Table of Contents I. II. Introduction A. Abortion B. Types of Abortion 1. Spontaneous Abortion  Classification of Spontaneous Abortion 1.

Threated abortion


INTRODUCTION Abortion is one of the most controversial issues of today’s society. Many women feel it is

their right to choose, but some feel the exact opposite. Some believe that if a woman has been raped, a victim of incest, or if the woman’s life is in danger, abortion should be used. Although there have been a few attempts to find common ground, both sides of the debate find little to agree on. It’s because abortion can be performed for many reasons. And the main reason is that if the woman’s health is at risk. However, some people abuse this right and use it has a form of birth control. There are a variety of drug-based abortion methods, all of which need to be monitored by a physician. Since there are specific laws that pertain to abortion and certain laws even permit abortion within a maximum time limit. It states that abortion is possible only up to a certain stage during pregnancy and should essentially be at the woman’s request. So abortion is allowed only for medical reasons in very exceptional circumstances to save the mother’s life. Through Politicians argue over the legal aspects of abortion. Religious and pro-life groups work to make their views and beliefs about abortion known. Pro-choice organizations work just as hard to speak out for their views. Some people choose to try to change laws or create new legislation that will reflect their positions on abortion. Others choose to block access to clinics and resort to violence to make sure their voices are heard.

Almost no one remains untouched by the abortion controversy. Patients and clinic workers are sometimes prevented from entering medical facilities because of blockades and threats of violence. Ordinary people are exposed to television commercials, billboards, and other forms of media that promote antiabortion and pro-choice beliefs.

II. A. ABORTION Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced. The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy. Abortion comes (from the Latin word aboriri, "to perish") may be briefly defined as "the loss of a fetal life." Abortion, when induced in the developed world in accordance with local law, is among the safest procedures in medicine. However, unsafe abortions (those performed by persons without proper training or outside of a medical environment) result in approximately 70 thousand maternal deaths and 5 million disabilities per year globally. An estimated 42 million abortions are performed globally each year, with 20 million of those performed unsafely. [2] The incidence of abortion has declined worldwide as access to family planning education and contraceptive services has increased. Forty percent of the world's women have access to induced abortions (within gestational limits). Induced abortion has a long history and has been facilitated by various methods including herbal abortifacients, the use of sharpened tools, physical trauma, and other traditional methods. Contemporary medicine utilizes medications and surgical procedures to induce abortion. The

legality, prevalence, cultural and religious status of abortion varies substantially around the world. In many parts of the world there is prominent and divisive public controversy over the ethical and legal issues of abortion. Since abortion is termination of pregnancy before birth, resulting in the death of the fetus. Abortion destroys life and violates the right to life.

B. Types of Abortion 1. Spontaneous abortion is the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or fetus before the 20th to 22nd week of gestation. It also known as “miscarriage”. The most common causes of spontaneous abortion are related to abnormal developments of the embryo or fetus. Abortion may also result of imperfections in sperm or ova or to effects of teratogenic drugs. Or one of the parents is a carrier of a balanced translocation thus, repeated abortion may result.  Classification of Spontaneous Abortion 1. Threated abortion is characterized by unexplained bleeding, cramps and backache that may jeopardize the fetus. Bleeding persists for days and the cervix is closed. It maybe followed by partial or complete expulsion of pregnancy. 2. Imminent abortion is manifested by increased bleeding and cramping. The cervix dilates and membranes may rupture. The term “inevitable abortion” applies. 3. Complete abortion is when all the products of conception are expelled. 4. Incomplete abortion means that parts of the products of conception are retained, most often the placenta. The cervix is dilated and will admit one finger.

5. Missed abortion means that the fetus dies in utero but is not expelled. Uterine growth ceases, breasts change regress, and the woman may report a brownish vaginal discharge. The cervix is closed. 6. Habitual abortion means abortion occurs consecutively in three or more pregnancies.

2. Induced Abortion is the intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can live independently. It occurs as a result of artificial or mechanical interruption or due to voluntary and effective human intervention.  Classification of Induced Abortion 1. Therapeutic abortion is performed in order to preserve the health or save the life of a pregnant woman. A health care provider might recommend a therapeutic abortion if the fetus is diagnosed with significant abnormalities or not expected to live, or if it has died in utero. Therapeutic abortion may also be used to reduce the number of fetuses if a woman is pregnant with multiples; this procedure is called multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR). A therapeutic abortion may be indicated if a woman has a pregnancy-related health condition that endangers her life. Some examples of such conditions include: (a.) severe hypertension (high blood pressure) (b.) severe depression or other psychiatric conditions (c.) serious kidney or liver disease (d.) certain types of infection (e.) malignancy (cancer) (f.) multifetal pregnancy (g.) cardiac disease 2. Elective Abortion is considered if a woman chooses to end her pregnancy, and it is not for maternal or fetal health reasons. Some reasons a woman might choose to have an elective abortion are:

    

Continuation of the pregnancy may cause emotional or financial hardship. The woman is not ready to become a parent. The pregnancy was unintended. The woman is pressured into having one by her partner, parents, or others. The pregnancy was the result of rape or incest.

C. Methods of Abortion

D. Safety and Cost Abortions are safest when performed within the first six to 10 weeks after the last menstrual period (LMP). This calculation is used by health care providers to determine the stage of pregnancy. About 90% of women who have abortions do so in the first trimester of pregnancy (before 13 weeks) and experience few complications. Abortions performed between 13 and 24 weeks (during the second trimester) have a higher rate of complications. Abortions after 24 weeks are extremely rare and are usually limited to situations where the life of the mother is in danger. Although it is safer to have an abortion during the first trimester, some second trimester abortions may be inevitable. The results of genetic testing are often not available until 16 weeks gestation. In addition, women, especially teens, may not have recognized the pregnancy or come to terms with it emotionally soon enough to have a first trimester abortion. Teens make up the largest group having second trimester abortions. Very early abortions cost between $200 and $400. Later abortions cost more. The cost increases about $100 per week between the thirteenth and sixteenth week. Second trimester abortions are much more costly because they often involve more risk, more services, anesthesia, and sometimes a hospital stay. Private insurance carriers may or may not cover the procedure. Federal law prohibits federal funds (including Medicaid) from being used to pay for an elective abortion.

The health risks of abortion depend on whether the procedure is performed safely or unsafely. The World Health Organization defines unsafe abortions as those performed by unskilled individuals, with hazardous equipment, or in unsanitary facilities. Legal abortions performed in the developed world are among the safest procedures in medicine.

E. Effects of Abortion Abortion could have varied physical and psychological effects on the woman concerned. On the physical aspect, the woman may suffer habitual miscarriage, ectopic pregnancies,



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