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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

Pathology Liver cirrhosis is the end of a wide range of liver diseases. The term cirrhosis was first introduced by Laennec in 1826. Taken in the Greek language meaning Kirrhos Scirrhus or orange or brownish yellow surface of the liver that looked at the autopsy. Many forms of liver damage characterized fibrosis.1 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis can be caused about 35,000 deaths annually in the United States. Sirosi is the ninth leading cause of death in America and was responsible for 1.2% of all deaths in America. Many patients who died on the fourth or fifth decade of their lives from the disease each year there is an additional 2000 deaths due to fulminant liver failure caused by hepatitis virus FHF (viral hepatitis A and B), drugs (acetaminophen), toxin (mushroom Amanita phalloides, or death-cap mushroom yellow), autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and various other disease rare. FHF patients have a mortality rate of 50-80%, unless rescued by liver transplantation.2, 3,4,5,6 The incidence of liver cirrhosis who were admitted to internal medicine wards of public hospitals in Indonesia the government generally range between 3.6-8.4% in Java and Sumatra, Sulawesi and Kalimantan is at below 1%. Overall average prevalence of cirrhosis was 3.5% of all patients hospitalized in internal medicine ward, or an average of 47.4% of all liver disease patients who were treated. The ratio of men: women was 2.1:1 on average and median age 44 years, and the 40-50 age group is most.6 The main manifestation of advanced cirrhosis and is caused by two physiological disorders, namely liver cell failure and portal hypertension. Failure is a manifestation of hepatocellular jaundice, peripheral edema, hemorrhage, palmar erythema, spider naevi, hepatic fetor, and hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical picture is mainly associated with portal hypertension is splenomegaly, esophageal varices and gastric, as well as other manifestations of collateral. Ascites (fluid in the peritoneal
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cavity) can be regarded as a manifestation of hepatocellular failure and hypertension of portal. 10 Therapy and prognosis depend on the degree of liver cirrhosis complications of liver failure and portal hypertension. With control patients who were regularly in the early phase of the phase compensation will be maintained in the long run and may extend the time of onset of complication.10 From the data above, liver cirrhosis is a chronic progressive disease that may increase morbidity and mortality if not acted upon in a professional manner. It required a good knowledge about risk factors, etiology, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, treatment, complications, and prognosis of liver cirrhosis. Therefore, the authors raised liver cirrhosis as the theme of the presentation of cases to be able to know more about this disease so as to implement integrated and rational therapies for patients.