alipur Kharar Hissar Baroli
Ther One Apara Jullunder
Arabjo Thana Karachi
Ahmadwala Bahawalpur Alipur Kharar Hissar
Toba Three Aralee Jamnagar
Ahmed Quetta-Pishin Alipur Kharar Hissar Ardoi Rajkot
Khanzai North Two
Alipur Bhatinda
Mandran
Areenono Amreli
Ahmed Quetta-Pishin Timbo
Khanzai South Alipur, UP Saharanpur Arikhan One Jamnagar
Alipura Saharanpur Arnauli Ropar
Ahmed Shah Dadu Alipura Muzaffarnagar
Alipura One Jind
Ahulana Sonepat Alipura Two Jind Arniwala Theh Ferozpur
Aidu Damb Jhalawan Allahdino Karachi
Asan Rohtak
Amai Jaipur Asanwali Saharanpur
Amarali Khera Jind
Ajmer Rajkot Amargarh One Jind Ashal Makran

Ajmeri Sikar Amarheri One Jind Ashafgarh Jind


Akalgarh Jind
Akhera Bahawalpur Amarheri Two Jind
Akkanwali Bahawalpur Ambaliala Jamnagar Atariyano Mehsana
Their Ambaradi Rajkot Timbo
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Bahilawala 'C' Bahawalpur
Badla Nicha Ludhiana Bahini Raiyan Ludhiana
Ati Kund Saharanpur Badli, Mahendragarh
Atkot Rajkot Mahendragarh
Badli, Rohtak Rohtak Bahloli Ropar
Badoli Ropar Bahloli One Ambala
Badrang Damb Makran
Atkot Bus Rajkot Bahloli Two Ambala
Stand Bahlolpur Karnal
Badhsa Rohtak Mustarka

Badsikri Kalan Jind


Atranjikhera Etah One Bahoi Theh Kurukshetra

Badsikri Khurd Jind Bahola Karnal

Bagasara Rajkot Baholi Two Karnal


Bagaya-no Mehsana
Timbo
Au Bharatpur
Bahrampur Ludhiana
Baggapura Rahimyar Bahupura Saharanpur
Augand Karnal Ther Khan
Baggapura Rahimyar
Aurangapur Two Khan Bajaniya-no Banaskantha
Awaran Niabat Makran Baggewali Bahawalpur Thumdo
Bagh-I Kumb Dera Ismail
Damb Khan Bakana Kuruksetra

Baraka Mound Saharanpur


Azimwala Two Bahawalpur
Bala One Karnal
Azimwali Bahawalpur
Azimwali 'A' Bahawalpur Baghada Mayurbhanj Bala Two Karnal
Azimwali 'B' Bahawalpur
Azimwali 'C' Bahawalpur Baghanwali Bahawalpur
Babar Kot Bhavnagar Their Balakot Las Bela

Baghru Sonepat Balamba Jamnagar


Baghru Kalan Jind
Babra Rajkot Balamdi Jamnagar
Babul Bhera Bahawalpur Baghru Khurd Jind
Bachani Sikar Balana Ambala
Bada Samana Ropar
Badal Meerut Baghwala Ther Bahawalpur
Kaithwada Baglianda Bhatinda Baleli Quetta-Pishin
Badalwala Bahawalpur Theh
Badalwala 5 Bahawalpur
Badalwala 4 Bahawalpur
Badalwala 3 Bahawalpur Bagrauwala Bahawalpur Baliana Rohtak
Badalwala 2 Bahawalpur Ther
Baddowal Ludhiana Bahadarpur Jind
Badgam Saharanpur Bahadrabad Saharanpur
Baliji Jaipur
Badhaikalan Muzaffarnagar Balapur Bilaspur
Baharia Saharanpur
Balu Jind
Badhana Jaipur
Badhauli One Ambala Bahawa Sangrur
Bahera Khurd Saharanpur Balu Two Jind
Badhera Karnal
Bahilawala Bahawalpur
Badhsa Mahendragarh Ther Balua Varanasi
Badla Ludhiana Bahilawala 'B' Bahawalpur
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Bamba Damb Dadu Bazariwala 'A' Bahawalpur
Barodi Jind Bazariwala 'B' Bahawalpur
Bazariwala 'C' Bahawalpur
Banali Ludhiana Baroli Jind Bazdad Kalat Makran
Banawali Hissar
Bazidpur Saharanpur
Barot One Kurushetra
Bandhni Dadu Barot Three Kurukshetra Bed Jamnagar
Barot Two Kurukshetra
Bandhri Dadu
Barota Karnal
Bandrala Karnal Bedi Jamnagar

Bandu Damb Jhalawan Belar Damb Jhalawan


Barrai Khuarra Bannu
Bandua Ranchi One Belarkha Jind
Bandwali Bahawalpur Belora Rajkot
Banehra One Kurukshetra Barriwala Ther Bahawalpur
Barsana Two Jind
Banehra Two Kurukshetra
Banehra Patiala Barsana, Jind Jind Bena Chah Jhalawan
Bani Hissar Barsana,
KurukshetraKu
Bannewala Bahawalpur rukshetra Berjano Timbo Jamnagar
Ther
Barsi Saharanpur Beri Khera Jind
Bani Khera Muzaffarnagar Bartola Ranchi
One
Barula One Bahawalpur Berore Ganganagar
Bani Khera Muzaffarnagar Barula Two Bahawalpur
Two Barwali Ludhiana

Bara Ropar Basami Ludhiana Besham Damb Makran

Beyt Dwaraka Jamnagar


Bara Samana Ropar Basanda Gurgaon
Basi Gujran Ludhiana
Bassi Gurgaon Bhabri Saharanpur
Bara Ther Bahawalpur Bhabru Jaipur
Bahrah Khurd Jind Bassi, Patiala Patiala Bhachau Kutch
Barah Khurd Jind Bata Four Jind
Bhadas Khera Gurgaon
Barah-Ki Sikar Bata One Jind Bhaderi Ambala
Dhani
Barama Swat Bata Three Jind Bhadriwala Bahawalpur
Barasana Kurukshetra Bhagatrav Broach
Bare Bhatinda Bata Two Jind
Bare Two Bhatinda
Bathan Mathan Ludhiana
Bargaon Saharanpur Batoorwala Bahawalpur Bhagwanpura Kurukshetra
Bauli Kurukshetra
Bari Bhaini Karnal
One Baundki Saharanpur Bhagwansar Ganganagar
Four
Baursham One Karnal
Bari Bhaini Karnal Bhagwansar Ganganagar
Two Three
Baursham Two Karnal
Barki Hissar Bhaini Kurukshetra
Bava Khakaria Jamnagar
Baroda One Jind One Bhainko Sukkur
Wandh
Baroda Two Jind Bazariwala Bahawalpur Bhainsawal Jaipur
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Binanagari Jamnagar
Bhaironpura Ganganagar Bhimpatal Ahmedabad

Bhaishlana Jaipur Bingee Ganganagar


Bhaktabandh Bankura Bhirrana Hissar

Bhalari Kurukshetra Binjor Four Ganganagar

Bhojvadar Bhavnagar Binjor One Ganganagar


Bhalbhai-no Mehsana Three
Timbo

Bhoklidhar Bhavnagar Binjor Three Ganganagar


Bhalgam Rajkot

Bholni Saharanpur
Bhamakdal Amreli Bhomya-Ka Jaipur Binjor Two Ganganagar
Tiba
Bhongra Jind

Bhamal Ludhiana Bhootanwala Bahawalpur Birkot Swat


'A&B' Ghwandai
Bhamaria banaskantha Bhootanwala Bahawalpur Birmi Ludhiana
Thumdo 'C'
Bhootanwali Bahawalpur Bisauli Budaun
Bhangarapir Mayurbhanj Bhootanwali Bahawalpur
Two
Bhangor Jamnagar Bhorgarh Bithur Kanpur

Bhangor One Jamnagar Bhudan Sangrur Bizinjau Kasar Makran

Bhani Theh Kurukshetra


Bhankri Jaipur Bodaka Jamnagar
Bhasmara Karnal Bhudha Khera Saharanpur Bodaka Jamnagar
Bhassaur Sangrur Bhukari Ropar
Bhatiwadi Amreli Bodha Ambala
Bhura, Muzaffarnagar
Muzaffarnagar Bodiono Amreli
Bhatnura Kapurthala Dhoro
Bhatpura Bulandshahr Bhura, Patiala Patiala
Bhurtana Bhiwani
Bhawani Kurukshetra Bhut Kotada Rajkot Bodiyo, Amreli
Khera Bhut Shamshi Sarawan Amreli

Bhawar Sonepat Bhuta Kotda Surendranagar


Bhayakha Ganganagar
Kharia Bhutana Sonepat Bodiyo, Rajkot Rajkot
Bhayakha Jamnagar Bhutawed-No Banaskantha Bondhansingh Jaipur
Kharia Godh ka Tila
Boharwala Bahawalpur
Bibiji Bhit Dadu Ther
Bhbhuro Amreli Bokharaiwala Bahawalpur
Dhoro Bibipur Kurukshetra Bokhariyanwal Bahawalpur
a
Bichana Ranchi Bokhariyanwal Bahawalpur
a 'A'
Bhedki Saharanpur Bichpari Sonepat Bootewala Bahawalpur
Ther 'A'
Bhikhi Bhatinda Bijna Karnal Bootewala Bahawalpur
Ther 'B'
Bhilwara Bhilwara Bikkum Solan Bootewali Bahawalpur
Bhimnath Ahmedabad Bikkunor Ropar Bootgarh Ambala
Bilaspur Saharanpur Borawalo Mehsana
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Khetra Chak 112 'P' Rahimyar
Chabbuwala Bahawalpur Khan
Chabbuwala Chak 113/10R Khanewal
Bordogaon Singhbhum Ther Chak 121 'A' Rahimyar
Khan
Chachana Surendranagar Chak 124 Rahimyar
Boriya Jamnagar Khan
Brass Patiala
Broach Broach Chachro Sukkur Chak 133/10R Khanewal
College Chadsai Santal Chak 271 HR Bahawalpur
Paraganas Chak 280 HR Bahawalpur
Buband Las Bela Chahi Damb Makran Chak 315 HR Bahawalpur
Chak 337 HR Bahawalpur
Buchahar Sikar Chak 011 Ganganagar Chak 341 Bahawalpur
Budan Sangrur Chak 353 West Bahawalpur
Budanpur Karnal Chak 015/3 Ganganagar Chak Purbane Sahiwal
Budanpura Kurukshetra Syal
Chak 021 Ganganagar Chakwali Bahawalpur
Buddkern Pin Karnal Chambrawala Bahawalpur
Chak 040 Ganganagar Ther
Budha Khera Ambala Chamkaur Ropar
Budha Khera Saharanpur Chak 043 Ganganagar
Ahir
Chak 044 Bahawalpur Chanarthal Patiala
Budha Khera Jind Chak 045 Bahawalpur Kalan
Three Chak 045 'A' Bahawalpur Chanat One Hissar
South
Budha Khera, Kurukshetra Chak 045 'B' Bahawalpur
Kurukshetra North Chanat Three Hissar
Budh Khera Jind Chak 050 Ganganagar
Two Chanat Two Hissar
Chak 051 Bahawalpur
Budhej Kheda Chak 058/1 Ganganagar Chandan Muzaffarnagar
Chandausi Moradabad
Chak 058/2 Ganganagar
Budhel Bhavnagar Chak 059 Ganganagar
Chandiala Ludhiana
Chak 061 East Bahawalpur
Budki Dheri Dera Ismail Chak 061 West Bahawalpur Chandigarh Chandigarh
Khan Chak 069 Bahawalpur
Chak 071/1 Ganganagar
Bugia Ganganagar
Chak 072/3 Ganganagar Chandigarh Chandigarh
One
Bulloji Buthi Dadu Chak 075, Ganganagar Chandlana Kurukshetra
Bundakhi Sarawan Bharat Chandnewala Bahawalpur
Damb Ther
Chak 075, Bahawalpur Chandnewala Bahawalpur
Burhanewala Rahimyar Pakistan Three
Ther Khan Chak 076 Bahawalpur Chandnewala Bahawalpur
Bhurj, Hissar Hissar Two
Chak 077 Ganganagar Chandpur Bulandshahr
Chak 080 Ganganagar Chandpur Ropar
Bhurj, Patiala Patiala
Chak 087 Ganganagar
Burkhara Ludhiana Chandrawara Jamnagar
Chak 088 'A' Bahawalpur One
Butewala Bahawalpur West
Butkara One Swat Chak 088, Ganganagar
Buwala One Jind Bharat Chandrawara Jamnagar
Chak 088, Bahawalpur Two
Pakistan
Buwana Two Jind Chak 097 Bahawalpur
Chak 107 Bahawalpur Chang Bhiwani
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Cheeka Kurukshetra Chowala Ropar
Chunehti Saharanpur
Changalawala Bahawalpur Cheelanwali Bahawalpur Shekh
Ther Cheelanwali Bahawalpur
Changalawala Bahawalpur 'B' Churbuk Makran
'B' Cheshma Jhawalan Dabakia Jabalpur
Changalawala Bahawalpur Damb One
'C' Dabar Kot Loralai
Changda Kheda

Chanhu-daro Nawabshah Chhabasr Ahmedabad


Chhajpura Saharanpur
Dabli East Bahawalpur
Chhalgari Kachi Dabli Their Bahawalpur
Chanidar Jamnagar Dabli West Bahawalpur
Chaniyatar-No Banaskantha Chhapar Heri Saharanpur Dachor Karnal
Timbo
Channal Kund Jhalawan Chhapra Sonepat Dad Rajkot
Damb

Chhina Amritsar Dad Kala Kach Bannu


Chhota Kapoto Jhalawan Kot Dherai
Channanwala Bahawalpur Chhoti Mansa Bhatinda
Ther Dadhera Patiala
Chapliwala Bahawalpur Dadiya Pajyalli Sikar
East Chhutijo Kund Dadu
Dadri Mahendragarh

Chapliwala Bahawalpur Chig Dheri Bannu


West Daduka Jaipur
Chiheywali Bahawalpur
Chikrala Bahawalpur Dadwala Ther Bahawalpur
Chapuwala Bahawalpur Chilhera Saharanpur Dadwala Two Bahawalpur
Charaiwala Bahawalpur Dagru Faridkot
Ther Daheru Ludhiana
Charanio Bhavnagar Chimarheri Kurukshetra
Chimri Jhalawan Daidungri Rajkot

Chimun Hissar
Charhoyanwal Bahawalpur Daimabad Ahmednagar
a Chimun Two Hissar
Chashiana Surendranagar Chinchroli Jhunjhunu
Chinikangrida Jullunder
Ther
Chashma Jhalawan Chipa-No Banaskantha Daiwala Bahawalpur
Murad Godh
Chipwala Bahawalpur
Chiri Damb Makran Dalamwala Jind

Dalheri Saharanpur
Chitauli Ropar Dalliwala One Bhatinda
Chatla Midnapur Chitrod Kutch Dalliwala Two Bhatinda
Damb Buthi Dadu
Chaudhryanwa Bahawalpur Chore Bahawalpur
la Chorewala Bahawalpur Damb Kalat
Chaurdeo Saharanpur Chosla Bhavnagar Channarozai
Chauro Dadu Damb Ghuram Kalat
Chota Isvaria Bhavnagar Damb Goram Sarawan
Chava Sri Jhunjhunu
Chavaneshwar Broach Choteria Mehsana
Timbo Damb Hasal Kalat
Chouradeo Saharanpur Khanzai
Chowala Ambala Damb Kulu Sarawan
170

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Deariro One Sukkur
Deh Bail Karachi
Dhal Buthi Dadu
Damb Sadaat Quetta-Pishin Deh Mari Nawabshah
Sabra Dhalewan Bhatinda

Damb Shirinab Sarawan Deh Morasi Kandahar


Ghundai Dhama Surendranagar
Damb Wali Kalat
Mohammad Dehada Kheda Dhammo Patiala
Majra
Damb Kalat Dhamola Saharanpur
Zargaran Dehra Karnal Dhamraho Larkana
Damb Zerger Sarawan
Deorar Jind Dhanana Jind
Deoti Lucknow
Damb-i Bambi Makran Dhang, HP Solan

Damboli Kachi Derawar Ther Bahawalpur Dhang, Punjab


Dhangerian Patiala
Deriwalokhetra Mehsana Dhankanio Amreli
Damkot Swat One
Dandar Makran
Dandhi Sukkur Desalpur Kutch
Dandra Ludhiana Dhankanio Amreli
Dandrala Patiala Two
Danewala One Bhatinda Deudhar Rajkot
Devagana Ahmedabad
Danewala Two Bhatinda Deval Khera Bulandshahr Dhanora Kurukshetra
Devalio, Amreli Dhanouri Jind
Dantrad Amreli
Dared
Dared Two Bhavnagar Dhansa Delhi
Dargama Ranchi
Devalio, Surendranagar
Darkhanwala Bahawalpur Surendranagar Dhansa Three Delhi
Ther Dhansa Two Delhi
Darkhanwala Bahawalpur Devalkano Rajkot Dhantor One Kurukshetra
Two Doro
Daroli Khera Jind Devalkano Rajkot Dhar Jaipur
Timbo Dharan Garh Jind
Datrana Eight Banaskantha Devdhar Rajkot Dharamgarh Karnal

Datrana Five Banaskantha Dharmheri Patiala


Datrana Four Banaskantha One
Datrana One Banaskantha Devliwala Bahawalpur Dharamheri Patiala
Datrana Seven Banaskantha Ther Two
Datrana Six Banaskantha Devliwala Two Bahawalpur
Datrana Three Banaskantha Deverar Jind Dharodi Jind
Datrana Two Banaskantha
Datta Hissar Devganga Ahmedabad
Devidaspur Kurukshetra Dharovadno Surendranagar
Timbo
Daudpur Saharanpur Dewaliana Bahawalpur
Ther Dhatva Surat
Daulatpur Kurukshetra
Dhablan Patiala
Dhaka Shahjahanpur Dhedeniwala Bahawalpur
Ther
Daulatpur Bulandshahr Dhakal One Jind Dher Majra Ropar

Dawrao Tul Dera Ismail


Damb Khan Dhillanijo Kot Dadu
Dhakal Two Jind
171

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Dhingana Jind

Dhingi Patiala Diwana Las Bela


Dhogri Jullunder Diz Parom Makran
Mound East
Dholavira Kutch
Dodwan Gurdaspur Edith Shahr Las Bela
Dogru Faridkot
Doraha Ludhiana Elana Unknown
Dhonderi Jullunder
Dhoopsari Bahawalpur Domeli Kapurthala Faiz Quetta-Pishin
Dhoraji Rajkot Mohammad
Dhrosa Amreli
Dosia Khal Jhalawan
Damb
Fala Jamnagar
Dhrufaniya Rajkot Faridpur Jamnagar
Dhuapino Amreli Drakalo Damb Jhalawan Fariyadka Bhavnagar
Farmana One Sonepat
Farmana Two Sonepat
Dhudasia Rajkot Dranjan Site Kachi Fatehgarh Farrukhabad
Dhuhinwala Rahimyar Fatehpur Muzaffarnagar
Ther Khan Drigwala Bahawalpur
Dhulkot Jamnagar Dudhakeri Kurukshetra
Fatehpur Jat Saharanpur
Dudhala Jamnagar
Dhumarkha Jind Fatehpur, Saharanpur
Kalan Two Dudheriya Mehsana Saharanpur
Timbo

Dhundwa Jind Dudli Bukhara Saharanpur Firoz Khan Makran


Dugchari Saharanpur Damb
Dhung-Ka Sikar Dugri Ropar
Nagala Dukheri One Ambala Footariya Mehsana
Dhuni Rahimyar GB 11 Ganganagar
Khan GB 12 Ganganagar
Dhuni South Rahimyar Dukheri Two Ambala GB 16 Ganganagar
Khan Duki Mound Loralai GB 72 Ganganagar
Dhuni, Hakra Rahimyar GB 80 Ganganagar
Khan Gaddiawala Rahimyar
Ther Khan
Dhurala Kurukshetra Gadhada Bhavnagar
Dulakot Gadhada One Rajkot
Dhurasiano Rajkot Dumas
Timbo Dumiani Rajkot
Gadhada Three Rajkot
Dhurmarkha Jind
Kalan One Dundkianwali Bahawalpur
Dungar Muzaffarnagar Gadhada Two Rajkot
Durmarkha Jind
Kalan Two Dungarpur Rajkot

Dhutarpur Rajkot Gadhiyano Mehsana


Timbo
Dunkkian Bahawalpur
Dhiji-ji Tikri Khairpur Gathrona Saharanpur
Dunria Pal Lahara Gadhwal Two Rohtak
Dikadla Karnal
Durad Karnal
Dilwashwala Bahawalpur Gadhwaliwadi Kutch
Dinewali Their Bahawalpur Durad Patiala

Dinwala Bahawalpur Durrah-i Bast Makran Gadia Jamnagar


Disoi Dadu Dwarka Jamnagar
172

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Gadiawali Bahawalpur Genuwala Bahawalpur
Gagsina Karnal Dehar
Genuwali Bahawalpur Ghuram Damb Jhalawan
Genghda Banaskantha
Gajar Damb Jhalawan Thumdo
Ghachi-No Bor Mehsana Ghurum Makran

Gaji Bhut Jhalawan Ghadrona Saharanpur Gidar Windi Ludhiana


Ghadwal One Rohtak
Ghalaihak Makran Gilli Reg Makran
Gajju Khera Patiala Ghalegay Cave Swat
Gajjuwala Bahawalpur Gitalpur Karnal
Ther
Gajjuwala Two Bahawalpur Godavari One Jamnagar
Galarian Hoshiarpur Ghamur Kheri Kurukshetra
Galunda-i Dur Jhunjhunu
Galwadhi Patiala Ghana Khandi Saharanpur Godha Banaskantha
Gamanwala Bahawalpur
Gamapipalia Ghannal Kund Jhalawan Godha Mehsana
Gameri Kutch Damb Godhapadar Rajkot

Gamuwala Bahawalpur
Ther Godiya-No Mehsana
Gamuwali Bahawalpur Gharaiyanwala Bahawalpur Timbo
Ganario-No Banaskantha Gharaunda Karnal Gogrian One Jind
Thundo
Gharinda Amritsar Gogrian Three Jind
Gqand Damb Dera Ismail Gharo Bhiro Thar Parkar
Khan Gogrian Two Jind

Gandhara Rohtak Gharwali Jind


Gandhauli Sitapur Gokhijadio-No Mehsana
Ghaswa Hissar Timbo

Gangana Sonepat Ghaswa One Jind Gokulpur Gurgaon


Ghaswa Three Jind
Ganweriwala Bahawalpur Ghatauli Jind Gomal Kalan Dera Ismail
Gar Mound Makran Khan
Garakwala Bahawalpur Ghatoro Rahimyar Gomsar-No Surendranagar
Khan Timbo
Ghatti Sukkur
Garani Ghazi Shah Dadu Goongal Mar Bahawalnagar
Garasya-No Banaskantha Gop Jamnagar
Thumdo
Ghaziwala Rahiyar Khan
Garewala Bahawalpur Ther
Garh Saharanpur Ghelo Bund Bhavnagar Gopawala Bahawalnagar
Garhi Hissar Gorandi 'A' Dadu

Gheora Patiala Gorandi 'B' Dadu


Garhi Rodan Kurukshetra
Ghimana One Jind Gordhaniya Surendranagar
Garhi Sardaran Kurukshetra Timbo
Garhwal, Sonepat Ghodhapadar Rajkot
Sonepat Ghorwada Rajkot Gorivata-No Mehsana
Timbo

Gate Dap Makran


Ghul Shah Tup Bannu Goriya Jamnagar

Gathera Saharanpur Ghumharianwa Bahawalnagar Gorpat Jhalawan


Gaunspur Ludhiana la
Ghuram Patiala

173

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Gwani kalat Jhalawan Thumdo
Gorsian Qadir Ludhiana
Hariana Jamnagar

Gossain Jind
Hadi Jhalawan Haribas Saharanpur
Haripur One Jamnagar
Guddal 'B' Bahawalpur Haripur, Gurdaspur
Guddar Ther Bahawalpur Gurdaspur
Guddal 'A' Bahawalpur Haripur, Jullunder
Gudel Kheda Hadi Bux-jee- Sukkur Jullunder
Wandh Harnauli Ropar
Hadi Bux-jee- Hartari Karnal
Gudri Mound Sibi Wandh Two
Hadiyan One Jamnagar Harthar-No Mehsana
Hadmatala Ahmedabad Timbo

Hadwa Jind
Gujranwala Bahawalpur Hasan Wali Karachi

Haiduk-No Banaskantha Hasanpur Ropar


Gulab Garh Kurukshetra Thumdo Two Hasanpur Surat
Hajanbi Rajkot
Gulariya Budaun Hasanpur Two Bhatinda
Hakim Ali Bahawalpur
Ther Hasliwala Ther Bahawalpur
Hala Damb Jhalawan Hassanpur Ambala
Gularwala Hissar Hastinapura Meerut
Halenda
Hamal Damb Jhalawan
Gulistanpur Bulandshahr
Hamalpur Karnal
Gulistanpur, Meerut Hami Palamau Hatampur Saharanpur
Meerut Hatchhoya Muzaffarnagar
One
Gumla Dera Ismail Hanaswala Bahawalpur
Khan Handali Sangrur Hatchhoya Muzaffarnagar
Two

Hansali Patiala Hathab Bhavnagar


Gungeria Balaghat Hansdhera Jind Hathala Dera Ismail
Khan
Hansi Hissar
Gunkali Jind
Hasyala Kurukshetra
Guntarighadh Hathial West Rawalpindi
Gunthai Kutch Hanumanno Bhavnagar Hathnaur 'A' Ropar
Timbo Hathnaur 'B' Ropar
Gurah Ludhiana Hatho One Jind
Hatho Two Jind

Hathwala Jind
Gurdas Gurdaspur Harappa Sahiwal Hawara Ropar
Nangalda Theh
Gurnikalan Bhatinda
One Hazaribagh Hazaribagh

Gurnikalan Bhatinda Helmana Alwar


Two Harda Kheri Saharanpur Khurd
Hardi Sitapur Hemadra Rajkot
Her Amritsar
Gushanak Makran Hardi Raval Gurdaspur Hirke Bhatinda
Khurd
Harhari-No Banaskantha
174

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Hirke, Hissar Hissar Isvaria Bhavnagar
Hisham Dheri Dera Ismail Itaria Bhavnagar
Khan Jamji Las Bela
Hodthali Jafawala Three Bahawalpur
Holivalo Bhavnagar Jafawala Two Bahawalpur Jasal Muzaffarnagar
Jafewala Bahawalpur
Jafewala Their Bahawalpur Jasapar Jamnagar
Jafrabad Kheda Jasat Gurgaon
Hor Kalat Makran Jasvantgadh Amreli
Jagaroh Kutch
Hotewala Ther Bahawalpur Jatavadar Kutch
'A' Jagjai Quetta-Pishin Jatheri Kurukshetra
Hotewala Ther Bahawalpur Jagria Gurdaspur
'B' Jagtapirno Rajkot Jathewali Bahawalpur
Hotewala Two Bahawalpur Dhoro Jatoiwala Ther Bahawalpur
Hudia Two Kurukshetra Jahan Jhalawan Jatoiwala 'A' Bahawalpur
Jatoiwala 'B' Bahawalnagar
Hulas Saharanpur Jaula Muzaffarnagar

Jahan Jhalawan
Hulas Khera Saharanpur Northeast Jaurasi Khas Karnal
Hurro Damb Jhalawan Jai Damb Makran
Hussainpur Muzaffarnagar
Bopada Jaidak Jamnagar
Javantri Banaskantha
Jawaiwala Bahawalpur
Huzur Nagar Muzaffarnagar Ther
Jainer Saharanpur Jawaiwala Bahawalpur
Jainpur Saharanpur Two
Inderwa-No Banaskantha Jakhera Etah Jawanpura Panch Mahala
Timba One
Inderwa-No Banaskantha Jawarji Kalai Jhalawan
Timba Two

Indilapur Saharanpur Jakhrapir-No Mehsana


Thumdo
Indo-Pak Ganganagar Jalharwala Bahawalpur
Boundary Site Ther
Jebri Damb Jhalawan
Indranagar-No Banaskantha Jalilpur Sahiwal One
Thumdo Jebri Damb Jhalawan
Two
Indranaj Kheda Jalmana One Karnal
Jejalam Rahimyar
Jalmana Two Karnal Khan
Indus Delta Tatta Jhakar Jamnagar
Site Bahawalpur Bahawalpur
Inewala Theh Faridkot Jalwali 'A' Bahawalpur Jhal Muzaffarnagar
Jalwali 'B' Bahawalpur
Jamathar-No Banaskantha
Iserhel Patiala Thumdo
Ishwar Godh Banaskantha Jhalar Bahawalpur
Islam Chowki Bannu Jambalpur Sikar Jhaloriano Ahmedabad
Jamuwali 'A' Bahawalpur Tekro
Jamuwali 'B' Bahawalpur Jhamola Jind
Isplinji One Sarawan Jandheri Muzaffarnagar
Jhandada-No Banaskantha
Jangipar Bahawalpur Thumdo One
Janiwali Bahawalpur Jhandada-No Banaskantha
Isplinji Two Sarawan Januwala Bahawalpur Thumdo Two
Januwali Dhar Bahawalpur Jhandewala Rahimyar
Jarego Kalat Dadu Ther Khan
Jhandewala Rahimyar
Jaren Makran Two Khan
175

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Jhang Campbellpur Kainnaur Ropar
Kainor Ropar
Janoya-No Surendranagar
Jhangar Dadu Timbo Kainur Ropar
Jhangar, Anjar Kutch
Kaiyanwala Bahawalpur
Joshi Karnal One
Kaiyanwala Bahawalnagar
Jhangar, Kutch Two
Khavada Juderjo-daro Kachi Kaj Amreli
Jhanjari Karnal
Julani Khera Jind
Jhansal Ganganagar
Jhikri Rajkot Kala Garh Kurukshetra
Juna Kutch
Chopadwa
Jhinjar Mahendragarh Juna Rampur Bhavnagar Kalahetti Saharanpur

Jhinjhana Muzaffarnagar Jungla Quetta-Pishin Kalait One Jind


Populzai
Jhogrodi Ludiana
Jhukar Larkana Juni Timbo Jamnagar

K-1 Sarawan
Kalait Three Jind
Jhumtiwala Bahawalpur Kalait Two Jind
Jinaj Kheda Kabirpur Saharanpur
Kalako Deray Swat
Jind Five Jind Kabracha Jind
Kalapan Rajkot

Kachcho Buthi Dadu


Jind Four Jind
Kaccha-No Banaskantha Kalarino Mehsana
Jind Two Jind Thumdo Timbo
Kaccha-No Banaskantha
Timbo Kalaro Damb Jhalawan
Jivanino Dhoro Bhavnagar Kacchwa One Karnal
Kalat Sarawan
Kacchwa Two Karnal
Kalat Damb Makran
Jivapar/Jivapur Jamnagar Kacho Timbo Mehsana
Kalatuk Bund Makran
Jiwaiwali Bahawalpur
Jiwan Khera Jind Kachrana Jind
Kalan Kalatuk Damb Makran
Jobalanesno Ahmedabad
Timbo Kaddon Ludhiana Kalavad Four Jamnagar
Jodhakann Sirsa Kaddour Damb Dera Ismail
Khan Kalavad Three Jamnagar

Jodhpur Jhunjhunu Kaero Timbo Surendranagar


Jodhpur Rajkot Kalavad Two Jamnagar
Jogiason Chak Ganganagar
One Kafir Kot Sarawan
Jogiasson Ganganagar Kalvad One Jamnagar
Jogna Khera Kurukshetra Kalawati Jind
One Kagvadar Kalwa, Patiala Patiala
Kaharbari Hazaribagh Kalwah, Kurukshetra
Jogna Khera Kurukshetra Kai Buthi Dadu Kurukshetra
Two Kalwa, Kurukshetra
Jokha Surat Kailapur Muzaffarnagar Kurukshetra
Kailaspur Saharanpur Kalwa One Jind

176

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Kalwa Two Jind Karchat Dadu
Kalwan Two Jind Kandhi Wahi Dadu
Buthi Kardagap Sarawan
Kalbeto Saharanpur
Kalepar Bahawalpur Kandholi Kurukshetra Karela One Jind
Kanewal - Kheda
Kalharwala Bahawalpur Keseri Sing-
Kalharwala 'B' Bahawalpur No Timbo Karela Two Jind
Kalian Sangrur
Karez Damb Jhalawan

Kalianpur Jamnagar Kanewal- Kheda


Sai-No Tekro Karez Site Quetta-Pishin
Karezgai Zhob
Kalyanpur Jamnagar
Three
Kalibangan Ganganagar Kanganwal Ludhiana
Kargushki Kharan
Kanjetar Amreli Damb
Kalipat Rajkot

Kaliwaryal Bahawalpur Karinkot Alwar


Kanmer Kutch Kariyana Muzaffarnagar
Kaliyar Bahawalpur Karkak Makran
Kallag Makran Kannauj Farrukhabad Karmalkota Rajkot
Kanoli Kurukshetra Karmar Rajkot
Kallur Raichur Karo Kotiro Larkana
Kalram Jind Kanori Loralai
Karohar Larkana
Kamalapur Hardoi Mound
Karoti Ganganagar
Kansala Rohtak
Kamalpur, Jind Jind Karowala Bahawalpur
Kanthkot Kutch Karowala Ther Bahawalpur
Two
Kamar Band Makran Karpas Buthi Las Bela
Kanwa Gurdaspur
Kambar Damb Makran Kapoto Damb Jhalawan
Karsa Karnal
Kapoto Jhalawan
Kambaro Makran Rockshelter
Damb
Kaptun Bra Sarawan Karsola One Jind
Kamdera Ranchi
Kan Mehtarzai Zhob Karsola Two Jind
One
Karsola, Sonepat
Kanadia Rajkot Karahyo Pir Thar Parkar Sonepat
Thumdo Kartarpur Jullunder
Kanasutaria Ahmedabad Kasano Relo Surendranagar
Karalan Kapurthala Kasaur Kurukshetra
Kaseri Meerut
Karam Khan Bahawalpur Kashi Qalat Makran
Kandai Loralai Karam Shah Dera Ismail Cemetery
Kanadai One Jind Khan Kashimi Damb Jhalawan
Wadh
Kanadala Two Jind Karamgarh Jind

Karan Khan Bahawalnagar


Two
Kander Bhit Sukkur Karandji Bhit Sukkur Kashimpur Meerut
Kashkai Loralai
Kandera Fort Rahimyar Karanpura Bhatinda
Khan
177

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Kasiano Quetta-Pishin
Dozakh

Ket Ram Jind Khanpur, Rajkot


Rajkot
Khanpur, Surendranagar
Kasmi Damb Jhalawan Khadianwala Sheikhupura Surendranagar
Khairgarh Ther Rahimyar
Khan Khanpuri Bahawalpur
Khajur Dadu
Kasnati Rohtak Khakhar Kheda
Kasor Kurukshetra Khakhar Buthi Las Bela Khanpuri Two Bahawalpur
Khapran Jind
Kasuna Three Jind

Kasuna Two Jind Khakhara Bela Rajkot Khar Khoda Meerut


One Kharak Jind
Katadia-No Banaskantha Khakhara Bela Rajkot Pandwan
Thumd Three
Katana Ludhiana
Katasar Kutch Khakhra Dera Kutch

Kharal One Jind


Kathana Four Jind Khaksar Kheda
Kharal Three Jind
Kathana One Jind
Khamba Hera Kurukshetra Kharal Two Jind
Kathana Three Jind
Khambalano Amreli
Kathana Two Jind Dhore Kharanti Jind

Khambhodhar Jamnagar Kharar Hissar


Kathpalon Jullunder

Kaudani Zhob
Khan Bahawalpur Khared
Kandewala 'A' Khareda
Kaul Heri Saharanpur Khan Bahawalpur Kharedano Rajkot
Kaula Kheri Saharanpur Kandewala 'B' Timbo
Khan Bahawalpur
Kauriaganj Aligarh Kandewala 'C'
Kausambi Allahabad Khan Bahawalpur Khari-No Banaskantha
Kandewala 'D' Khetar
Kaushaya Monghyr Khan Bahawalnagar Kharika Kutch
Kandewala 'E' Khanda
Kazipur Saharanpur Khandadhar
Kechi Beg Quetta-Pishin Khandariya Kutch
Kharuwala Ganganagar
Khanderio One Bhavnagar Ther
Kehiwali Bahawalpur Kharwan Ropar
Kelbanwali Bahawalpur
Kelsi Sagar Khariya-No Mehsana
Kera Singhbhum Khanderio Bhavnagar Timbo
Kerali Rajkot Two
Khatauli Saharanpur
Khandewal Gurgaon
Khanjahanpur Muzaffarnagar
Kerasi Kutch Khatkar One Jind

Khannda Rawalpindi Khatli


Khanpurj, Rajkot Khatoli Mahendragarh
Kerisimano Kheda Rajkot Khavda Kutch
Timbo Khanpur Bulandshahr Khayali Vero Sukkur
Keralavlo Bhavnagar Khanpur, Kaira Kheda Kheda Jat Saharanpur
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Khodiyar, Bhavnagar
Khedol Kutch Talaja Koba Rajkot

Khedwala Jaipur Khodiyar, Bhavnagar Koel Jind


Khema Kheri Jind Valabhipur
Khoedada Zhob
Koh Mundri Sikar
Khera Ludhiana Kohada Ludhiana
Khohi Bahawalpur
Khera, Jind Siddhuwali
Haryana Khokhari One Jind Kohna Kalat Makran
Khera, Punjab Patiala
Kheradano Khokhari Two Jind
Timbo Kohtras Buthi Karachi
Kheral Swat Khopala
Graveyard Khorana
Kheri Barki Hissar Khosa-daro Sukkur Kojar Jhunjhunu
Kolabarty Dhanbad
Kheri Gaurian Patiala Khudo Pir Larkana
Kolkikalan Saharanpur
Kheri Man Karnal Koonj Sor Thar Parkar
Singh Khurdi Nagaur

Kheri Nudh Ludhiana Khwaja Zabar Sarawan Koor Sukkur


Singh Kot Kachi
Kot Alabad Dera Ismail
Khan
Kheri Raiwali Kurukshetra Kikri Bahawalpur Kot Diji Khairpur
Kikri Two Bahawalpur
Kheri Safa Jind Kikriwala Ther Bahawalpur Kot Kori Thar Parkar
Kilayanpura 'B' Jaipur Kot Mandial Ludhiana
Kibaiwala Bahawalpur Kot Raja Karachi
Kheri Jind Kili Ghul Quetta-Pishin Manjhera
Sherkhan Mohammad
Kot Waro Daro Sukkur
Khetarvalo Bhavnagar Kota Jamnagar
Kota Saharanpur
Killianwali Bahawalpur Kota One Jamnagar
Killianwali 'B' Bahawalpur
Kheth Talvadi Mehsana Killianwali 'C' Bahawalpur
Killianwali 'D' Bahawalpur
Kindarkhera Jamnagar Kotada Bhadli Kutch
Khetranwali Bahawalpur One
One
Khetranwali Bahawalpur Kinner Kheda Jamnagar
Two Kinneru Damb Jhalawan Kotada Bhadli Kutch
Khetwal Ther Bahawalpur Three

Khewtal Bahawalnagar Kotada Bhadli Kutch


Khiching Mayurbhanj Two
Kippianwala Bahawalpur
Khingarwali Bahawalpur Kirarwali Ther Bahawalpur
Khiplewala Bahawalpur Kiratapur Bulandshahr Kotada, Jamnagar
Khiplewala Bahawalpur Jamnagar
Ther Kiratpura Jaipur
Khiplewala Bahawalpur Kirby Site Sukkur
Two
Khiplewali Bahawalpur Kiri Ludhiana Kotada, Kutch Kutch
Khiplewali Bahawalpur
Three Kirta Sibi Kotahra Kutch
Khiplewali Bahawalpur Kotar Khana Ropar
Two Kotara Kutch
Khirasara Kirtan Hissar
179

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Kumar Mehsana
Kotarkhana Ambala Kumhara Patiala
Kotda Jamnagar Kumkalan Ludhiana Lakhan Timbo Jamnagar

Koth Ahmedabad Kunal Hissar


Lakhanka Bhavnagar

Kotiro Larkana Lakhasar One Kutch


Lakhasar Two Kutch
Kotla Nihang Ropar Kundanpur Rajkot Lakhavad Ahmedabad
Khan Lakhavan Amreli
Lakhavan
Lathi
Kuntasi Rajkot Lakhavarno Amreli
Kotli Ropar Dhoro

Kurda Ropar Lakhavav, Amreli


Kotra Kachi Kurdi Ropar Amreli
Kurragi Damb Kharan

Kouhlagh Quetta-Pishin Kurrara Ropar Lakhavav, Bhavnagar


Bhavnagar
Lakhetra-No Surendranagar
Kowas Loralai Kurrari Ropar Timbo
Lakhiyo Dadu
Kurukshetra Kurukshetra
Krana Hill Quetta-Pishin Two Lakhman Bahawalpur
Lakhmanti Saharanpur
Kridhni Saharanpur Kuruwala Bahawalpur Kalan
Kuruzkol Makran
Kutharivad Jamnagar Lakhmirwala Bhatinda
Kuchanwala Bahawalpur
Kuzbagh Quetta-Pishin Lakhneyani Mehsana
Kuchnai Quetta-Pishin Thumdo 1
Ghundai L-2 Loralai
Lakhpar Kutch

Kudana Muzaffarnagar L-3 Loralai


Lakhpat Kutch

Kudwala Ther Bahawalpur


Lachkane Patiala Lakhmirji Mari Dadu
Ladai Kutch
Kuki Damb Jhalawan
Ladana Chaku Kurukshetra Lakhueenjo- Sukkur
daro
Ladava Muzaffarnagar
Kulghera Purulia
Ladulai Bahawalpur Lal Ghundai Quetta-Pishin
Kulheri Muzaffarnagar Lal Patel Bahawalpur
Lal Qila Bulandshahr
Lahar Zhob
Lahboli Saharanpur
Kulki Kalan Saharanpur Lal Shah Kachi
Kulli Makran Lajwan Kalan Jind Lalanji Mari Larkana
Lak Largai Bannu
Lalauda Patiala
Kulloi Sarawan Lalbaba Jaipur
Lak Plateau Makran Lalianwali Bhatinda

Kullu Kalat Sarawan Lakhabawal Jamnagar Laloino Timbo Jamnagar

Lalu Wala Bhatinda


180

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Lohat, Rohtak Rohtak Lyari River Karachi
Area
Laluwala Ther Rahimyar Lohgarh Gurdaspur Machiala Mota Amreli
Khan Lohri Dadu
Landhaur Saharanpur
Gujar Machuki Makran
Lathaur Patiala Lohumjo-daro Larkana Damb
Lathwala Bahawalpur Madak Kalat Makran
Lathwala Two Bahawalpur
Laun Jind Lolada Mehsana Madan Rajkot
Kundala-
Lolai Jamnagar Gondal
Lavan-No Banaskantha Madanapur Hardoi
Godh Loliana Bhavnagar
LB-13 Las Bela Lomriwala Bahawalpur Madeva Amreli

Londo Damb Jhalawan


Madhi Amreli
LB-16 'A-B' Las Bela Lopen Patiala
Loteshwar Mehsana
Madhopur Jullunder
Lothal Ahmedabad Madhvya-No Banaskantha
LB-16 'C' Las Bela Timbo
Madiala Kalan Ludhiana
LB-17 Las Bela
Ludana Jind Madina Rohtak
Madopur Jullunder
Luhinga Kalan Gurgaon Magrejewali Bahawalpur
LB-9 Las Bela Mahadevio Amreli
Lukhela Rajkot

Lehri Jhalawan Mahadevno Amreli


Lukhi Kurukshetra Timbo
Leiah Muzaffarnagar
Lena Singh Jhalawan Luna Kutch Mahakalino Ahmedabad
Timbo
Mahatpur Hoshiarpur
Luna Mandvi Kutch Mahawala Bahawalpur
Lewan Bannu Ther
Lundewali Bahawalpur Mahipura Saharanpur
Four Mahiwali Bahawalpur
Limbadka-No Banaskantha Lundewali Bahawalpur Mahmoodpur Muzaffarnagar
Thumdo Ther
Limbuni-No Banaskantha Lundewali Bahawalpur Maholi One Sangrur
Godh Three Mahorana Sangrur
Limdavalo Mehsana Lundewali Bahawalpur
Timbo Two
Limejo-daro Larkana Luni Buthi Dadu Mari Ghari Karachi

Lundi Dherai Rahimyar Mai Manoori Multan


Linedoriwalo Surendranagar Khan Bhir
Khetra Mainpuri Mainpuri
Litanwala Bahawalpur Lundi Thori Sukkur
Loal Mari Sukkur Majhadpur Hardoi
Lunida One Bahawalpur
Loebanr 3 Swat Lunida Two Bahawalpur Majo Mill Quetta-Pishin
Luppewala Bahawalpur
Lohar Majra Ludhiana Luppewala Bahawalpur
Lohar Raghu Hissar Three
Luppewala Bahawalpur Majra Roran Karnal
Lohari Karnal Two
Lurewala Bahawalpur Majri Jattan Patiala
Loharki Their Bahawalpur Makansar Rajkot
Lohat Mahendragarh Makvana Bhavnagar
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Manar Broach
Mata Ghundai Quetta-Pishin
Malakpur Kurukshetra Manda Jammu
Malasaratalavd Ahmedabad
i Mata Kaudani Zhob
Malasband Jhalawan Mata-No Banaskantha
Mandha Jaipur Thumdo
Malaud Ludhiana
Mandkaula Gurgaon Mataji-No Surendranagar
Malazai Quetta-Pishin Timbo
Mandla Saharanpur
Matar Sham Hissar
Mandoli Delhi
Malgam Rajkot Mandowala Saharanpur Matewalno Ahmedabad
Tekro
Malghori Sarawan Mandriyara Kutch Mathan Samrala
Damb Mohra Mathana Saharanpur
Mathura Mathura
Manela Ropar Matki Jharauli Saharanpur
Malgodh Rajkot Mangali One Hissar
Mangali Two Hissar Maudi Three Karnal
Mangalpur Jind
Malhalewala Bahawalpur Maudi Two Karnal
Ther Mangli Nichi Ludhiana
Mayal Chah Makran
Damb
Malhar Khera Jind
Manhairu Mahendragarh Mayapur Saharanpur
Malikpur Kurukshetra Mazena Damb Jhalawan
Manikpur Ropar
Malion-Ka Jaipur Sharif Meerut Meerut
Tiba Meghapar Rajkot
Maliuwali One Rahimyar Manju Kota Jaipur Meghper Kutch
Khan Manoharpur Jind Mehgam Broach
Malki Sarawan
Manpura Bulandshahr

Mehi Jhalawan

Mansadevi Ropar Mehmudabad Bahawalpur


Mallawala Ganganagar Manupura Ludhiana Mehra Kurukshetra
Toba
Malluwali Two Rahimyar Marastan Makran Mehranwala Ropar
Khan
Malsian Jullunder Marechiwala Bahawalpur
Malvan Surat Marhanwala Ropar Mehrgarh Kachi
One
Marhanwala Ropar
Malyali Sikar Two
Markhan Thar Parkar
Mamlika Gurgaon
Mehrianwala Bahawalpur
Mammai Kharan Marki Mas Jhalawan Ther
Damb Mehrianwali Bahawalpur
Two
Mamro One Sukkur Mehrindawala Bahawalpur
Masaudpur Hissar Ther
Mehruband Bahawalpur
Mamro Two Sukkur Ther
Mashak Dadu Mehtawari Diu
Mana Rohtak
Manal Majra Karnal Mashinewala Bahawalpur Mehwali Bahawalpur
Mashula Ganganagar Mehwali Two Bahawalpur
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Melana Four Bhavnagar Bhanvad
Mohiuddinpur Saharanpur
Men Damb Jhalawan Mulpadar, Jamnagar
Mohna Kurukshetra Kalianpur
Mepla-No Banaskantha Moholi Sangrur
Thumdo

Merechi Kanda Bahawalpur Mojgarh Ther Bahawalpur Mulparda Jamnagar


Merechi Kanda Bahawalpur Moniwala Rahimyar Mulu Kutch
Three Khan Mundetha Gurgaon
Merechi Kanda Bahawalpur Mor Karima Ludhiana
Two Mundh Two Jind
Merujh Sukkur Mora Jamnagar
Mundigak Kandahar
Metal Maha- Ahmedabad
No Timbo Morkhi Jind
Midhana Sonepat
Mirana Bahawalpur Mungatoda Jamnagar
Mirchpur Hissar Morpur Jamnagar Mungli damb Larkana

Munkola Gurgaon
Miri Qalat Makran
Munkola One Gurgaon
Morvo Kutch Munkola Two Gurgaon
Murgha Zhob
Mirn-jee-Serri Sukkur Mehtarzai
Mirpur, Ambala
Ambala Motachoprika Ahmedabad
Mirpur, Ropar Ropar Motadevalia
Mirpur Saharanpur Motasar Tibba Ganganagar Musa Khel Mianwali
Mirzapur Kurukshetra One
Musafarwali Bahawalpur
Motasar Tibba Ganganagar Musafarwali Bahawalpur
Mishk Jhalawan Two Two
Nada Chandigarh
Misri Mahendragarh Moti Gop Jamnagar
Nadana Jind
Mitathal Bhiwani Moti Kalavad Jamnagar
Moti Parbadi Rajkot Nandapa
Moti Pipli Banaskantha Nag/Zamuran Makran

Miyoli Kurukshetra Motidharai Bhavnagar Nagadia Jamnagar

Moana Jind Mowari Larkana Nagaman Patiala

Mobi Damb Sarawan Mubarak Ther Bahawalpur Nagar Jullunder


West

Mubarakwala Bahawalpur Nagari Kheri Jind


Moda Ther Nageshri Bhavnagar
Modpar Nageshwar Jamnagar
Moghul Zhob
Ghundai Mujahidpur Hardoi

Mghul Kala Loralai Mul Jamnagar


Madhavpur Nagoor Sukkur
Mohammadpur Sangrur Mulaheri One Muzaffarnagar Naguran One Jind

Mohanpur Ambala Mulaheri Two Muzaffarnagar Naguran Two Jind


Nagwada Five Surendranagar
Mohenjo-daro Larkana Mulana Ambala Nagwada Four Surendranagar

Mullada Two Surendranagar Nagwada One Surendranagar


Mulpadar, Jamnagar
183

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Nagwada Surendranagar Nariankhera Sirsa Neshdo Amreli
Three
Narkatari Kurukshetra Netra Kutch
Nagwada Two Surendranagar Khirasara

Nagwan Patiala Narmana One Jamnagar Newan Ludhiana


Naharnwala Bahawalpur Niai Buthi Las Bela

Naharwali Bahawalpur
Naharwali 'B' Bahawalpur Naru Waro Khairpur Nidana Karnal
Nahli Meerut Dharo Nidani Jind
Nahrenwala Bahawalpur
Narukheri Karnal
Nahriwala Bhatinda Niguran Two Jind
Nainan Kurukshetra Naryana Karnal Nikawa One Jamnagar
Naing Gar Dadu Nasirpur, Saharanpur
Jabal Saharanpur Nindowari Jhalawan
Nasirpur Shahjahanpur
Naiwala Theh Bhatinda
Nasitpur Bhavnagar
Nakamshakh Bannu Nathwan Hissar Niorai Etah
Nakarahiya Sitapur 7
Nirpalpur Saharanpur
Nakharauli Ambala Naugawan Patiala
Nal Jhalawan Naujhalwala Bahawalpur
Nauli Jullunder Nisang Two Karnal
Naura Patiala
Niwaniwala Bahawalpur
Nal Village Jhalawan Nausharo Kachi Ther East
Niwaniwala Bahawalpur
Nala Muzaffarnagar Ther West
Navagam Surat Niwaniwala Bahawalpur
Nalhera Meerut Navapur Three
Nalhera Bakal Saharanpur Navarsa Kurukshetra Niwaniwala Bahawalpur
Namdai Sarawan Two
Navinal Kutch Nodiz Damb Makran

Nammal Lake Campbellpur


Cave Nawan Gaon Saharanpur Noh Bharatpur
Nanauli Saharanpur
Nandgarh One Jind Nawanbans Saharanpur

Nandgarh Two Jind Nazarabad Makran

Nohar Ganganagar
Nandlalpur Jaipur Nazganijo Dadu
Kund
Nandu Khera Kurukshetra Nohto Thar Parkar
Nandu Khera Kurukshetra Neghar Damb Kalat
Nokjo Jhalawan
Shadinzai
Nani Chandur Mehsana

Nanichoprika Ahmedabad Nehriwala Bhatinda Noor Garh Gurgaon


Nar Kheda Theh Noor Shah Bahawalpur
Nelavada Amreli Ther
Noor Shah-jee- Sukkur
Nenuni Dhar Kutch Bhit
Narani Jind Nuka Dadu
Narapa Kutch
Ner Nesdo Kutch Nundara Jhalawan

184

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Nuran Kheri Sonepat
Nushki Chagai Patana Bhavnagar
Pallanpur Ropar Patdi Rajkot
Patel Raniji Ka Kutch
Palwal Kurukshetra Magsa
Patel-Nu Banaskantha
Pancha Pipro Jamnagar Khetar

Oddi Bhit Sukkur Pandi Wahi Dadu Pathani Damb Kachi


Odherio Timbo Mehsana One

Oinwala Ther Bahawalpur Panditonka Kurukshetra


Old Balor Makran Tila Pathani Damb Kachi
Three
Oliya Peer Jamnagar
Panjalsa Ambala Pathani Damb Kachi
Onchi Ther Rahimyar Panju Damb Jhalawan Two
Khan
Orangi Karachi Pathori Saharanpur
Panodi Makran Patti Kalyana Karnal

Ori-No Banaskantha
Thumdo Pansina Surendranagar Pavateswar Ahmedabad
Mahadev
Oriyo Timbo Bhavnagar
Paoli Jind
Payuna Bhit Bahawalpur
Payunewala Bahawalpur
Oriyodada-No Surendranagar Bhit 3
Timbo Papra Gurgaon Payunewala Bahawalpur
Bhit 2
Orumana Mehsana Papreki Saharanpur Peedal One Kurukshetra
Parachh Chandigarh
Othmanjo Karachi Parait Ludhiana Peedal Two Kurukshetra
Buthi
Parhara Bahawalpur Peerni Durga Jamnagar
P-10 Quetta-Pishin Parharewala Bahawalpur
'A'
Pabumath Kutch Peervala Jamnagar

Parharewala 'B' Bahawalpur Pepadia Timbo Bananskantha


Padadhari Rajkot
Padaliya Chittorgarh Paria Waro Kutch Periano Zhob
Mohra Ghundai
Padar Rajkot
Pariaj Kheda

Padra Kheda Pariar Unnao


Phagla Ludiana
Padri Bhavnagar
Pahlwan Jind
Phala Jamnagar
Paijo Kotiro Dadu

Pajrana Saharanpur Parihati Midnapur

Pak Makran Parvala Phang Karachi


Pasawal Kurukshetra
Pasegam Bhavnagar
Pal Rajkot Phaphrana Karnal

Phukhi Ther Bahawalpur


Palawa Alwar Patan Hissar Phul Timbo Bhavnagar
Pali Hissar
185

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Phul Wadi Bhavnagar Q-28
Q-30
Phulabad Qalat Makran Pitar Jamnagar Q-32
Q-33
Phusi Damb Jhalawan Q-35
Pitaria Rajkot Q-36
Qadain Alwar
Qadarwali Bahawalpur
Their
Pithad Rajkot
Pidarak Oasis Makran Qadir Bux Bahawalpur
Piki Saharanpur Pithad One Jamnagar Their
Qasaiwala Bahawalpur
Pilakhni Saharanpur Pithadia, Jamnagar Quabulpur One Karnal
Jamnagar
Quabulp;ur Karnal
Pinaundian Patiala Pithadia, Rajkot Two
Pindara Jind Rajkot
Quetta Miri Quetta-Pishin
Pinjaura Saharanpur
Pithal Puri Sikar
Pinjupura Jind Pithavajal
Pipalia Rajkot Pokhran Karachi
Pipalsa Muzaffarnagar
Pokhran Landi Karachi Quraish Ther Bahawalpur
R.D. 66 Bahawalpur
Pipaltha One Jind Pondi Rewa R.D. 89 Ganganagar

Popatpura Kheda R.D. 92 Ganganagar


Pipaltha Three Jind
Prahag B Makran Radhana Jind

Pipartoda One Jamnagar Prahag C Makran Rafiabbad Budaun


Pipartoda Two Jamnagar Rahatpur Muzaffarnagar
Piplan Dera Ismail Prahag D Makran
Khan Rahlavadar Bhavnagar
Pipli, Gujarat Bhavnagar Prahag A Makran
Pipli, Haryana Kurukshetra Rahmanwali Bahawalpur
Puchur Damb Jhalawan Rahon Jullunder
Pipllage Amreli Raichandwala Jind
Pir Alizai Quetta-Pishin
Pir Haidar Jhalawan Raipur-Jagir Sikar
Shahr Rais Sher Jhalawan
Pujam Karnal Mohammad
Pir Hassan Kharan
Shah
Pujana Saharanpur
Pundari Kurukshetra
Raison Two Karnal
Pur Balian Muzaffarnagar
Two
Pir Mango Karachi
Purani Rewari Jaipur Raja Karna Ka Kurukshetra
Pir Shah Jurio Karachi Puranpur Saharanpur Qila 1
Piriya-No Mehsana Puthar Karnal
Timbo

Pirno Dhoro Amreli Pypaliya Raja Karna Ka Kurukshetra


Q-06 Quetta-Pishin Qila 2
Pirojpur Mehsana Q-17
Q-20
Q-23
Pirwada Kutch Q-25 Raja Sirkap Faridkot
Khetar Q-26
186

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Rampara Kutch
Rajathali Rajkot Rampara One Bhavnagar Ratta Khera Kurukshetra
Khuram
Rampara Two Bhavnagar
Rajbai Rahimyar
Khan Rampur, Jamnagar Ratta One Rahimyar
Rajda Jamnagar Gujarat Khan
Rajdhana Saharanpur Rampur, Ropar Ratta Theh Hissar
Punjab
Rajgarh, Jind Jind Ramvav Kutch

Rajgarh, Patiala Ram Pethani Karachi Ratta Ther Bahawalpur


Patiala Nadi

Raj-daro One Dadu Rana Ghundai Loralai Ratta Three Rahimyar


Khan
Raj-daro Two Dadu Ratta Two Rahimyar
Khan
Rajipipala Rattakhera Kurukshetra
Rajipipla 8 Bhavnagar
Rajipipla 5 Bhavnagar Rattakhera Kurukshetra
Rajipipla 4 Bhavnagar Rana-Ki Radi Jaipur Khuram
Rajipipla 9 Bhavnagar Randal Dadwa Rajkot
Rajipipla 1 Bhavnagar Rawalwas Hissar
Rajipipla 3 Bhavnagar Randalio, Amreli Kalan
Rajipipla 6 Bhavnagar Amreli Rawewala Bahawalpur
Rajipipla 7 Bhavnagar Rehman Dheri Dera Ismail
Rajipipla 2 Bhavnagar Khan
Rajpur Parsu Bijnor Randalio, Jamnagar
Jamnagar
Reko Cave Jhalawan
Rangel Saharanpur
Rajpura Hissar Rel Kheda
Rangpur Surendranagar
Rajpura Two Jind
Rajwadio Mehsana Reri Malakpur Saharanpur
Timbo Two Rani Ran Jind
Rakhigarhi Hissar Rewari Mahendragarh

Ranigam Bhavnagar Rhaurani Kurukshetra


Ramba One Karnal Khera

Ramba Two Karnal Rindhana Sonepat


Raniono Bhavnagar
Ramgarh Jind Timbo Ritauli Jind
Pandwan 1 Ranke Ludhiana
Ranol-No Surendranagar
Timbo Rizvi Karuna Quetta-Pishin
Ramgarh Jind
Pandwan 2 Ranparda Jamnagar
Rodinjo One Kalat
Rodkan Makran
Ramjalra Jaipur Ranpur Jamnagar
Ramjipura Nimar Raowal Ludhiana
Rappwala Ther Bahawalpur
Ramkali Jind Rasnal Jamnagar
Rohatwala Bahawalpur
Rasulpur Saharanpur Roheljo Kund Dadu
Ramnagar Alwar Ratan Dehra Kurukshetra
Rampar Kutch Rohira Sangrur
Vekarano Ratan Heri Ropar
Timbo Ratan Kheri Ambala
Rampar Ratna Kheri Saharanpur
187

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Salarpura Saharanpur Sanghewala Bahawalpur
Rohta Patiala Sanghi Rohtak
Rohtak Rohtak Salepur Bhokri Saharanpur
Sanghol Ludhiana
Rojdi Rajkot Salimgarh Hissar

Sangroli Kurukshetra
Salimgarh Two Hissar Sankatrawalo Banaskantha
Rookhi Sonepat Salimpur Saharanpur Thumdo
Mahdud
Ropar Ropar Salu Khan Sarawan Santhali
Santhli 5 Banaskantha

Runjan Damb Jhalawan Samadhiala, Bhavnagar Santhli 4 Banaskantha


Bhavnagar
Runwali Bahawalpur Samadhiala, Surendranagar Santhli 1 Banaskantha
Rupalon Ludhiana Surendranagar
Samagogha Kutch Santhli 6 Banaskantha
Rupamore Jamnagar
Samarala Ludhiana Santhli 3 Banaskantha
Sabdalpur Saharanpur Sambhalkha Muzaffarnagar
Sabharo Sukkur Santhli 2 Banaskantha
Sadabad Mathura Sambhi One Karnal
Sanukewala Bahawalpur
Sadha Majra Jind Samdo Jind Sanukewala Bahawalpur
Threee
Sadwala Bahawalpur Samel Heri Ropar Sanukewala Bahawalpur
Kanda Sami Makran Two
Safuwala Four Bahawalpur
Safuwala Ther Bahawalpur Sapar Kheri Kurukshetra
Safuwala Bahawalpur Sapara Kutch
Three Saparwadi Jamnagar
Safuwala Two Bahawalpur Sami Hill Makran Saprod Nangal Jullunder
Saga Karnal Sarangpur Ropar

Saguna Palamau Sardar Khel Sarawan


Samlehri Ambala Damb
Sahib Khan Quetta-Pishin
Sampan Kheri Kurukshetra

Sanalo Jamnagar Sardargarh Ganganagar


Sahnewali Bhatinda Two
Sai Timbo Mehsana Sanara Timbo Jamnagar
Sanasi Buthi Dadu Sari Damb Makran
Sai-No Tikro Kheda
Said Qala Kandahar Sanasiwala Rahimyar
Khan Sarkari Kumar Saharanpur
Saipai Etah Sand Ambala
Sarkari Sheikh Saharanpur

Sandhai Ropar Sarkhadolino Mehsana


Saiyid Maurez Sarawan Sandhanawala Bahawalpur Timbo
Damb Ther Sarola Kurukshetra

Sarthauli Shahjahanpur
Sandhya Kurukshetra
Sang Zhob Saruppur Taga Saharanpur

Saka Kalat Jhalawan Sarwania One Jamnagar


Sangan Jind
Saket Colony Meerut Sasa Patiala
Salari Larkana Sangatpura Jind
Sasi Patiala
188

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Sasiyano Mehsana Shahiwala Bahawalpur
Timbo Shahjo Kotiro Karachi Shimoyno Rajkot
Dhoro
Satoj Sar Patiala Shahpur, Hissar Shisak Rajkot
Hissar Shishpur Karnal

Satrand Khas Hissar Shortughai


Two Shahr Kuloi Sarawan
Satrod Khurd Hissar Shahr Sardar Sarawan Shrinagar Jamnagar
One

Satrod Khurd Hissar Shahrak Makran Shukartal Saharanpur


Three Pogunsh
SI-6 Karachi
Siah Damb Jhalawan
Satrod Khurd Hissar Shaikhanwala Bahawalpur Jhau
Two Ther
Shakar Khan Jhalawan Sia Damb, Jhalawan
Satuki East Bahawalpur Damb Surab
Satuki West Bahawalpur Shakarpur Saharanpur
Saudevalio Jamnagar Shakhupur Karnal
Saunkhr Three Karnal Manchuri
Saunkhra One Karnal Shakpur Karnal Siamlo Kalan Jind
Machuri One
Saunkhra Karnal Shamgarh Karnal
Three Siamlo Kalan Jind
Shami Damb Makran Two
Saunkhra Two Karnal
Sianzai Sarawan
Sauransanda Bahawalpur Sibri Two Kachi
Savani Jamnagar Shamli-Shamla Muzaffarnagar
Siddhuwala Bahawalpur
Savarniya Bikaner Ther
Sheikhri Two Bahawalpur
Sheikhwali Bahawalpur
Savni Sheorajpur Kanpur Siddhuwala 'B' Bahawalpur
Sayra Siddhuwala 'C' Bahawalpur
Seed Farm Bhavnagar Sheri Khan Bannu Siddhuwala 'D' Bahawalpur
Tarakai Siddhuwala 'E' Bahawalpur
Seel Patiala Siddhuwali 'F' Bahawalpur
Seer Dheri Bannu Sidsar Bhavnagar
Sherpur Saharanpur
Segak Makran Sihnewali Bhatinda
Sherpura Ganganagar Sikrera Muzaffarnagar
Sejpura Ganganagar Sikri Muzaffarnagar
Selari Kutch Sikri, Saharanpur
Sheruwala Bahawalpur Saharanpur
Ther
Senalo Jamnagar Sheruwala Bahawalpur Sila Kheri One Jind
Three
Serfraguvar Jhunjhunu Sheruwala Bahawalpur
Serikmoran Makran Two Sinad Jind
Damb Shidiwala 'A" Bahawalpur
Shidiwala 'B' Bahawalpur
Shiharu-No Banaskantha Sindhvi Khera Jind
Shadiwala Rahimyar Thumdo
Ther Khan Shikarpur Muzaffarnagar Singauli Taga Meerut
Shah Ghar Rahimyar Shikarpur, Kutch Singen Kalat Jhalawan
Ther Khan Kutch
Shahabad Hardoi Shikarpur One Muzaffarnagar

Shikarwala Bahawalpur
Shahi Tump Makran Ther
189

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Singharwali Bahawalpur One
Singhra Karnal Suneri Damb Jhalawan
Solath Jind
Singhwa Hissar
Somnath Jamnagar
Singhwal Jind

Suner Ludhiana
Singi Kalat Makran Sonaria Jamnagar

Singot Damb Jhalawan Sorah Site Sukkur


Sorak Damb Jhalawan
Sinjawi Loralai
Ghundai Suiarheri Patiala
Sur Jangal Loralai

Sirsa Ther Budaun Surab Valley Jhalawan


Sosan Faridkot 'A'
Sothi Ganganagar
Surain Damb Makran
Sisai Bola One Hissar
Sotka Koh Makran
Sisai Bola Two Hissar Surajpur Ropar
Spina Ghundai Quetta-Pishin Surbra Jind
Sisai kali Hissar
Ravan 4 Spur Number Larkana Surkh Damb Jhalawan
Three
Sisai Kali Hissar
Ravan 1 Surkotada Kutch

Sisai Kali Hissar


Ravan 2 Suryavadar Jamnagar
Sra Kala Quetta-Pishin One
Sisai One Hissar
Sutana Karnal
Sisai Three Hissar
Sraduk Makran Sutkage-dor Makran
Sisai Two Hissar
Suwaiki Ganganagar
Sisana Rohtak
Taghazi Damb Kharan
Siswal Hissar Stupa Tikri Sukkur
Subri Khwaja Saharanpur Tahirpur Saharanpur
Sudhel Ropar
Siswan Ropar Suhavi Ludhiana Talavadino Ahmedabad
Site 63 Makran Sujnipur Mehsana Timbo
Site 64 Makran Talewadi Jamnagar
Site 70 Makran
Taloor-ji Bhit Khairpur
Suketri Ropar Talu Hissar
Site Near Kuki Jhalawan Suketri, Ambala Talwandino Ahmedabad
Damb Ambala Timbo
Sulla Bahawalpur Talwara, Ludhiana
Siwana Mal Jind Ludhiana
One Sullewala Bahawalpur
Siwana Mal Jind Sultanpur, Rajkot Talwara, Hissar
Two Gujarat Hissar
Soont-No Banaskantha
Timbo
Sodhra Sukkur Tamajuri Midnapur
Sohavi Ludhiana Sultapur, Gurgaon
Sohniwali Bahawalpur Haryana Tando Rahim Dadu
Sohniwali Two Bahawalpur Khan
Sohren Damb Makran Sumer Damb Jhalawan
190

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Timbi One Jamnagar
Tandiwal Ambala
Thana Bhawan Muzaffarnagar Timbo One Jamnagar
Tang Makran Timbo One Mehsana
Tankaria Jamnagar Tharo Waro Sukkur Timbo Two Jamnagar
Daro Timbo Two Mehsana
Tharro Hill Nawabshah Timran Rajkot
Toda Muzaffarnagar

Taraghada Rajkot
Tharulawala Bahawalpur Todi Khera Jind
Ther
Tarakai Bannu Tharwala Bahawalpur Toda Timbo Kutch
Ghundai Thathaula Saharanpur Todio Kutch
Thebachada Rajkot
Tarakai Qila Bannu One
Togau Sarawan

Tarana Four Jamnagar Thebachada Rajkot


Two
Tarana One Jamnagar Theekariya Jaipur Toji Damb Kharan
Then Lahara Ludhiana
Tarana Three Jamnagar
Ther Sukkur
Tarana Two Jamnagar
Tokaria Timbo Mehsana
Theraj Hissar
Tor Ghundai Sarawan
Tarasamra Bhavnagar Theriwala Bahawalpur
Tarat Qalat Makran Theri Bahadur Jacobabad
Two Shah Tor Warai Sarawan

Tarkhanwala Ganganagar Thikariya-No Mehsana


Dera Timbo Trekoe Bahawalpur

Tarshikhad Ahmedabad Thirana Karnal Trihni Dadu


Tarsoolwala Bahawalpur
Taskola Jaipur Thok Valley Jhalawan Trillar Bahawalpur
Tatana Bhavnagar One Tump Qalat Makran

Tatarpur Kalan Saharanpur Thoom Thali Bahawalpur Tumpak Makran


Thoriwala Bahawalpur Tup Takhtikhel Bannu
Tauli Saharanpur Tupi Larkana
Thuwa Jind
Taung Dadu
Tuppewala Bahawalpur
Tigrana Bhiwani Three
Turanwala Bahawalpur
Tegak Jhalawan Turawewala 'B' Bahawalpur
Turawewala 'C' Bahawalpur
Tigri Sikar Turawewali Bahawalpur
Teli Wala Saharanpur Tihani Qalat Makran Their
Telod Broach Turewala Bahawalpur
Tikrat Dehri Rahimyar Ubhad Surat
Khan
Uccha Gaon Patiala
Tetariyo Amreli Tikri Damb Jhalawan Uccha Khera Patiala

Tikrol Saharanpur Udepur


Ujalbas Ganganagar
Thakowala Rahimyar Timaram Rajkot Ujhana One Jind
Khan
Thale Damb Makran
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Ujhana Two Jind
Vokda-No Banaskantha
Vadia-No Mehsana Thumdo
Un Muzaffarnagar Timbo
Waddanwala Bahawalpur
Una Jamnagar Waddenwali Bahawalpur
Unknown Jabalpur Vadli Rajkot Wadi Thana Jhalawan

Mayurbghanj Vagad Ahmedabad


Vaghania Juna Amreli Wahir Two Jhalawan
Chota Nagpur Vaghatalav Kheda
Wakkarwala Bahawalpur
Hardoi Vagrano Amreli Warawar Bahawalpur
Dhoro Wariyal Ther Bahawalpur
Ranchi Wariyal 'A' Bahawalpur
Vaharvo Bhavnagar Wariyal 'B' Bahawalpur
Hazaribagh Wariyal 'C' Bahawalpur
Wariyal 'D' Bahawalpur
Etah Wariyal 'E' Bahawalpur
Vaidwali Kutch Wariyal 'F' Bahawalpur
Ranchi Mohra Wariyal 'G' Bahawalpur
Vainiwal Sahiwal Wariyal 'H' Bahawalpur
Unnamed Dera Ismail
Damb Khan Valabhi Bhavnagar Warthan Surat

Valotri Kheda Wasuwala Bahawalpur


Unnamed Site Jhalawan Ther
Five Wavriwala Bahawalpur
Uplana Kurukshetra Valpura Bhavnagar Wutaki Damb Makran
Uplana Four Karnal Valwala Two Bahawalpur
Valwali Bahawalpur Yaqubpur
Uplana Three Karnal Vaniavadar Amreli Yarak Bannu
Zahrazai Sarawan
Uplana Two Karnal
Vankiner Jamnagar
Urdana Jind Zari Damb Jhalawan

Urlana Khurd Karnal


One Vanta Vash Surendranagar Zayak North Kharan
Various Sites Manbhum
Urlana Khurd Karnal
Two Varudimatano Ahmedabad
Timbo
Varwala Jamnagar
Uruske Zharia Zhob Vasai Jamnagar Zayak Jhalawan
Vachali Ghodi Rajkot Southeast
Vada Kutch

Vasavad
Vadalan Amritsar Vagadi Rajkot Zekhada Banaskantha
Vadalan Gurdaspur
Garanthian Ziarat Bharam Bahawalpur
Vadasada Raklpt Vejalpur Broach Shahi
Veranatha Mehsana
Timbo Zidi Jhalawan
Vadera Amreli Veraval Jamnagar
Veraval Moti Jamnagar
Vadgam, Kheda Virpur, Gondal Rajkot
Kheda Virpur, Jamnagar Zik Makran
Jamnagar
Vadgam Surendranagar

192

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Index
Afghanistan, 68, 70 Banawali, 17, 24, 68, 70, 74, 127, 150,
agriculture, 77, 90, 91, 150, 151, 163, 152, 168, 199, 200
204, 221, 235 barley, 31, 74, 82
Ahar, 67 bath, 132, 134, 142
Akkadian, 40, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 98, 112, bead, 92, 96, 215, 216, 237
117 beads, 21, 40, 45, 50, 68, 72, 74, 82, 87,
Alexander, 51 88, 92, 102, 202
Allahdino, 166, 208, 229 bed, 14, 16, 20, 52, 54, 57, 64, 71, 74, 75,
Allchin, 77 220
Amri, 20, 32, 39, 70, 139, 166, 202 belt, 21, 42, 53, 54, 85, 92, 100, 120
antelope, 47, 68, 99, 105, 110, 111, 112, Bha_rata, 8, 9, 10, 11, 41, 130, 152
113, 115, 116, 123 Bhairava, 39
Arabia, 98, 100, 103, 115, 159 Bharat, 64, 72
Arabian Gulf, 11, 40, 85, 86, 87, 89, 226 Bharata, 61, 63
Aravalli, 15, 20, 49, 78, 210 blade, 78, 121, 195
arch, 154 BMAC, 91, 93, 94, 95
Archaeological Survey of India, 34, 70, boar, 112, 121
128, 196, 198, 204, 206, 211, 212, 214, boat, 38, 43, 44, 45, 46, 237
220, 227, 228, 233, 234, 235 bone, 4, 109, 159
archaeo-metallurgy, 10 boss, 85, 100, 103, 118
archer, 98 bow, 77
architecture, 92, 129, 144, 147, 148, 200 Brahui, 89, 201, 207, 221
armies, 122 brass, 163
arrow, 77, 109, 116 brick, 21, 37, 43, 58, 59, 68, 87, 92, 122,
arsenic, 47 130, 131, 134, 142, 146, 152, 156, 237
Avestan, 6, 62, 92 bronze, 18, 21, 39, 45, 78, 85, 90, 91, 92,
axe, 100, 120, 121, 218, 221 94, 95, 96, 101, 102, 104, 134, 152,
Bactria, 93, 94, 95, 118, 120, 121, 225 163, 212, 213, 233, 237
Bactrian camel, 119 Buddha, 69, 72, 207
Badakhshan, 18, 82, 90, 107 buffalo, 113, 159
Bahrain, 40, 81, 82, 85, 87, 88, 98, 100, buildings, 88, 91, 97, 134, 142, 158
115, 195, 203, 226, 234, 237 bull, 68, 100, 106, 107, 110, 111, 112,
baked brick, 88, 122, 134, 142 113, 114, 115, 116
Balakot, 20, 127, 153, 167, 204, 205 bun, 86, 98, 99, 129
Baluchistan, 21, 32, 88, 89, 90, 196, 197, burial, 68, 82, 89, 100, 101, 102, 140
201, 202, 204, 207, 211, 213, 217, 220, camel, 119, 230
222, 224, 229, 230, 233 caravan, 82

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carnelian, 21, 50, 68, 72, 82, 85, 87, 88, Dholavira, 19, 24, 34, 35, 36, 48, 49, 50,
92, 96, 107, 195 70, 73, 74, 127, 131, 145, 147, 149,
cart, 38 152, 154, 164, 173, 200, 237
cattle, 66, 68, 90, 91, 100, 151, 159 dice, 87
cemetery, 82, 90, 98, 109, 110, 235 Dilmun, 40, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 88, 100,
Central Asia, 82, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 101, 102, 103, 104, 115, 118, 199, 203,
97, 108, 201, 205, 209, 212, 215, 216, 204, 217, 226
217, 223, 229, 231 donkey, 84
ceramic, 75, 76, 88, 90, 92, 96, 100, 120, Dr.s.advati, 73, 162
205, 211, 214, 236 Dravidian, 6, 62, 89, 163, 201, 221
Chalcolithic, 77, 88, 102, 207, 222 drill, 103, 111, 112, 215
chert, 87, 89, 112, 114 Durga, 69, 152, 159, 160, 186
chipped, 114 Early Harappan, 20, 72, 76, 139, 152,
chisel, 149 222, 223
Cholistan, 20, 22, 24, 50, 71, 74, 76, 129, Egypt, 45, 73, 85, 90
223 Elam, 82, 88, 109, 117
cistern, 147 elephant, 199, 213
citadel, 34, 96, 126, 131, 132, 135, 146, etched, 40, 87, 96
152, 154, 155 faience, 21, 72, 221
cities, 61, 68, 72, 73, 86, 94, 95, 137, 142, Fairservis, 207, 208, 213
208, 212, 219, 223, 226, 230, 237 farm, 139
city, 16, 32, 42, 48, 52, 57, 70, 72, 82, 83, figurine, 100
85, 86, 88, 89, 101, 117, 127, 128, 138, fillet, 99
148, 154, 155, 158, 195, 198, 221 fish, 68, 78, 103, 110, 111, 112, 139
clay, 44, 90, 92, 96, 97, 120, 237 Ganga, 15, 20, 25, 27, 32, 33, 36, 49, 63,
cloth, 45, 83, 157 64, 66, 93, 162, 164, 196, 205, 206,
coins, 71, 72, 101, 163 210, 218, 232, 235
conflict, 70 Ganweriwala, 18, 22, 73, 76, 127, 174
copper, 21, 45, 47, 67, 68, 76, 78, 81, 82, gateway, 104, 128, 129, 145, 157
85, 86, 88, 90, 95, 99, 100, 102, 108, gazelle, 111
109, 119, 120, 134, 137, 163, 194, 195, Ghaggar, 14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 23, 51, 52,
201, 204, 206, 211, 218, 222, 224, 225, 54, 64, 70, 76, 77, 79, 162, 195, 204,
228, 235 206, 209, 220, 231, 234
cotton, 62, 197, 211, 217 gharial, 103
crown, 33, 83, 113, 159 goat, 55, 98, 106, 107, 116
cubical, 87, 89, 142 godess, 8, 85, 112
cuneiform, 87, 88, 89, 90, 98, 101 gold, 17, 32, 47, 68, 85, 87, 89, 92, 95,
cylinder seal, 85, 87, 90, 92, 97, 99, 103, 98, 101, 107, 109, 121, 195, 197, 224
104, 105, 107, 116 goldsmith, 98
dagger, 99, 100, 106, 111 graffiti, 68, 109, 208
deity, 112, 113, 114 granary, 74, 129, 134, 135, 155, 156
dharma, 39, 163
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Gujarat, 11, 18, 20, 24, 25, 26, 34, 49, 50, Kannad.a, 5
71, 72, 77, 82, 148, 149, 162, 187, 188, Kashmir, 11, 72, 122, 158, 201, 214, 215
191, 195, 197, 198, 199, 210, 211, 215, Kashmiri, 62
221, 222, 226, 227, 231, 232, 233, 237 Kenoyer, 20, 38, 44, 126, 134, 135, 199,
Gujarati, 62 205, 208, 215, 216, 221, 230, 236
Gulf of Khambat, 11, 22, 38, 39, 40, 48, Khetri, 67, 81, 137
49, 50, 61, 78, 127, 137, 165 kiln, 68, 75
gypsum, 37, 41, 217 Kish, 89, 100, 121
hammer, 157 kneeling, 98, 111, 113
Harappa, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 38, 68, 70, Kon
73, 74, 87, 97, 127, 128, 129, 131, 137, kan.i, 5
152, 175, 194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 202, Kot Diji, 20, 24, 52, 131, 138, 139, 153,
203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 211, 212, 214, 180, 196, 205
216, 221, 227, 228, 231, 233, 235, 236 Kunal, 24, 68, 70, 152, 181, 217, 231
hare, 110 Kutch, 11, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 26, 34, 38,
Himalaya, 15, 16, 49, 53, 60, 64, 201, 39, 40, 48, 49, 50, 53, 56, 57, 66, 77,
208, 218, 235 79, 117, 127, 137, 153, 154, 168, 171,
Hindu, 10, 46, 69, 98, 117, 205, 215 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179,
hoard, 67, 69, 78, 86, 102, 195, 222, 225, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187,
232 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 200, 211,
horned, 93, 98, 105, 108, 110, 114, 116, 214, 219, 224, 225, 227, 228, 229, 236
154, 159, 198 Lal, 14, 19, 20, 55, 58, 67, 75, 79, 181,
horse, 69, 196, 199 194, 195, 200, 205, 206, 210, 212, 214,
hunter, 160, 219 215, 218, 220, 222, 223, 229, 232, 233
incised, 44, 87, 100, 118, 119 language, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 47, 54, 61, 62,
Indo-Aryan, 5, 89, 93, 94, 96, 101, 163, 87, 89, 90, 163, 165, 205, 210
212, 215, 230 languages, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 16, 89, 93, 101,
Indo-Iranian, 89, 205, 207, 208, 210, 211, 163, 165, 205, 210, 211, 219, 220, 224,
219, 220, 224, 225, 229 225, 228, 229
ingot, 101 lapis lazuli, 68, 82, 85, 87, 90, 95, 98, 99,
inscription, 6, 40, 72, 81, 87, 96, 100, 107, 108, 109, 110
104, 110, 112, 128, 207 lattice, 148
ivory, 85, 87, 103, 104, 108, 237 lead, 37, 95, 97, 119, 204, 208
Jarrige, 31, 151, 196, 198, 207, 213, 223, Lothal, 22, 24, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49, 70, 77,
235 81, 126, 127, 142, 151, 152, 182, 219,
jewelry, 101 227, 237
Jhukar, 177, 198, 220, 223 Mackay, 103, 211, 219
Kalibangan, 23, 24, 33, 50, 57, 67, 70, 71, Magan, 40, 82, 85, 86, 87, 100, 102, 225,
74, 78, 81, 93, 104, 126, 127, 132, 137, 233
150, 151, 152, 178, 218, 224, 227, 234 Mahadevan, 220
Kalyanaraman, 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 12, 25, Makran, 39, 40, 49, 81, 127, 166, 167,
214, 215, 226 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175,
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176, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, organization, 10, 216, 221, 227, 236
185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, ornaments, 40, 100, 163
193, 198, 204, 205, 217, 218, 221, 222, Oxus, 91, 93, 95, 117, 118, 119, 120, 212
224 Pakistan, 24, 31, 32, 38, 49, 52, 54, 56,
Marshall, 99, 103, 129, 219, 220 64, 70, 75, 76, 78, 88, 97, 126, 137,
Meadow, 20, 31, 151, 205, 212, 213, 216, 139, 142, 170, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199,
221, 236 201, 202, 204, 205, 207, 208, 210, 211,
Mehrgarh, 31, 140, 151, 183, 202, 204, 212, 213, 216, 217, 219, 221, 223, 224,
213, 219, 229 226, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235,
Meluhha, 13, 40, 81, 87, 100, 101, 102, 237
103, 225, 233, 235 palaeolithic, 199
Meluhhan, 81, 101 Palaeolithic, 65, 66, 217, 222
merchants, 83, 89, 90, 101, 104, 159 Parpola, 47, 81, 92, 93, 95, 97, 99, 198,
Mesolithic, 55, 65, 66, 77, 194, 212, 217 202, 214, 220, 221, 222, 225, 230
Mesopotamia, 11, 31, 73, 81, 82, 83, 84, peacock, 152
85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 94, 97, 99, 100, perforated, 85, 100, 103, 111
101, 102, 104, 110, 121, 130, 163, 198, Persian Gulf, 31, 38, 81, 82, 86, 87, 89,
200, 202, 210, 222, 225, 226, 227 100, 104, 227
metal, 8, 20, 68, 86, 90, 95, 96, 98, 102, pipal, 68
120, 129, 152, 163, 194 Pirak, 202, 213
metallurgy, 10, 45 plant, 54, 97, 104, 110, 111, 112, 113,
metals, 47, 85, 89, 101, 102, 163, 197, 233 114, 120, 151, 157, 158, 233
microbeads, 78 plants, 68, 91, 104
mining, 86, 100, 102, 195 platform, 44, 118, 119, 126, 134, 138,
Mleccha, 163 139, 140
Mlecchita, 163 Possehl, 18, 41, 54, 55, 72, 73, 78, 130,
Mohenjodaro, 15, 20, 36, 37, 43, 57, 68, 152, 194, 195, 197, 200, 202, 205, 206,
70, 73, 74, 93, 99, 103, 104, 125, 126, 208, 213, 214, 215, 219, 221, 223, 225,
127, 131, 133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 146, 226, 230, 231, 233
147, 150, 212, 220, 228, 230, 237 pottery, 24, 68, 69, 75, 82, 87, 90, 93, 97,
monkey, 110 102, 139, 140, 151, 207, 220
mortar, 157 praying, 17
mould, 78 punch-marked, 163
mud-brick, 21, 58, 59, 87, 152 Punjab, 11, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 26, 51, 52,
Nausharo, 140, 185, 213 55, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 162, 172, 180,
necklace, 68, 96 188, 199, 205, 206, 214, 219, 220, 223,
Neolithic, 31, 65, 66, 88, 140, 151, 210, 228, 229, 230, 231
213, 215, 216, 217, 219, 221, 224, 230, Punjabi, 62, 159
231, 232 R.gveda, 2, 8, 10, 11, 14, 19, 71, 72, 73,
Oldham, 17, 51, 74, 75, 224 163
one-horned, 105, 110, 114, 116, 154, 198 Ra_ma_yan.a, 42
ore, 86, 91, 217
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Rajasthan, 11, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, serpentine, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117
24, 25, 26, 50, 54, 55, 65, 66, 67, 76, Shaffer, 199, 229, 230
78, 148, 149, 195, 197, 198, 201, 206, sheep, 55, 91, 100, 119, 160
209, 210, 212, 215, 217, 222, 224, 225, shell, 68, 74, 82, 115, 210, 211, 237
226, 227, 228, 229, 232, 233, 234 ship, 45, 46, 81, 82, 86, 237
Rakhigarhi, 18, 24, 68, 70, 73, 74, 76, shipping, 44
127, 188 Shortughai, 190, 209
ram, 110, 155, 156 Silver, 43, 120, 121, 208
Ravi, 15, 16, 18, 74, 93, 127, 154, 199, Sindh, 25, 31, 32, 45, 81, 94, 208, 213,
200, 205, 214 223, 230, 237
raw material, 81, 102 Sindhi, 5, 54, 62, 64, 154, 219, 226, 236
rebus, 62, 155, 163 Siwalik, 1, 15, 16, 22, 26
reservoir, 32, 34, 36, 43, 147, 149, 164, snake, 54, 110, 111, 120, 159
237 soma, 17, 47
rhinoceros, 198 sorghum, 224
rice, 26, 66, 141, 151, 157, 201 spear, 104, 111, 152
Rojdi, 24, 78, 189, 226, 235 steatite, 44, 68, 72, 85, 87, 92, 99, 104,
Ropar, 17, 22, 24, 41, 50, 72, 76, 153, 105, 116, 119, 120, 197
166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, stone bead, 216
175, 177, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 186, stone sculptures, 90, 148
188, 189, 191, 231 stool, 98
Royal cemetery, 98, 110 storage jar, 77
Sanskrit, 3, 5, 6, 14, 16, 88, 158, 200, 214 storehouse, 102, 156
Santali, 62, 155, 156, 159, 160 stupa, 142
Sarasvati, 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, Sumerian, 40, 81, 85, 87, 88, 89, 92, 98,
15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 102, 103, 104, 109, 198, 217
25, 26, 31, 33, 38, 39, 41, 45, 47, 48, Susa, 82, 85, 89, 94, 97, 103, 104, 116,
49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 60, 62, 63, 64, 117
65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, Sutlej, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 41,
75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 88, 92, 93, 94, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 60, 64,
98, 99, 105, 107, 110, 122, 123, 126, 71, 72, 74, 76, 154, 162, 197, 199, 206,
127, 129, 137, 138, 139, 144, 149, 151, 218, 231
152, 154, 162, 163, 164, 165, 204, 209, Swat, 153, 166, 168, 169, 170, 172, 174,
210, 214, 215, 217, 218, 221, 226, 227, 177, 180, 182, 198, 233
228, 231, 233, 235 tablets, 84, 85, 89, 90, 97, 101, 104, 163,
Saurashtra, 20, 21, 26, 49, 199, 203, 204, 221
205, 206, 211, 224, 225 Tamil, 3, 5, 61, 83, 89, 95, 98, 151, 152,
saw, 39, 74, 114 155, 208
sea trade, 50 Taxila, 195
sealing, 85, 88, 116, 118, 129 Telugu, 3, 5, 62, 148, 151
seated figure, 90, 92
serpent, 33, 39, 111
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temple, 32, 33, 36, 39, 72, 81, 83, 86, 99, vessels, 39, 43, 45, 92, 97, 100, 101, 120,
102, 109, 118, 123, 129, 130, 135, 144, 211
148, 149, 154, 156 war, 46, 70, 71, 122, 159
Tepe Yahya, 89 warfare, 83, 152
terracotta, 21, 45, 62, 72, 109, 139, 237 water-buffalo, 113
terracotta cake, 21, 109, 139 weapons, 45, 82, 90, 91, 95, 99, 100, 101,
tiger, 47, 99, 110, 121, 123 102, 104, 110, 120, 134, 152, 163
Tigris, 31, 38, 84, 104, 163 weights, 68, 87, 88, 89, 101, 211
tin, 47, 82, 83, 89, 90, 101, 202, 205, 217, wheat, 26, 31, 86
229, 232 Wheeler, 134, 135, 235, 236
tokens, 97 wild animals, 152, 159
tools, 66, 82, 90, 91, 97, 99, 101, 102, Wilhelmy, 50, 53, 236
163, 215 workshop, 82
traders, 81, 86, 102, 225 workshops, 82
transport, 39, 81, 84, 85, 88, 163, 237 worship, 16
tree, 55, 98, 103, 104, 112, 114, 119, 120, writing, 8, 10, 12, 39, 47, 62, 68, 69, 88,
217 90, 97, 101, 117, 163, 164, 208, 226
triven.i, 162 writing system, 8, 10, 12, 39, 47, 62, 69,
Turkmenistan, 89, 92, 95, 96, 97, 118 164, 226
United Arab Emirates, 89, 98 yajn~a, 16, 39, 93
Ur, 43, 45, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 89, 92, 98, Yamuna, 1, 14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 23, 49, 50,
99, 100, 102, 104, 107, 110, 117, 130, 55, 64, 68, 76, 162, 197, 199, 205, 206,
209, 236 218
Valdiya, 15, 50, 66, 235 yogic, 47
Vats, 16, 235 Yudhis.t.hira, 163
vedic, 45

i
Ancient Ship-Building & Maritime Trade
by D. P. Agrawal & Lalit Tiwari

The beginnings of boat building technology in India go back to the Third Millennium BC, to the Harappan times. The Harappans
(or Indus Civilization) constructed the first tide dock of the world for berthing and servicing ships at the port town of Lothal (Rao,
1987). The discovery of the Lothal port and dock in 1955 highlighted the maritime aspects of the Indus Civilization. At Lothal a
trapezoid reservoir measuring on an average 214 x 36 meters has been excavated, and has been identified as a dockyard. It is
riveted on all four sides with continuous dry masonry burnt-brick walls, 4- courses wide, which at its greatest extant depth reaches
to 3m (but might have been originally much higher). The structure was stratigraphically connected to the old riverbed of Sabarmati.
Towards the southern end there is a broad and relatively shallow gap. This has been supposed to be the inlet channel of the dock.
Leading from the southern wall is a narrow brick water passage, said to have functioned as a spill channel, when fitted with a
sluice-gate. According to S.R.Rao, the dock has been used in two stages, at the first stage it was designed to allow ships 18-20
meters long and 4-6 meters wide. At least two ships could simultaneously pass and enter easily. In the second stage, the inlet
channel was narrowed to accommodate large ships but only single ships with flat bottoms could enter. The terracotta models of a
boat from Lothal and engravings on Indus seals give some idea of ships going to the sea. Lothal is situated near Saragwala village,
about fifty miles southwest of Ahmedabad. It lies in a level plain between the Bhogava and Sabarmati rivers and at present is some
twelve miles from the Gulf of Cambay coast. The siltation rate of the Sabarmati delta is known to be rapid, so that in former times
the site may actually have been nearer the sea. Lothal, with its large market and a busy dock, was a great emporium where goods
from neighboring towns and villages, such as Rangpur, Kath etc. were sold in exchange for imported and locally manufactured
ones. Lothal had developed overseas trade with the West Coast of India on the one hand and the Mesopotamian cities through the
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Bahrain islands on the other. Among the manufacturing industries of Lothal bead making, ivory and shell working and bronze-
smithy were very important. For the land transport they used bullock carts and pack animals for long distance trade. For inland
waterways, flat-bottomed boats of the type suggested by the terracotta models were used. In this connection it may be noted that
even today flat-bottomed boats made of reeds are used for carrying men and light goods. Perhaps the Harappans used similar boats
in the lakes and rivers also. Trade on the high seas and along the coast was possible because the ships were fitted with sails.

Harappans not only built a unique dock but also provided facilities for handling cargo. There were other smaller ports such as
Bhagatrav, Sutkagendor and Sutkakah, and perhaps a large one at Dholavira, all in Gujarat. An engraving on a seal from
Mohenjodaro represents a sailing ship with a high prow; the stern was made of reeds. In the center, it had a square cabin. Out of
five miniature clay models of boats one is complete and represents a ship with sail. The latter has a sharp keel, a pointed prow and a
high flat stern. Two blind holes are also visible. One of them seen near the stern was meant for the mast, and the other on the edge
of the ship may be for steering. In the second model, which is rather damaged, the stern and the prow were both curved high up as
in the Egyptian boats of the Garzean period. The keel is pointed and the margins are raised. A hole made a little away from the
center was meant for the mast. In this case, the prow was broken. Three other damaged models found at Lothal have a flat base and
a pointed prow, but the keel is not pointed nor is there any hole for fixing the mast. Apparently these flat-based craft were used on
rivers and creeks without sail, while the other two types with sail and sharp keels plied on the high seas and were berthed in the
deep waters of the Gulf. Probably the canoe types of flat-based boats were the only ones, which could be sluiced at high tide.
Another type of boat can be reconstructed from the paintings on two potsherds. It represents a boat with multiple oars. The
Harappan ship must have been as big as the modern country crafts, which bring timber from Malabar to Gogha. On this analogy it
can be assumed that a load up to 60 tons could be carried by these ships. The sizes of the anchor stones found in the Lothal dock
also support this view (Rao, 1979, 1985).

It is a recorded fact that Pushyadeva, the ruler of Sindh (now in Pakistan) pushed back the formidable Arab navy attacks in 756 AD,
which only indicates his marine prowess. The historical text Yuktikalpataru (11th Century AD) deals with shipbuilding and gives
details of various types of ships. Boats used for different purposes were called by different names such as Samanya, Madhyama and
Visesha for passenger service, cargo, fishing and ferrying over the river. The earliest reference to maritime activities in India occurs
in Rigveda, "Do thou whose countenance is turned to all side send off our adversaries, as if in a ship to the opposite shore: do thou
convey us in a ship across the sea for our welfare" (Rigveda, 1, 97, 7 and 8).

The technology of boat building was a hereditary profession passing from father to son and was a monopoly of a particular caste of
people. The local builders used the hand, fingers and feet as the units of measurements. In different places different kinds of boats
were built for specific purposes. These boats may bear some similarity in material, techniques or in shape and size. For the
construction of ship, the teak (Tectona grandis) wood is generally employed in India, though the selection of wood depends upon
the nature and type of craft.

Technology

The traditional construction of a boat starts with the laying of a keel (keel is foundation beam for the boat and ship), a massive piece
of wood supported on a branching stern about a foot above the ground at both ends. This is stepped to take the stern-post (rearmost
part of a ship or boat) and also the stem post (the pointed front part of a ship or boat), all made of massive pieces of timber. The
keel is laid first and later the planks or ribs are attached. Usually for the keel and stern one single piece of wood is always preferred.
The planks are then fastened horizontally on either side of the keel. The planks join is edge to edge. Rudder is a flat broad piece of
wood, which is mainly used for getting a forwards lead to the expected direction and is not seen in all traditional crafts. In some
crafts the rudder is replaced by a paddle or oars, which function as a rudder. Paddle is a short oar with a broad blade at one or both
ends and oar is a pole with a flat blade used in rowing. These are necessary for a straight and swift movement of the vessels.
Generally all the ships use the wind power. In the ship the mast is fixed on ribs above the keel. The mast is made out of a timber
tree but the builders prefer a bamboo piece, because of its suitability to make a mast long, and strong. Sail is a sheet of canvas
spread to catch the wind and move a boat or ship forwards. It is used in traditional vessels; the shape of sail is triangular to make it
easy to catch the wind. Sails are fixed to the mast with ropes. The sails are used mainly when the vessels are going to the mid sea,
so that they can make use of the maximum wind energy.

Traditional Boat-building in various states of India

In India, there are various places that have the traditional boats and boat building technology. The Andhara coast is known for 4
types of traditional boats constructed for cargo transport, fishing and ferrying purposes, which are catamarans (teppa), dugout
canoe, stitched-planks-built boats and

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Nailed-planks-built boats. Generally the types of wood used for boat building in Andhra Pradesh are grannari karra (Egesa:
Acquicia canilotica), arcini karra (Melia dubia), cinntha karra (Albizzia sp.), rai karra, teak, circini karra (Anogeissus sp.), mamidi
karra (Mango: Magnifera indica), sal (Shorea robusta), Indian laural (Terminalia tormentosa) and maddi (Alianthus malabarica).
Teppas are simple floating devices, but are the predominant traditional sea craft along the Andhra Pradesh. Some keeled planked
boats locally called padavas are also common vessels along the Andhra coastline. In Andhra these traditional boats are constructed
at Nellare, Prakaram, Godavari and Guntur districts.

Boats in Karnataka region are called by different names depending on their use. The smallest craft of this region is known as canoe
(hudi), which is scooped out of a singletree trunk. The middle-sized craft is known as boat (doni) and the biggest craft is known as
ship (machchwa). Most ships use wind power. The art of shipbuilding is a monopoly of a class of people known as mestas or
acharis (carpenter). The type of wood used for shipbuilding is known as kshatriya, which is mentioned in Yuktikalpataru. The
common wood used for shipbuilding is matthi, sagouy, teak, honne, undi and hebbals. Teakwood is used rarely because of its high
coast.

Raft, dugout and plank built boats are the main traditional types in the Kerala coast. Raft is made of a number of roughly shaped
logs fastened together in order to float down a river or to serve as a boat. Dugout is single log craft, which is scooped out in the
middle. It is employed all over Kerala for catching fish. Planked built boats are further classified into 2 categories: one is stitched
and the second is built with nailed planks. Stitched-planked built craft is manufactured by using coir and synthetic ropes. Generally,
the types of wood used for shipbuilding in Kerala are alpassi, mullumurukku or panniclavu (Ceiba pentandra), perumaram/alanta
(Alianthus excelsa), pilivaka (Albizzia falcatria), malamurukku (Samanea saman), pilavu (Artocarpus integrifolias), mavu
(Magnifera indica), ayini/annili (Artocarpus hirsuta), punna (Callophyllum inophyllum) and cadacci (Grewia tiliaefolia). The
bending process is purely based on traditional method by applying a kind of fish oil or cow dung on the planks.

The traditional boat builders of Chilika region in Orisa are called Bindhani, Barhais and Biswakaramas (carpenters). They build
small flat-bottomed boats known as nauka or danga. Sal is used for construction of nauka. The knowledge of boat building has
come down as a family tradition. Bamboos are used as mast, locally called gudda.

The boat builders and ships have been depicted in the brick temple in the district of Midnapore, Birbhum and Bankura in Bengal.
The vessels are classified as raft, dugouts and cargo carriers and are used for commercial purpose. Dinghy is a one-man passenger
boat in Bengal. It is unique for its features and movement in the river. The boatman squats at paddling on the low sharp stem to
maneuver in the zigzag path of the river. A neat cabin with semicircular roof occupies the space available in the middle of the boats.
A tall bamboo mast is generally used for long distance travel. In Bengal, small boat is never used except as cargo carriers. The
steering paddle is the most remarkable feature of the cargo carriers (Malbahi nauka).

Now a days, in Bombay there are no boat building yards to be found in or around, except may be at Varai and Versova. Available
wild woods are commonly used for construction of boats and ships. They are not very expensive. The main types of wood that are
utilized today are sal, babul, ain, bibla, jambul and punnai, but the teak wood is always the best for ship and boat building and is
preferred in Bombay too. Ain wood is some times used for building a major portion of the boat. It is a hard wood and very similar
to teak in its properties.

In Lakeshadweep, coconut tree is locally available in abundance, thus coconut wood is still used in local boats, but it is difficult to
say with authority, what made early boat builders to use coconut wood. Coconut wood is now used for bulwarks, masts, cross stays,
sides ribs, etc. and for cabin removable thatched roofs etc. Mango or breadfruit tree wood is also used. Boats of Lakeshdweep can
broadly be divided into two categories based on their use: trading vessels and fishing vessels. Bareues, odies, bandodies, dweep
odam or valiya odam are some trading vessels and tharappan, odam, mas odi, odi jahadhoni, mahadha dhoni, kelukkam dhoni,
allam dhoni or dhoni, ara dhoni are some fishing crafts and jhaha dhoni is a race boat in Lakeshdweep. Stand odam is the most
widely used typical boat of Lakeshdweep. Boats in Lakeshdweep are not built for sale, but only for the use of islanders.

Conclusion

Indian boat technology and navigational knowledge goes back to the III Millennium BC. Traditional boat builders could make
ships, which were fully sea-worthy and could sale to West Asia. But now all over India the traditional boat building technology is
in a declining condition due to changes of technology and advancement in mechanized systems. This is best exemplified in Andhra
Pradesh by the use of catamarans, which are being manufactured from synthetic materials in small-scale industries. These synthetic
catamarans are now a day preferred by traditional fisher folk because of their longevity, payload, cost, range and easy
manoeurability. Several manufacturing industries have come up in the Srikalulam and Ganjam districts of Orissa. There are hardly
a few places in India such as Kakinada, Cuddalore, Beypore and Veraval engaged in construction of sea going vessels at present.

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Now a days traditional boats are only used for crossng rivers, coastal transport and fishing. It is however satisfying to note that
traditional boat building technology is being harmoniously combined with modern technology to produce more efficient vessels.

Further Reading

Bawan, R.L. 1960. Egypt's earliest sailing ships. Antiquity 34(134): 117.

Behera, K.S. (Ed.). 1999. Maritime Heritage of India. Delhi: Aryan Books International.

Gaur, Aniruddh Singh. 1993. Belekeri as traditional boat building center in North Kanara Dist. Karnataka, India. Journal of Marine
Archaeology 4: 69.

Gill, J. S. 1993. Our heritage of traditional boat building. Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 74.

Gill, J. S. 1993. Material for modern boat building industry. Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 76.

Greeshmalatha, A. P. and G. Victor Rajamanickam. 1993. An analysis of different types of traditional coastal vessels along the
Kerala Coast. Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 36.

Hornell, J. 1920. The origin and ethnological significance of Indian boat designs. Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 7(3):
139-287.

Jain, Kirti. 1993. Boat building and the Son Kolis of the Raigad Dist. Maharashtra. Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 89.

Kunhali, V. 1993. Ship building in Beypore- a study in materials, workers and technology. Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 56.

Leshnik, S.Lawrence. 1979. The Harappan "Ports" at Lothal : another view. In Ancient Cities of the Indus (Ed.) Gregory L Possehl.
New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Rama Sankar and Sila Tripathi. 1993. Boat building technology of Bengal: an overview of literary evidence. Journal of Marine
Archaeology 4: 84.

Raman, K.V. 1997. Roads and river transportation. In History of Technology in India (Ed.) A.K.Bag. New Delhi: Indian National
Science Academy. Pp.592-93.

Rao, S.R. 1979, 1985. Lothal – A Harappan Port Town. 2 vols. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. Pp.225- 26, 505.

Rao, S.R. 1987. Progress and Prospects of Marine Archaeology. Goa: NIO.

Rao, S.R. (Ed.). 1991. Recent Advances in Marine Archaeology. Goa: NIO.

Rao, S. R. 1993. Missing links in the history of boat-building technology of India. In Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 60.

Raut, L. N. and Sila Tripathi. 1993. Traditional boat-building centers around Chilika Lake of Orissa. Journal of Marine
Archaeology 4: 51.

Sundaresh. 1993. Traditional boat-building centers of Karnataka coast- a special reference of Honavar, Bhatkal, and Gangolly.
Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 29.

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Thivakaran, G. A. and G. Victor Rajamanickam. 1993. Traditional boat-building in Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Marine
Archaeology 4: 12.

Tripathi, Alok. 1993. Traditional boats of Lakshadweep. Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 92.

http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/t_es/t_es_agraw_ships.htm

1
K.L. Mehra, 2002, Agricultural foundation of Indus-Saraswati civilization

Mesolithic background

Out of more than 200 Mesolithic sites studied in the Ganges valley, Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama are the largest.
These sites seem to be relatively permanent settlements, having spatial organization of mortuary and butchering areas, suggesting a
cultural attitude about territoriality and prescribed hunting – gathering ranges (Chattopadhyaya and Chattopadhyaya, 1990).

Absolute dates of 8640 ± 65 BP and 8865 ± 65 BP, using AMS procedures, suggest an early Holocene date for Damdama (Lukacs
et. al., 1997), but thermoluminescence dates from fired clay balls and bone samples indicated an antiquity between seventh to sixth
millennia BC (Lukacs and Pal, 1993).

The findings of querns, mullets, and anvils, at Damdama suggested processing of vegetable foods. Several wild grasses (species yet
to be identified), Chenopodium album (presently used as a leafy vegetable), Portulaca oleracea (presently used as a leafy
vegetable), and few species belonging to families Solanaceae, Polygonaceae and Labiatae were identified (Kajale, 1990, 1997).
There is no convincing evidence for full -fledged plant domestication, although the economy represented broad-spectrum
exploitation of wild vegetation and familiarization with some of the potential plant domesticates during Mesolithic times (Kajale,
1990, 1997).

Archaeological sites, which have provided evidences of incipient farming, animal husbandry and pastoralism are scattered across
the Indian subcontinent. Skeletal and dental remains of domesticated animals were reported from the Mesolithic levels at
Adamgarh, for which one radiocarbon date from uncharred animal bones is 5505 BC and one from shells is mid- eighth millennium
BC (Joshi and Khare, 1996).

The earliest evidences of full-time plant and animal domestication in the Indian subcontinent are found at Sambhar, Lunkaransar,
and Didwana in the vicinity of the saline lakes of northern Rajasthan (Singh et. al., 1974). The presence of Cerealia pollen, mixed
with datable (7000 BC) charcoal, was considered as evidence of forest clearing and planting of grain seeds (Singh et. al., 1974).
Microliths occur on the banks of these lakes, but other lithic and ceramic artifacts are absent (Kennedy, 2000).

Vishnu-Mittre (1978) suggested that the evidence for periodic fires in Rajasthan’s savannahs could be due to the practice, of the
Mesolithic people, for inducing the fresh growth of grasses for their domesticated animals as early as 8000 BC. If this is the correct
thermo- luminescent date for the occupation of Mesolithic Sarai Nahar Rai, then the wild sheep and goat bones found at this site
may be considered as further evidence of incipient animal domestication (Sharma, 1975; Kennedy, 2000).
The Mesolithic people of Kalibangan, Rajasthan, began to add pastoralism to their hunting-foraging strategies by capturing certain
wild animal species (ca. 5000 BC) trapped in the marshy tracts along the course of Ghagar river, but by 3000 BC they began to
cultivate wild plant species (plant species not identified) as fodder crops (Mamatamayfee, 1992, 1993).

At Bagor, domesticated species of sheep, goat, buffalo, humped cattle and pig were present, along with wild species of chital,
sambhar, hare, and fox in phase I (ca. 5000 BC) and onwards into later phases up to 2000 BC (Agrawal and Kusumgar, 1974;
Thomas, 1975). No domesticated plant species has been reported so far at Bagor from these phases, but Mesolithic hunter foragers
did combine some elements of pastoralism into their economic strategies (Misra, 1973). The earliest occupants of the site did have
elements of sidentism, as witnessed by extensive stone floors in the shelters and circular arrangements of stones that perhaps had
secured plastered reed (reed impressions have not yet been identified to plant species level) walls and partitions. The presence of
grinding stones and querns may indicate plant cultivation, but probably their use was restricted to nuts and seeds of wild edible
plant species (Thomas, 1975; Kennedy, 2000). Evidences of incipient pastoralism within a basically Mesolithic life way provide
support to the hypothesis of gradual adaptation to food production within these communities.

Biodiversity prospecting

The process of recognition of plant species, which were useful to people, commenced in the Indian sub-continent in the pre-historic
times (Mehra and Arora, 1985). In the absence of precise archaeo-botanical records of plant species used for food and other
purposes during the Mesolithic period by hunting- foraging communities, inferences about possible means of subsistence in pre-
Neolithic times can be drawn from the present-day uses of biodiversity, especially by peoples, living in tribal belts of India where
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agricultural practices are only a part of people’s subsistence paradigms, and people continue to depend on forest products and wild
vegetation. India possesses rich floristic wealth of over 15,000 species (one-third endemic), of which about 1000 species possess
edible plant parts (Singh and Arora, 1978; Vishnu-Mittre, 1981; Arora and Pandey, 1996). Plant species and percent
domesticated/semi-domesticated species are, according to edible plant parts: (i) roots/tubers/ underground parts used-145 species
23% domesticated; (ii) leafy vegetables /greens/pot herbs – 521 species - 14% domesticated; (iii) buds and flowers –101 species -
15% domesticated; (iv) fruits 647 species -16.5% domesticated; and (v) seeds and nuts –118 species -21% domesticated (Mehra and
Arora, 1985; Arora and Pandey, 1996).

The early food gatherers, through a gradual process of experimentation, improved the culinary uses of various plant parts, for
example the use of leaves and seeds as flavoring condiments/spices. Inquisitiveness to screen different edible plant parts led to the
utilization of several species in more than one way (see list by Mehra and Arora, 1985; Arora and Pandey, 1996). Mehra and Arora
(1985) presented a detailed account on the sequence in which different plant species and their plant parts were utilized, in different
regions of the Indian subcontinent.

In a paper presented at an International Symposium held at Poona under the auspices of Indo-Pacific pre-History Association in
1978, Mehra and Arora (1985) presented a detailed account of the processes involved in the sequence from food gathering to crop
cultivation and domestication, and in the diffusion of economic plants to other ethic groups. By and large, physiographic and
climatic variations and ethnic diversity created pockets of concentration of plant species of economic value. The tribal people
contributed substantially to the pattern by identifying, screening and utilizing the flora. Several economic plants of great antiquity
were put to different uses in five (Mehra and Arora, 1985) or seven (Arora and Pandey, 1996) phyto-geographical regions, and
eventually some of those were cultivated in different seasons. The Indus-Saraswati- Ganga valleys (Regions: Indus -5 and Ganga-
4, Saraswati valley region overlaps both), western Himalayas (region 1) and Western Ghats (including Gujarat, region 7) are of
direct relevance to the present discussion on agricultural foundation of Indus-Saraswati civilization. Arora and Pandey (1996) 1isted
the number of species whose various plant parts are edible in these regions. Most of these edible plant species have Sanskrit names
and some of them are listed in the Vedic and Post-Vedic literature (Prakash, 1961). Detailed accounts on the history of individual
cultivated plant species, from the Vedic period up to the post Gupta period, are available for Mung, Urad, Masur, Sesame and
jujube (Mehra, 1967a, 1967b, 1967c, 1970, 1972, 1975). These papers discuss the role of these indigenous domesticates in the
socio-economic and cultural (rituals, religious ceremonies, sacred plants, culinary preparations, etc.) history of India.

Indus-Saraswati civilization - renaming

Out of 2600 sites of Harappa civilization known in India and Pakistan (Possehl, 1999; Kalyanaraman,2001) nearly 80 % of those
are located on the vast plain between Indus and the Ganges, comprising the Cholistan region in the Bahawalpur District of Punjab
(Pakistan), the Ganganagar district of Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh (Misra, 1994). They range in time
from the Hakra Ware Culture of the fourth-third millennia BC to late Harappan Culture. There are also major settlements on the
river Saraswarti basin some of which are larger than the settlements of Harappa and Mohenjodaro (around 100 ha. each),
Lakhmirwala (Bhatinda, 225 ha.), Rakhigari (Hissar, 224 ha.), Gurnikalan I (Bhatinda,144 ha.), Hasanpur (Bhatinda, 100 ha.),
Ganweriwala (Bahawalpur,81.5 ha.), Kotada (Jamnagar,72 ha.), Nagoor (Sukkur,50 ha.), Nindowari (Jhawalan, 50 ha.), Tharo
Waro Daro (Sukkur, 50 ha.), and Mangli Nichi (Ludhiana,40 ha.) (Kalyanaraman, 2001). Thus, the Harappan civilization has been
renamed as Indus-Saraswati civilization (Misra, 1994; Gupta, 1993, 1996, 2001) or Saraswati river civilization (Kalyanaraman,
2001). Three phases of Indus-Saraswati civilization are recognized as follows, early phase (3100-2800 BC), mature phase (2800-
1900 BC) and late phase (1900-1400 BC, Misra, 1994). The course of Vedic Saraswati River has been traced by multi-disciplinary
approach (Glaciology, geology, geomorphology, environment sciences, archaeology, etc., see map by Misra, 1994; Kalyanaraman,
2001 and over 40,000 files at http://sarasvati.simplenet.com, for more details). Satluj and Yamuna rivers, which were earlier, the
tributaries of Saraswati, drifted their courses: Satluj joining the Indus system and Yamuna joining the Ganga system. Due to the
shifting of the courses of these rivers, Saraswati River dried up. The variation in the number and location of sites of different
protohistoric cultures suggested that different segments of the river Saraswati were receiving different volumes of water during
different periods (Misra, 1994).

Limitations in Archaeobotanical investigations

In view of past limitations in archaeobotanical investigations, most existing constructions of Indus- Saraswati civilization and its
subsistence patterns draw data from several sites, which can be overlapped to produce an agricultural sequence (Vishnu-Mittre,
1977; Vishnu-Mittre and Savithri, 1982; Kajale, 1991; Meadow, 1989, 1996; Saraswat, 1992; Mehra, 1997, 1999, 2000; Weber,
1999). This would mean incorporation of data from different types of sites excavated at different times using different methods, or
where varied collection and analysis strategies were employed (Weber, 1999). In several cases, the identification of plant species is
based on a very few samples, while in other cases hundreds of samples were analyzed (66 samples at Harappa and 284 samples at
Rojdi, Weber, 1999).

Although the archaeological work in the Indus -Saraswati- Ganga valleys started with the discovery of the site at Harappa in 1920,
and archaeological investigations have continued both in Pakistan and India, we do not have even at present posts of
archaeobotanists and archaeozoologists in the Archaeological surveys of both countries. Mostly the archaeologists in the past had

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remained less interested in the biological source material. As a result, samples of plant and animal remains, which were collected in
the fieldwork, were sent to archaeobiologists attached with other research institutions. This picture began to change when
American, French and Italian research organizations took up work in Pakistan (in Baluchistan and Harappa) and in India (mostly in
Gujarat). Thus, both Drs. K.S. Saraswat (Palaeobotany Institute in Lucknow) and Dr. M. Kajale (Deccan College, Pune) and their
coworkers now visit archaeological sites to collect plant remains.

Neolithic plant domestication

The plant domestication, diffusion and development in ancient India and its borderlands was a gradual transition from full-time
hunting foraging practices which took place in several geographical regions and chronological settings, viz., the northwestern
sector, Baluchistan, Pakistan and its borderlands with Iran and Afghanistan between 8000 and 5500 BC, and between 3500 and
1500 BC (Indus-Saraswati valleys); Kashmir Swat and the North-west Frontier between 2870 and 1500 BC; eastern India and
Southeast Asia borderlands between 2400 and 2000 BC; the Gangetic plain and Vindhya hills of North India between at least 5400
(perhaps 8080 BC) and 1200 BC; Rajasthan between 5000 and 1200 BC (for pastoralism if not for plant domestication at Bagor);
central India , ca. 5500 BC; western India (Gujarat) 2500 to 1000 BC; peninsular India between 2500 to 1000 BC; and South India
between 2450 and 1800 BC (Mehra, 1997,1999,2000; Kennedy, 2000; Kajale, 1991; Saraswat, 1992, Vishnu-Mittre, 1977). These
time frames are approximate dates (and accounts of these authors also differ) and are subject to change as and when new data are
forthcoming.

Available evidences from multidisciplinary fields, viz., archaeology, anthropology (including demic relationships, cultural
relationships, palaeo-anthropology), bio-diversity analyses, and genetic distance analyses (including molecular biology), do not
suggest the occurrence of any abrupt transitions or “ invasions” of food producing populations into the hunting/ hunting -foraging
territories of earlier settled people, in several geographical and chronological setting in ancient India. Multi-disciplinary evidences
neither support a notion of “ a Neolithic revolution” (as in the so –called ‘‘Fertile Crescent” area of Southwest Asia) nor does those
provide a picture of a homogeneous “ Neolithic cultural period”, especially given the great biodiversity prospecting strategies and
varying early adaptations to plant and animal husbandry paradigms in different geographical regions of ancient India (Kennedy,
2000)…

Agriculture in Saraswati - Yamuna-Ganga Valleys

In an earlier paragraph the limitations in archaeobotanical investigations were pointed out, and it was suggested that patterns of
agricultural development of this region could be reconstructed by overlapping the archaeobotanical data from several sites. The
following picture emerges based on several reviews (for details, see Kajale,1991; Saraswat.1992; Mehra 1997,1999 ) and additional
information presented in this paper;

(i) Arora and Nayar (1984) conducted extensive geographic survey of wild relativeS of economic plant species. The regionwise
distribution (Arora and Nayar, 1984) of such plant groups is as follows: in the Gangetic plains 66 species and in the Indus plains 45
species (cereals and millets-Gangetic / Indus 9/5, legumes- 4/2, fruits- 13/10, vegetables- 22/11, oilseeds- 4/4, fibre plants - 5/6,
spices and condiments- 1/0, and miscellaneous – 8/7); (ii) People domesticated wild species for manifold economic uses.
Domesticated species also hybridized with their wild relatives to produce rich biodiversity. Under human and natural selection
pressures variants of different economic plant species were further selected, resulting in the development of different cultivated
plants adapted to different agro-climatic zones of the north Indian plains; (iii) Besides rice, indigenous people of India had
domesticated several species of minor millets, grain legumes, oil seed crops, fibre crops, fruits, vegetables and other economic plant
species in the Indus—Saraswati—Yamuna-Ganga valleys (Mehra, 1997, 1999, 2000); and (iv) Of these early domesticates, about
80 plant species (33 species before the Iron Age) have been identified from the archaeological sites (Kajale, 1991, Saraswat, 1992,
Mehra 1997, 1999). All indigenous plant species are sown in summer/rainy season and harvested before the onset of winter. Thus,
the agriculture paradigm is different from that of Baluchistan, where crops were sown in winter and harvested in the late spring
season.

Misra (1994) presented radiocarbon/ calibrated dates of 23 (early phase, 3100-2800 BC), 11 (mature phase, 2800-1900 BC) and 11
(late phase, 1900-1400 BC) sites of Indus-Saraswati civilization . Of these early sites Hulas (3028,2985 BC), Jodhpura (Ganeshwar
culture, 3018-2926 BC), Kalibangan (TF-241, TF-155,2853-2615 BC), Surkotda (Pol-1A,2865-2668 BC) fall in India. Mature
Kalibangan (2586 BC), Lothal (mature-2461 BC), Rojdi (mature, 2867-2699 BC), Daimabad (post-urban, 1961, 1424 BC),
Kalibangan (TF- 138,1391 BC) and Rojdi ( mature,1947 BC) also fall in India. Plant remains were identified from seven Neolithic
and 33 Neolithic-Chalcolithic sites ( Kajale 1991; Saraswat, 1992; Mehra, 1997, 1999).

Early and mature Indus-Saraswati phase

No archeological records of identified plant and animal remains are known from Lakhmirwala , Rakhigari , Gurnikalan I , Hasanpur
,Ganweriwala,Kotada, Nagoor , Nindowari , Tharo Waro Daro and Mangli Nichi . Thus, we do not know anything about the crops
grown, when the agriculture began to be practiced, at these sites. Funds need to be provided to excavate these sites, using modern
techniques to collect plant and animal remains.

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Although no plant remains of cultivated crops were recovered from Kalibangan, Rajasthan (Phase I of Indus –Saraswati
civilization), there was an evidence of ploughed field surface showing several closely spaced furrows, alternating with few widely
spaced furrows at right angle (Lal, 1970-71). Strip cultivation, as compared to mixed sowings, indicates better land use. It facilities
easy harvesting and slows down the spread of some plant pests. No plant remains were recovered from this field due to which we
get no idea about what crops were sown. Nevertheless, the ploughed field does suggest high level of agricultural technology and a
long history of agricultural tradition to think of strip cultivation paradigm. Hulled and naked barley and chickpea were recovered
from mature Indus – Saraswati phase from Kalibangan.

In the early Indus-Saraswati phase at Rohira, Sangrur district of Punjab, hulled barley, dwarf wheat, emmer wheat, jowar-millet
(Sorghum sp.), lentil, grapes, horse gram and Mehandi were cultivated (Saraswat, 1988), while in addition to these crops farmers
cultivated naked barley and fenugreek during the mature Indus-Saraswati phase.

Wood charcoals of plant remains of barley, dwarf wheat, club, wheat, lentil, grapes and Lablab purpureus (a vegetable) were
identified from early Indus-Saraswati phase at Mahorana, Sangrur district, Punjab (Bara culture – Saraswat 1990-91).

At Sanghol, mature Indus-Saraswati phase, food grains of dwarf wheat, club wheat, hulled and naked barley, jowar millet, Italian
millet, lentil, field-pea, chickpea and horse-gram, poppy, grapes and embalic myrobolan (Emblica officinalis) were identified
(Saraswat, 1992).

In Haryana, blackgram was reported (dates not known) from Daulatpur in Kurukshetra district, and wheat grains were identified
from Hissar, (Vishnu-Mittre and Savithri, 1982). From Hulas in Saharanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, dated from 3028 to 1200 BC,
several plant species were identified. The layer/phase wise details of plant species have not been reported (Vishnu Mittre et al.
1985, Saraswat, 1992). The assemblage of seeds and fruits included crops of

Indian origin, viz., rice, horsegram, green gram, black gram, Kundru;
Southwest Asian origin, viz., wheat (bread, club, and dwarf), barley (six-round hulled), oat, field pea, lentil, chickpea, grass pea,
almond, and walnut;
African origin, viz., jowar, finger millet, and cowpea; and
African or Indian origin, viz. castor and cotton. (Saraswat, 1992, Mehra, 1997, 1999).

The identification of seventeen crops cultivated at seven early Indus-Saraswati / contemporary, and mature Indus-Saraswati sites
has revealed that farmers cultivated only Southwest Asian crops at Kalibangan, but at other sites exotic crops were sown after
harvesting the indigenous crops sown during the rainy season. All crops were not sown at each site. People preferred certain crops
but not others. All exotic crops did not diffuse together, but followed one another; i.e., naked barely after hulled barley; bread wheat
after dwarf and club wheats; several legume species, one after another; and finger millet after sorghum. Also, all indigenous crops
(rice and grain legumes) were not cultivated at each site. This synthesis of information is based on the plant remains identified so
far. Furthermore, phase- wise plant remains and from several sites have not been collected especially from the lower levels…

Conclusions

Three phases (early, mature and late) of Indus- Saraswati civilization are recognized (Misra, 1994). A few crops were cultivated in
the early phase, but during the mature phase, crop rotation and diversification, using several crops, were practiced in diverse agro-
climatic regions of Indus and Saraswati river valleys. Agricultural production was, thus, very high, and the produce was even
exported abroad under a centrally administered marketing regime, which included standardized weights and measures.

Analysis of human biological affinity, using data from Harappan skeleton remains, revealed that (i) human populations of Neolithic
Mehrgarh were different from those of Chalcolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh; (ii) there was no evidence of marked biological
discontinuity between the early, mature and late or post Harappan occupants of Harappa, indicating that there was no invasion of
Aryan or other ethnic populations into Harappa.; and (iii) a good separation was also evident between south Asian samples with
those from West Asia and Egypt ( Hemphill et al.1991).

During the late phase of Indus-Saraswati civilization, crops of African origins suited to sowing in the summer/rainy seasons began
to supplement or even replace indigenous millet crops Mehra, 1997, 2000). This, paradigm shift opened up opportunities for rain-
fed agriculture and mixed farming system (crop cultivation for use by humans and animals). This led to a change in the settlement
pattern. Instead of urban centers with neighboring food producing villages, several small villages began to emerge over large
stretches of land. The new system progressed rapidly. Similarly, the incorporation of pearl millet from Africa in the dry land
agriculture in Gujarat seems responsible for sudden increase in the number of settlements during Rangpur phase B and C. It seems
that the drying of the Saraswati river, which occurred due to geological changes and the shifting of courses of Satluj joining the
Indus system and Yamuna joining the Ganges system, coincided with the breakdown of the inter-regional trade and emergence of
more self sufficient local economies.

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Archaeobotanical evidences suggest that the nuclear area of Indus-Saraswati civilization was located around the Saraswati river.
There was a westward movement of crops domesticated in India to Harappa and to sites in Kashmir and Baluchistan during the
early and mature phases of Indus-Saraswati civilization. High agricultural prosperity was witnessed during the mature phase when
crop rotation (cultivation of indigenous crops in summer/rainy season and southwest Asian crops in winter season) was practiced.
However, during the late phase, with the drying of the Saraswati river, agricultural communities moved eastwards to Ganga valley
and southwards to Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

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