BUSBAR

An aluminum or copper conductor supported by insulators that interconnects the loads and the sources of electric power in an electric power system. A typical application is the interconnection of the incoming and outgoing transmission lines and transformers at an electrical substation. Bus-bars also interconnect the generator and the main transformers in a power plant. In an industrial plant such as an aluminum smelter, large bus-bars supply several tens of thousands of amperes to the electrolytic process. A busbar is essentially an electrical conductor arranged to receive current from one or more incoming circuit and deliver the same to one or more outgoing circuit. TYPES OF BUSBARS Major Type of Busbar The major types are . (1) Rigid bus-bars, used at low, medium, and high voltage The rigid bus-bar is an aluminum or copper bar, which is supported by porcelain insulators. (2) Strain bus-bars, used mainly for high voltage The strain bus-bar is a flexible, stranded conductor which is strung between substation metal structures and held by suspension-type insulators. (3) Insulated-phase bus-bars, used at medium voltage The insulated-phase bus-bar is a rigid bar supported by insulators and covered by a grounded metal shield. The main advantage of this system is the elimination of short circuits between adjacent phases. (4) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)-insulated bus-bars, used in medium- and high-voltage systems The sulfur hexafluoride-insulated bus-bar is a rigid aluminum tube, supported by insulators and installed in a larger metal tube, which is filled with high-pressure sulfur hexafluoride gas. According to size 3 types * tubular bus bar * solid bus bar * flat bus bar According to capacity 4 type * Extra high voltage bus * high voltage bus

Merits: 1. Bus cant be extended without completely de-energizing substation 4. fault of any bus results in shutdown of entire substation 2. Can be used only where loads can be interrupted or have other supply arrangements. Low cost 2.Single bus bar arrangement: This simple Arrangement consists of a single bus bar to which various feeders are connected . Difficult to do any maintenance 3.* medium voltage bus * low voltage bus BUSBAR ARRANGEMENTS 1. Simple protection Demerits: 1. Simple to operate 3. .

Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance. 3.MAIN AND TRANSFER BUS ARRANGEMWENT Merits: 1. Requires one extra breaker coupler 2. potential devices may be used on the main bus Demerits: 1. Switching is somewhat complex when maintaining a breaker 3. Fault of bus or ay circuit breaker results in shutdown of entire substatioon’ .low initial and ultimate cost 2.

2. High flexibility 2. Half of the feeders connected to each bus Demerits: 1. extra bus coupler circuit breaker necessary Bus protection scheme may cause loss of substation when it operates high exposure to bus fault Line breajker failure takes all circuit connected to the bus out of service Bus coupler failure takes entire substation out of service . 3.Double busbar arrangement \ Merits: 1. 5. 4.

Each has two associated breakers Has flexibility in permitting feeder circuits to be connected to any bus Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance High reliability Demerits: 1.Double busbar with double breaker Merits: 1. Most expensive 2. 4. . Would lose half of the circuits for breaker fault if circuits are not connected to both buses. 3. 2.

DOUBLE MAIN AND TRANSFER ARRANGEMENT Merits: 1.. Bus fault does not remove any feeder from the service. . Either main bus can be taken out of service at any time for maintenance. All switching done by breakers Simple operartion. 5. Demerits: : 1. High cost due to three bus 2. More space is required. 2. Most flexible in operation Highly reliable Breaker failure on bus side breaker removes oly one circuit from service. 4.no isolator switching required. 3.

One and half breakers per circuit. 2. 3.ONE AND HALF BREAKER SCHEME Merits: 1. 5. 6. hence higher cost 2. 4. Protection and aoto-reclosure more complex since middle breaker must be responsive to both associated circuits.. .5 breaker per feeder Each circuit fed by two breakers All switching by breaker Selective tripping Demerits: 1. Flexible operation for breaker maintenance Any breaker can be removed from maintenance without interruption of load Requires 1.

These VT’s may be required in all cases for synchronising live line or voltage indication. Breaker failure during fault on one circuit causes loss of additional circuit because of breaker failure. Busbar gave some operational flexibility. Auto-reclosinfg and protection complex 4. 5. ring gets separated into two sections. 3. If fault occurs during bus maintenance. . Demerits: 2.Mesh (ring) busbar arrangements Merits: 1.

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