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Bell Crank

Wing nut

Crow nut

Wheel nut wrench

Aircraft castle nut

Nylon insert lock nut

Coupling

Coupling A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power. Couplings do not normally allow disconnection of shafts during operation, however there are torque limiting couplings which can slip or disconnect when some torque limit is exceeded. The primary purpose of couplings is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while permitting some degree of misalignment or end movement or both. By careful selection, installation and maintenance of couplings, substantial savings can be made in reduced maintenance costs and downtime. A beam coupling, also known as helical coupling, is a flexible coupling for transmitting torque between two shafts while allowing for angular misalignment, parallel offset and even axial motion, of one shaft relative to the other. This design utilizes a single piece of material and becomes flexible by removal of material along a spiral path resulting in a curved flexible beam of helical shape. Since it is made from a single piece of material, the

Beam Style coupling does not exhibit the backlash found in some multi-piece couplings. Another advantage of being an all machined coupling is the possibility to incorporate features into the final product while still keep the single piece integrity. The degree to which components depend on one another. There are two types of coupling, "tight" and "loose". Loose coupling is desirable for good software engineering but tight coupling may be necessary for maximum performance. Coupling is increased when the data exchanged between components becomes larger or more complex.

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Wheel spline nuts

Slots and their use

Basic Training
Expenditure for structure repair activities are the consequence of labor costs. Hence, improving human performance provides a contribution for achieving more effective economical results. Our structure repair courses provide essential technical information as well as the basic and special knowledge required

for maintenance personnel who are involved in the repair of aircraft structures in the field of commercial aviation. Each training course is aimed at creating confidence based on knowledge and understanding. Our structure training is built on a firm basis that will enable the student to perceive: materials on modern transport aircraft and their application design principles and their derivatives categorisation of different types of damage on aircraft structures basic application of aircraft manuals such as Structure Repair Manual overhaul procedures linked to the Structure Repair Manual conduction of typical repairs based on the Structure Repair Manual as well as the operation of special tooling safety precautions related to aircraft structures

Features
Hands-on as well as theoretical training Provide strong technical foundations in the classroom, and then proceeding to the workshops for practical training Combine classes and tailored content for a specific project Develop a curriculum to meet your unique structure training requirements

Advantages

LTT instructors having vast experience and up-to-date knowledge We provide training on-site to reduce travel expenses Personalized training to solve your specific structure challenges Students practical problems can be dealt with in the classroom, hence saving time and money Real-life structure repair cases enhance trainees proficiency Students are supplied with troubleshooting techniques that save both time and money Participants determine repair procedures and repair actual parts Conduction of training at customers facilities

Basic Training
Structure Repair
Quality based on experience

Products
Structure Repair Courses (Aircraft related) Duration: 5 days Course Objectives: All courses enable maintenance technicians to become confident with the use of the Structure Repair Manual to assess common damages a specific aircraft structure. It includes a detailed study of the SRM in terms of layout, content and procedures used for structure purposes, from day to day maintenance tasks up to heavy structural repairs. A detailed study of aircraft structure including design concepts, construction, principles and material application as well as hands-on manual training will be conducted in the classroom This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives Target Group: Technicians with previous structure experience Prerequisites: Entry level up to senior level maintenance technicians with a minimum of one year experience

on modern transport aircraft. Fluent in English or German Title ID Duration Airbus Aircraft: A319/320/321 Structure Repair FS301 5 days A340-200/-300 Structure Repair FS303 5 days A340-500/-600 Structure Repair FS304 5 days A310/A300-600 Structure Repair FS308 5 days Boeing Aircraft: B737-300/-500 Structure Repair FS402 5 days B737-600/-900 Structure Repair FS403 5 days B747-200/-400 Structure Repair FS405 5 days B757-200/-300 Structure Repair FS406 5 days B767-200/-300 Structure Repair FS407 5 days B777-200/-300 Structure Repair FS408 5 days Processes & Procedures Aircraft Inspection Findings FS102 Duration: 3 days Course Objectives: This course prepares a maintenance technician, with an A&P license (or equivalent) and two years experience on transport category aircraft, to perform inspections on transport aircraft during overhaul and maintenance This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives Target Group: A&P Mechanics, Airframe Mechanics, Avionics Prerequisites: Senior level maintenance technicians or delegated inspectors with a minimum of two years experience on transport aircraft. Fluent in English or German SRM Handskill Training FS103 Duration: 5 days Course Objectives: This course enables structure technicians to regain the ability to perform typical repairs on metal structure parts. It is aimed at participants who have already acquired experience in structure repair work but whose practical employment dates back several years. All repairs in the practical training follow the guidelines of the Structural Repair Manual This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives Target Group: Structural repair technicians, airframe mechanics or sheet metal workers who have acquired experience in structure repair but whose practical employment dates back several years Prerequisites: Skilled structural technicians with basic experience in structure repair of metallic aircraft parts. Fluent in English or German Fatigue Improvement FS107 Duration: 7 days Course Objectives: This course informs the student about the fundamentals of fatigue improvement procedures on metallic aircraft structures. The course includes lectures, demonstrations and hands-on practice. The hands-on practice includes Splitsleeve Cold Expansion, Flap-Peening and Taper-Lok installation All practical exercises follow the guidelines of the Structural Repair Manual This course satisfies ATA 104 Lvel IV objectives

Target Group: Structural repair technicians involved in structure repair and maintenance of modern transport aircraft. Prerequisites: Previous structure experience. Fluent in English or German Basic Training for Aircraft Painting and Removal FS004 Duration: 15 days Course Objectives: This course trains aircraft varnishers in aircraft painting and paint removal procedures required to perform finishing repair work on different aircraft types during Line and Base Maintenance This course fulfills ATA 104 Lvel IV objectives Target Group: Painter and Varnisher, Lacquerer Prerequisites: Varnisher with prior experience on painting ranging from aerospace and/or automotive industries. Fluent in English or German Aircraft Structure Fundamentals FS006 Duration: 30 days Course Objectives: Entry level structural repair technicians will gain the basic knowledge of working with common sheet metal tools to perform general aircraft structural repairs. The course trains the description and operation of basic sheetmetal repair tools as well as knowledge about basic aircraft hardware such as common materials and fastener installation and removal procedures. All repairs performed in the practical training follow the guidelines of the Structural Repair Manual This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives Target Group: Entry-level structural Repair Technicians, entry level Airframe Mechanics, Sheetmetal Worker Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of structure repair work on transport aircraft Fluent in English or German Fastener Installation and Removal FS008 Duration: 5 days Course Objectives: This course prepares the participant to locate, identify and interpret the correct fastener type as well as determine the appropriate fastener removal and installation procedure. Demonstrations and student practice sessions on all aspects of fastener types are part of this course. All hands-on training follows the guidelines of the Structural Repair Manual This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives Target Group: Airframe Mechanics, Entry-level Structural Repair Technicians Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of structure repair work Fluent in English or German Fuel Tank Repair FS009 Duration: 10 days Course Objectives: This course prepares structural technicians with the background and knowledge of an accurate detection of fuel leak sources as well as how to perform the required corrective repairs. All repairs performed in the practical training follow the guidelines of the Structural Repair Manual This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives

Target Group: Airframe Mechanics, Structural Repair Technicians involved in fuel leak detection and repair Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of structure repair work on modern transport aircraft Fluent in English or German Documentation Airbus Drawing Systems FS501 Boeing Drawing Systems FS502 Duration: 2 days Course Objectives: This course prepares the trainee to locate, identify and interpret the correct drawing for a specific aircraft. The course includes written exercises and solving drawing based problems. This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives Target Group: Airframe Mechanics, Airframe and System Engineers, A&P Mechanics Prerequisites: Senior level maintenance technicians or a minimum of two years experience on transport aircraft Fluent in English or German Corrosion Prevention and Control FS503 Duration: 2 days Course Objectives: This course qualifies maintenance technicians in the control and prevention of aircraft corrosion as well as corrosion removal methods and preventative maintenance This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives Target Group: Airframe Mechanics, Maintenance Technicians involved in structure repair Prerequisites: Experienced airframe mechanics and/or structure specialists. Fluent in English or German Composites Composite Repair Handskill Training FS204 Duration: 5 days Course Objectives: This course enables structure technicians to regain the ability to perform typical repairs an a composite structure. It is aimed at participants who already have experience in composite repair work but whose practical employment dates back several years. All repairs in the practical training follow the guidelines of the Structural repair Manual This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives and is designed for those who will actually perform repairs on modern transport aircraft Target Group: Airframe Mechanics, Maintenance Technicians involved in composite repair Prerequisites: Skilled structural repair technicians with basic experience in composite repair. Fluent in English or German Composite Fundamentals FS205 Duration: 5 days Course Objectives: This course familiarise structural technicians with composite materials and their application on modern transport aircraft. The student will acquire a basic understanding of standard practices for composite repair with reference to the SRM This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives Target Group: Entry-level Airframe Mechanics, Sheetmetal Worker Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of structure repair work on modern transport aircraft

Fluent in English or German Composite Advanced Repair FS206 Duration: 10 days Course Objectives: This course prepares structural technicians on composite repair to evaluate and repair damages on complex composite structure parts and it is designed as a follow-up to the composite fundamentals course. It concentrates on difficult and realistic repair situations. Most of the class is devoted to hands-on repair practice. All repairs performed in the practical training follow the guidelines of the Structural Repair Manual. This course fulfills ATA 104 Level IV objectives Target Group: Senior-level Airframe Mechanics, experienced Structural Technicians, Maintenance Personnel who will actually be assessing damages on composite parts or performing composite repairs Prerequisites: Previous experience in composite materials and processing or who have already attended the Composite Fundamentals Course. Fluent in English or German Information All courses, detailed course descriptions as well as dates for open courses are available on our website. Booking requests may be carried out also through the web. All courses can be held at the premises of LTT or as Inhouse training at your own facilities. Instruction languages are English and German. Please contact our Customer Service should you have any questions or should you need assistance from our sales team. Contact Lufthansa Technical Training Customer Service Unterschweinstiege 12 60549 Frankfurt Germany Phone: +49 (0)69 696 2751 Fax: +49 (0)69 696 6384 E-Mail: Customer-Service@LTT.DLH.DE www.Lufthansa-Technical-Training.com

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 1
Sandwich Structures
Thin, high strength skins are separated by, and bonded to, lightweight honeycomb cores; the thicker the core the stiffer the panel with minimal weight increase.

Laminate Structures

Laminate structures are assembled so that the fibre orientation provides most of the desired mechanical properties and the

matrix largely determines the environmental performance.

INTRODUCTION

Composites are used in a wide range of applications in aerospace, marine, automotive, surface transport and sports equipment markets. Damage to composite components is not always visible to the naked eye and the extent of damage is best determined for structural components by suitable Non Destructive Test (NDT) methods. Alternatively the damaged areas can be located by simply tapping the composite surface and listening to the sound. The damaged areas give a dull response to the tapping, and the boundary between the good and damaged composite can easily be mapped to identify the area for repair. Awareness of and inspection for composite damage should be included in the regular maintenance schedules for composite structures. Particular attention would be made to areas which are more prone to damage. Repairs to aircraft structures are controlled and should be carried out according to the Aircraft Structural Repair Manual (SRM). For other applications the repaired components would normally be expected to meet the original specification and mechanical performance requirements. This guide aims to give a general approach to composite repair in all applications and will examine both sandwich and laminate structures.
April 1999 Publication No. UTC 102 Hexcel Registered Trademark Hexcel Composites, Duxford

COMPOSITE REPAIR
HEXCEL COMPOSITES 2 REPAIR FLOW CHART
The flow chart gives the key stages for composite repair.
Excessive Damage assessment

COMPOSITE REPAIR

Scrap

Complex repair Repair Easy repair type Submit / Check scheme with manufacturer / OEM Temporary repair Improvise and return to repair workshop Approved temporary repair Permanent composite repair according to approved guidelines Quality Check / NDT Return to service

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 3 KEY STAGES OF COMPOSITE REPAIR

Some damage to composites is obvious and easily assessed but in some cases the damage

may first appear quite small, although the real damage is very much greater. Impact damage to a fibre can appear as a small dent on the reinforced composite surface but the underlying damage can be much more extensive. The decision to repair or scrap is determined by considering the extent of repair needed to replace the original structural performance of the composite. Other considerations are the repair costs, the position and accessibility of the damage and the availability of suitable repair materials. Easy repairs are usually small or do not effect the structural integrity of the component. These repairs are made by following the simple guidelines indicated for laminate or sandwich panels (see repair sections). Complex repairs are needed when the damage is extensive and needs to replace the structural performance of the component. The best choice of materials would be to use the original fibres, fabrics and matrix resin. Any alternative would need careful consideration of the service environment of the repaired composite, i.e. hot, wet and mechanical performance. The proposed repair scheme should meet all the original design requirements for the structure. When a composite repair is needed for components in use. Some repairs need the specialist equipment of the workshop and some form of improvised repair is needed to return the component to a suitable repair workshop. A temporary repair, usually in the form of a patch, can be fixed to the component. Usually a 'belt and braces' approach is taken to ensure safety until the component can be repaired at a later date. The approved general guidelines for laminate and sandwich repairs should be followed. These repair operations should be carried out in controlled workshop areas to ensure high quality repairs. Good housekeeping and attention to repair detail will ensure success. For comprehensive inspection of repaired parts a number of Non Destructive Tests (NDT) can be used. The inspector should examine the quality of the repaired area and particular attention should be given to the interface between the original part and the repaired area. Usual inspection methods use some form of ultrasonic test equipment where the reflection of the ultrasonic sound waves detect and identify any damaged areas or faults.
Damage assessment Repair type Temporary repair Permanent repair Quality Check

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 4

COMPOSITE REPAIR
Delamination following impact on a monolithic laminate
Point of impact Underlying damage can extend to a much greater extent in laminate structures.

Laminate Splitting

The damage does not extend through the full length of the part. The effects on the mechanical performance depend on the length of split relative to the component thickness.

Heat Damage

A local fracture with separation of surface plies. Its effect on the mechanical performance depends on the thickness of the part.

Dents in Sandwich Structure Puncture Damage in a Sandwich Structure


Both skins may be damaged.

Bolt Hole Damage

The damage could be elongation of the hole causing laminate splitting, or damage to the upper plies.

Typical Damage

Most damage to fibre reinforced composites is a result of low velocity and sometimes high velocity impact. In metals the energy is dissipated through elastic and plastic deformations and still retains a good deal of structural integrity. Whilst in fibre reinforced material the damage is usually more extensive than that seen on the surface.

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 5 REPAIR OPTIONS


Cosmetic repair

When a composite structure sustains damage in service one of three levels of repair must be employed. In this case inspection has determined that the damage has not affected the structural integrity of the component. A cosmetic repair is carried out to protect and decorate the surface. This will not involve the use of reinforcing materials.

Temporary or interim repairs

It is often the case in service, that small areas of damage are detected which in themselves do not threaten the integrity or mechanical properties of the component as a whole. However if left unrepaired they may lead to further rapid propagation of the damage through moisture ingress and fatigue. Simple patch type repairs can be carried out, with the minimum of preparation, to protect the component until it can be taken out of service for a proper structural repair. Temporary repairs should be subject to regular inspection.

Structural repair

If the damage has weakened the structure through fibre fracture, delamination or disbonding the repair will involve replacement of the damaged fibre reinforcement, and core in sandwich structures, to restore the original mechanical properties. Since a bonded-on repair constitutes a discontinuity of the original plies, and therefore a stress raiser, structural repair schemes normally require extra plies to be provided in the repair area. If the damaged area is very small it can be questionable whether a structural repair, requiring removal of a substantial amount of the structure in damage removal and preparation, is preferable to a cosmetic repair.

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 6

COMPOSITE REPAIR
LAMINATES AND SANDWICH PANELS
The main purpose of a structural repair is to fully support applied loads and transmit applied stresses across the repaired area. To do this the repair materials must overlap, and be adequately bonded to the plies of the original laminate. There are three basic approaches to this.

1. Patch repair

In this case the thickness of the original laminate is made up with filler plies and the repair materials are bonded to the surface of the laminate. Advantages n Quick and simple to do n Requires minimum preparation Disadvantages n A repaired laminate is thicker and heavier than the original n Very careful surface preparation is needed for good adhesion

2. Taper sanded or scarf repair

In this case an area around the hole is sanded to expose a section of each ply in the laminate. Sometimes one filler ply is added to produce a flatter surface. Taper is usually in the region of 30-60:1 Advantages n Repair is only marginally thicker than the original n Each repair ply overlaps the ply that it is repairing giving a straighter, stronger load path n Good bonds can be achieved on the freshly exposed surfaces Disadvantages n Time consuming n High skill needed and difficult to achieve

3. Step sanded repair

The laminate is sanded down so that a flat band of each layer is exposed, producing a stepped finish. Typical steps are 2550mm per layer. Advantages n Same as taper sanded repair Disadvantages n Extremely difficult to do

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 7 TYPICAL LAMINATE REPAIRS


1. Patch repair 2. Taper sanded repair (Scarf repair) 3. Step sanded repair
Extra ply Repair plies Film adhesive Filler ply Backup ply Extra ply Repair plies Film adhesive Filler ply Backup ply Extra ply Repair plies Film adhesive Filler plies Backup ply

Note: If the component has been in service it must be dried to remove any moisture to obtain the best repair.

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 8

COMPOSITE REPAIR
TYPICAL SANDWICH PANEL REPAIRS
1(a) Patch repair 1(b) Alternative patch repair 2 Taper sanded repair (scarf repair) 3. Step sanded repair
Extra ply Repair plies Film adhesive Filler plies Replacement core Core splice adhesive Extra ply Repair plies

Note: If the component has been in service it must be dried to remove any moisture to obtain the best repair.

Film adhesive Replacement core Core splice adhesive Extra ply Repair plies Film adhesive Filler ply (optional) Replacement core Core splice adhesive Extra ply Repair plies Film adhesive Filler ply (optional) Replacement core Core splice adhesive

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 9 REPAIR SEQUENCE FOR DOUBLE SIDED REPAIR


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Puncture damage Remove damage Taper sand Bond new honeycomb Repair first side Repair second side

typically 12.5mm Release film (peel ply) Temporary mould Packing piece Core splice adhesive Extra ply Repair plies Filler ply (opt) Temporary mould Packing piece

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 10

COMPOSITE REPAIR
Typical Layup and Equipment for one side access repair
When access is possible from both sides then a complete envelope bag is recommended. Compressed air Vacuum line to repair patch Power supply Repair patch Thermocouples Vacuum bag Heater mat Output to heater mat Hot bond unit

REPAIR USING PRE-CURED DOUBLER

Some composite repairs can be achieved by the use of precured doublers. A pre-cured doubler is a sheet of composite material made from layers of fibre reinforced epoxy which has been cured in using heat and pressure. A patch is cut from the pre-cured material and bonded on to the surface of the component. The edges of the doubler are chamfered to increase the peel off strength. Pre-cured doublers can be bonded on to the component using wet lay-up resins or adhesive films. However one major

drawback of this method has been entrapment of air under the doubler which leads to a weak repair. The repair can be improved by using a layer of scrim cloth under the adhesive film to allow the air to escape.

EQUIPMENT AND ANCILLARIES FOR REPAIRS HEXCEL COMPOSITES 11


Hot Bonders Heater Blankets Bagging Materials - vacuum bags - sealant tape - release film - breather - vacuum take off connector

EQUIPMENT AND ANCILLARIES FOR REPAIRS


All the components of a vacuum bag lay-up are shown in the diagram above. This lay-up is ideal for high quality components, however alternative lay-ups are possible to suit the materials and application.

Consumables for Vacuum Bag Processing

Peel ply (optional) Allows free passage of volatiles and excess matrix during the cure. Can be removed easily after cure to provide a bondable or paintable surface. Release film This prevents further flow of matrix and can be slightly porous (with pin pricks) to allow the passage of only air and volatiles into the breather layer above. Fig. 1 Detail of vacuum bag lay-up Breather fabric Provides the means to apply the vacuum and assists removal of air and volatiles from the whole assembly. Thicker breathers are needed when high autoclave pressures are used. Vacuum bag/sealant tape Provides a sealed bag to allow removal of air to form the vacuum bag. Note: It is recommended that new consumables are used each time to ensure the manufacture of good quality composites. Vacuum bag Breather fabric Heater blanket Release film Peel ply Prepreg Repair patch Damaged composite To vacuum pump Seal Film adhesive

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 12 REPAIR PROCESS

COMPOSITE REPAIR
Vacuum bag or autoclave - which process?
Vacuum bag and autoclave processing are the two main methods for the repair of components from prepreg. The processing method is determined by the quality, cost and type of component being manufactured. Component Processing costs Processing method Quality Section thickness Equipment cost Cure cycle time Vacuum bag Good Thin Moderate Short

Autoclave Excellent Thick High Long Vacuum bag processing is suited to components with thin sections and large sandwich structures. The vacuum bag technique involves the placing and sealing of a flexible bag over a composite lay-up (fig. 1) and evacuating all the air from under the bag (fig. 2). The removal of air forces the bag down onto the lay-up with consolidation pressure of 1 atmosphere (1 bar). The completed assembly, with vacuum still applied, is placed inside an oven with good air circulation, and the composite is produced after a relatively short cycle cure. Autoclave processing is used for the repair of high quality structural components. The autoclave technique requires a similar vacuum bag (fig.1) but the oven is replaced by an autoclave. The autoclave is a pressure vessel which provides the curing conditions for the composite where the application of vacuum, pressure, heat up rate and cure temperature are controlled. High processing pressures allow the moulding of thicker sections of complex shapes. Honeycomb sandwich structures can also be made to a high standard. Long cure cycles are required because the large autoclave mass takes a long time to heat up and cool down. Sometimes slow heat up rates are required to guarantee even temperature distribution on the tooling and composite components.
Vacuum bag Prepreg Connector to Seal vacuum pump Atmospheric pressure

Fig. 2 Sealing flexible bag over lay-up Fig. 3 Applying vacuum to the system

HEXCEL COMPOSITES 13 HEXCEL'S PRODUCTS FOR COMPOSITE REPAIR

Hexcel is the leading worldwide supplier of composite materials for aerospace, sports goods, marine, rail and automotive applications. Hexcel manufactures a range of composite materials, which are ideally suited for the repair of composites. These include: . A wide selection of prepregs, including the new M20, 130C curing system for vacuum bag or autoclave processing (qualified to RMS 167). . Redux structural film adhesives . Aluminium, Nomex and specialist honeycombs . Modipur polyurethane foams (Nomex is a registered trademark of Du Pont). Important All information is believed to be accurate but is given without acceptance of liability. Users should make their own assessment of the suitability of any product for the purposes required. All sales are made subject to our standard terms of sale which include limitations on liability and other important terms. With thanks to Aeroskills for assistance with selected drawings in this manual.