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NEVILLE LAWLESS 10212298 20/4/11
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing engineering DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland
The primary goal of this research has been to validate the use of numerical simulation software to model the deep drawing process. This was conducted using ANSYS12.1, in which, 3 models have been constructed and tested. Model 1 constructed solely out of PLANE82 elements, model 2 solely from SHELL208 elements and model 3 which has been formed from a combination of both. These axisymmetric models have been used to simulate the drawing process of drawing quality mild steel EN10130 FeP01 of 1 mm thickness using both punch and die radii of 2mm Unconverging solutions and negative jacobian errors have led to the failure of models 1 & 2, however model 3 has provided satisfactory results with which comparisons have been made against experimental and numerical results found in literature. It has been shown that the areas of maximum strain in the cup occur on the inside wall of the blank holder radii, and on the outside wall of the punch radii. A maximum value of strain has been shown to be 0.6179. Values for thickness distribution have also been obtained and compared against those mentioned; the max and min values were found to be 1.108mm & 0.717mm. For sections along the flange and cup wall, the average difference when compared against experimental values is less than 5%, discrepancies begin to arise however when approaching the cup base radii and then along its base. It has been discussed that possible local variations of the frictional coefficient is the foremost reason for the large inconsistencies between the experimental and numerical results. Further work is needed to provide higher level of accuracies here.
Key words: Deep drawing, Finite element analysis, FEA, ANSYS, mild steel, sheet forming processes.
1. Introduction ....................................................................................1 2. Literature Review ..........................................................................2 3. Details of Finite Element Model ...................................................4
3.1. Environment .............................................................................................. 4 3.2. Material Properties ................................................................................... 5 3.3. Modelling ................................................................................................... 6
3.3.1. Creating Geometry................................................................................ 6
3.4. Meshing ...................................................................................................... 7 3.5. Loading ...................................................................................................... 9
3.5.1. 3.5.2. Coupling nodes: .................................................................................... 9 Boundary conditions........................................................................... 10
3.6. Solution and Post-processing: ............................................................... 10 3.7. Convergence Testing: ............................................................................. 10
4. Results ...........................................................................................11
4.1. Finite element results ............................................................................. 11 4.2. Comparison of results with literature.................................................. 14
5. Discussion: A Critical evaluation of the results. .......................15
5.1. Discussion of finite element analysis results ...................................... 15 5.2. Comparison with results from literature............................................. 17
6. Conclusions ..................................................................................18 7. References .....................................................................................19
This work intends to approach the deep drawing process of thin walled, mild steel, cylindrical containers, by means of a finite element analysis. The objective of the work is to successfully simulate the deep drawing process and validate any results found, by making a comparison with previously published literature. This literature contains both experimental and numerical results which are in close agreement with each other and so and is being set as the benchmark to which comparisons can be made. The incentive for doing this research is that deep drawing has come to a stage in the current industrialised world that requires the most efficient, low-cost, manufacturing route to be taken at all times. This needs to be done whilst also maintaining the highest level of recyclability during the material pre-processing stage (cold rolling etc.), the drawing stage and subsequent finishing stage. This efficiency and recyclability is demanded by both the environment and the manufacturers. Currently, the demand for metal containers in the world is in the region of 410 billion units per annum. Out of this then, drink cans account for 320 billion and processed food cans account for 75 billion. It is also known, that for the majority of food and drink containers, the cost of the processed metal accounts for 50-70% of the total cost . From the manufacturer’s point of view then, a reduction in material usage is of huge importance to cost reductions. Reduction of material can be done by decreasing the wall thickness of the containers, whilst also retaining adequate strength to allow the container to serve its purpose, without fear of failure occurring. The designer must meet these expectations, but also, must determine the material requirements and properties which are suitable for the food or drink being packaged. This brings us back to the objective of this work mentioned previously, the ability for the designer/engineer to successfully numerically model the deep drawing process. Traditionally, this process, and all metal forming techniques have been tested experimentally using trial-and-error or empirical methods, which is an expensive and time consuming approach, as dies, blank holders and punches all need to be manufactured. By making use of finite element analysis packages and statistical methods, the prediction of results such as the punch force, the blank holder force, the thickness distribution through sections of the metal and the lubrication requirements can be determined. This can significantly reduce the production costs, for higher quality containers by reducing the lead time to production and provides engineers the ability to respond to market changes with greater speeds.
In doing this, the level of knowledge in how various materials interact and the banks of data for specific materials are also increased which is another positive outcome.
2. Literature Review
Prior to the development of any simulation models, an evaluation of previous work in this field was undertaken. This was required so a greater understanding of the task at hand could be reached and also in the hopes that similar work could provide as a means of comparison once results have been found. The first of these works is published by Colgan and Monaghan  and has taken a statistical approach, based on Experimental design using orthogonal arrays to ascertain which factors most influence the deep drawing process. As will be seen in sections to follow, the geometries for the deep drawing process have been reproduced by the author of this work, and a critical comparison made against them. 400 tests were carried out on blanks cut from drawing quality mild steel EN10130 FeP01 of 1 mm thickness and it was established that that the punch/die radii have the greatest effect on the thickness of the deformed mild steel cups. It was made apparent that the smaller the die radii, the greater the force on the blank, resulting in thinner wall thicknesses. It was also shown that the type of lubrication is significant to the force on the punch. The authors explain that for the experimental component of the research, hydraulic cylinders are the means by which the blank holder force is delivered. They also go on to mention that a pressure gauge is currently being used to measure the pressure in the cylinders in conjunction with a needle valve. Although providing adequate results, it would be desirable to employ the use of strain gauges in this instance, so as to gain a higher level of accuracy and confidence in the values obtained. From Colgan and Monahan’s work , the die radii were noted as a prominent factor, but not enough substance has been included to account for other factors affecting the deep drawing process. This is addressed in another approach seen in a paper by Demirci et al,  which analyses the deep drawing process of AL1050 by performing experiments and a finite element analysis using ANSYS/LS-DYNA on the effects of the blank holder forces on differences in the cup wall thickness. They have shown that under constant pressure the base of drawn cups remains at a constant value until thickness drops dramatically towards the cup corners and then begins to rise exponentially towards the outer edge on the cup flange. By taking into account the anisotropic properties of the material they concluded that for forces above 10 MPa tearing in the cup would occur.
A paper published in 2007 by Dr. Waleed Khalid Jawad  confirms the previously stated point that increasing the punch radii can decrease the punch load and vice versa, if even only slightly. His work investigates the effect which punch radii holds over the interfacial contact between the punch and the blank, punch load, thickness through a section of the drawn cup, and the resulting localized strain and stress distribution. Jawad concludes that frictional forces act mainly through the edge of the punch in a shearing manner and that its flat section has little effect. It should be noted here that the distribution of strain for the geometries created has a very similar shape in most cases. This can be used as a means of comparison later in this work as material models for mild steel have been selected from this paper. Vladimirov et al,  present in their work, the derivation of a finite strain material model for plastic anisotropy and nonlinear kinematic and isotropic hardening. Following this, the work is applied numerically to the drawing of cylindrical and square shaped cups. They show that the numerical simulations, can be suitably prepared from the complex mathematical material models and that the phenomena of anisotropic properties can still be accounted for even with large deformations. They further go on to show the applicability of the mathematical work to account for the occurrence of earring during the drawing process. Having arrived at a point where the material can be modelled to a very high degree of accuracy leaves the necessity for the selection of a drawing machine that can be operated at a suitable capacity. By predicting the forming load required to complete the drawing, cost analyses can be carried out for the manufacture of the container. In a paper by Fereshteh-Saniee and Montazeran  forming load predictions are made for various element types in the finite element method, and the strain thickness distributions are once again produced, as seen in . The authors also show that the use of shell 51 elements in the finite element package hold a much higher agreement with the experimental results, than those of when modelled with visco solid 106 elements. In making these comparisons, Fereshteh-Saniee and Montazeran use a formula derived by Siebel in  to produce an analytical solution to which the level of agreement between the various methods is generally acceptable. Finally, research has led to the development of an analytical method to model the frictional contact in elastoplastic models which undergo large deformations. This paper by Meguid and Refaat  uses a method of variational inequalities to implement this. The effect of nonlinearities arising due to the geometry or the materials used in the model is met by using the updated Lagrangian formulation. As with all of the previous literature these methods were applied to simulations of the drawing process and have achieved satisfactory solutions. Having carried out this review of work, it has become clear what factors have the biggest influence during the sheet forming process and a number of methods of
measurement and comparison have been identified. These shall be put into practice in the research component of this work to follow.
3. Details of Finite Element Model
Element Types PLANE82 is a 2-D, 8-Node Structural Solid. The eight node element is defined by 4 nodes at each corner of the element and 4 along the length of each connecting line. Each node has two degrees of freedom, correlating to translations in the x and y directions. This element type is a higher order form of PLANE42 and thus lends itself to more accurate solutions. This element type is well suited for modelling plane stress or axisymmetric problems and so it has been used to mesh the punch and die components in the model. PLANE82 was chosen over PLANE42 as there was a need for a circular fillet on the die and punch, the quadratic nature of this element type leads to a better resulting mesh than the 4 node element. 
Figure 1: Quadrilateral and triangular 8 node elements used in ansys 
SHELL208: is a 2 node element which has 3 degrees of freedom at each node. These are translations in the x and y axes and also rotation about the z-axis. It is designed to model thin to moderately thick axisymmetric shell based structures. It was chosen as it models well finite strain while transverse shear strains are assumed small. 
Figure 2: Shell 208 element shapes in ansys 
3.2. Material Properties
Three material models were utilised in this analysis: Material model 1: used for punch/die/blank holder
This was set as tool steel which was selected as structural-> linear elastic material with a young’s modulus of 210 GPa and poisons ratio of 0.3 Material model 2: used for the blank material. It was selected as a structural -> Non-linear -> Inelastic-> Rate independent -> Isotropic Hardening-> Bilinear material model.
The material which has been modelled as the blank in this research was as stated in section 2.1, a mild steel. A paper by Jawa (2007) , investigates the effects of contact in the deep drawing process and models the blanks from a very similar mild steel as required in this instance. The properties which were specified in that paper were taken directly. They are listed below in table 1
Table 1: Property table for Blank being formed.
Annealed mild steel Property Carbon content Yield stress Tangent modulus Modulus of elasticity Poisson’s Ratio Friction Coefficient Value 0.15 % 200 MPa 0.5 GPa 200 Gpa 0.3 0.1
Material model 3: Coefficient of friction for all contact set as 0.1
3.3.1. Creating Geometry
For this research, 3 separate models were built and tested. The reason for this was the occurrence of errors and un-converging solutions in the two initials models (1 & 2), the model types were: 1. 2-D Axisymmetric solid model built using all PLANE82 elements 2. 2-D Axisymmetric shell model built using all SHELL208 elements 3. 2-D Axisymmetric model built using a combination of PLANE82 for the die and punch elements and SHELL208 for the blank elements. The model dimensions were taken from a paper by Colgan and Monaghan .
Blank holder force: Dp Do C Rp RD t
Figure 3: Schematic illustration of the deep drawing process with table of inputs 
18KN 0.0394m 0.076m 0.00015 0.002 0.002 0.001m
Models 1, 2 and 3 were modelled by inputting a log file containing commands to generate key points and lines; this was done so if any changes needed to be made they could be done with haste. Areas which were desired to be map meshed needed to be either three or four sided. This was done by concatenating any adjacent lines. Figure 4 below indicates the line geometries constructed. An area was modelled to represent the radius of 0.002m for both die and punch so that it could be altered if required. The image on the left displays the blank as an area; this was altered to a shell with thickness 0.001m in model 3, (The model for which a solution was found).
Figure 4: line diagram displaying the lines and area geometries created. Model 1&3 left, model 2, right.
Model 1: For the initial model construction, a free mesh was employed on the punch and die, with the corner radii being refined to accurately reflect any stress concentrations occurring. A mapped mesh was generated on the blank holder and blank as they were both 4 sided and meshed easily. The blank holder set to a size of 0.001m and the blank at a size of 0.00025m.
Figure 5: Model 1: Original Free mesh on die/punch and mapped mesh on blank @ 0.00025m
Again using model 1, A quadrilateral mapped mesh was generated on all areas apart from the punch/die corner radii, which were triangular. This was done to achieve a higher number of elements along this line so a solution using contact conditions could be found easier.
Figure 6: Model 1: Triangular mapped mesh on radii of blank/die and @0.0001m on blank
Model 2: Created from 4 lines (figure 5); this model was attempting to model the deep drawing process using only shell elements. The shells were meshed with a global element size of 0.0025m (figure 8).
Figure 7: Model 2: Mesh generated at 0.0005m
Model 3: The final model constructed was built using the PLANE82 material model to represent the solid components; punch, die, blank holder. These were all mapped meshed to size 0.0005m. The blank was modelled using the SHELL208 material model and element size set to 0.00025m.
Figure 8: Model 3 (solved): complete mapped mesh. Die/punch @ 0.0005, Blank shell at 0.00025m
3.5.1. Coupling nodes:
Model 1 & 3: Nodes were coupled at various locations in all models so that loads and displacements could be modelled successfully. Figure 9 below clarifies the following description. On the blank holder (B) all nodes along the top surface were coupled using the coupled node option (CP). A force applied to one node causes the load to be applied evenly over the top surface of the area and not cause a stress concentration to arise at the point of load application. The area of the punch (A) has all nodes coupled in the Y-direction. This prevented the deformation of elements up through the punch which could cause errors to arise.
Figure 9: Model which indicates areas which have had nodes coupled.
Model 2: Again the blank holder, modelled using shells, has all nodes coupled in the y-direction, to evenly distribute the load. The punch and die has all nodes coupled in all directions preventing bending unless a prescribed displacement is set.
Figure 10: Model 2 with nodes being coupled in their respective degrees of freedom.
3.5.2. Boundary conditions
Model 1 & 3: For the required deformation to be applied, a displacement was set on the punch area A to a distance of 0.02m. Also this area was constrained in the xdirection so no rigid body rotation could take place. The blank holder, area B, was constrained in the X direction and the die, area C, was constrained to no movement in all degrees of freedom. Finally the blank, area D is constrained at its last node at the centre point (Far left) from moving in the X- direction. Model 2: As above, the shell model has a displacement applied to the punch shell of 0.02m and the blank shell constrained at its last node at the centre point (Far left) from moving in the X- direction.
3.6. Solution and Post-processing:
Following the successful modelling of geometry, then meshing and correctly applying boundary conditions and loads, a solution was run. The solution was a large static displacement analysis. It was carried out with time increments, having the max number of substeps set as 1000, minimum as 10, and a desired number of 100 specified. One of the primary objectives for carrying out this research, as stated previously, was to make a comparison of values obtained, against a paper by Colgan and Monaghan . Values for plastic strain and cross sectional thickness were thus required. The Von mises plastic strain was plotted on a contour plot to give a visual indication of strain through the now deformed blank, and an elemental table was defined so a list of values could be exported to excel to be graphed. The same method was applied to ascertain values for thickness along a section of the drawn cup.
3.7. Convergence Testing:
It has been seen that various models have been constructed. This has been due to the unconverging solutions in each, or the simulations causing a negative jacobian error. For the final model, (model 3) a solution was obtained. However, further refining the mesh led to errors once again. So no proper convergence test has been carried out.
4.1. Finite element results
Having solved the model (model 3) with no errors being generated, the now deformed cup can be plotted. A displacement of 20 mm or 0.02m can be seen as the deformation applied below. Figures 11-17 represent the various results achieved from the finite element analysis.
Figure 11: 2-D plot showing the deformed and undeformed edge of the cup in purple with the punch, die and blank holder in cyan.
Figure 12: Contour plot of deformed cup with the von mises plastic strain plotted along the length of the cup.
Figure 13: As figure 13, enlarged, without punch/die/blank holder. Contour plot of von mises plastic strain along length of deformed blank/cup
Figure 14: A 90o 2-D axisymmetric symmetry expansion of the deformed cup.
Figure 15: A 360o 2-D axisymmetric symmetry expansion of the deformed cup.
Figure 16 below represents the distribution of von mises strain across the length of the drawn cups cross section.
0.5 Strain %
0.4 0.3 0.2 Von mises plastic…
5000 Nodal numbers
Figure 16: Percentage strain (von mises) along length of cup section.
Figure 17: Contour plot of the shell thickness along the length of the cup.
4.2. Comparison of results with literature
To validate results which were obtained from this finite element analysis, It was required that a comparison be made against similar work in this field. This comparison was made against the paper by Colgan and Monahan referred to in section 4.6 . Table 2 below, contains the thickness values of a cup section for the experimental results found from deep drawing a sample of cups in , then the Finite element analysis predication for the processes and below them, from this authors work, the finite element results which were obtained. These have been appropriately selected to correspond to the same distance across the section of the drawn cup. A Percentage difference was also calculated between the experimental results and the predicted values in this paper.
Table 2: Experimental and numerical results obtained from literature alongside results obtained in this work.
1 Experimental FEA Predicted FEA carried out
% Difference between Exp & FEA carried out
8 Average 0.94013 0.96225 0.84675 10.1363
StD. 0.10742 0.10629 0.16831 12.1022
1.13 1.03 0.89 0.83 0.82 0.87 0.97 0.98 1.11 1.08 1.01 0.96 0.8 0.84 0.94 0.96 1.11 1.11 0.84 0.83 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 2.12 -7.3 5.74 -0.4 12.9 16.9 25.1 26
Figure 18 below gives a visual indication of how the three sets of data compare.
Cup thickness along section
1.20E-03 1.00E-03 Cup thicnkess (m)
6.00E-04 4.00E-04 2.00E-04 0.00E+00 4940 FEA Carried out
Nodal numbers left= cup centre
Figure 18: Shell thickness after deformation plotted against data from literature.
5. Discussion: A Critical evaluation of the results.
5.1. Discussion of finite element analysis results
Model 1: A 2-D Axisymmetric solid model built using all PLANE82 elements. This first attempt at modelling the deep drawing process was unable to be solved successfully. The model failed to converge after being modelled with a course mesh and once again with a much more refined mesh. All care was taken to ensure that correct boundary conditions, loads and displacement were put in place and that the material models matched the requirements of the research. The major error which has been constantly seen when running the solution is the occurrence of negative jacobian errors. This is possibly due to the deformation of the elements in the blank as they deform around the corners of the die and punch. It is possible that the elements twist in on themselves after becoming severely plastically deformed, thus leading to this error.
Model 2: A 2-DAxisymmetric shell model built using all SHELL208 elements. Having not been able to ascertain results for the previous model it was felt that taking a new approach to the problem might lead to a more elegant solution which was initially overlooked. It was anticipated that by simplifying the model to only four lines (figure 4) to represent the deep drawing process, that a solution may converge easier. As described in section 3, all the shells were specified to a thickness of 1mm or 0.001m and give an element length of 0.00025m. At this point numerous consultations were made with more experienced users of Ansys/FEA as to how the model could be correctly constrained. This was not successful however, as with every attempt at solving, the same error: “Specified constraint not allowed on slave degree of freedom in coupled set” was given. The constraints have been manipulated numerous times to determine if a workaround could be found, but attempts have not been successful. Model 3: 2-DAxisymmetric model built using a combination of PLANE82 for the die and punch elements and SHELL208 for the blank elements. This final method has proved fruitful in providing a more respectable representation of the deep drawing process via the finite element method. Figures 11-17 show the final results which were reached using this model. It is not yet fully understood why this model solved when comparing it against model two, as the same constraints were applied to both. Nevertheless, the results produced appear to be as required, so further investigation perhaps can be given at a later time. Examining figure 11 for any major points of interest does not lead to any particularly insightful results. All deformations which have occurred appear to be as expected and all materials boundaries remain intact which confirms that the model contact conditions have held and a proper solution is presented. A plot of the von mises plastic strain is given in Figures 12-15, it has been seen that the areas of maximum strain through the thickness of the shell elements occur near to where the maximum deformation is caused. This area is on the inside wall of the blank holder radii, and on the outside wall of the punch radii. The value for the maximum strain is 0.6179. It should be noted at this point that along the base of the drawn cup, the distribution of von mises strain is perfectly even once it has moved away from the corner area. This, it is felt, is perhaps an erroneous value as it could be imagined that there would be at least a small contouring present as the stain distribution fell off towards the centre. No evidence could be found in other literature to confirm otherwise, however a paper by Jawa , referred to in section 2, in which material properties which were used for this analyses were found, hold strain graphs very similar to that in figure 17. 16
A constant strain value of ~ 0.3 can be seen towards the centre of the cup which travels horizontally before dropping and suddenly rising to a value of max strain around 0.6/0.8. This suggests to the author that in fact the lack of a noticeable contouring in this area is in fact correct, assuming similar material properties. This shall be discussed further
5.2. Comparison with results from literature
The primary goal of this research has been to validate the use of a numerical simulation of the deep drawing process. This was conducted using ANSYS12.1 which is based on the finite-element formulation. A paper selected by the research supervisor “Deep drawing process: analysis and experiment, by Colgan and Monaghan , performed an experimental and numerical analysis of the process and so a comparison is to be made in this work against the values which have been recorded for the cross sectional thickness of the deep drawn cup. Table 2 has the values drawn from the literature in it, and also, the results which have been found from the FEA analysis in ANSYS by the author of this work. These values which have been found in this research correspond to the thickness at every node along the cup cross section. Obviously these cannot be directly compared to the 8 values provided in the reference literature. Therefore, 8 values were taken from the generated data, at distances corresponding to these lengths in Figure 19 below.
Figure 19: Thickness measurement locations on the drawn cup.
The maximum and minimum experimental values shown are: 1.132mm 0.823mm and from this work are found to be 1.108mm & 0.717mm, which seems to hold in reasonable agreement. The average percentage difference between the experimental and FEA values can be taken from table 2, and is 9.93%. Although this value seems to be quite large for the 1mm thick plate it, must be noted that the greatest error occurs at the base of the cup. Here the cross section of the plate remains constant at a value of 0.724mm and so it is felt that this area accounts for most of the discrepancies between values. Examining the plot of the 3 different sets of values for thickness (figure 20) shows that at locations 1-4, the results achieved in this work hold closer to the experimental values. At location 5, where the maximum experimental thinning is found there becomes a ~ 12% difference and parts 6-8 then show the biggest differences of 1626%. As of yet no substantial cause has been found to cause these large variations, but it may be down to the frictional coefficient of 0.1 which has been set in the FEA model in this report. There appears to be no set frictional value for the 8 values reported in the paper by Colgan and Monaghan as they make use of a factorial approach to the experiments and use either zero lubricant or use PE, which when used in the deep drawing process can give values between 0.9 and 1.95. It is felt by the author that the frictional modelling used in this work is not quite adequate to deal with the real life contact conditions between punch-blank and dieblank interfaces. It is suggested that the frictional coefficient of 0.1 is too high for the punch/blank contact region over the base of the drawn cup. If this value was lessened then it is possible that less stretching would occur and the large variation of thickness would be less apparent. Holding with this idea, it would then appear that a better understanding is needed of the local variation of friction as the material is deformed around the radius of the die as the wall of the cup would experience mainly a longitudinal tensile stress, whereas it encounters more of a hoop stress as it is held by the blank holder. In their paper Colgan and Monaghan  don’t go into detail on the FEA software and approach which they used for their work, but a reference to being able to set different friction values for the punch side and die side of the blank in auto form was made. Having noted this, it would be hope that all points be addressed in greater detail in future work to arrive at a better numerical simulation of the deep drawing process.
Over the course of this work 3 models were built and tested, these were: Model 1: 2-D Axisymmetric solid model built using all PLANE82 elements 18
Model 2: 2-D Axisymmetric shell model built using all SHELL208 elements Model 3: 2-D Axisymmetric model built using a combination of PLANE82 for the die and punch elements and SHELL208 for the blank elements. Unconverging solutions and negative jacobian errors accounted for the failure to achieve results with models 1 and 2. Model 3 has been successfully solved and has provided adequate results. The von mises plastic strain has been found for the deformed blank, the areas of maximum strain through the thickness of the shell elements occur near to where the maximum deformation is caused. This area is on the inside wall of the blank holder radii, and on the outside wall of the punch radii. The value for the maximum strain is 0.6179. Questions still remain as to whether the strain distribution along the base of the cup should be so even A comparison has then been made to establish the validity of the finite element model created in ANSYS 12.1. This is compared to a paper which has both experimental work and numerical simulations carried out. Along a section through the flange and cup wall, it was found that the results obtained hold in great agreement (average less than 5%) with the values obtained from the literature. However larger variations begin to arise just approaching the radius of the cup base and also along the cup base No work has been done as of yet to confirm this notion, but it is felt by the author that the local variations for friction values are the predominant cause for the deviations away from the experimental results, this idea is supported by previously reviewed literature. Lower frictional values along the cup base/punch interface could easily give rise to a larger thickness throughout the base due to less stretching occurring.
 Richard Coles, Mark J. Kirwan, 2011, "Food and Beverage Packaging Technology," Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 344.
 Colgan, M., and Monaghan, J., 2003, "Deep Drawing Process: Analysis and Experiment," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 132(1-3) pp. 35-41.  Ibrahim Demirci, H., Yaşar, M., Demiray, K., 2008, "The Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Blank Holder Forces Plate Effect in Deep Drawing Process of AL 1050 Material," Materials & Design, 29(2) pp. 526-532.  Dr. Waleed Khalid Jawa, 2007, "Investigation of Contact Interface between the Punch andBlank in Deep Drawing Process," Engineering and Technology Journal, 25(3) pp. 370-382.  Vladimirov, I. N., Pietryga, M. P., and Reese, S., 2010, "Anisotropic Finite Elastoplasticity with Nonlinear Kinematic and Isotropic Hardening and Application to Sheet Metal Forming," International Journal of Plasticity, 26(5) pp. 659-687.  Fereshteh-Saniee, F., and Montazeran, M. H., 2003, "A Comparative Estimation of the Forming Load in the Deep Drawing Process," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 140(1-3) pp. 555-561.  K, L., 1985, "Handbook of Metal Forming." Society of Manufacturing Engineers, .  Meguid, S. A., and Refaat, M. H., 1997, "Finite Element Analysis of the Deep Drawing Process using Variational Inequalities," Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 28(1) pp. 51-67.  Plane 82 element type documentation, "Ansys Release Documentation," Http://www.Kxcad.net/ansys/ANSYS/ansyshelp/Hlp_E_PLANE82.Html, .  SHELL208 element type documentation, "Ansys Release Documentation," Http://www.Kxcad.net/ansys/ANSYS/ansyshelp/thy_el1208.Html, .