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2008

Seminar on Brittle and
Ductile Fracture

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Manipal Institute of Technology

Chetan Purushottam Bhat
Mtech (CAMDA)

Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture

Contents

Introduction

Mechanism of Ductile Fracture

Mechanism of Brittle Transgranular Fracture (Cleavage)

Intergranular Fracture

Ductile to Brittle transition

Notched-bar Impact Tests

Ductile to Brittle Transition-Temperature Curve (DBTT)

Criterion for Transition Temperature

Metallurgical Factors affecting Transition Temperature

Conclusion

References

Manipal Institute of Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

For energy related reasons. transgranular and intergranular cleavage are important. Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . together with other material properties. Metallic materials. The only exceptions are single crystal turbine blades for high performance jet engines. Schematic of microstructural features in metallic materials. it is still not possible to use this knowledge. • The path the crack follows depends on the material's structure. a crack will tend to take the path of least resistance. transgranular and intergranular. Nevertheless. for predicting fracture behaviour in engineering terms with a high degree of confidence. Of fundamental importance is the fact that almost all the structural materials are polycrystalline. each of which has a particular crystal orientation. In metals. they consist of aggregate of grains. An indication of this complexity is given by the figure below. which shows various microstructural features (not all of which need to be present in a material) and also the two main types of fracture path. • Characteristic crack advance markings frequently point to where the fracture originated. • The surface of the brittle fracture tends to be perpendicular to the principal tensile stress although other components of stress can be factors. Ref [1] Metals fail by two broad classes of mechanisms: Brittle and Ductile failure The Brittle fracture has following characteristics: • There is no gross plastic deformation of the material and failure occurs with low energy absorption. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Introduction Since the World War II there has been great progress in understanding the ways in which the materials fracture. i.e. . especially alloys are highly complex.

Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture The Ductile fracture has the following characteristics • There is considerable deformation before failure and lot of energy is required compared to ductile failure. The appearance of a ductile fracture at a high magnification is a surface with indentation as if marked by an ice-cream scooper. However high purity metals such as copper nickel gold and other very ductile material fail with very high reduction in areas. • The fracture surface is dull and fibrous. • Most structural material exhibit considerable strain before reaching the tensile or ultimate strength. This surface morphology is appropriately called dimpled • Rupture by total necking is very rare because most metals contain second phase particles that act as initiation sites for void. Schematic classification of fracture processes. Ref [2] Comparison of stress strain curve of pure ductile moderately ductile brittle brittle and ductile material fracture fracture fracture Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering .

the deformation is concentrated in the region of plastic instability until the crystal separates along a line or a point. which tends to be dull for a ductile fracture and shiny and faceted for a brittle fracture. called necking. Uniaxial tensile deformation of ductile material. Figure below shows an example of such a fracture in a single crystal of copper. and the crystal deforms plastically until the start of plastic instability. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Mechanism of Ductile Fracture Ductile fracture is caused by overload and depending on constraint can often be recognised immediately from macroscopic examination of failed specimen or component . the role of plastic deformation is very important. In very high purity materials. When there is high constraint (e. There is no nucleation of cracks. In such cases the only macroscopic difference is the reflectivity of the fracture surface. a ductile metal. The single crystal undergoes slip throughout its section. Consider the deformation of a single crystal of copper. The important feature is the flexibility of slip. a soft single crystal of a metal such as copper will reduce to a point fracture. the voids grow together to form a macroscopic flaw. Dislocations can move on a large number of slip systems and even cross from one plane to another (in cross-slip). The figure below schematically illustrates the uniaxial tensile behaviour in a ductile metal. fail at much lower strains. which leads to fracture.If there is very little constraint there will be a significant amount of contraction before failure occurs. where strain hardening cannot keep pace with loss in cross sectional area. however. Materials that contain impurities. Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . From this point onward. The material eventually reaches an instability point.g. Ref [3] In ductile materials. under uniaxial tension. Microvoids nucleate at inclusions and second phase particles. and a necked region forms beyond the maximum load. the tensile specimen may neck down to a sharp point. In the case of a cylindrical sample. resulting in extremely large local plastic strains and nearly 100% reduction in area. thick sections) a ductile fracture may occur without noticeable contraction.

However. particles of intermediate size (50 to 500 nm) such as alloy element compounds (carbides. Precipitate particles obtained by appropriate heat treatment also form part -of this class (eg. Ref [2] The most familiar example of ductile fracture is that in uniaxial tension. High stresses at the head of a pileup are relaxed by crack nucleation. But this would occur only in the case where there is no relaxation of stresses by the movement of dislocations on the other side of the barrier. This phenomenon is called necking . an Al-cu-Mg Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . Grouping of dislocations piled up at a barrier and leading to the formation of microcracks. such cracks are called Zener-Stroh cracks. In practice. Necking or localized deformation begins at maximum load.The final fracture occurs in this necked region and has the characteristic appearance of a conical region on the periphery resulting from shear and a central flat region resulting from the voids created there. a real metal undergoes strain hardening. nitrides. carbonitrides) in steels. An ideal plastic material in which no strain hardening occurs would become unstable in tension and begin to neck just as soon as yielding took place. materials generally contain a large quantity of dispersed phases. which tends to increase the load carrying capacity of the specimen as deformation increases. in nickel. in aluminium and ThO2. These can be very small particles (1 to 20 nm) such as carbides of alloy elements. Ref [2] In crystalline solids. giving the classic "cup and cone" fracture. where there is increase in stress due to decrease in the cross sectional area of the specimen and becomes greater than the load carrying ability of the metal due strain hardening. or dispersions such as AI2O3.. This effect is opposed by the gradual decrease in cross sectional area of the specimen as it elongates. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture A point fracture in soft single crystal sample of copper. When the maximum load is reached. the plastic deformation in a cylindrical tensile test piece becomes macroscopically heterogeneous and is concentrated in a small region. cracks can be nucleated by the grouping of dislocations piled up against a barrier. as shown in Figure.

and consequently. However. Dimple shape is strongly influenced by the type of loading. In many of these dimples. Fracture under local uniaxial tensile loading usually results in formation of equiaxed dimples. one can see the inclusions that were responsible for the void nucleation. This mechanism of initiation. while the final separation may occur at around 25%. oxides and sulphides. This is illustrated in figure. The material between the voids undergoes necking on a microscopic scale. and the voids join together. the voids nucleate after a few percent of plastic deformation. Failures caused by shear will produce elongated or parabolic shaped dimples that point in opposite directions on matching fracture surfaces. When viewed in the scanning electron microscope. the former will not be able to accommodate the large plastic strains of the matrix. If the second-phase particles are brittle and the matrix is ductile.The microcavities grow with slip. as do inclusions of large size (on the order of millimetres)-for example. shear and tensile tearing. In both cases microcavities are nucleated at these sites. Dimple formation owing to uniaxial tensile loading. these brittle particles will break in the very beginning of plastic deformation. these microscopic necks do not contribute significantly to the total elongation of the material. and the material between the cavities can be visualized as a small tensile test piece. And tensile tearing produces elongated dimples that point in the same direction on matching fracture surfaces. growth. In case the particle & matrix interface is very weak. which represent the microcavities after coalescence. interfacial separation will occur. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture system). such a fracture appears to consist of small dimples. Generally. Ref [1] Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . and coalescence of microcavities gives the fracture surface a characteristic appearance.

a precipitation-hardened aluminium alloy may contain relatively large intermetallic particles. a result that is consistent with experimental observations. the nucleation strain decreases as the hydrostatic stress increases. void nucleation occurs more readily in a triaxial tensile stress field. fracture occur soon after the voids form. The orientation of the fracture path depends on the stress state Many materials contain a bimodal or trimodal distribution of particles. resulting in failure. void nucleation is often the critical step. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Fracture by Void Nucleation. These alloys also Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . Void Growth and Coalescence Once voids form. and local necking instabilities develop. We describe the process of fracture by void nucleation. Plastic strain is concentrated along a sheet of voids. et al model.each void can be assumed to grow independently. and coalescence in some detail because of its great importance in metals. For example. Void Nucleation A void forms around a second phase particle or inclusion when sufficient stress is applied to break the interfacial bonds between the particle and the matrix. The de-cohesion stress is defined as a critical combination of these two stresses: And . together with a fine dispersion of submicron second phase precipitates. and are the principal normal stresses. the fracture properties are controlled by the growth and coalescence of voids. That is. while others incorporate dislocation-particle interactions. Growth. relative to their spacing and a local plastic instability develops between voids. According to the Argon. the growing voids reaches critical size. When void nucleation occurs with little difficulty. They argued that the interfacial stress at a cylindrical particle is approximately equal to the sum of the mean (hydrostatic) stress and the effective (von Mises) stress. growth. and Coalescence. et al. The most widely used continuum model for void nucleation is due to Argon. further plastic strain and hydrostatic stress cause the voids to grow and eventually coalesce. A number of models for estimating void nucleation stress have been published. If the initial volume fraction of voids is low (< l0%). some of which are based on continuum theory. In materials where the second phase particles and inclusions are well bonded to the matrix. The latter models are required for particles < I µm in diameter. neighbouring voids interact. upon further growth.

resulting in a penny-shaped flaw. The outer ring of the specimen contains relatively few voids. The neck produces a triaxial stress state in the centre of the specimen. but the smaller particles can contribute in certain cases. Because the latter surface is oriented 45o from the tensile axis and there is little evidence (at low magnifications) of microvoid coalescence. The central region of the fracture surface has a fibrous appearance at low magnifications. because the hydrostatic stress is lower than in the centre. as described below. resulting in total fracture of the specimen and the cup and cone appearance of the matching surfaces. Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . instability occurs soon after these smaller voids form. Figure illustrates the formation of the "cup and cone" fracture surface that is commonly observed in uniaxial tensile tests. This concentration of strain provides sufficient plasticity to nucleate voids in the smaller more numerous particles. but the outer region is relatively smooth. The 45o angle between the fracture plane and the applied stress results in a combined Mode I/Mode II loading. Since the small particles are closely spaced. Bimodal particle distributions can lead to so-called "shear" fracture surfaces. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture contain micron-size dispersoid particles for grain refinement. the voids coalesce. which promotes void nucleation and growth in the larger particles. many refer to this type of surface as shear fracture. The penny-shaped flaw produces deformation bands at 45o from the tensile axis. Voids form much more readily in the inclusions. Upon further strain.

Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering .

results in the faceted fracture surface. polycrystalline with the grains more or less randomly oriented with respect to each other. Since essentially ductile fracture (microvoid coalescence) under high constraint may show the same lack of contraction expected for cleavage. However. In addition most structural material contain particles. If the grains or subgrains are connected by a tilt boundary. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Mechanism of Brittle Transgranular Fracture (Cleavage) Figure shows an interesting example of cleavage fracture in chromium hard plating on a steel shaft. Rivers patterns always converge in the direction of local crack propagation. even within a single grain or subgrain. Cleavage generally takes place by the separation of atomic bonds along well-defined crystal planes. But if adjacent grains or subgrain’s are axially misoriented i. the river patterns don’t cross the Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . A truly brittle fracture is caused by cleavage. structural materials are characteristically. Thus cleavage propagating through one grain will probably have to change direction as it crosses a grain or sub-grain boundary (sub-grains are regions within a grain that differ slightly in crystal orientation). The changes of orientation between grains and subgrain’s and the various imperfections produce markings on the fracture surface that are characteristically associated with cleavage.e. Ideally. so that truly featureless cleavage is rare. a cleavage fracture would have perfectly matching faces and be completely flat and featureless. which are steps between cleavages on parallel planes. the river patterns are continuous about the boundary. precipitates or other imperfections that further complicate the fracture path. they are connected by a twist boundary. A principal feature is river pattern. which means that they are misoriented about a common axis. Such changes in direction. Figure illustrates some typical feature associated with cleavage. The term brittle fracture can be misleading.

Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . within a grain. We know that cleavage crack tends to propagate along a specific crystallographic plane. Besides river patterns distinct feature of cleavage is feather markings. the cleavage crack changes direction at the grain boundary in order to continue along the given crystallographic planes The cleavage facets seen through the grains have a high reflectivity. steps of opposite signs can join and disappearing. As this configuration. River markings can appear by the passage of a grain boundary as shown in. On the other hand. by secondary cleavage or by shear. the adjacent grains have different orientations. the cleavage step will be parallel to the crack's direction of propagation and perpendicular to the plane containing the crack. the river markings. to form a step. which gives the fracture surface a shiny appearance. Sometimes the cleavage fracture surface shows some small irregularities-for example. In general. The apex of these fan-like markings point back to the fracture origin. A large number of cleavage steps can join and form a multiple step. and therefore this feature can also be used to determine the local direction of crack propagation. would minimize the energy for the step formation by creating a minimum of additional surface. As in a polycrystalline material. The junction of cleavage steps results in a figure of a river and its tributaries. Cleavage steps can be initiated by the passage of a screw dislocation. This being so. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture boundary but originate at it. What happens is that. Typical features associated with cleavage We mentioned that cleavage occurs along specific crystallographic planes. cracks may grow simultaneously on two parallel crystallographic planes the two parallel cracks can then join together.

where the grains are merely tilted with respect to each other. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Many small regions of river patterns are apparent in Figure Figure shows nice river patterns (twist misorientation) at a higher magnification and also shows tilt boundaries. Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering .

Cleavage is common in body- centred cubic (BCC) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structures. Quasi cleavage is a type of fracture that is formed when cleavage occurs on a very fine scale and on cleavage planes that are not very well defined. Such a process gives rise to the formation of a number of steps that can group together. Tungsten. Under normal circumstances. it has to propagate in a grain with a different orientation. Such small facets can give the appearance of a much more ductile fracture than that of normal cleavage. Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . Thus. molybdenum. generating a river marking. particularly in iron and low-carbon steels (BCC).. In these metals. Typically. and chromium (all BCC) and zinc beryllium. and generally. river markings are not observed. After they meet. and magnesium (all HCP) are other examples of metals that commonly show cleavage. The convergence of tributaries is always in the direction of flow of the river (i. Figure shows the encounter of a cleavage crack with a grain boundary. the real cleavage planes are exchanged for small and ill-defined cleavage facets that initiate at the carbide particles. a large amount of plastic deformation will occur before the stress necessary for cleavage is reached.e. one sees this type of fracture in quenched and tempered steels. "downstream"). These steels contain tempered martensitic and a network of carbide particles whose size and distribution can lead to a poor definition of cleavage planes in the austenite grain. Fine grain sizes and higher temperatures can lead to the occurrence of quasi-cleavage. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture when a crack passes through a grain boundary. such that the cleavage steps become tear ridges. face-centred cubic (FCC) metals do not show cleavage. This fact furnishes the possibility of determining the local direction of propagation of crack in a micrograph. The crack can do this at various points and spread into the new grain. the crack should propagate on a cleavage plane that is oriented in a different manner. which blends cleavage facets with areas of dimple (MVC) rupture.

This type of intergranular fracture exhibits few grain boundary junctions and is relatively featureless Brittle intergranular fracture without MVC Brittle intergranular fracture with MVC Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . The dimples on the grain boundary facets are the main distinguishing feature of intergranular fracture with microvoid coalescence. For instance in temper embrittled steels and overaged Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aluminium alloys. embrittlement by hydrogen and liquid metals). and also during sustained load fracture (creep. However. It is not possible to distinguish macroscopically between intergranular fracture and brittle transgranular fracture: both appear faceted. Figure shows schematically an intergranular fracture along flat elongated grains. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Intergranular Fracture Intergranular fractures are typically the result of sustained load fractured. This type of intergranular fracture occurs during overload failure of some steels and aluminium alloys. 2) Grain boundary separation without microvoid coalescence. metallographic cross-sections through fracture surfaces and cracks will show whether the fracture path is intergranular. which often occur in rolled sheet and plate materials as a consequence of mechanical working. and also other materials. stress corrosion cracking. There are two main types of intergranular fracture appearance: 1) Grain boundary separation with microvoid coalescence. This type of intergranular fracture occurs during overload failure of temper-embrittled steels and refractory metals like tungsten. or a lack of ductility in the material owing to segregation of embrittling elements and particles and precipitates to the grain boundaries. Intergranular fractures are not always readily identifiable.

both mechanisms of fracture can happen in the same specimen. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Ductile to Brittle transition Under conditions of low temperatures. The ductile crack growth occurs by void growth and coalescence process which is driven by the increasing strain and cleavage fracture occurs by a stress controlled process. material is ductile and fails by microvoid convalescence. At low temperatures. 2. a triaxial state of stress. a high strain rate or rapid rate of loading. In transition region between ductile and brittle behaviour. a low temperature. and 3. Steels which have identical properties when tested in tension or torsion at slow strain rates can show pronounced differences in their tendency for brittle fracture when tested in a notched-impact test. At high temperatures. They are 1. such as exists at a notch. since these effects are accentuated at a high rate of loading. Three basic factors contribute to a brittle-cleavage type of fracture. and low temperature are responsible for most service failures of the brittle type. when the principal stresses are essentially equal). Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . In ductile to brittle transition region fracture is controlled by the competition between ductile tearing and cleavage fracture. but the toughness increases rapidly with temperature as cleavage becomes more difficult. either type of fracture can occur depending on chosen geometry of size of the specimen. Ductile fracture initiates at a particular toughness value. even ductile material may not exhibit any deformation before failure. However. All three of these factors do not have to be present at the same time to produce brittle fracture. Since a high crack tip can promote cleavage fracture conditions and low constraint can promote ductile void growth mechanism at temperatures in the mid ductile to brittle transition regime. the crack grows as load is increased and the specimen fails by plastic collapse or tearing instability. many types of impact tests have been used to determine the susceptibility of materials to brittle behaviour. rapid loading and/or high constraint (e. In lower transition region the fracture is by cleavage. steel is brittle and fails by cleavage.g. A triaxial state of stress.

Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Notched-bar Impact Tests Various types of notched-bar impact tests are used to determine the tendency of a material to behave in a brittle manner. Two classes of specimens have been standardized for notched-impact testing. The energy absorbed in fracture. Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . Charpy bar specimens are used most commonly in the United States. The Izod specimen. The principal measurement from the impact test is the energy absorbed in fracturing the specimen.25 mm root radius. Tests can readily be carried out over a range of sub ambient temperatures. while the Izod specimen is favored in Great Britain. since it is not possible to measure the components of the triaxial stress condition at the notch. Moreover. there is no general agreement on the interpretation or significance of results obtained with this type of test. Furthermore. The test is used for comparing the influence of alloy studies and heat treatment on notch toughness. It frequently is used for quality control and material acceptance purposes. small test specimen. The Charpy specimen has a square cross section (10x10 mm) and contains a 45° V notch. This type of test will detect differences between materials which are not observable in a tension test. After breaking the test bar. The principal advantage of the Charpy V-notch impact test is that it is a relatively simple test that utilizes a relatively cheap. 2 mm deep with a 0. the pendulum rebounds to a height which decreases as the energy absorbed in fracture increases. The results obtained from notched-bar tests are not readily expressed in terms of design requirements. The specimen is forced to bend and fracture at a high strain rate of the order 103 s-1. The specimen is supported as a beam in a horizontal position and loaded behind the notch by the impact of a heavy swinging pendulum. is rending directly from a calibrated dial on the impact tester. usually expressed in joules. which is used rarely today. The notched-bar impact test is most meaningful when conducted over a range of temperatures so that the temperature at which the ductile-to-brittle transition takes place can be determined. has either a circular or square cross section and contains a V notch near the clamped end. the design of the test specimen is well suited for measuring differences in notch toughness in low-strength materials such as structural steels. A large number of notched-bar test specimens of different design have been used by investigators of the brittle fracture of metals.

Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering .

Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Ductile to Brittle Transition-Temperature Curve (DBTT) The chief engineering use of the Charpy test is in selecting materials which are resistant to brittle fracture by means of transition-temperature curves. The design philosophy is to select a material which has sufficient notch toughness when subjected to severe service conditions so that the load- carrying ability of the structural member can be calculated by standard strength of materials methods without considering the fracture properties of the material or stress concentration effects of cracks or flaws. Lower shelf transition mixed mode Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . The absorbed energy is plotted against the testing temperature curve to give the Ductile to Brittle Transition-Temperature Curve (DBTT). The curve represents change in behaviour from ductile at high temperature to brittle at lower temperature.

Obviously. lower this transition temperature. the greater the fracture toughness of the material Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Upper shelf The design philosophy using transition temperature curve centres about the determination if temperature above which brittle fracture will not occur at elastic stress levels.

T5. The NDT is the temperature at which fracture initiates with essentially no prior plastic deformation. The use of FTP is conservative and in many applications impractical. temperature curve are illustrated below. T2. This transition temperature criterion is called fracture transition plastic (FTP). T4 on the basis of an arbitrary low value of energy absorbed. The various definitions of transition temperature obtained from energy vs. temperature curve or fracture appearance vs. Below the NDT probability of ductile fracture is negligible. The most comprehensive criterion for transition temperature is to select T1. A common criterion is to define the transition temperature. Various criteria of transition temperature Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . The probability of brittle fracture is negligible above the FTP. Correlations between Charpy impact test and service failure indicate that less than 70% cleavage fracture in Charpy bar indicates a high probability that the failure will not occur at or above the temperature is the stress does not exceed about one half of the yield stress. Roughly similar results are obtained by defining the transition temperature as the average if the upper and lower shelf values. T3. This is often called ductility transition temperature. This point is known as nil ductility temperature (NDT). corresponding to the upper shelf in the fracture energy and the temperature above which the fracture is 100% fibrous. An arbitrary but less conservative criterion is to base the transition temperature on 50% cleavage -50% shear. A well defined criterion is to base the transition temperature on the temperature at which the fracture becomes 100% cleavage. The FTP is the temperature at which the fracture changes from totally ductile to substantially brittle. This is called fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT). Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Criterion for Transition Temperature The shape of a typical energy absorbed to temperature curve shows that there is no single criterion that defines the transition temperature. For low strength ships this value is taken 20J. But for other material this value is not known.

Effect of Crystalline Structure on Transition temperature Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . High-strength steel. Medium. At low temperature fracture occurs by brittle cleavage. There are several factors affecting DBTT curve. In metals this transition occurs at 0. At low temperature the fracture occurs by cleavage while at high temperature the fracture occurs by ductile rupture. while in ceramics the transition occurs at about 0.2 of the absolute melting temperature Tm. while at higher temperatures fracture occurs by low- energy rupture. High-strength materials (s0 > E/150) have such low notch toughness that brittle fracture can occur at nominal stresses in the elastic range at all temperatures and strain rates when flaws are present.1 to 0. The notch toughness of low.and medium-strength bcc metals. The shape and position of DBTT curve is important as it determines the transition temperature. aluminum and titanium alloys fall into this category. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Metallurgical Factors affecting Transition Temperature.and low-strength fcc metals and most hcp metals have such high notch toughness that brittle fracture is not a problem unless there is some special reactive chemical environment. • Crystal structure • Interstitial atom • Grain size • Heat treatment • Specimen orientation • Specimen thickness Effect of Crystalline Structure The transition-temperature behaviour of a wide spectrum of materials falls into the three categories. and ceramic materials is strongly dependent on temperature. Zn. It is under these conditions that fracture mechanics analysis is useful and appropriate.7 Tm. which indicates where it is safe to use for the given application.5 to 0. as well as Be. Thus. there is a transition from notch brittle to notch tough behaviour with increasing temperature.

A maximum decrease of about 55°C (100°F) in transition temperature appears possible by going to higher Mn/C ratios. The Mn/C ratio should be at least 3/1 for satisfactory notch toughness.5°C (10°F) for each increase of 0.25 percent. Notch toughness is particularly influenced by oxygen. Nickel is generally accepted to be beneficial to notch toughness in amounts up to 2 percent and seems to be particularly effective in lowering the ductility transition temperature. Molybdenum raises the transition almost as rapidly as carbon.001% to . Silicon. It is. generally considered to be detrimental to notch toughness. appears to raise the transition temperature. The temperature is increased by 7oC for every . The role of nitrogen is difficult to assess because of its interaction with other elements. The largest changes in transition temperature result from changes in the amount of carbon and manganese. Increasing the carbon content also has a pronounced effect on the maximum energy and the shape of the energy transition- temperature curves. When oxygen content was raised from . however. Phosphorus also has a strong effect in raising the transition temperature. This transition temperature is lowered about 5. while chromium has little effect.01% phosphorous.1 percent manganese and raised by about 14oC for each increase of 0.1% carbon. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Effect of Interstitial atom Changes in transition temperature of over 55°C (100°F) can be produced by changes in the chemical composition or microstructure of mild steel. in amounts over 0.053% the transition temperature was raised from -15oC to 340oC Effect of carbon content in the energy-transition-temperature curves for steel Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering .

An increase of one ASTM number in the ferrite grain size (actually a decrease in grain diameter) can result in decrease in transition temperature of 16oC for mild steel. Air cooling and aluminium oxidisation results in lower transition temperature. Using lowest possible finishing temperature for hot rolling is beneficial. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Effect of Grain Size Grain size has strong effect on transition temperature. Effect of grain size on DBTT Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . Many of the variables concerned with processing mild steel affect the ferrite grain size and therefore affect the transition temperature. Spray cooling from rolling temperature before coiling can lower the transition temperature by 500C. Decreasing grain diameter from ASTM grain size 5 to ASTM size 10 can change the transition temperature from about 20oC to -50oC. A similar effect of decreasing with transition temperature with decreasing austenitic grain size is observed with higher alloyed heat treated steels.

Temperature dependence of impact resistance for different alloy steel of same carbon content quenched and tempered to Rc35 Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering .4% Carbon and all tempered martensitic structure produced by quenching and tempering to a hardness of Rc35. Strain aging occurs in low carbon steel which has been cold worked. Impact resistance of heat treated steels. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Effect of Heat-Treatment Low carbon steel can exhibit two types of aging phenomenon which produce an increase in transition temperature. usually around 25oC to 30oC. Quench aging is caused by carbide precipitation in a low carbon steel which has been quenched from around 700oC. but strain aging results in greater increase. Tempered martensitic structure produces the best combination of strength and impact resistance of any microstructure that can be produced in steel. The tensile properties of tempered martensitic of the same hardness and carbon content are alike. Cold working by itself will increase the transition temperature. Figure shows the temperature dependence for impact resistance for a number of different alloy steels. This generalization holds approximately for room temperature. Note that the maximum variation of about 100oC in the transition temperature at 30 J level is possible. but it is not valid for the variation of impact resistance with temperature. all having about . Every greater spread in transition temperature would be obtained if the tempering temperature were adjusted to give a higher hardness. irrespective of the amount of other alloy additions.

Effect of orientation of specimen on transition temperature Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . it seems that specimen and notch orientation are not very important. Since the ductility transition temperatures are evaluated in this region of energy. however materials are compared on the basis of room temperature impact properties. but difference becomes much less at energy levels below 30J. The figure shows typical form of energy-temperature curves for specimen cit in longitudinal and transverse directions of the rolled plate. If. Specimen A and B are oriented in longitudinal directions. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Effect of Specimen Orientation The notched impact properties of rolled or forged products vary with the orientation in the plate or bar. The graphs shows that considerably large differences are expected for different specimen orientations at high energy levels. orientation can greatly affect the results.

but a specimen with a thickness of 10mm cannot provide the same constraint as would be found in a structure with a much greater thickness. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Effect of specimen thickness Probably the chief deficiency of Charpy impact test is that the small specimen is not always a realistic model of the actual situation. Not only does the small specimen lead to considerable scatter. at a particular service temperature the standard Charpy specimen shows a high shelf energy. while actually the same material in a thick section structure has low toughness at the same temperature. Effect of section thickness on transition-temperature curves Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering .

Therefore. both brittle and ductile. Next. because of their toughness you can make a mistake in the use. but in order to attain these goals there has to be a thorough understanding of fracture. as the ductile material is deformed more and more its strength and hardness increase because of the generation of more and more dislocations. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Conclusion In most design situations a material that demonstrates ductile fracture is usually preferred for several reasons. in engineering applications. ductile materials are the obvious choice. Safety and dependability are the main concerns in material design. the properties of a ductile material can be enhanced through the use of one of the strengthening mechanisms. Also. brittle fracture occurs very rapidly and catastrophically without any warning. thereby slowing the process of fracture and giving ample time for the problem to be corrected. First and foremost. because of the plastic deformation. design of a ductile material and still the material will probably not fail. Strain hardening is a perfect example. Second. Understanding fracture and failure of materials will lead the materials engineer to develop safer and more dependable materials and products. Ductile materials plastically deform. Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . more strain energy is needed to cause ductile fracture. ductile materials are considered to be "forgiving" materials. especially those that have safety concerns involved.

Russel Wanhill.E. Anderson 4. Krishnan Kumar Chawla. Non Linear Fracture Mechanics for Engineers by Ashok Saxena 5. Fracture Mechanic – Fundamental & Application by T. Jan Suidema.Dieter Manipal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering . Mechanical Behaviour of Material by Marc Andre Meyers. Mechanical Metallurgy by George. 3. Fracture mechanics by Michael Janssen. L. 2. Seminar on Brittle and Ductile Fracture References 1.