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The project is carried in different stages and iterations.

The stages are involved all mechanical design, control systems and electrical requirements. The steps are following, 1. 2. 3. 4. Mechanical ,electrical design and calculations Design simulation(Flow and Structural) Manufacturing the equipment Testing of the designed equipment

Mechanical, electrical design and calculations In the design stage the dimensions are arrived at based on the mechanical and electrical calculations. The dimensions of the equipment are fixed by using the theoretical calculations. Length of the tube, diameter and heater coil requirements is done based theory. Found the length of the tube that fluid has to travel is 3 m and inner diameter of 1 inch. The heater coil input energy is 2kW.The standards followed are ASME-Section VIII .This section gives information about the wall thickness and allowable stress limits for the pressure vessels. Design simulation (Flow and Structural)Heat transfer and Flow Analysis The challenge in the simulation is to prove the pipe with standing all the pressures and maintaining the temperature for the given flow rate of 125 kg/Hr.Initially the solid model is generated using solidworks software.It is a finned type tube having staright pipe with single pass.As the customer need it compact in size it was asked to reconsider the design.In second iteration is bent into no of passes so the size of the system will be lesser.A conjugate heat transfer flow analysis is carried to confirm all the paramentrs assumed in theory.From the analysis it is found that a 3 meterde tube inner diameter of 1 inch enough to raise the temperature from 30 to 90 degrees maintaining the flow rate.All the preprossing work i.e. preparing fluid domains is carried using HYPERMESH software tool.The flow problem is solved in CFX solver. After finding the distance to be travelled by the fluid it is the challenge to keep the temperature up by the heater coil. In the xxxxx type of arrangement keeping the heater coil is not easy.So the problem is still on in terms of shape. In general the heating coil is made on number of helical strings (Figxxx) joined together by the ceramic insulators. Then the shape of strings is adopted in the design of tubing also. The same simulation carried to confirm the heat transfer and flow physics for the helical tubing (Figxxxx).Advantage of the helical model are 1. The fluid particles have collisions with the heated wall and rate of conduction is higher 2. The fluid motion is vortex in nature because of the helical tube

3. Easy to mount the heating filaments inside the tube 4. Compact in size and occupies lesser space than any other. For the conjugate heat transfer analysis three dimensional CFD domain is used. Domain Specification and Boundary conditions In the Conjugate heat flow analysis, there are two domains considered both solid and fluid. Steel is defined as Solid domain material. Inside the steel tube fluid domain is embedded and Nitrogen gas is defined as fluid material. The properties of steel and Nitrogen given below,

MATERIAL: Steel Option = Pure Substance Thermodynamic State = Solid Material Group = CHT Solids PROPERTIES: Thermal Conductivity = 60.5 [W m^-1 K^-1] Density = 7854 [kg m^-3] Molar Mass = 55.85 [kg kmol^-1] Specific Heat Capacity = 4.34E+02 [J kg^-1 K^-1] Reference Temperature = 25 [C]

MATERIAL: Nitrogen N2 Option = Pure Substance Thermodynamic State = Gas PROPERTIES: Lower Temperature = 300 [K] Midpoint Temperature = 1000 [K] Upper Temperature = 5000 [K] Reference Pressure = 1 [atm] Reference Temperature = 25 [C] Dynamic Viscosity = 17.7E-06 [kg m^-1 s^-1] Thermal Conductivity = 259E-04 [W m^-1 K^-1] Molar Mass = 28.01 [kg kmol^-1]

Structured grid is used for the domains. Type of elements used are hexahedral and pentahedral . At the boundaries and walls smooth and fine mesh is adopted. The mesh transition also smooth. Boundary conditions-There are mainly three boundaries given, Inlet, outlet and wall temperature. At Inlet flow mass flow rate of (125 kg/hr ) is applied normal to the boundary. The temperature maintained at inlet is 25oC. Outlet is maintained at atmospheric pressure defined as opening. The initial temperature maintained at outlet is 25oC. An adiabatic wall is defined at 90oC allowing conjugate heat transfer. SolutionBoth steady state and transient cases are solved. In steady state solution automatic time step is used. The time step is calculated according to the smallest grid size and solved for multiple time steps in transient condition. In steady state solution it is conformed that problem reached equilibrium sate and could effectively raise the temperature to the 90oC.By using transient problem

it is found out the time required to heat the fluid for the huge flow rate. It is found out that approximately 0.05 seconds to get the temperature from the heated tube. Post Processing Results are plotted for velocity, temperature and pressure for the all domains for the last time step.

Structural and Stress analysis After conforming the helical design using flow analysis. The concept is brought to the structural solver to find the stress levels induced by both pressure and temperature. The systems operating pressure and temperature are 3bar and 90oC(maximum).The factor of safety incorporated should always be higher than the operating conditions. The following are the different conditions followed for design. For the analysis the maximum loading is considered.

Type of loading Operating Design Testing

Pressure(Bars) 3.333 5 7.5

temperature(oC) 90 90 90

For structural analysis ANSYS Mechanical APDL solver is used. A static analysis conducted at testing condition maintaining 7.5 bars internal pressure on the walls. A finite element model is generated extracting the mid surface of the tubing. Uniform Wall thickness is applied for the shell elements. Both flange faces are constrained in all degrees of freedom. The elements type used is structural shell63 first ordered. Having both quad and tria options.

SHELL63 has both bending and membrane capabilities. Both in-plane and normal loads are permitted. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z-axes. Stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities are included. A consistent tangent stiffness matrix option is available for use in large deflection (finite rotation) analyses

Figure 63.1: SHELL63 Geometry

xIJ = Element x-axis if ESYS is not supplied. x = Element x-axis if ESYS is supplied.

SHELL63 Input Summary


Nodes I, J, K, L Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Real Constants TK(I), TK(J), TK(K), TK(L), EFS, THETA, RMI, CTOP, CBOT, (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), ADMSUA Material Properties EX, EY, EZ, (PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ), DENS, GXY, DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom, in +Z direction), face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top, in -Z direction), face 3 (J-I), face 4 (K-J), face 5 (L-K), face 6 (I-L) Body Loads

Temperatures -T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8

SHELL63 Assumptions and Restrictions


Zero area elements are not allowed. This occurs most often whenever the elements are not numbered properly. Zero thickness elements or elements tapering down to a zero thickness at any corner are not allowed. The applied transverse thermal gradient is assumed to vary linearly through the thickness and vary bilinearly over the shell surface. An assemblage of flat shell elements can produce a good approximation of a curved shell surface provided that each flat element does not extend over more than a 15 arc. If elastic foundation stiffness is input, one-fourth of the total is applied at each node. Shear deflection is not included in this thin-shell element. The following are the material properties used for the structural analysis. Material Properties and testing conditions
MATERIAL: Steel Youngs modulus( E )=190000 N/mm2 Poissons ratio()=0.3 Density()=7890 kg/m3 Thermal expansion coefficient()=11x10-6 /K Reference temperature(Tref)=30o C Uniform temperature(Tunif)=100o C

Post processingOnce the solution is over the plots are generated for the stress and deflections. Stress plotted for maximum stress intensity (Mpa) and vonmises stress (Mpa).All deflection plots in mm.