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Unit 3 Classify Buildings ........................................................................................................... 2 The nature of a building according to use and arrangement is determined. .......................... 2 The BCA requirements for multiple classifications are identified and interpreted. .............. 2 3.1 The range of criteria that will ensure construction methods comply with the performance requirements of the BCA is determined. .......................................................... 2 Unit 4 Analyse and apply a range of solutions to a construction problem for compliance with the BCA. .................................................................................................................................... 3 Alternative solutions to a design or construction problem that will comply with the requirements of the BCA are discussed and proposed in accordance with company policies and procedures. ...................................................................................................................... 3 Performance-based solutions are identified and documented in accordance with the requirements of the BCA. ...................................................................................................... 7 Assessment methods referenced in the BCA to determine whether a building solution complies with performance requirements or Deemed-to-Satisfy (DTS) Provision of the BCA are analysed and applied. .............................................................................................. 7 The relevant documentation is identified and completed in accordance with the requirements of the BCA. ...................................................................................................... 9 Apply fire protection requirements. ..................................................................................... 11 Passive and active fire control elements required by the BCA and other legislation are identified. ............................................................................................................................. 11 The level of fire resistance required for the construction of various medium-rise buildings is determined. ....................................................................................................................... 16 BCA requirements with respect to passive and active fire protection to medium-rise buildings are identified and applied. .................................................................................... 17
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4 Parts with more than one classification and answer the following questions When must building be classified separately? Does each part classified separately have to meet the requirements of that classification? 3. The BCA requirements for multiple classifications are identified and interpreted. you are expected to be accurate in your judgment of the requirements of BCA. The nature of a building according to use and arrangement is determined.1 The range of criteria that will ensure construction methods comply with the performance requirements of the BCA is determined. In this section you will learn how to determine the criteria of construction methods to comply with the performance requirements of the BCA. you need to ensure that construction methods meet the requirements of the BCA. The BCA outlines where multiple classification occurs Reading Read section A3. The objective. Failure to meet these requirements may result in legal action against you and you builder’s license.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Unit 3 Classify Buildings We have already mentioned the classification of buildings according to the BCA and how it relates to the sections and parts of the BCA and relevant Australian Standards In this section we will look more closely at classifying buildings based on its use. As a professional building practitioner. functional statements and performance requirements are stated. Refer to section D of the BCA. Multi classifications can occur when the one building has two or more uses. size and application as well as how multiple applications are identified. In previous units we discussed how to determine performance requirements and DTS provisions from the BCA. Let’s look at the requirements for access and egress for medium-rise construction in a unit block of three stories including a car park underground. As a builder/project manager.3 Multiple classification and A3. Page 2 of 17 .
when using a building solution. The objective. They generally consist of the technical provisions of the previous BCA and contain many of the traditional construction methods that are commonly used. it must be assessed according to one or more of the specified assessment methods outlined in BCA Clause A0. A building solution that meets the DTS provisions needs no further assessment for compliance with the performance requirements. Examples of this approach may include the use of differing methodologies or approaches such as those in fire engineering. Deemed to Satisfy (DTS) provisions is the prescriptive solution that accompanies the BCA. you need to ensure that construction methods meet the requirements of the BCA. the first step in using the BCA is to choose the means by which the building proposal will achieve compliance with the BCA. The nature of the assessment method to be used will vary depending on the complexity of the alternative solution.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Unit 4 Analyse and apply a range of solutions to a construction problem for compliance with the BCA. or • An alternative solution. meets the performance requirements. In this section you will learn how to determine the criteria of construction methods to comply with the performance requirements of the BCA. you are expected to be accurate in your judgment of the requirements of BCA. functional statements and performance requirements are stated. As has been mentioned. Refer to section D of the BCA. This will be by either: • A deemed-to-satisfy solution. Failure to meet these requirements may result in legal action against you and you builder’s license. or • A mixture of deemed-to-satisfy and alternative solutions.9. As a professional building practitioner. Page 3 of 17 . which is deemed to meet the BCA performance requirements. Alternative solutions to a design or construction problem that will comply with the requirements of the BCA are discussed and proposed in accordance with company policies and procedures. Let’s look at the requirements for access and egress for medium-rise construction in a unit block of three stories including a car park underground. To ensure that an alternative solution. The term alternative solution is a building solution that complies with the performance requirements by means other than the DTS provisions. Another example is the use of other international construction codes that differ from the Australian Standards referenced in the BCA DTS provisions. As a builder/project manager. In previous units we discussed how to determine performance requirements and DTS provisions from the BCA.
Other verification methods by definition allow almost any methodology or procedure to be used to verify an alternative solution. The BCA definition of expert judgement is the judgement of a person who has the qualifications and Page 4 of 17 . The verification methods contained in the BCA are CV1 and CV2 and are used for measuring ‘radiant heat flux’ as part of assessing matters associated with fire spread between buildings.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Evidence of Suitability BCA Clause A2. Deemed-to-satisfy or Assessment method? This Assessment Method involves a comparative analysis that would demonstrate (at minimum) at least equivalence with or ‘as good as’ the DTS Provisions. based upon industry practices and traditional forms of construction. ii) A current Certificate of Accreditation or Certificate of Conformity. An example.9: i) The verification methods contained in the BCA ii) Other verification methods as the appropriate authority accepts for determining compliance to the performance requirements. In many cases the DTS Provisions are not quantifiable due to the above factors. Expert Judgement – who is an expert? The BCA defines an ‘expert’ for the purposes of making expert judgement. some of the DTS Provisions have been developed over time. iv) A current certificate issued by a product certification body that has been accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ). The validation of an Alternative Solution by comparing it with the DTS Provisions is generally not an easy task. as a subjective opinion or judgement is required to be made by an expert in regards to the equivalence of an Alternative Solution with the DTS Provisions. as outlined earlier.2 allows the following evidence (in some cases subject to conditions) to be submitted in support of a proposal that a material. may be an overseas design standard or even. Therefore. vi) Any other form of documentary evidence that adequately demonstrates suitability for use. Verification Methods A verification method is defined in the BCA as a test. a degree of overlap occurs with the Expert Judgement Assessment Method. form of construction or design meets a performance requirement or a deemed-to-satisfy provision: i) A report from a Registered Testing Authority. Where this occurs. subject to that method being suitable and used in the appropriate way. the comparison of an Alternative Solution with the DTS Provisions may not be appropriate. An Alternative Solution can then be subject to the same analytical methodology to determine whether the Alternative Solution achieves the benchmark set by the DTS solution. iii) A certificate from a professional engineer. There are two types of verification methods specified in Clause A0. v) A current Scientific Services Laboratory (SSL) Product Listing Data Sheet. calculation or other method that determines whether a building solution complies with the relevant performance requirements. an Australian Standard covering design methodologies eg AS 3600 – concrete structures. This is achieved by assessing a DTS solution using an analytical methodology to determine a benchmark. inspection. It provides a methodology under which a building solution can be assessed. and includes a benchmark or predetermined acceptable criteria that the solution must achieve. thus preventing the validation of the Alternative Solution. This is because.
If the person providing the report or opinion is considered by the approval authority to be appropriate to provide expert judgement. Fire safety practitioners. and iv) Comparative assessment with the DTS Provisions Prior to accepting an opinion or report using expert judgement as an assessment method.‘other documentary evidence’. Is there a good argument for the problems related to generic interpretations? The problem with tight fitting doors The use of performance-based alternative solutions and the practice of fire safety engineering has recently been under debate. In short. it is necessary to determine whether the person providing the report or opinion is an expert and can provide the necessary expert judgement. building surveyors and other interested parties need to understand the implications of moving outside the safety net of the deemed to satisfy requirements of the Building Code of Australia (BCA). remembering that alternative solutions are meant to be “performance-based” designs. material. Alternative solutions are resulting in the replacement of traditional fire-rated doors with an alternative door specification. But will they? There is a possibly a serious misunderstanding in terms of the fire resistance and smoke leakage performance of a “tight fitting” solid core door and this door solution is not appropriate for life safety consideration.2(a)(iii) . This is particularly the case with: i) The acceptance of documentary evidence complying with: ii) BCA Clause A2. in fact. By John Rakic. Read the article which relates to fire resistance of solid core doors and alternative solution to the DTS provisions. In some instances. an approval authority can accept a report or opinion that concludes that a building component. even in a sprinkler-controlled fire scenario. fire safety engineers. allow occupants to exit through the adjacent corridor before the onset of unsafe or untenable conditions. including the issue of unit entry doors for sole occupancy apartments in high-rise residential buildings.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 experience to determine whether a building solution complies with the BCA performance requirements or DTS provisions. it would be necessary to assess the ‘experts’ qualifications and experience relevant to the matter that needs consideration. there can be a degree of overlap between expert judgement and other assessment methods. they need to specify products with proven performance. design or system satisfies the relevant BCA performance requirements. These specific alternative solutions are based on the assumption that the automatic sprinkler system and other associated fire safety sub systems will. To determine if the report or opinion can be accepted. The reading is from an article dated February 2003. Some problems can be associated with alternative solutions.2(a)(vi) . They cannot rely on products such as so-called “tight fitting solid core doors” especially when there is published information suggesting inadequate Page 5 of 17 . often that of a self-closing and so-called “tight fitting” solid core door.‘other appropriately qualified persons’: and iii) Clause A2.
and with thermal conditions in the building (heating. and assuming clearances can be maintained. Without an adequate BCA definition. Even with a “tight fitting” door and with an improved definition. There are a number of areas of the door where clearances or door gaps can be. I have heard on many occasions that the timber door standards AS2688. Tight fitting installation practices are hard to control in the first place. and should be. Firstly. be comparable to that of the so-called “tight fitting solid core doors”. The BCA deemed to satisfy requirements for a so-called “tight fitting” and “solid core” door do not provide any associated definitions and this in itself is a problem for industry. there is no definition in the BCA for this term. what is the definition of “tight fitting”? Again. Some laminated cores incorporating MDF with a polystyrene infill to keep their weight down are being termed“semi-solid” doors. measured and these include the clearance around the door.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 performance. Secondly. The installation cost also has a significant bearing on the overall cost. blockboard. and in practice. The cost for a door with acceptable performance criteria may. for example. It is my view that the term “solid core” door has evolved to differentiate against a “hollow core” door which is a door filled with a cellular. One must be practical about the concept of installing and maintaining the“tight fitting” door. Doors typically available in Australia and referred to as “solid core” doors are doors constructed of “solid” core substrates that may include. honeycomb type cardboard core. (both the perimeter clearance and the clearance at the door bottom/threshold) and the gap or clearance between the frame’s doorstop and the face of the door leaf itself. and the perimeter and frame doorstop clearances will change with general “wear and tear” of the door in service. will vary considerably. especially if the gaps or clearances are in fact defined in the specification and need to be carefully adhered to by the door installation company. even if the definitions are given in a subsequent amendment of the BCA. Should a so-called “tight fitting” solid core door be in the BCA in the first place and why did it get there? Page 6 of 17 . particleboard or solid MDF. what is a “solid core” door? There is no definition in the BCA and there is no appropriate Australian Standard either. in fact. doors may settle on their hinges after commissioning. It is not a true cost to look only at the cost of the materials. AS2689 and AS1909 have definitions for “solid core doors” but they do not. ventilation and air conditioning) not to mention issues with changes in floor finishes. the use “solid core” may mean different things to different people. and in terms of their relative performance in terms of fire resistance and resistance to smoke leakage in fire conditions (including sprinkler-controlled scenarios). credible published research suggests that the performance of this type of door in relation to smoke spread should be of serious concern.
However using performance requirements under the BCA. needs to meet with the approval authority to discuss the proposal and the approval process. This stage of the overall process is referred to as prelodgement consultation and it is considered to be essential for a successful application under the performance provisions of the BCA Pre-lodgement discussions are also beneficial to the approval authority for they have an opportunity to gain an appreciation of a proposal at a conceptual stage rather than being required to determine the propriety of a design after it is fully developed. There are several means by which an approval authority can assess whether a building solution. assessing building applications was a relatively simple exercise as the various components of a design were prescribed and rigid.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Performance‐based solutions are identified and documented in accordance with the requirements of the BCA. v) a current Scientific Services Laboratory (SSL) Product Listing Data Sheet. Page 7 of 17 . iv) a current certificate issued by a product certification body that has been accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ). In some instances this may be beyond the level of expertise of the assessing officer. complies with the BCA. It is therefore the applicants’ responsibility to provide ‘sufficient information’ to the authority to allow an accurate assessment of a design to be made. ii) a current Certificate of Accreditation or Certificate of Conformity. iii) a certificate from a professional engineer. vi) any other form of documentary evidence that adequately demonstrates suitability for use. These are referred to as assessment methods and include the following – (i) The use of clause A2. The viability of proceeding with a proposal can be subsequently assessed with an enhanced degree of knowledge and confidence. The key to expediting this process is determining exactly what is ‘sufficient information’. They also have an opportunity to establish the credentials of any experts proposed to be used by the applicant. At the completion of these discussions the applicant should be aware of the views of the approval authority and the extent and content of required support documentation.2 of the BCA. Assessment methods referenced in the BCA to determine whether a building solution complies with performance requirements or Deemed‐ to‐Satisfy (DTS) Provision of the BCA are analysed and applied. This clause allows the following evidence (in some cases subject to conditions) to be submitted in support of a proposal that a material. form of construction or design meets a performance requirement or a deemed-to-satisfy provisions) a report from a Registered Testing Authority. Under the old BCA 90. the consent authority must now exercise professional judgement in assessing a proposal. In order to do this. the applicant.
ABCB or State Authorities. the authority may not have the same specific knowledge as the designer and therefore a clear description of the proposal is essential. • Validity – the reasons for introducing the innovative design should be provided. then compliance with the performance requirement has been achieved. • certificates of conformity or accreditation. NATA. BRANZ. If it can be satisfactorily demonstrated by the applicant that it is not necessary to install sprinklers. The fundamental objective in developing submissions in support of alternative solutions should be to leave no doubt. or they can assist in convincing the authority of the propriety of an alternative solution. CSIRO. • professional certification. or alternative solutions. While these matters may be obvious to the designer.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 To assist both the applicant and the approval authority. These may be purely design related however. • Substantiation – the applicant is required to demonstrate to the approval authority that the proposal can be technically supported. it is appropriate to have economic considerations as valid reasons for alternative solutions as this was one of the fundamental purposes for the introduction of BCA 96. including some of the support mechanisms referred to previously. These mechanisms include: • registered testing authority reports. in order to consider the consequences of the design. there are a number of support mechanisms available which can aid the assessment process. etc. NBTC. For example. • SSL product listing. compliance with performance requirements may be achieved by other aspects of design. and why it is being proposed. In some instances it would be beneficial for designers to seek some preliminary professional advice (a second opinion on what you propose and how you can support this proposal). particularly the application of appropriate fire engineering software. There are many methods of substantiating design criteria. computer technology is used extensively to substantiate alternative solutions under BCA 96. prior to discussing a proposal with the consent authority. submissions should have the following characteristics: • Clarity – the approval authority needs to be able to understand what is being proposed. appropriately qualified structural or fire engineer. If you leave doubt. Additionally. sprinklers are required to be provided in buildings ‘where necessary’. your application could be refused. • Simplicity – the designer should be able to demonstrate that the proposal is a suitable method of meeting the performance requirement without being unduly excessive. In some instances. or • any other form of documentary evidence The use of any of these mechanisms can either relieve the approval authority of the need to make a decision. In general terms. it may assist to review some basic principles which should be applied to any submissions. • JAS-ANZ product certification. Page 8 of 17 . While many of these mechanisms are currently known to designers.
Formulating an alternate solution 3. Building certifiers need to be licensed under each State they operate in. a certifier can provide a letter declaring the building conforms to the requirements of the BCA according to the class. A combination of both We have seen how the performance requirements are identified through the DTS provisions and how an alternate solution is created and verified through expert judgment. 1. Compliance with the Deemed to Satisfy Provisions 2. Building certifiers/surveyors may assess building plans for compliance with the Building Code of Australia Standards. and approve building plans and the inspection of building work for compliance with codes and local government planning requirements. Once the building has been inspected. Page 9 of 17 . The next figure shows how a building is certified by a certifier. How are the performance requirements verified once the project has been completed? A building certifier can produce a verification certificate that the building complies with the BCA. Performance based solutions can only be achieved by three ways. Building certifiers A building certifier/surveyor is a building professional who performs building surveying and certification work on building structures.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 The relevant documentation is identified and completed in accordance with the requirements of the BCA.
Yours sincerely Associate Director Accredited Certifier – Grade 1 (BSAP) Page 10 of 17 . Pedestrian access/egress to the Hill Grandstand will be primarily via existing entry points adjacent to the Churchill stand off Driver Avenue. Should you require further assistance or clarification please do not hesitate to contact the undersigned at your convenience. suitably prepared by an Accredited Fire Safety Engineer to achieve compliance with the performance standards of the BCA. Re: Hill Grandstand at Sydney Cricket Ground Building Code of Australia Capability Statement Our company has been appointed as the Building Regulations Consultants for the re-development of the Hill Grandstand at the Sydney Cricket Ground. the re-development of the Hill Grandstand will be subject to a performance based analysis in respect to perimeter fire brigade access. it is considered that compliance can be readily achieved with the Building Code of Australia. A1010 to A1016 and A4000 dated 24 July 2006) against the deemed-to-satisfy (DTS) provisions of the Building Code of Australia (BCA). and smoke hazard management in consultation with the NSW Fire Brigade.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 31 July 2006 The General Manager Department of Planning GPO Box 39. loading dock and back of house areas. The proposed re-development of the Hill Grandstand must comply with the relevant performance requirements of the BCA. The Grandstand will accommodate seating for approx.372 persons over three (3) tier levels. Utilising the performance requirements of the BCA. These include: Building Use: Sporting Venue Class of Occupancy: 7a and 9b Type of Construction: Type A Rise in Storeys: Five (5) Storeys Contained: Five (5) Floor Area Greater than 8. I wish to confirm that matters pertaining to compliance with the Building Code of Australia (BCA) will be suitably addressed prior to the Certification of Crown Development under Section 116G of the Environmental and Planning and Assessment Act 1979. function areas and food service 9b Level 5 & 6 (Upper concourse) Public seating area 9b All public accessible areas of the Grandstand will be designed and constructed to comply with the “place of public entertainment” provisions of the BCA. We have undertaken a preliminary assessment of the architectural drawings (Nos. or (b) Formulating an Alternative Solution which – (i) complies with the performance requirements. SYDNEY NSW 2001 Dear Sir/Madam. In summary. Building Description: The Hill Grandstand will be connected with the adjacent Churchill Stand to the east and the southern end of the O’Reilly Stand. or (c) A combination of the above. Compliance can be achieved with the BCA by: (a) Complying with the Deemed-to-Satisfy (DTS) Provisions. I wish to advise our assessment has indicated compliance with the BCA will be achieved by a combination of compliance with the DTS provisions together with the documentation of alternative solutions in accordance with Clause A0.5 of the BCA. All levels from 2 to 5 are served by 2 passenger lifts. 7a & 9b Level 3 (lower concourse) Public seating area and food service 9b Level 4 (Corporate areas) Public seating area. Additional pedestrian entry/egress will be provided via the adjacent Fox Studios site to the south of the SCG. or (ii) is shown to be at least equivalent to the DTS provisions. After a review of the architectural plans. a goods lift and 2 escalators. A new entrance forecourt is included providing new turnstiles and vehicular access with escalators to a raised podium at the lower concourse level (level 3).000m2 Effective Height: Less than 25. crowd safety and movement during evacuation phase. 12. These Grandstands form one (1) united building and must comply with the requirements of the BCA as a single building. The following BCA Parameters will apply to the re-development of Hill Grandstand at the SCG.0 Level Use Classification Level 2 (Ground) Car park.
• prevention of spread of fire to adjoining properties. • density of occupancy. • awareness of fire. The characteristics of each type of classification are linked to life safety as each of these classes has certain features that impact on an occupant's safe egress. Effective building fire safety must take into account characteristics of the persons who can be expected to occupy the building including: • age and mobility. and d) avoid the spread of fire between buildings. Fire Separation The use of a wall. Section C of the BCA outlines the objectives of fire resistance The object of this section is to – a) safeguard people from illness or injury due to a fire in a building: and b) safeguard occupants from illness or injury while evacuating a building during a fire: and c) facilitate the activities of emergency services personnel. It is expressed as 90/90/90. flames and often smoke. Fire The state of combustion in which inflammable material burns.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Apply fire protection requirements. and e) protect other properties from physical damage caused by structural failure of a building as a result of fire. Fire Resistance Level (FRL) The grading period given in minutes for Structural Adequacy (ability to maintain load). and • control of occupants (impact of smoke on human behaviour). Integrity (ability to prevent passage of flames and hot gases). that divides a storey or building. and Insulation (ability to maintain surface temperature). Make sure that you are familiar with the Glossary of terms before going any further. producing heat. Building fire safety takes into account: • safe egress (exit) from the building for occupants. to resist the spread of fire or smoke. and • access and egress for fire fighting personnel. • facilities for fighting fire within buildings. (BCA Section C01) Passive and active fire control elements required by the BCA and other legislation are identified. Page 11 of 17 . Fire protection in buildings are an important part of the BCA. • knowledge of the environment.
All buildings fall into three classifications of construction. and fire indicator panels. smoke control. For example. thus the many differing requirements for types of building. For the purposes of this example. smoke and heat detectors. hydrants. By looking at a model building an overview of the workings of the passive and active systems within the building can be made. type of construction. The requirements for hose-reels and their locations vary. such as the construction characteristics of the building. hose-reels. A further example of this is a primary school where the majority of occupants (children) would require direct supervision to escape as compared to a warehouse whose employees would not require the same level of supervision for egress. Active and passive fire control elements The features within a building can be broken down into passive and active systems for building fire safety. while type C has the lowest. emergency lighting. sprinklers. voice alarms. being dependent on the classification and size of the building. ceilings. Type A is the form of construction with the highest fire resistant requirements.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 The various classes take into account the variable characteristics of occupants. fire-isolated exits and columns. Passive systems are the permanent fixtures of the building such as fire rated floors. Active systems are services and equipment such as exit signs. B & C. The requirements for emergency lighting are related to the classification of the building and the amount of floor area. we will look at a class 5 (office) Page 12 of 17 . being Type A. The relationship between occupancy class. The combination of these creates the Fire Safety Package for a building. and number of storeys is illustrated by the following chart. In addition to the type of construction used. Two examples are hose-reels and emergency lighting. the egress capabilities of an aged care wing of a hospital would differ greatly to that of an office where most employees would be able to exit the building without any assistance. many other components are required by the Building Code as the building size and complexity increases. Characteristics of the building The Building Code also takes into account other essential issues which can affect the performance of the building. walls.
The Fire Warden of the Floor where the incident began would investigate the fire and if able to.00am on the third floor at a power point under a large desk in an archives section and quickly ignites files and assorted boxes stored under the desk. The passive members of the fire systems prevent the spread of the fire to adjoining floors and allow safe egress whilst ensuring the structure does not collapse or allow the spread of smoke. Active fire systems detect fire The smoke detection system would detect the smoke plume from the fire within 2 . It is important to note at this point that the Passive and Active systems within a building can be designed in many different ways to achieve the same objectives required for the structure. Structural adequacy is the ability to maintain stability and load-bearing capacity. The alarm would alert Fire Wardens within the building who would stand-by at their designated phones. Page 13 of 17 . This is a grading in minutes in which it would maintain its structural adequacy. The floor upon which the fire is burning has a 120/120/120 FRL (2 hours Fire Resistance Level). Passive systems Fire Resistance Level Fire Resistance Level (FRL) is the grading period given in minutes (expressed for example as 90/90/90) for: • structural adequacy (ability to maintain load). smell and hearing are quite often the first form of detection. A fire starts at 12. The building itself has now initiated alarm. The exit stairs would have a 180/120/120 rating providing safe access for occupants for a two hour period.00am to 1.5 minutes of the fire starting. This then leads onto all the fire systems within the building acting in unison.00pm due to the lunch break of the Archives Officer. It is important to realise that detection of fire by the building occupants' senses of sight. The exit stairs are referred to as fire isolated which means the stairs have a fire resisting shaft (including walls and roof).CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 multi-storey building. With the smoke detector alarm system engaged a general alarm will be raised. This alarm can include direct alarm to brigade as well as to the whole building. For the purposes of the exercise. integrity is the ability to resist the passage of flames and gases. • integrity (ability to prevent passage of flames and hot gases). evacuate the building if necessary. in conjunction with other wardens. and insulation is the ability to maintain surface temperature. integrity and insulation. Any surrounding structural members of the building would also have similar ratings. start fighting the fire. The archives section is vacant from 12. the assessment will be of a building without sprinklers. Smoke detectors can be located in the return air ducts of the air conditioning or at ceiling level dispersed throughout the building. This will illustrate the functions of the various components of the building. and • insulation (ability to maintain surface temperature). If not able to control fire the warden will begin evacuation of the floor and.
the progressive reduction of tenability and ability of occupants to escape. Depending on the design configuration chosen for the building stairwell. All other floors in the building will change to full return air mode. Fire fighting equipment Facilities installed for the fire brigade to assist in the fighting of the fire include fire hydrants. hose-reels. Page 14 of 17 . The exit signs include directional signs indicating the path to exits for occupants. The following event lines provide an insight into the sequence in which various events occur within the building. The first Event line illustrates the relationship between the development of a building fire. The unit will go into a full exhaust mode drawing air from the floor. drawing smoke out. Emergency lighting and exit signs At this stage emergency lighting and exit signs provide sufficient illumination for safe evacuation of the building. extinguishers and the lift as a stretcher evacuation facility if designated as such. and a positive air pressure is maintained on all other floors preventing the penetration of smoke.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Active systems Air conditioning unit changes to exhaust mode The first detection of the fire sets a number of active systems in motion in the building. The air conditioning unit for the floor with the fire will alter its operation. pressurisation may commence (see illustration below). This ensures that a negative air pressure is maintained on the floor with the fire. The fire brigade only can override the lifts for use in access for the fighting of the fire and for the purpose of evacuating people with disabilities. The lift system cannot be used for escape in a fire and a warning sign is displayed stating so for all occupants. and preventing the penetration of smoke into the escape stairs. Air is forced into the stairwell. creating a positive pressure.
the Active systems. the Passive systems. and the sequence of events.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 The second Event line illustrates the relationship between: the Fire. Passive fire systems are those that prevent fire from spreading or protect persons by holding back the fire until evacuation can occur. Active fire systems are those that can actively fight the fire or put the fire out or warn before it spreads such as a sprinkler system of fire hydrants etc. and the People (occupant movement). In summary. Page 15 of 17 .
you need to interpret Section C. Section C1. Page 16 of 17 .1 Determines the type of construction required which then determines the fireresistant classification.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 The level of fire resistance required for the construction of various medium‐rise buildings is determined. In other words the level of risk. D and E of the BCA Section C determines the fire resistance for C1 Fire resistance and stability C2 Compartmentation and separation C3 Protection of openings Section D Access and Egress D1 Provision for escape D2 Construction of exits D3 Access for people with disabilities Section E Services and equipment E1 Firefighting equipment E2 Smoke hazard management E3 Lift installation E4 Emergency lighting. exit signs and warning systems.1 determines the type of fire resisting construction required Table C1. Section C1 Fire resistance and stability. To determine the fire resistance requirements for medium rise construction. By analyzing the performance requirements we can then determine what is necessary depending on the class of building. We now need to have a look at the DTS provisions to determine fire resistance details. The level of risk depends upon the rise in stories and the class of building. So far we have determined the performance requirements for a particular class of building for fire resistance.
4) 4. What happens in the case of multiple classifications? (C1.3.3 or 9c buildings? BCA requirements with respect to passive and active fire protection to medium‐rise buildings are identified and applied.CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Self assessment not assessed 1.2) 3.1 and determine type of fire-resisting construction for the following Circle the correct answer Class 2 of two stories = Class 5 of 1 storey = A A B B C C D D 2. What are the concessions for class 2. C1. DTS provisions for Passive fire resistance These requirements are outlines in section C and D of the BCA Section C refers to the safeguard of persons when a fire occurs by slowing or preventing the fire from spreading. How is the rise in stories determined? (C1. Attempt Assessment Event 3 and 4 Page 17 of 17 . Look at table C1.
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