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International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No.

2, 2012

An Efficient Architecture for the development of open cloud Computing Backbone


Dr Sastry JKR,

Ms. K.Sirisha,,

Ms. G.Bharathi, Mr. D.Srinivas,
# # KL University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India 522502

Dr J Ravi Chandra,, Sr Research scientist, eBay Inc, San Francisco The usage of all the unutilized and surplus resources available all over the world requires a different architecture involving middleware that acts as an agent and provides seamless integration of all the resources available all over the world with small users applications. The architecture while at the same must support all the features supported by the available tools. In this paper an architecture is proposed that considers the availability of the middleware that acts as the back end to all the surplus and idle computing resources and also acts as a backend to the cloud computing software that help development of the small entrepreneur applications. The authors have studied all the features supported by two of the world renowned cloud computing software tools and also identified more to make the features comprehensive and also the features required to achieve seamless integration of the back end computing resources. II. REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS OF CLOUD COMPUTING SOFTWARE All the requirements that must be supported, considering the un-utilized and surplus computing resources, and comprehensive cloud computing platform must stated and developed before one can embark on determining the efficient architecture that support utilization of all the unutilized resources with seamless integration. The architecture proposed must meet with the entire stated requirement. Some of the important features of the architecture should include a middleware to work as back bone for all the unutilized resources with seamless integration, software that supports features to develop and implement applications with proper interface for the frontend client, e-commerce interface for payments management and accounting, preserving the privacy and security, application development interface, content delivery and enablement, effecting the communication through messaging, service orientation, access control mechanism, data marshalling, resource configuration,,

Mr. SK.Jai Sankar
Abstract: The utilization of many expensive computing resources (Hardware, System Software, Services, Platform) established by many organizations all over the world is so less that they are not even in a position to meet breakeven of the investments that they made in creating such costly resources. Fortunately all the resources can be reached through WEB with proper security provision. Smaller entrepreneurs are suffering due to lack of funds for implementing the applications that need huge resources. Cloud computing has come in a big way to address this situation. Several cloud computing architectures are in use and most of them suffer from the need to have centralized resources on the common back bone. These architectures are not aimed at utilization of the surplus and idle resources spread across the world. In this paper a cloud computing architecture is proposed that help development of applications based on open cloud computing backbone. Keywords: Cloud computing, resource, Data center, architecture, middleware.

I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing deals with utilization through sharing of virtual computing resources (Cloud based resources) by a client connected on to the same network to which the cloud is connected. There exist several tools that are used for developing cloud computing applications like WINDOWS AZURE, AMAZON WEB SERVICES, EUCALYPTUS, NEBULA, CLOUD STACK etc. Many of these tools support several features that help development of applications requiring many of the centralized computing resources that are connected on the same backbone. The centralized resources are coupled tightly with the cloud computing software and there by achieving tight integration. This aspect dictates that the user of the application needs to use the cloud computing software and also to use only the data centers that are coupled with the cloud computing software. This approach thus is not cost effective as there are idle resources available elsewhere that can be used at much more cheaper costs.

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International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012 application development and deployment. The middleware must support the registration, contracting and maintaining the information for repository building. III. RELATED WORKS [1] has proposed an architecture FGCP/A5 which adds a group of high quality of services like log management, application monitoring, and data linking with other clouds. The architecture proposed by them is shown in figure 3.1. The architecture at figure 3.1 merely considers the features that are required to support cloud computing platform centered on consulting based services and central data services. According to [2] cloud computing is the development of parallel computing, distributed computing and grid computing. According to him, it is still very hard to make a reasonable choice for developing an application using cloud computing software for user with little knowledge about cloud computing. He has analyzed the problems, characteristics, architectures and applications of several popular cloud computing platforms. He has covered various architectures proposed by different authors and provided comparative analysis of the same. He explained that the architecture proposed by AbiCloud [3] one can easily build and automatically deploy and manage the server storage system, network, virtual devices and applications. The architecture proposed by Abicloud is shown in the Figure 3.2 According to AbiCloud there is no single cloud based solution which is efficient for every user requirements. The best way to use the requirements of the users is to develop public or private clouds using homogenous Platforms that can be customizable for a single user. This architecture shown in figure 3.2 is again is based on centralized homogenous computing resources.

FGCP/A5 cloud service

Consulting Service
(Implementation/migration/ operation)

Operation services
External access monitoring Log monitoring

Operations management
Service/operations management

Security services
Cloud-security evaluation/auditing Web application diagnosis

Cloud-security consulting Job Execution

Backup services
Remote backup External media management

Business operations
BPO(business process outsourcing)

Development service
Business application development

Agent services
(performing standard operations on behalf of customer)

Implementation/migration services
Performance-evaluation support APM modernization for the cloud
Business-applications screening service Application-assets migration service

Azure-supporting middleware
Interstage Application Server NetCOBOL Systemwalker Operation Manager Interstage List Creator

FGCP/A5 basic services
Azure functions
(Windows Azure, SQL Azure, AppFabric)

Support services

Figure 3.1 Hithoshi Monma Architecture

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International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012

Third parties applications/Cloud platforms

AbiCloud client

statistically and configured and as such do not lead to open ended cloud.

Open API

Remote object connector

DB AbiCloud Server(Java) DB

Context client

Context broker Workspace service

Workspace resource manager Workspace control

Web services interfaces

Cloud client
VM workspace(Jav a) Plugin vBox VMWare xVM VM management (Java) Plugin Xen . KVM

Application manager(Java) Storage management

Workspace pilot


Reference client

EC2 WSDL EC2 Client

IaaS gateway

EC2 and other cloud platforms

Figure 3.2 AbiCloud Architecture

Eucalyptus [4] is at another cloud computing architecture which proposed based on open source private cloud platform. The architecture is based on clustering the backend cloud computing resources which are all driven by a cloud computing controller in middle which is used by front end API for application development. The architecture is shown in Figure 3.3.
Client API

Figure 3.4 Nimbus Architecture

Open Nebula [6] is an open source cloud service framework. The architecture is shown in the Figurer 3.5.
Cloud user interface

Local user and administrator interface Scheduler Virtual infrastructure manager Cloud service

Cloud controller





Cluster controller

Cluster controller

Cluster controller
Local infrastructure

Public cloud

Figurer 3.5 Open Nebula Architecture

Node Controller

Figure 3.3 Eucalyptus Architecture

Clustering the back end computing resources is not simple when the back end resources are distributed. The cluster based architecture is not suitable when the cloud is open ended and distributed. Nimbus [5] Architecture is based on the context of development of virtual machine for each of the client separately. Several modules are included in the architecture to facilitate cloud computing. The Architecture recommended by Nimbus is shown in the figure 3.4. The architecture shown in figure 3.4 supported information as service ignoring other aspects of cloud computing. As such virtual machines have to be recognized

This architecture is also based on virtual machines; users can deploy virtual machines on the physical resources. The users data clusters and centers are set to virtual infrastructure. The architecture is suitable for adapting to virtual infrastructure based on service level Load. This architecture also static; in that open ended cloud be resources cannot be added. Yang Xiaoqiang [7] have proposed an cloud computing architecture which is suitable for implementing Geographical Information System (GIS).They have used 3 technologies which include Distributed File System (DFS), parallel computing, Storing and visualization included into cloud computing software layer. In addition he has added one more layer which has software components that GIS based information services. The architecture proposed by them is shown in the figure 3.6.

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International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012 However the author has not addresses any of the issues related utilization of surplus and unutilized computing resources available all over the world. He has not discussed much about the computing resources which are in the backend in figure 3.6. Liang-jie zhang [8] have recognized seven architectural principles which include Integrated Ecosystem Management for Cloud, Virtualization for Cloud Infrastructure, ServiceOrientation for Common Reusable Services, Extensible Provisioning and Subscription for Cloud, Configurable Enablement for Cloud Offerings, Unified Information Representation and Exchange Framework, and Cloud Quality and Governance. They have proposed an architecture shown in Fig 3.7 that integrated various other architectural models to form a reusable and customizable cloud computing open Architecture (CCOA). The CCOA also presented some potential value added services to guide strategic planning and other consulting practices of Cloud Computing. However, the architecture also has proposed centralized backend datacenter and has not addressed anything related to utilization of the unutilized resources.

Applications Layer DaaS SaaS PaaS Utility Computing .

Geographic Information Services Layer

Cloud Computing Layer Cloud Computing OS Parallel Computing Distributed File System Computing & Storing Virtualization

Infrastructure Layer Linux OS Linux OS Windows OS .

Unreliable GIS Server

Unreliable GIS Server

Unreliable GIS Server

Fig 3.6 Yang Xiaoqiang, Deng Yuejin Architecture

Cloud Ecosystem

Cloud Client Dashboard

(Portal or program-based access interactions)

Cloud Offerings: Business Solutions

(Infrastructure As A srvice, SaaS, Application As A Service, Business Process As A Service)

(unified representation of cloud resources & exchange messge)

Cloud Value Added Services or Offerings

(QoS, monitoring, metering, billing, exception handiling)

(Portal or program-based access interactions)

Cloud Core: Provisioning and Subscription Services

Cloud Partner Dashboard

Cloud Provisioning Service

(Provisioning process, roles, notifications)

Cloud Subscription Service

(subscription process, roles, notifications)

Service-Orientation: Common Reusable Services & Composite Services

Cloud Horizontal Business Services(CRM,ERP)

Virtualization: Hardware and Software

Cloud Vertical Business Services(Industry-specific services)

Cloud IT Infrastructure Management

(Management of Hardware, software, and legacy applications) Data Center

Cloud Core Infrastructure

Mainframe (Hardware, software, and legacy applications) Servers

Cloud Vendor Dashboard

(Portal or program-based access interactions)

Fig 3.7 Liang-jie zhang and Qun zhou Architecture

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(Onboarding and membership management)

Cloud Ecosystem Management

Cloud Quality and Governance

Cloud Information Architecture

International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012 Chunye Gong, [9] has dealt with various characteristics that any cloud computing platform must exhibit. He explained that every cloud computing platform has its own conception, technical, economic, user experience characteristics, service orientation, loose coupling, strong fault tolerant, supporting business model and ease of use, TCP/IP based High security, and Virtualization. He has not proposed any architecture nor sated any of the cloud computing requirements from the perspective of un-utilized, surplus and available computing resources all over the world.They have also not stated anything about the utilization of the WEB. [Windows Azure] [10] is an internet-based cloud services platform hosted through Microsoft data centers. Windows Azure handles load balancing and resource management and automatically manages the life cycle of a service based on requirements that the owner of the service established. The architecture of WINDOWS Azure is shown in the figure 3.8
Data Center
Servers Servers Servers

model and turn capital infrastructure expenses into variable costs.

Data Center
Servers Servers

Payment : Amazon FPS/DevPay

Amazon RDS

Amazon Simple DB Domains

Amazon Elastic Map/Reduce Jobflows

Amazon SQS Queues

Amazon SNS Topics

Auto Scaling

Elastic LB

Cloud Watch

Amzon S3 Objects and Buckets

Amazon Cloud Front

Amazon EC2 Instances

EBS Volumes

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud


Fig 3.9 Amazon Cloud computing Architecture

Data Sync

Compute Storage


SQL Azure



Service Bus Access Control Window Azure AppFabric

Windows Azure

Windows Azure Platform

Figurer 3.8 Windows Azure Architecture

It provides various services which include access control, Data querying, content delivery network, storage services, messaging services etc. This architecture does not support opened ended cloud related resources and works with centralized backend clouds built with several infrastructural facilities. [Amazon] [11] cloud computing architecture is web services (AWS) oriented. The Amazon cloud computing architecture is shown in Figurer 3.8. The aim of AWS, is the ability to control a new business

The architecture includes various functions that include configuration of compute capacity in the cloud, content delivery, Data querying and responding, deployment and management of the user application and other software components that includes capacity provisioning, load balancing, auto-scaling, and health monitoring etc. This architecture has also a limitation that it works on fixed backend data center. Many subtle differences exists among various types of architectures and they differ by the functionality supported and they all suffer from either static binding of the backend resources or supported through a fixed single backend data center, IV. AN EFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE THAT CONSIDERS OPEN CLOUD COMPUTING RESOURCES All the existing architectures are designed for locating the fixed backend data center services or databases. There are no way the infrastructural facilities available elsewhere which are cheaper for development and implementing applications. An architecture that allows any of the backend infrastructure facility to be included into a virtual data center is required thereby making it possible to utilized the available and cheaper solutions to the implementations of the backend clouds.. The authors have built an architecture shown in the Figure 3.10 that includes middleware to provide an interface for registering any of the backend infrastructure, service or platform.

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International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012

Data Center

Data Center

Data Center

Payment Processor

Payment and Billing



Data Center

Cloud Computing Platform IDE

Data Center

Figure 3.10 Virtual data center architecture

A new middleware component is introduced in between the backend infrastructural facilities and the cloud computing platform. The Middleware is responsible for establishing virtual data centered formed out of several available and less costly infrastructural facilities which are available globally. It provides an interface for various infrastructure owners to register their own resources in terms of durations, size of resources and the Tariffs with which the resources shall be made available. The middleware shall configure a Virtual data center based on the registrations made by the infrastructures owners. It has the functionality required to allocate and de-allocate the infrastructural facilities for servicing user requests and also determining the cost of utilization and effecting ecommerce application to pass the financial entries Middleware also provides a callable interface with the cloud computing software for accepting the user requests and decomposing the same in terms of various facilities required to service the request and effecting the allocation of the services and implementing the necessary executing and forwarding the execution results back to cloud computing software, Cloud computing software has all the functionality required for making the users to develop their application, provide access control mechanisms, provide communication interface through messaging

with the middleware, receiving the content from the middleware and dispatching the content to the end user. Essential some of the functionality of the cloud computing software is shifted a different layer that is into middleware to achieve the concept of virtualization. Thus making the cloud computing software light weight. Distributing the cloud computing functionality into different layers makes the processing faster and also achieves the virtualization of data centers. The cloud computing software provides for an integrated development environment through the actual applications can be developed the user. The client application shall be provided with the entire interface required for facilitating communication with the cloud computing software. Thus the client application can seamlessly access the unknown facilities available elsewhere. V. CONCLUSION Several cloud computing architectures have been studied considering the merits and demerits. Most of the architectures have either fixed virtual connections to back end or fixed data center for sharing the resources with several clients. The architectures as such have not supported open ended back end resources. The architecture proposed in this paper considered the open ended resources that can be added dynamically through a registration and configuration process. A

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International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012 middleware has been introduced to build dynamic resources addition to the backend resources. REFERENCES Hitoshi Monma, FGCP/A5: PaaS Service Using Windows Azure Platform, FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., October 2011, Vol. 47, Issue No. 4, Pages from 445 to 447 [2] Junjie Peng, et al., Comparison of Several Cloud Computing Platforms, Information Science and Engineering December 2009, Pages 23 to 27 [3] Abicloud home page, [4] -Cloud-Platform-100923/. [5] Nimbus. [6] Open Nebula. [7] Yang Xiaoqiang, et al., Exploration of Cloud Computing Technologies for Geographic Information Services, International Conference on Geo informatics, June 2010, Pages 1 to 5 [8] Liang-jie zhang et al., CCOA: Cloud Computing Open Architecture, IEEE International Conference on Web Services, July 2009, Pages 607 to 616 [9] Chunye Gong, et al., The Characteristics of Cloud Computing, International conference on parallel processing workshops, September 2010, Pages 275 to 279 [10] Windows Azure, [11] Amazon WebServices [1

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