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Date __________ Mr. Yates

1) The Fibonacci Sequence starts with the numbers 1 & 1. Then to get each new number, add the two directly before it. Thus 1+1 = 2, 1+2 = 3, and 2+3 = 5. Continue the Fibonacci Sequence: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, … 2) Spirals: Watch Video1, but pause it around the 1:40 mark. On graph paper, draw the same Fibonacci-based rectangles and spiral that Vi Hart draws. * 3) Pineapple: Continue Video1 to 3:20, then pause it. Like Vi Hart does with a pinecone, let’s count the spirals on a pineapple! Use a marker to trace your spirals so you don’t accidentally count one twice. Record the number of spirals here in one direction: And in the other direction: Finish Video1. Extra credit if you can bring in some other plant with spirals that we can count! 4) Phi (φ ): Use the quadratic formula to solve this equation: x2 – x – 1 = 0. Show * your work on a sheet of looseleaf lined paper. While finding the solution, keep all steps accurate to seven places after the decimal point (e.g. do not round the square root of 5 as 2.24). Write the positive solution here:

This number is known as the golden ratio, and abbreviated with the Greek letter φ (phi, pronounced ‘fee’ or ‘fie’ depending on whom you ask). 5) Notice that if we add one and x to both sides in the above quadratic 2 equation, we get x2 = x + 1. Check this out by squaring phi: φ . What do you get?

Do you get the same by adding φ

+ 1?

6) Watch Video2. Pause around 1:28. Think back to your biology class. Why does a plant need to maximize the sunlight its leaves get?

**7) Calculate the ratios of successive Fibonacci numbers here. Go out to at least five decimal places:
**

1 = 1 2 = 1 3 = 2 5 = 3 5 = =

= = = = = =

What do you notice?

8) Continue Video2. Pause at 4:00. Make a phi Angle-O-Tron and (on a separate sheet of paper) draw a plant’s leaves (or pinecone, or similar) like Vi does in the video. Mark the spirals. Finish Video2. *

9) Begin Video3. Pause around 1:05. If the Fibonacci number ratios and the Lucas number ratios both converge to φ , do other sequences work too? Pick two non-Fibonacci whole numbers to start your sequence & write them here:

Continue your sequence by adding the two previous numbers to get the next one, in the same way as Fibonacci and Lucas. Write ten terms of your sequence here: Hooray – name this sequence after yourself. You are now a mathematician, having invented a sequence (maybe) no-one ever thought about before! Calculate the ratios of each consecutive pair of numbers in your sequence:

10) In three-five sentences, summarize the argument for why phi and Fibonacci numbers show up in plants.

11) Notice that if we divide through the quadratic equation in #5 by x, we get x = 1 + 1/x (verify this!)

Thus phi can be expressed as an infinite continued fraction:

φ =1 +

1+ 1+ 1+

1 1 1 1 1+ 1+ 1 1 1+ 1 ...

If we truncate at successive stops (as follows), what fractions result?

φ =1 +

1+ 1+ 1+

1 1 1 1 1+ 1+ 1 1 1+ 1 ...

[Recall 1 over a number is taking the reciprocal, which is like flipping a fraction, so 1/(5/2) is 2/5.] 12) Research one more interesting fact about the number φ (a.k.a the golden ratio) and write it here!

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