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# (I AM Risk)

SYAM
Safety Manager
Faculty of Science
Objective
¾Introduce Risk Assessment Methodology
– Definitions
– Concept of Risk
– Risk Management

## ¾Share the Risk Assessment Procedure

– Introduce Risk Assessment tool
– Steps in Risk Assessment
– When to revise Risk Assessment
– Summary
– Expectations
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What is Risk Assessment
¾Systematic examination of a job intended to
Identify potential hazards, Assess the level of
risks, and evaluate practical measures to
Manage (control) risks – I AM Risk
¾Procedure to make job safe by
 Identifying the HAZARDS associated with each step
and
 Developing SOLUTIONS to each hazard that either
ELIMINATE it or CONTROL it.

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Risk Assessments:

## ¾ Make jobs safer and less likely to result in injury

¾ Eliminate unsafe acts and unsafe conditions
¾ Will make the laboratory (work place) safer
¾ Can be performed on any experimental task
¾ Are proactive approach to ensuring health and
safety of students and others
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Risk Assessment
Definitions – HAZARD
“Source or situation with a potential for harm in terms
of injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to
the workplace environment, or a combination of these”
e.g. - Toxic or Flammable substances, electric energy, working at heights etc.

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Risk Assessment
Definition - Risk
Likelihood that a hazard will cause a specific
harm or injury to person or damage property
(MOM)

## Risk means the chance that someone will be

harmed by the hazard.
Risk = Hazard effect x Probability (likelihood
of Occurrence)

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Risk Concepts
How Big?? How Often??

Consequences Frequencies
RISK

Acceptability Criteria
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ANALYZE RISK
ASSESSMENT
“Overall process of estimating the
magnitude of risk and deciding
whether or not the risk is
tolerable” (OHSAS18001 Definition 3.15)
Using sound concepts to Detect
HAZARDS and Estimate the Risk they
Pose.

## • Prioritize Identified Hazards

- Severity of Possible Loss
- Probability of Possible Loss
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ANALYZE RISK
ASSESSMENT

## HAZARD POTENTIAL HARM

(with the) (to Cause)

activity)

Damage

## Sulfuric Acid Corrosiveness Chemical Burn

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RISK Management
Acceptable Risk
INTOLERABLE REGION
• Risk cannot be justified on any grounds
TOLERABLE REGION
• ALARP, Compare Risk with Benefit
• Tolerable region if risk function is not reasonably or economically
practicable and achievable

ACCEPTABLE REGION
• Negligible Risk

## Risk Assessors – Knowledge, Consult, Share, Review, Team Work

Team = Knowledge + Experience + Discussions + Review
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Risk Management Process
What can go Wrong

## How likely is it? What are the Impacts

Understand Risk

MANAGE RISK
Risk management also includes control and monitoring of
risks, as well as communicating these risks
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How to do a Risk Assessment?
List the activities involved in your research project
experiments
Procurement, use, handling, storage and
disposal of the chemicals or agent
IDENTIFY (Study) the hazards of each activity / procedure
ASSESS (Evaluate) the severity and probability of
accidents/incidents arising from these hazards
– Consider current control measures
MANAGE the identified Risk
– Implement appropriate control measures
– Elimination, Substitution, Controls
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Risk
Assessments
are not safety
inspections
Î looking
beyond the
surface

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Risk Assessment
Methods

Procedure Based

## Agent Based Equipment Based

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Risk Analysis
Methods
Observation Method

## Discussion Method Recall & Check

Proactive Team Effort Method
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Risk Assessment Template

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Risk Assessment Template

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Risk Assessment
Flowchart
EXPERIMENT TO BE ANALYZED 1

## BREAK DOWN INTO SUCCESSIVE STEPS 2

I
IDENTIFY POTENTIAL HAZARDS 3

ANALYSE RISKS 4
Likelihood and Severity
A
EVALUATE RISKS 5
Consider existing safeguards

## M DEVELOP WAYS TO ELIMINATE POTENTIAL HAZARDS 6

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1. Selecting Experiments
¾ Ultimately all tasks in laboratory
¾ Experiments does not have a written
procedure
¾ Highest rates of accidents or greatest
potential for injuries
¾ New Experiments
¾ New Equipment
¾ Changes in procedures, chemicals,
equipments
Involve all students and researchers
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Selecting Experiments
• Practical constraints on time and resources
• Some experiments are more hazardous than
others and some have worse incident history
than others
• Factors that can be considered to prioritize
• Frequency of past incidents
• Severity of potential activities
• Infrequently performed jobs: students may be
greater risk when undertaking non-routine tasks
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Examples
1. Transporting chemicals from store to lab
2. Storage of chemicals
3. Distillation of solvents
4. Reactions
• Grignard reactions
• Hydrolysis
• Oxidation
5. Waste storage & disposal
6. Use of specific equipments
7. All research experiments

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Risk Assessments for all activities?
Example

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2. Break Experiment into Tasks
A task is a single, separate, specific
component of the employee’s overall duties.

## A TASK is a single activity that clearly

advances an experiment and is
a logical portion of that assignment.
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Break down into Successive Tasks
• Task is a segment of an overall job
• Completion of each tasks in proper sequence leads
to the completion of the experiment
• Break down into basic steps or task
- Important to keep the tasks in their correct sequence
• Dividing a experiment into small tasks requires a
thorough knowledge of that particular job
If the tasks are made too general, specific operations and related
hazards may be missed
Too many tasks may make the Risk Assessment impractical
Rule of Thumb:- Most experiments can be described in less than ten
tasks – normally 6 – 8 tasks

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Example – Distillation of dichloromethane
Identify sequential steps in drying CH2Cl2
No Description/Details of Steps in Activity
1 Prepare glassware, add dichloromethane into a round bottom flask, fill up to 2/3
2 of
gm of Calcium Hydride into the flask
3 Setup Distillation apparatus, Clamp the round bottom flask, put magnetic stirrer,
connect solvent collector, condenser, drying tube, cooling water tube
4 Turn on Cooling water, Stirrer and Heater
5 Reflux Di-chloromethane for 3-5 hours
6 Collect desired amount of dried Di-chloromethane
7 Turn off the main valve and heater
8 Cooling the setup
9 Re-fill the round bottom flask with Di-chloromethane
10 Disposal of waste chemicals/ containers
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3. IDENTIFY POTENTIAL HAZARDS
It is important when conducting a Risk
Assessment, that you evaluate equipment,
procedures, agents (Chemicals) and personnel.

## Equipment Procedures Agents

People
¾Each step is analyzed for potential inherent hazards
¾Decision on the relevance of any particular hazard
come later in the risk assessment processes
MSDS :- http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9926060
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SOURCE 1. Hazardous material (eg
materials)
2. Equipment
3. Sample
Collection/Transportation
4. Chemical Storage

1. Extraction/isolation
2. Purification
LABORATORY
ACTIVITIES/OPERATIONS 3. Manipulation/Reaction/Analysis
4. Pilot plants

1. Waste storage
DISPOSAL/TRANSFER 2. Handling
3. Waste Treatment/Disposal
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Hazards in Laboratories
• Chemical
• Physical
• Biological
• Mechanical
• Ergonomic Hazards
• Human Factor
• Combinations

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Hazard Classifications
Thermal Stability • Self-reactivity, especially when reactive
Hazards monomers are involved
• In appropriate storage conditions
• Runaway reactions and thermal explosions
• Loss of utilities leading to loss of cooling or
loss of agitation
Reactivity Hazards • Water and/or air reactivity
• Inappropriate material of construction
• Wrong chemical added
• Wrong addition rates or order of reaction
• Hypergolic and pyrophoric properties of
reactants or products
Operational Hazards • Flammability of dusts, vapors and gases
• Mechanically induced hazards, such as
impact and friction
• Static electricity induced hazards
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Chemical Hazards
• Flammability, Vapor pressure, Flash
Point etc.

## • Protective procedures and equipment

• Analytical tools

## • Planning for avoidance

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Physical Hazards
• Explosions, fires, cuts, wounds, noise,
heat

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Chemical Burns

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• Medical laboratories, research
laboratories

## • Passive surveillance devices available

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Biological Hazards

molds)

## • Health care facilities, waste treatment

operations, normal field activities
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Combined Hazards

• Infection, Wound

• Fire, Explosion

• Dust, Chemicals

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Example – Distillation of dichloromethane
Identify Hazards in each steps in drying CH2Cl2
No Description/Details of Steps in Activity Hazards
1 Prepare glassware, add dichloromethane into a round bottom 1) Glass breakage, sharp objects 2) Irritant, hazardous chemical 3)
flask, fill up to 2/3 of the flask Carcinogenic chemical 4) Low Boiling Point, chemical vapor 5) Combustible
liquid
2 Add 10 gm of Calcium Hydride into the flask 1) Skin and Eye irritant chemical 2) Flammable 3) Extremely reactive or
incompatible with moisture - product reacts violently with water to emit
flammable gases
3 Setup Distillation apparatus, Clamp the round bottom flask, put 1) Glass breakage, sharp objects
magnetic stirrer, connect solvent collector, condenser, drying
tube, cooling water tube
4 Turn on Cooling water, Stirrer and Heater 1) Water leakage 2) Electricity 3) Hot surface
5 Reflux Di-chloromethane for 3-5 hours 1) No or less water 2) High temperature, Heater malfunction 3) Electricity 4)
Water leakage
5) Over pressure
6 Collect desired amount of dried Di-chloromethane 1) Hot surface 2) Chemical vapor 3) Glass breakage, sharp objects 4)
Malfunction of valves - no flow
5) Electricity
7 Turn off the main valve and heater 1) Electricity 2) Hot surface
8 Colling the setup 1) Hot Surface
9 Re-fill the round bottom flask with Di-chloromethane 1) Glass breakage, sharp objects 2) Irritant, hazardous chemical 3)
Carcinogenic chemical
4) Low Boiling Point, chemical vapor 5) Combustible liquid
10 Disposal of waste chemicals/ containers 1) Glass breakage 2) Skin, Eye irritant chemicals 3) Flammable vapors
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4. ANALYZE RISKS
By Considering
1.Severity and
2.Probability
Severity
Classified into Low, Medium and High
Low (Minor injuries – First Aid)
Medium (Medical Treatment > 3 days MC, Hospitalization)
High (Serious Injuries, Fatality)

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Example – Distillation of dichloromethane
Identify Harm and current controls in each steps in distilling CH2Cl2
No Desription/Details of Steps in Activity Hazards Possible Accident / Ill Health & Persons-at-Risk
1 Prepare glassware, add dichloromethane 1) Glass breakage, sharp objects 2) Irritant, hazardous Injury from broken glass, Hazardous in case of Eye or skin
into a round bottom flask, fill up to 2/3 of chemical 3) Carcinogenic chemical 4) Low Boiling Point, contact
the flask chemical vapour5) Combustible liquid Classified Carcinogen, Chemical Inhalation, Fire - Flammable
vapors
2 Add 10 gm of Calcium Hydride into the 1) Skin and Eye irritant chemical 2) Flammable Chemical spill, contamination, Fire, Explosion, Skin tissue
flask 3) Extremely reactive or incompatible with moisture - product damage, Corneal damage or blindness, Explosive mixture while
reacts violently with water to emit flammable gases reacting with water - Fire explosion
3 Setup Distillation apparatus, Clamp the 1) Glass breakage, sharp objects Injury from broken glass, Chemical spill - irritant and flammable
round bottom flask, put magnetic stirrer, chemicals
connect solvent collector, condenser,
drying tube, cooling water tube
4 Turn on Cooling water, Stirrer and Heater 1) Water leakage 2) Electricity 3) Hot surface Electrocution, violent chemical reaction, Electrocution
Burn
5 Reflux Di-chloromethane for 3-5 hours 1) No or less water 2) High temperature, Heater malfunction Over heat, potential explosion fir, Electrocution
3) Electricity 4) Water leakage 5) Over pressure , violent chemical reaction
6 Collect desired amount of dried Di- 1) Hot surface 2) Chemical vapor 3) Glass breakage, sharp Burn, Inhalation of chemicals , Injury from broken glass
chloromethane objects 4) Malfunction of valves - no flow 5) Electricity -, Electrocution

7 Turn off the main valve and heater 1) Electricity 2) Hot surface Electrocution, Burn
8 Colling the setup 1) Hot Surface Burn

9 Re-fill the round bottom flask with Di- 1) Glass breakage, sharp objects 2) Irritant, hazardous Injury from broken glass, Hazardous in case of Eye or skin
chloromethane chemical contact
3) Carcinogenic chemical 4) Low Boiling Point, chemical Classified Carcinogen, Chemical Inhalation, Fire - Flammable
vapor vapors
5) Combustible liquid
10 Disposal of waste chemicals/ containers 1) Glass breakage 2) Skin, Eye irritant chemicals Injury from broken glass, Hazardous in case of Eye or skin
3) Flammable vapors contact
Classified Carcinogen, Chemical Inhalation, Fire - Flammable
vapors
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4. ANALYZE RISKS
Probability
How often it can happen
Generally can be classified into
• Very Likely - Very often, happen at all times
• Likely – Not certain, an additional factor may trigger
• Possible – could happen
• Rare – combination of more than 1 activities required
• Unlikely – Remotely Possible
Very likely can be often incidents/accidents
Possible – chance in accidents/incidents (every 3 years)
Unlikely – never hear before ( > 10 years)
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5. EVALUATE RISKS
Combination of Severity and Probability
1. Severity
Low - 1
Medium - 2
High - 3
2. Probability
Unlikely - 1
Possible - 2
Very Likely - 3
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5. EVALUATE RISKS

## Quantitative Risk Assessment

• Risk = Severity x Probability
Vary from 1 to 9
<3 - Acceptable Residual Risk - Low
3,4 - Consider Additional Risk Control - Med
>4 - Additional Risk control Required - High

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5. EVALUATE RISKS

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Example – Distillation of dichloromethane
Assess Risk for each steps in distilling CH2Cl2

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6. HAZARD CONTROL
• Eliminate the hazard
• Substitute the hazard with less hazardous
or non-hazardous options
• Minimize risk due to the hazard
• Reduce the exposure
• Isolate the hazard
• Provide personal protective equipment and clothing
• Implement administrative controls
• Have an emergency plan in place
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HAZARD CONTROL
Eliminate Hazard
Most effective measure because the risk is eliminated

## – Choose different process

– Modify an existing process by changing the energy
type
– Modify or change equipment or tool
– Lock out energy source
– Remove a radiation source from common lab area
to a proper store
– Moving flammable solvents from common lab area
into a Flammable cabinet in a solvent store
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HAZARD CONTROL
Substitute
Very effective, especially for hazardous
substance
– Replace solvent by water solution
– Substitute vapor heating by electric heating
– Use electronic control instead of pneumatic one
– Use a non-sparking hammer in a flammable
atmosphere instead of a steel hammer
– Replace Benzene with Toluene
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IMPLEMENT CONTROLS

1. Engineering Controls
3. Personal Protective Equipment

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Control Measures
Elimination/Substitution
• Use a chemical of higher LD50, PEL,
• Use a biological agent of lower risk grouping
• Micro-scale experiments / Computer simulation
Engineering
• Biological Safety Cabinet, Local Exhaust ventilation, Fume
cupboard, etc
• Centrifuges – safety cups
• Interlocks
• Safety Guards
• Primary barrier to prevent exposure by containment
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Control Measures
• Standard Operating Procedures, signage, etc
• Survey/Wipe tests – verification tests, hygiene monitoring
• Occupational Health – vaccinations/immunizations
• Training and Education
• Labeling
• Inspections and Audits
• Maintenance of Equipment

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Personal Protective Equipment
PPE may be required to reduce the risk of
exposure of an employee by contact,
inhalation or ingestion of an infectious agent,
toxic substance, or radioactive material.

## Provide a barrier against hazards to

protect laboratory workers from injury
risk
PPE is the last line of defense

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Personal Protective Equipment
Examples of common PPEs
1. Lab coat
2. Gloves
3. Covered shoes
4. Safety Glasses
5. Safety Goggles
6. Face Shields
7. Respirators

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Example – Distillation of dichloromethane
List additional control measures and responsible person

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When to revise a Risk Assessment
• If the equipment sustains any damage
• After a close call – Near Miss
• Complaints – smell, hot surface etc.
• When there is a significant changes in the
experiment that could affect the S &H of
researchers (chemicals, equipments)
• When an injury or accident occurs – incidents
elsewhere or in NUS
• Once in every three years
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SUMMARY
• Risk Assessment is a structured methodology for the
identification of hazards and assessment of risks
associated with all experimental activities

• It Requires
9 Experimental Description / Research plan
9 Breakdown of experiment into tasks
9 Quality Hazard Analysis – knowledge, experience
9 Hazard Elimination or Control
9 Communication of hazards and safeguards to those doing
the tasks – training, group meeting
9 Keeping Documents – Record Keeping
9 Audits (Ensure Effectiveness)

## I AM - Identify, Assess, Manage 55

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References:
1. Chemical Reaction Hazard Identification and Evaluation : Taking
the First Steps
David Leggett, Baker Engineering and Risk Consultants, Inc., Process Safety Progress (Vol
23, No. 1)

## 2. A Guide to the Workplace Safety and Health (Risk Management)

Regulations
3. Job Safety Analysis Training slides by SLP and ICES
Expectations
1. Conduct Risk Assessment
a. All Experiments in the laboratory
¾ Get all necessary details of chemicals and experimental
protocols
¾ Conduct Risk Assessment using the Excel template
¾ Identify all hazards, control measures and PPE
requirements
b. Review by the Principle Investigators
c. Record Keeping
2. Communicate Risk Assessment with others
a. Paste the Hazard warning label in your laboratories - align
with Risk Assessment
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