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Gordon Kappelhoff

1

**Typical Oil Well – Two Parts
**

PRODUCED FLOWRATE

SURFACE PRESSURE At Wellhead

Part 1 – The Well Part 2 – The Reservior

WELL OUTFLOW RELATIONSHIP

Required Po to produce desired rate

Pwf Po Pwf

WELL INFLOW (IPR) Reservoir Pressure- Pr

WELL FACE PRESSURE

2

Pwh Psep

Part 1 – The Well Part 2 – The Reservior

P

3500

3000

Tubing Curve

2500

2000

1500

Flowing bottomhole pressure, psi

1000

500

P

4000 4500

0

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Production rate, STB/D

P

P

Po Pwf PI

Q

Pr

3

Pwh = ?

Po = ?

Depth

Pr = ?

Part 1 – The Well Part 2 – The Reservior

Pressure

4

Well Bore Fluid Calculations

As we can see from the formula’s the most relevant parameter to well bore calculation is pressure. Therefore we will spend some time looking at the basics of what pressure is.

What is pressure?

What is Force?

5

Well Bore Fluid Calculations

In english units:

Mass = lbm Acceleration = gravity

In English Units lbm = lbf

This is not the case in metric units

6

Well Bore Fluid Calculations

We have discussed force – what is pressure?

Pressure = Amount of force over a specified area

This is very important in not only understanding a well, but designing artificial lift. Because as we have seen the well is only concerned with pressure, not force.

7

Well Bore Fluid Calculations

What exerts more force? a. 1000 ft of water in 2 3/8” tubing b. 1000 ft of water in 2 7/8” tubing

What exerts more pressure? a. 1000 ft of water in 2 3/8” tubing b. 1000 ft of water in 2 7/8” tubing

8

Well Bore Fluid Calculations

As stated pressure is force over a specific area, or:

P=F/A

In english units when dealing with pressure normally the units used are:

F = lbf A = in2

Pressure = lbf/in2 (know as a psi)

9

When dealing with fluid in a tube what is the standard Pressure calculation?

P = Force/Area

Area = π x (ID of Tubing/2)2 = ID Area

Force = Mass x Acceleration Mass = volume of fluid x density Volume of Fluid = ID Area x H Acceleration = gravity

Force = ID Area x H x density x gravity

P = (ID Area x H x density x gravity)/ ID Area = ρ x g x h

10

P=ρxgxh

For pure water the english units are as follows:

ρ = 62.3 lbm/ft3

As mentioned 1 lbm = 1lbf at standard gravity = 62.3 lbf/ft3

So ρ x g for water

Gradient pressure is pressure divided by height

Rearranging the formula P/h = ρ x g

So therefore the pressure gradient for water is 62.3 lbf/ft3

Does that look right?

11

We know that P = psi = lbf / in2

We know that 1 ft = 12 in

Water Grad = 62.3 lbf/ft3 = 62.3 lbf x 1 ft x 1 ft (ft3) 12 in 12 in = 0.433 __lbf__ (in2 x ft) = 0.433 psi/ft

Does that sound right?

12

So for Pure Water

P(psi) = 0.433 x h(ft)

For all other fluids we use specific gravity = sg

Sg = density of a fluid / density of pure water

Therefore the standard in English is:

P(psi) = 0.433 x sg x h(ft)

13

Specific Gravity

Often specific gravity comes in the form of API, to covert the following is used: 141.5 131.5+API

sg =

When two liquids of different density make one fluid, the Specific gravity is calculated as follows:

S p. Gr. =

( fw

× γ w

)+ ( fo

× γ o

)

14

Formulas So far

Pressure due to fluid:

P(psi) = 0.433 x sg x h(ft)

**API to sg: 141.5 131.5+API
**

) w

sg =

Composite sg:

( f × γ w + ( f o ×

S p. Gr. =

γ

o

)

15

Exercise 1a

30 API 0% 1.026 sg 3765 psig 100 psia 10 stb/d/psi 1.33 rb/stb 9183 feet

Oil Density: Water cut: Water Density: Pres: P whead: PI: Bo: TVD:

Find Poutflow for the above conditions

(assume no friction)

16

Exercise 1b

30 API 30% 1.026 sg 3765 psig 100 psia 10 stb/d/psi 1.33 rb/stb 9183 feet

Oil Density: Water cut: Water Density: Pres: P whead: PI: Bo: TVD:

Find Poutflow for the new water cut

17

Well Performance

Pressure gradient plots Po (0%)Required for 100 psi wellhead pressure = 3582 psi Po (30%) Required for 100 psi wellhead pressure = 3761 psi

Depth

Pwh

Pressure

Po

(0%)

Po

(30%)

18

Well Productivity

For this course we are going to make the assumption that fluid always flows from high pressure toward low pressure.

Some of you may recognize that this is not exactly true.

The exactly true expression is fluid always flows from high potential toward low potential.

19

Well Productivity

The difference between "pressure" and "potential" is the elevation (or height) and the elevation potential can be 14.7 psi calculated from the equation −− ρ ∗ g * h.

6"

**We have already seen how pressure increases with the depth in a column of fluid.
**

14.9 psi

20

Inflow – Darcy’s Experiments

The relationship between pressure and Flow rate was first studied extensively by the scientist Henry Darcy (18031858). He created pressure differentials across a porous media and measured the resulting flow rates that resulted from those pressures. His experiments resulted in what is now known as ‘Darcy’s Law’ (1856) and are the benchmark for permeability. In fact, the unit of permeability is called the ‘Darcy’ (D).

Permeable Medium: Area, Length, Permeability

Fluid Properties:

Viscosity, Volume Factor

P1

Direction of Flow

P0

21

Darcy’s Law

For general flow through porous Media:

k * A * ( P0 − P ) 1 Q= µ *L

But we’re working with oil reservoirs, not general porous media…

22

**Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:
**

Fl uid Fl ow

uid Fl low F

Pr

Pr Q=?

Pwf Fluid Flow

Fluid Flow

23

Fluid Flow

Reservoir Outer "drainage" boundary

Pr

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

For the system just described, Darcy's Law looks like:

qo =

7.08 x 10

-3

k o h ( Pr P wf S re rw

)

µ o Bo

ln

qo = flow rate ko = effective permeability h = effective feet of pay µo = average viscosity Pr = reservoir pressure Pwf = wellbore pressure re = drainage radius rw = wellbore radius Bo = formation volume factor

Note: (Pr - Pwf) is the drawdown pressure

24

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

If we make the assumption that ko, h, re, rw, Bo and µο are constant for a particular well the equation becomes:

qo = k 4k

5

k 1 k2 k 3 ln k7 k6 k8

( Pr

P wf

)

Simplifying...

qo = K (Pr − Pwf )

25

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

Pres sure - PSI

Intercept = Pr Slope = -1/K

Pwf

0

Q - Flow Rate (BPD)

0

26

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

The Productivity Index (PI) is equal to the flow rate divided by the "drawdown":

qo = PI x (Pr − Pwf ) PI = qo

(P

r

− Pwf )

27

Example Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

Consider the following example:

Pr = 2,300 psi, and Pwf = 1,200 psi @ qo = 1,150 bpd

What is the Productivity Index (PI) of the well?

PI =

1150

(2300 - 1200)

= 1.046 bbl/day/psi

28

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

What is the maximum flow rate the well will produce? The maximum flow rate occurs at the maximum drawdown (Pwf = 0).

PI =

r

qmax −0

(P )

or

qmax = Pr x PI

qmax = 2300 x 1.046 = 2406 BPD

29

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

The straight-line PI works great for single phase fluid (i.e. water, oil, or water/oil*) flowing into a wellbore, but what happens if gas comes "out of solution" in the reservoir?

* Even though water and oil are two separate phases, they are considered single phase since they are both liquid.

30

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

What happens when the gas comes out of solution? Darcy's law works just as well for a single phase gas as it does for a single phase oil.

Let's look qualitatively at what will happen to the flow rate of gas.

qg =

7.08 x 10-3 k g h P r

P wf re rw 0.75

µ g Bg

ln

31

**Pressure drops as we move toward the wellbore Pb
**

Gas will begin to form here

Pr

Pr

32

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

Graphically it would look like this:

Pre s sure - PSI

Pr < Pb

**Pwf Actual Qmax
**

Q - Flow Rate (BPD)

Darcy's law predicted Qmax

0

0

33

Inflow Performance Relationship - IPR:

We use instead Vogel's IPR curve. The equation is:

Q = 1 - 0.2 Pr - 0.8

Pwf

Pwf Pr

2

Q(max)

where qo(max) is the maximum flow rate the well can produce.

34

Inflow Performance Relationship - IPR:

Consider our previous example…

Pr = 2,300 psi Pwf = 1,200 psi @ qo = 1,150 bpd

35

**Inflow Performance Relationship - IPR:
**

Pwf Pr

1200 2300

First we need to calculate Q/Qmax:

Q = 1 - 0.2 - 0.8 Pr = 1 - 0.2 Q(max) = - 0.8

Pwf

2

Q(max)

2

Q

1200 2300

Q(max)

= 0.678 = 1696 bpd

1150-bpd 0.678

Then…

36

Inflow Performance Relationship - IPR:

Compare this to the Qmax we got from Darcy's equation of 2406 bpd. The well has lost 710 bpd (~-30%) in capability due to gas interference.

Vogel vs. PI for given test point

2500

2000

Pwf (psi)

1500

1000

500

0 0 500 1000 1500 Q (bpd) 2000 2500 3000

37

Combined IPR

We saw that we could use Darcy's law when gas was not a problem (Pwf > Pb).

We also saw how to use Vogel's IPR for cases where Pwf < Pb.

What about a case where Pr is above Pb and Pwf is less than Pb?

38

Combined IPR

All we have to do in this case is use Darcy's law for Pr > Pwf > Pb and Vogel's IPR for the portion where Pb > Pwf > 0.

Let's say, for our problem, we have a Pb of 1800 psi.

Graphically it would look like:

39

Combined IPR:

Pr=2300 2500

We use a straight line PI above Pb We use VOGEL below Pb

2000

Pb=1800

**1500 Pressure - psi 1000 500
**

Qb Qv = PI x Pb / 1.8 Qv

0 0

Qb = PI x (Pr-Pb)

500

1000 Flow Rate - BPD

1500

2000

Qtot-max = Qb + Qv

Pwf =0 .125x Pb {-1+[81-80(q-qb)/(qtmx-qb)]^.5}

40

Composite Vogel IPR:

Vogel's relationship works reasonably well for water cuts below 50%.

For higher water cuts, a method has been developed which takes an arithmetic average of the PI and IPR equations to yield a "composite IPR“.

For a given PWF, therefore, Composite predicts more flow than Vogel but less flow than straight-line PI.

41

Composite and Combined IPR:

Finally, we can consider both combined (straight-line plus curve) and composite on the same IPR. Graphically it would look like this, where qt is the composite flow:

Pressure

Oil IPR

Composite IPR

Water PI

Flow Rate - BPD

qo(max) qt(max)

qw(max)

42

The “Skin” effect

(van Everdingen & Hurst)

Skin is a wellbore phenomenon, that causes an additional pressure drop in the near-wellbore region:

141 qµo Bo .2 qµo (∆p) skin= S= S 2π koh ko h

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

In some cases, the PI can also be improved slightly by acidizing or fracturing. Acidizing cleans up "skin" on the perforations and can improve porosity in limestone reservoirs by making larger holes for oil flow.

Before

Acid

After

Skin Damage

44

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

**Fracturing can also improve permeability by making large cracks near the wellbore.
**

Before After

45

Darcy's Law for radial flow into a wellbore:

Why is removing skin so important?

skin

46

Well Performance

Pressure gradient plots Po (0%)Required for 100 psi wellhead pressure = 3582 psi Po (30%) Required for 100 psi wellhead pressure = 3761 psi This is outflow Now let’s include inflow

Depth

Pwh

Pressure

Po

(0%)

Po

(30%)

Pres

47

If the desired flow rate is 1000 BPD do we need artificial lift? Calculate Pwf at 1000 BPD

48

**Remember our Data - Exercise 1a
**

30 API 0% 1.026 sg 3765 psig 100 psia 10 stb/d/psi 1.33 rb/stb 9183 feet

Oil Density: Water cut: Water Density: Pres: P whead: PI: Bo: TVD:

Find Pwf at a flow rate of 1000 BPD

(assume no friction)

49

Well Performance

Pressure gradient plots Po (0%)Required for 100 psi wellhead pressure = 3582 psi Po (30%) Required for 100 psi wellhead pressure = 3761 psi Pwf available at 1000 BPD = 3665 psi

Depth

Pwh

Pressure

Po

(0%)

Pwf

Po

(30%)

Pres

50

Artificial Lift

HOW? Introduce a pump to reduce Pwf

or

gas lift the well

Pressure

51

**Artificial Lift Options
**

-Creates head ( P) to lower Pwf -Reduces fluid column gradient to lower Pwf -Creates head ( P) to lower Pwf -provides pressure drop in venturi to lower Pwf -Intermittently sucks fluid from well bore lowering Pwf

ESP

GAS LIFT

PCP

JET PUMP

ROD PUMP

ALL INCREASE DRAWDOWN TO PRODUCE FLOW

52

Field Development

Cash Flow Cash Flow

Time

Artificial Lift

• Make good wells better • Generate more revenue earlier in the life of a project

53

Production Optimization

Cash Flow Cash Flow

Time

Artificial Lift

Production Optimization

• Data enabled systems • Information to decision makers

54

END of MODULE One

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