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Abby Woodhouse 2/6/12 China Study Guide Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Pre-Mao Dynasty cycles: long periods

ds of rule by a family punctuated by times of chaos, when the family lost its power and was challenged by a new, ultimately successful, ruling dynasty Power was determined by the mandate of heaven- the right to rule as seen by the collective ancestral wisdom that guided the empire from the heavens above Mao & After Weight of tradition has shaped them China is technically governed by a constitution that grants formal authority to both party and state executive and legislative offices... the country is still governed by authoritarian elite that are not bound by rule of law Legitimacy Dynastic rule Mandate of heaven legitimacy Hereditary connections Revolution of 1911 gave birth to the Chinese Republic, with western-educated Sun Yat-sen as its first president. popular government legitimacy Challenges: Mao Zedong and Maoism Maoism was idealistic and egalitarian, and even though it endorsed centralized power exercised through the top leaders of the party. Mass line: required leaders to listen and communicate with ordinary people, and without it, the legitimacy of the rulers was questionable, and without it, the legitimacy of the rulers was questionable Democratic centralism leaders make decisions in the name of the people, and gave both Lenin and Mao almost complete control over policymaking power The People's Republic of China was established, and Chinese Communist Party as the new source of power until his death in 1976. Since Mao's death, the Politburo of the Communist Party remains the legitimate source of power in China. Great deal of criticism. Current Communist leaders show no signs of loosening the party's hold on the government and the economy. Military... represented in the government by the Central Military Commission. Plays an important role in policymaking. Historical Traditions Authoritarian power - favoring or enforcing a strict obedience to authority/government at the expense of personal freedom... attempts to control its vast population and numerous policies and problems Confucianism submit to the emperor's power, order and harmony, tied to democratic centralism Bureaucratic hierarchy based on scholarship an elite based on Confucian scholarship. Major social separation in Ancient China was between a harge peasant population and bureaucratic elite. The Middle Kingdom center of civilization, foreigners are barbarians, this view was challenged but not destroyed

Communist ideology Maoism, (egalitarianism), Confucianism, the Deng Xiaophing Theory (a practical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization).

Political Culture Confucianism vs. Maoism Geographic Influences Historical Eras Dynastic rule: centers on Confucian values, scholarship, isolation, cultural identity Resistance to imperialism: 19th century, nationalism, persistent attempts by imperialist nations to exploit natural resources and people, hatred of the foreign devils, led China to be cautious and suspicious in their dealings with capitalist countries Maoism: collectivism (valuing the good of the community above that of the individual), struggle and activism, mass line, egalitarianism (hierarchy), self-reliance Deng Xiaoping Theory: only improve the economy, turnaround of the Chinese economy Importance of Informal Relationships: Long March relationships, factions of their followers still complete for power, patron-client system (informal network) Chinese Nationalism: Middle Kingdom, Olympics Political and Economic Change Rose to regional hegemony (control of surrounding countries) Change before 1949 China carved into spheres of influence for other countries, resentful of these foreign devils Revolutionary Upheavals Nationalism Establishing a new political community: Chiang Kai-shek founded the Nationalist Party and the other from Mao Zedong, who founded the Chinese Communist Party Socioeconomic development: major challenge Chinese Communist Revolution and Women's Rights: women got more rights... worked a lot... continued. But now it's getting worse. Wives being sold, etc. The Legend of the Long March: pursuit of Mao's army by Chiang and his supporters. Had the opposite effect. Mao emerged as a hero of the people. The Founding of the People's Republic of China (1949-1966) Born from a civil war between the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek and his supporters off the mainland to the island of Taiwan Two phases The Soviet Model: USSR had been supportive of Mao, land reform (rich poor), civil reform (opium addict help, women's rights), Five-Year Plans (nationalize industry ad collectivize agriculture, steps toward socialism) The Great Leap Forward: Mao changed directions to free China from Soviet domination. It was a utopian effort to transform China into a radical egalitarian society. Mainly economic focus. Based on four principles: all-around development (agriculture and industry), mass mobilization (harder work, etc), political unanimity and zeal (party workers running government) and cadres (party workers at lowest levels), decentralization (more local control, less central control) The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)

Liu and Deng implemented market-oriented policies that revived the economy, but Mao was still unhappy, thus starting this. The ethic of struggle, mass line, collectivism, egalitarianism, unstinting service to society, Primary goal: remove all vestiges of the old China and its hierarchical bureaucracy and emphasis on inequality. Focus: education Divided into factions after Mao's death: Radicals (supported the radical goals of the Cultural Revolution), Military (always powerful), Moderates (emphasized economic modernization and limited contact with other countries. Zhou.) Deng Xiaoping's Modernizations (1978-1997) New leader Four modernizations: industry, agriculture, science, and the military Helped create: open door trade policy (trade with all), reforms in education, and institutionalization of the Revolution (restoring the legal system and bureaucracy of the Old China, decentralizing the government, modifying elections, and infusing capitalism)

Citizens, Society, and the State Mao Deng Jiang Hu Maoism: no civil society allowed, insane government control Transition to market-based economy: CCP appeals to patriotism and pride Ethnic Cleavages China's ethnic population is primarily Han Chinese, the people that historically formed the basis of China's identity. Minorities mostly live in autonomous regions. Urban-Rural Cleavages Economic growth has taken place in cities. Protests in rural areas A new government emphasis on a new socialist countryside: a program to lift the lagging economy Political Participation: citizens are subjects of government, not participants in a political system Party and Participation CCP members make up only a small minority. Party membership is growing, with new members recruited largely from CCP's Youth League. Maoist Era cadres whose careers depended on party loyalty and ideological purity led the CCP at all levels Deng technocrats, people with technical training who have climbed the ladder of the party bureaucracy, have led the party increasingly Change in party membership with the decision to allow capitalists to become members business interests The Growth of Civil Society Control mechanisms of the party have loosened communications Growth of civil society maybe due to the rising middle class Activists angered when Beijing allowed non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to register with the government. Key test religion (Christianity and Buddhism) Protests: Tiananmen Square massacre, religious (Falon Gong), village protests

Riots in Tibet (2008 Summer Olympics torch relay) and in Xinjang (protests, police force craziness, executions) Political Institutions Best catagorized as authoritarian, one in which decisions are made by political elites without much input from the citizens. lots of corruption Command economy MARKET ECONOMY. Result: a major featrue of economic decisionmaking is now decentralization, or devolution of power to subnational governments. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Bases legitimacy on representation of the historical best interests of all the people Organized hierarchically by levels... at the top = supreme leader National Party Congress: chosen primarily from congresses on lower levels, usually rubber-stamps decisions made by the party leaders, mainly elects members of the Central Committee Central Committee: carry on the business of the National Party Congress between sessions, meetings are called plenums choose the Politburo and the Standing Committee Politburo/Standing Committee: most powerful, chosen by the Central Committee, dictate government policies Non-Communist Parties: China has a one-party system1 but the CCP does allow the existence of eight democratic parties that are tightly controlled by the CCP. Serve as an advisor to the party leaders. Elections: have elections to legitimize CCP government, party controls commissions that run elections, only direct elections at the local level The Political Elite: lots of guanxi (personal connections), recruits eladers through nomenklatura (a system of choosing cadres from lower levels of the party hierarchy for advancement based on their loyalty and contributions to the well-being of the party) Factionalism (current, generally) Conservatives worry that the power of the party and the central governent has eroded too much. Concerned about any movement towards democracy. Most prominent leader is Li Peng. Reformers/open door supports major capitalist infusion into the PRC's economy and generally promotes an open door trade policy. Focus on economic growth and development. Jiang Zemin = important leader. Current president Hu Jintao, and prime minister, Wen Jiabao, have allied with the faction. Liberals have been out of power and are generally more accepting of political liberties and democratic movements than are the other factions. Famous leaders: Hu Yuobang and Zhao Ziyang. Factions follow the process of fang-shou Corruption: combination of guanzi and the economic boom of the past 20 years have brought about rampant corruption. Chinese media hardly ever reports corruption cases without official approval. Interest Groups Not permitted to influence the political process unless they are under the party-state authority 1. regime in which a single political party monopolizes politics, with other parties banned or excluded from power

In urban areas, the party maintains social control through danwei, social units usually based on a person's place of work. They become reliant on these rather than on family. These organizations and the state's relationship with them reflect state corporatism. Media: originally, almost all state-controlled now some are independent but state-run rule. The official press agency of the government, Xinhua. Institutions: political structure seen as three parallel hierarchies Communist Party, state/government, the People's Liberation Army. The relationship between the party and the government is controlled by the principle of dual role: vertical supervision of the next higher level of government and horizontal supervision of the Communist Party at the same level. Structure of the Government: legislature, executive, judiciary all controlled by party The People's Congresses: chooses the president and VP of China, but there is only one party-sponsored candidate for each position. Congress itself has little power, but the Politburo's decisions are formally announced then. Executive/Bureaucracy: the president and VP serve five-year terms, limited to 2 terms. Largely ceremonial. The premier is the head of government, formally appointed by the president, but again, the position is always held by a member of the Standing Committee. Controlled by the principle of dual role supervision from higher bodies in the gov't. Lower levels held by cadres. The Judiciary: four-tiered people's court system. A worldwide organization called the people's procuratorate provides public prosecutors and defenders to the courts. Rule of law had little place under Mao -? now acknowledge rule of law and interprets it to mean that laws bind behavior and all are equally subject to them. Good criminal justice system. The People's Liberation Army (PLA): smaller than that of the US, but spend more money. Has never held formal power but has been an important influence on politics and policy. Represented in the gov't by the Central Military Commission. Tiananmen crisis hurt their reputation. Jiang Zemin stepped down from president and then took control of CMC.

Policymaking and Political Issues Centered on reconciling centralized political authority with marketization and privatization of the economy Policymaking Process: Fang-shou a letting-go, tightening-up cycle evidenced even under Mao. Cycle consists of three types of actions/policies: economic reform, political movements (letting go), and a tightening-up by the CCP. Characterized by a lack of transparency. Policy Issues Democracy and Human Rights: some input from the National People's Congress is accepted by the Politburo, more emphasis on law, village elections are now semi-competitive Tiananmen Crisis transformed into a demand for democratic reforms. PLA guns recaptured control upset human rights activists Lots of pressure from international human rights organizations Rule of Law: rulers should not have absolute power over their subjects, and that their actions should be constrained by the same principles that control ordinary citizens. Criminal law has also developed resulting in procuratorates (officials who investigate and prosecute official crimes) were recreated from earlier days. Civil Rights and Liberties... status widely ddebated. Hu has shown few signs of changing the government's basic political policies toward individual civil liberties and rights. Ideological education. Population Policy

Two-child family services including abortions one child policy... more accepted in cities and urban areas Consequences: female infantcide, lopsided number of young adult males to young adult females Economic Policy: a command economy directed by a central government based on democratic centralism. Mao called this the iron rice bowl, or cradle-to-grave health care, work, and retirement security. Failed. Deng tried to make up a socialist market economy: gradual infusion of capitalism while still retaining state control. Agricultural policy: people's communes (collective farms during the Great Leap Forward), household responsibility system (still in effect, individual families take full charge of the production and marketing of crops... paying taxes/fees, families may consume/sell what they produce) Private business: new category under control of party urban co-ops, service organizations, and rural industries. Fastest growing sector: township and village enterprises (TVEs): rural factories and businesses that vary greatly in size, and are run by local gov't and private entrepreneurs Economic Problems Unemployment and inequality: Maoism everyone was guaranteed a job. Now, great split between rich and poor. Floating population of rural migrants seeking job opportunities in cities. Inefficiency of the state sector: corruption, inefficiency, and too many workers Pollution: industrialization/unhealthy Product safety: tension between central government authority and capitalism. Authority has been decentralized, so that local officials have gained a great deal of decision-making power. Result: central gov't lost direct control over production. Foreign Policy and International Trade: resists international pressure, integrated, problematic, Japan tensions... better now, but still... Foreign policy under Mao: PRC based its foreign policy on providing support for third world revolutionary movements. USSR relationship: dependence independence. US/Chinese Relations: no contact Nixon's visit = friendship. Today, the US imports many more products from China than it exports, and is concerned about the imbalance between exports and imports. Today: Four Special Economic Zones (SEZs) were established. In these regions, foreign investors were given presidential tax rates and other incentives. Wealthy class of businessmen emerged. Deng emphasized economic reform, but he did not support political reforms that included democracy and/or more civil liberties for citizens. Hong Kong: ceded by Britain under a one country, two systems agreement. HK subject to Chinese rule, but continues to enjoy a high degree of autonomy, meaning that it maintains its capitalist system, legal system, and ways of life. Problems. HK elite remains pro-business, Chinese support, great trade center. Taiwan: Claimed to by the Republic of China, separate from the PRC. Autonomy protected by the US in a Cold War tactic. Switched around more respect for China. Regular communication between the island and mainland and almost certainly will ease trade and business exchanges.

PARTY STRUCTURES Executive General Secretary: Hu Jintao, since 02 Responsibilities: Runs the Politburo and its Standing Committee Party Chairman removed in 82 to promote collective leadership; Mao too powerful No clear replacement but recently have been peaceful transitions of power as Deng supported Jiang Zemin(89-02) who in turn supported Hu Deng was never gen sec as he believed in leadership by lines and encouraged participation of younger members but didnt work as elders tried to dominate younger members, led to purges Hu Yaobang in 87 and Zhao Ziyang in89 Politburo: 24 Members, elected by the Central Committee, Politburo St. Comm. and Gen Sec who are members of the CC; election without choice and determined by party leaders, meets 1/month, Formal Responsibilities: determines major policy Real Responsibilities: ratifies decisions of PSC Politburo Standing Committee: 9 Members, inner circle, meet 1X/wk Responsibilities: Makes the big decisions, really in charge, meet in secret Each member tends to be responsible for one large policy area Informed by leading small groups: defined by functional sector, research and formulate policy; headed by top people, including members of the Politburo; most thorough consideration of policy options and most influence of shaping of policy; have no formal authority and do not formally issue policy Secretariat and Party Departments: provides support to Politburo, move policy information upward, move policy decisions downward; provide much of the legwork for policy formation and give results to leading small groups Central Military Commission: Chairman Hu Jintao Legislative National Party Congress: 2,120 Members, meets every 5 yrs, most recently Nov. 2007, 1-2 week sessions Responsibilities: ratify any significant changes in policy that have already been decided, highest formal endorsement by the party, major historic events Elects the central committee but Politburo decides who will run, equal number of positions and candidates Central Committee: 198 Members, the political elite, most powerful couple hundred men in China, hold major political positions throughout the government; meet at least 1/yr; Politburo will come from this group Responsibilities: Doesnt initiate policy but approves policy changes Relied upon to keep the party line throughout China, brings all major leaders into the process to endorse policy and take responsibility, hold party line Determines number of congressional delegates and rules for election Judiciary Disciplinary Inspection Commission: reinstated in 78, subordinate to CC Responsibilities: enforces standards of conduct for party members including, party rules prohibit inappropriate practices; investigate members involved in corruption Restored order and discipline after the Cultural Revolution

GOVERNMENT STRUCTURES Executive Head of State: President Hu Jintao, appointed by the NPC, only one candidate Ceremonial position, 5 year term, limited to 2, at least 45 yrs old Head of Government: Premier Wen Jiabao, appointed by the NPC Leads the State Council, appoints members, etc. State Council: 35 Members, nominated by the premier and appointed by the NPC Responsibilities: center of lawmaking and government activity State Council Standing Committee: 10 Members, meets 2X/week Responsibilities: drafts legislation and hears reports from ministries All important legislation must have CCP approval Central Military Commission: Chairman Hu Jintao, oversees PLA Legislative National Peoples Congress: 2,951 Members, five year terms, elected by delegates from provincial congresses and military, meet 1/yr for two weeks (AKA PNC) Formal Powers: amend constitution, pass legislation, approve economic plans and government work reports, appoint top state and government leaders Real powers: formally approves what the standing committee decides for them, used to be completely automatic, unanimous approval but now is some limited dissent and makes own motions; does announce major policy decisions, leadership changes Overall weak and responds to an executive-led government and CCP leadership All delegates who are CCP members are briefed by the party before each meeting in order to establish agenda, goals of party leaders, and tone CCP can veto all important legislation CCP decides all appointments before NPC meets, equal # of positions and candidates NPCs Standing Committee: 159 Members, many are party elders and use the committee for influence Responsibilities: Does the real work of the NPC, exercises most of the powers, plans agenda for plenary sessions when NPC will ratify legislation Overall is relatively weak as it must abide by the executive and CP Judiciary Supreme Peoples Court: responsible to NPC; supported by local peoples courts Supreme Peoples Procuratorate: central prosecutorial agency, bridge between public security agents (police) and courts, supervise criminal investigations, approve arrests, prosecute cases; focused on corruption since 80s; criminal system has conviction rate of 99%, swift and harsh, long prison sentences, no real appeals system, many executions, HR problems No Judicial Review Policymaking: In general is more consensus-oriented since 97 as no one has the clout of Mao or Deng and for economic reasons need to work with regional leaders Fragmented authoritarianism: fragmentation of formal authority, informal coordinating mechanisms at the top Dual subordination: National ministry at head of departments at various levels throughout the country, the departments are also subordinate to their own government in their region, county, etc. Lines authoritarian communication from top to bottom and Pieces of horizontally from governments to departments Very difficult for policy process to work efficiently