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The following pages contain excerpts related to conflicts over natural resources from the US Embassy documents and the Stratfor emails released by Wikileaks, 2010 and 2012. None of these texts contain information that can in any way endanger anyone's life. In fact, I even censored most names and all emails. Texts obviously differing from the official spin or otherwise interesting are marked with yellow. Please respect the Wikileaks guidelines for using these texts: Include the reference ID (or link to the document at wikileaks.org) including messages for social networking services like Twitter with the hash tags #cablegate and a hash containing the reference ID e.g. #09BEIJING1247. The book (Ecowar – Natural Resources and Conflict) is abbreviated ENRC. Release: 0.1 of Saturday, March 10, 2012.
Table of Contents
13th March 2008: Ugandan government invites US forces. 3 25th November 2008: Uranium dealing in Kazakhstan.....5 25th July 2009: Proxy spooks in Africa................6 29th July 2009: More uranium dealing in Kazakhstan....7 24th February 2010: US encourage oil exploration in Ghana.................................................9 25th February 2010: Argentina angered over UK oil drilling.............................................10 28th February 2010: Nerves over Sudanese secession. . .10 7th June 2010: The Chinese cheating international mining corporations..................................12 2nd July 2010: Australians plan mineral tax (with future energy hegemony in mind?).....................13 2nd September 2011: Arms and resource trade is linked 15 16th September 2011: Gold is expensive...............15 This document is a work-in-progress. So far it mostly contains leaks about... • • oil from Cablegate gold, uranium from Stratfor
13th March 2008: Ugandan government invites US forces
Reference id: 08KAMPALA393 Origin: Embassy Kampala Classification: UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY See pages 43-46 and 89-90 of ENRC. 1. Summary: Ambassador Browning and [...] Rear Admiral Greene traveled to Lake Albert in western Uganda on March 4 to follow up on a request from the Ugandan military to help increase its lake security capabilities. Lake Albert is divided in half by the Ugandan-Congolese border, and its shores on both sides run along an oil rich region known as the Albertine Rift, where the bulk of oil exploration is occurring. John Morley of Tullow Oil, one of the four exploration companies operating in western Uganda, said that as the oil activity on Lake Albert increased, a security presence would be vital. He offered potential Tullow cooperation toward this end. Despite the January agreement between Ugandan and Congolese Energy Ministry officials, several clashes on Lake Albert between oil companies and entities from the Democratic Republic of Congo demonstrate that oil production has increased local tensions and exacerbated cross-border hostilities.
2. Following two deadly incidents on Lake Albert in 2007, the Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF) requested USG assistance with training and equipping a lake security force which could enforce Uganda's territorial waters, protect Uganda's oil assets, and reduce violent incidents. Twenty percent of Uganda's territory is water and a large portion of the border is coastline. The country currently has no effective means to provide security on Lakes Victoria, Albert, Edward, George and Kyoga. (Note: In August 2007, Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) approached a Heritage Oil exploration barge operating near the Ugandan-Congolese border and claimed the barge had strayed into Congolese waters. The ensuing firefight resulted in the death of one British Heritage employee. In September 2007, the United Nations Mission to Congo (MONUC) took a Heritage seismic vessel into custody and escorted it to a port in the DRC. Heritage called on a response boat, which MONUC ordered to turn around. On the way back, it fired on a passenger ferry killing five Congolese civilians and two Congolese
soldiers.) […] 4. Tullow Oil Development Director John Morley, Lake Albert Safari Lodge Owner Bruce Martin, and Community Liaison Richard Angubo discussed the need for security on Lake Albert with Ambassador Browning and Rear Admiral Greene. The Ambassador noted that oil exploration and production would raise the profile of the area, which could lead to increased incidences of violence between Ugandan locals and security forces and their Congolese counterparts. Morley echoed the views of Ugandan Brigadier General Emmanuel Burundi, who said that the Ugandan military lacked a clear policy and physical infrastructure for security on the lake. The Ugandan military has only six to eight boats used for patrolling Lake Albert and some “loosely-trained” soldiers. Morley stressed that any attempts to provide training and infrastructure for Lake Albert security would require a “ground zero” approach. 5. [...] Morley expressed confidence that the oil companies would continue to uncover significant oil finds in both Ugandan and Congolese reserves. This would raise the stakes in terms of land tenure and property rights, access to and control over natural resources, and food security for communities on both sides of Lake Albert. 6. The interlocutors agreed that an increased presence of Ugandan security forces patrolling the lake would incense the Congolese. [...] However, Morley noted that the “security chaps” operating on the Congolese side were not necessarily linked to the Government of the DRC. [...] Morley suggested that if the lake were physically demarcated, it would prevent both sides from accusing the other of stealing the oil. […] 11. A lack of information from the governments of Uganda and DRC about oil policy and bilateral arrangements to ease tensions has created a vacuum that is easily filled by rumors and suspicions. As oil exploration turns into production, local expectations of development benefits will continue to grow. Over time, unmet community expectations combined with increased pressure on resources from inmigration is likely to feed into tensions within and between
communities on both sides of the lake. Already, the region has experienced several incidences of violent clashes on Lake Albert between the oil companies and armed units or civilians. Local frictions from several decades of conflict between Uganda and Congo could play into increased instability in the area.
25th November 2008: Uranium dealing in Kazakhstan
Re: INSIGHT - CHINA/KAZAKH - New Uranium Deals in Kazakhstan Email-ID 5537645 Russia owns much of Kaz's uranium industry. Russia struck quite a few deals with China a few years back on jointly develpoing Kaz uranium. Matt Gertken wrote: Kazakhstan is counterbalancing Russia with deals like this uranium mine deal, I agree. But I'm not sure about China being so much more confident about their inroads to Kazakhstan -- why would the Chinese proceed with overoptimism, having seen Russia's willingness to exert itself and reclaim areas of past influence? won't Russia try to shorten Astana's leash at some point? Ultimately, will Moscow simply have to accept Beijing's dominance in purchasing Kazak's resources, or will there be a clash down the road when competition becomes fiercer? Jennifer Richmond wrote: ATTRIBUTION: Ex-govt Aussie Source SOURCE DESCRIPTION: Former Australian State Senator SOURCE RELIABILITY: A ITEM CREDIBILITY: 1 I think the source got this from some OS press (with his own interpretation of events), but he is in the know on Chinese resource deals and says he can get more if we are interested. If so, please send me specific questions. I don't know if you guys saw, but the Chinese have this month acquired large stakes in the uranium mining and downstream uranium industry in Kazakhstan. CGNPC has taken a 49% interest in two mines run by Kazatomprom. CNNC has also taken a 49% interest in another Kazakh company that will do conversion and possibly processing.
Obviously these conjoined deals have a lot of implications. First, China is feeling much more confident in Central Asia, and Central Asia is feeling much more comfortable with China. On another level, this can be seen as Kazakhstan giving an enormous finger to Russia. Jxxx Rxxx China Director, Stratfor
25th July 2009: Proxy spooks in Africa
See page 104 of ENRC.
INSIGHT - CHINA/AUSTRALIA/NAMIBIA - Rio – CN65 Email-ID 5048191 ATTRIBUTION: Australian contact connected with the government and natural resources SOURCE DESCRIPTION: Former Australian Senator. Source is well-connected politically, militarily and economically. He has become a private businessman helping foreign companies with M&As SOURCE RELIABILITY: A ITEM CREDIBILITY: 2 - speculation, but he knows about the mine and the meetings In response to my question on whether Australian intel was involved in the Namibian corruption crackdown on Chinese companies: There could be one indicator about possible intelligence activity by someone goading Namibia into action, and that is the silence on Stern Hu by the Leader of the Opposition over the last week. Has he perhaps had an intelligence briefing? But then Namibia would have to be offered something valuable in return for their cooperation, which the offeror would be capable of delivering. What could that be and who could deliver it? Maybe the US, but why would the US want to go out on a limb for Stern Hu, unless it suits them to clip China's wings in the region anyway? One possibility - a better one - could be that it is neither China nor the US that is behind this. Maybe this is all Rio's doing. Rio has a 69% interest in the Ro:ssing Uranium mine in Namibia. The Namibian President recently visited this mine on the 20th July. The press release states, in part: The President of the Republic of Namibia, His
Excellency Hifikepunye Pohamba and the First Lady Penehupifo Pohamba, visited the mine on Saturday morning to familiarise himself with the operations of the mine given its significance in the Namibian economy. His visit was a response to the company's invitation for him to get first hand experience of the company's world class operations. The company also announced plans to increase production of the mine on the 9th July. Ro:ssing currently produces 8% world's primary uranium oxide. Rio is also a substantial donor to Namibia through various charitable foundations it runs. I certainly think the president's visit to the mine is no coincidence. My suspicion is that Rio is doing this all on their own. Could it be the people implicated in corruption were politically opposed to the President? That would make it a perfect deal for Rio. Roll up Hu Jintao's son, help out the President politically, and put pressure on China, as well as leverage their donations, and the role of the Ro:ssing mine to Namibia's economy.
29th July 2009: More uranium dealing in Kazakhstan
See pages 57-58 and 104 of ENRC.
Re: MORE Re: INSIGHT - CHINA/MONGOLIA - Uranium – CN65 Email-ID: 5540308 yea.. .there were quite a few indians at the mining conference that was staying at my hotel. they weren't so fun to talk to (sticks in the mud). Rxxx Bxxx wrote: the Indians have also been dealing heavily with the Kaz in getting their uranium. when i was there last there was a giant Kaz delegation there and my Indian defense contacts said all their talks centered on uranium deals. not sure how much trouble the indians have had in seeing these deals through but i can find out On Jul 29, 2009, at 8:13 AM, Lauren xxx wrote: Kaz owns their own uranium with companies that just so happen to have Kremlin-ers on the boards... I even talked to Chinese companies about this while in Kaz and they told me how hard it was to get into uranium there.
Rodger xxx wrote: l can see if i can get any more info from the mongolians on this if we are interested. let me know On Jul 29, 2009, at 8:01 AM, Pxxx Zxxx wrote: i thought the russians pretty much owned the uranium industry in Kaz is my info dated? Jennifer xxx wrote: In response to my question: Do you mean to say that China is now interested in Mongolia because they are possibly being blocked by Russian interests in Kazakhstan? No, the Chinese have pretty much wrapped up the uranium in Kazakhstan, and now they are trying to secure uranium in Mongolia as well. Interestingly, CNNC or its subsidiaries were involved in both countries. [...] As for the Russians, I suspect they or the Americans may have prodded the Mongolians to rebuff the Chinese after they took their stake in Western Prospector. Alternatively, the Mongolians may have chosen to do it on their own volition. Either way, the Russians are feeling under pressure. Axxx Cxxx wrote: SOURCE: CN65 ATTRIBUTION: Australian contact connected with the government and natural resources SOURCE DESCRIPTION: Former Australian Senator. Source is well-connected politically, militarily and economically. He has become a private businessman helping foreign companies with M&As SOURCE RELIABILITY: A ITEM CREDIBILITY: 2/3 CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation) recently acquired a majority stake in Western Prospector, whose sole project is the Gurvanbulag Central deposit in Mongolia. This deposit is actually covered by tenements in favour of three companies - Western Prospector, Khan, and Laramide. My suspicion is that the CNNC move on Western Prospector was the prelude to raids both of the other companies, with a view to possible merger. Laramide is particularly vulnerable, as the weak equity market has constrained their ability to raise capital.
Laramide has projects in Australia, which are currently on care & maintenance for this reason. As you know, relations between China and Mongolia are strained from time to time. The question is whether this has been stoked by Russia, who would not have been happy with China taking 70% of Kazatomprom, and other Kazakh uranium processing assets earlier this year. Russia, in turn, is quietly trying to get a foothold in Australian uranium exploration, which is the first time this has happened. In short, China's massive nuclear power expansion plan requires significant amounts of uranium. This has led them to try to secure uranium in Central Asia and Mongolia, which it might consider in its sphere of influence. The problem is the Russians have pretensions/expectations there also. Lxxx Gxxx Director of Analysis, Senior Eurasia Analyst, STRATFOR
24th February 2010: US encourage oil exploration in Ghana
Reference id: 10ACCRA157 Origin: Embassy Accra Classification: CONFIDENTIAL 1. Summary: During a business roundtable with AF Assistant Secretary Johnnie Carson, oil and gas companies discussed both the advantages and the risks of doing business in the energy sector in Ghana. The country stands at a fork in the road regarding the use of Ghana's modest future oil and gas revenues: they could enhance the development of Ghana, or oil money could lead to increased corruption, violence, and environmental degradation. Companies praised the competence of the labor force and government, and a favorable security situation in Ghana as reasons to operate here. They also raised numerous concerns with a politicized bureaucracy, energy companies thrust into the center of the national sport of political football, and unrealistic goals set by the public and government. Worryingly, there is growing uncertainty over whether the GOG will honor contract sanctity after political transitions. 2. During his visit to Accra, Assistant Secretary Carson met with representatives from oil and gas companies for a roundtable discussion on their experiences operating in Ghana. He opened the meeting by saying that the discovery of
oil presents a choice for Ghana. The government can use the oil revenues to provide economic growth, hope and opportunity; or the oil can provoke the country to violence, chaos, environmental destruction and corruption. He said that the USG promotes U.S. investment in Ghana's oil sector and the use of Ghana's natural resources to benefit its people, not a corrupt elite.
25th February 2010: Argentina angered over UK oil drilling
Reference id: 10LONDON440 Origin: Embassy London Classification: CONFIDENTIAL//NOFORN 1. Summary: Tensions between the UK and Argentina have risen over the past week over a new drilling campaign in the Falkland Islands Outer Conservation zone following the arrival of the Ocean Guardian oil rig in the North Falkland Basin. Argentina contested the right of the Falkland Island's Government to license drilling for oil off the coast of the islands, a British Overseas Territory. UK Foreign Secretary David Miliband firmly defended the oil exploration as being in accordance with international law. [...] Desire confirmed that Argentina's actions will not disrupt its activities and said it had worked closely with the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office to try to avoid inflaming tensions. With the exception of the Falklands, HMG seeks to continue a normal relationship with Argentina. […] 9. Desire Petroleum, which has started the new drilling campaign, is dedicated to explore for oil and gas in the North Falkland Basin. [...] It estimates recoverable oil potential in the region at 3.5 billion barrels, with gas reserves of over 9 trillion cubic feet. (Note: ExxonMobil International Chairman Brad Corson told us he does not [...] believe there is enough oil on the Falkland Islands Continental Shelf to be profitable, citing Shell's earlier oil exploration attempts which they abandoned.)
28th February 2010: Nerves over Sudanese secession
See pages 50, 53-54 and 79 of ENRC.
Reference ID: 10STATE18598 Subject: Sudan: Oil And Wealth Sharing Origin: Secretary of State (United States) Classification: SECRET 1. WASHINGTON ANALYSTS WOULD LIKE TO COMMEND POST FOR REF, WHICH PROVIDES DETAILED INFORMATION ON SUDAN'S PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE OIL PRODUCTION IN THE COUNTRY OVER THE NEXT TEN YEARS. THE ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENT, WHICH BROKE DOWN EXPECTED OIL PRODUCTION BY BLOCK, HELPED INFORM ANALYSTS' JUDGMENTS ABOUT SUDAN'S FUTURE REVENUE PICTURE. REF HAS BEEN CITED IN SEVERAL WRITTEN PRODUCTS ON SUDAN DELIVERED TO HIGH-LEVEL US POLICYMAKERS. 2. WE REMAIN INTERESTED IN ANY ONGOING PLANS TO DETERMINE A WEALTH-SHARING AGREEMENT FOR THE POST-2011 PERIOD, GIVEN THE POTENTIAL FOR CONFLICT IF BOTH SIDES DISAGREE. AS TIME AND RESOURCES PERMIT, WE WOULD GREATLY APPRECIATE REPORTING ON ANY PROGRESS BEING MADE IN WEALTH-SHARING NEGOTIATIONS AND ANY CONTINGENCY MEASURES THAT MIGHT BE IN PLACE IN THE EVENT THAT AN AGREEMENT IS NOT REACHED, SUCH AS THE FOLLOWING: A. WHICH EXTERNAL COUNTRIES HAVE EXPRESSED AN INTEREST IN ENSURING A POST-2011 WEALTH SHARING AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE NATIONAL CONGRESS PARTY (NCP) AND THE SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT (SPLM)? HAS THERE BEEN ANY ACTIVITY BETWEEN FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND EITHER THE NORTH OR SOUTH IN NEGOTIATING A POST-2011 WEALTH-SHARING DEAL, AND IF SO, WHAT ARE THESE ACTIVITIES? B. WHAT ARE NCP'S PERCEPTIONS AND INDICATIONS OF WILLINGNESS TO COMPROMISE ON OIL SHARING, AND WHAT ARE THEIR RED LINES FOR A POSSIBLE DEAL? WHAT CONTINGENCY MEASURES MIGHT THEY HAVE TO CONTROL MILITARILY THE OIL FIELDS IN THE EVENT OF HOSTILITIES OR FOLLOWING SOUTHERN SECESSION? C. WHAT ARE SPLM'S PERCEPTIONS AND INDICATIONS OF WILLINGNESS TO COMPROMISE ON OIL SHARING, AND WHAT ARE THEIR RED LINES FOR A POSSIBLE DEAL? WHAT CONTINGENCY MEASURES MIGHT THEY HAVE TO CONTROL MILITARILY THE OIL FIELDS IN THE EVENT OF HOSTILITIES OR FOLLOWING SOUTHERN SECESSION? D. PLEASE DESCRIBE ANY DISAGREEMENTS AMONG SPLM LEADERS ABOUT WHETHER TO WORK WITH THE NORTH ON A POST-2011 OIL SHARING DEAL OR INSTEAD TO CLAIM OWNERSHIP OF SOUTHERN OIL FIELDS? [...] G. HOW SERIOUSLY ARE SOUTHERNERS PURSUING AN ALTERNATE PIPELINE THROUGH KENYA, AND WHAT ARE THE COST AND TIME
PROJECTIONS FOR SUCH A PROJECT? WHAT IS KHARTOUM'S POSITION ON SUCH A PROPOSAL?
7th June 2010: The Chinese cheating international mining corporations
MORE (reply from CN65) Re: INSIGHT - CHINA/MINING - new source(s) Email-ID: 1148174 Source code: New acquaintance Publication: If so desired but more useful as back ground info Source description: Source has worked for a number of Chinese mining groups and works in close contact with the Ministry of Land and Resources Attribution: Mining source in China Source reliability: B/C (source is new to me) Item credibility: 1-2 (pretty commonly held knowledge) […] Chit chat from a BBQ last night. Source tells me: - of a foreign company that had paid for prospecting rights near Dalian and when they finally found gold the government told them that they couldn't dig it up for environmental reasons. Now of course the Chinese are getting ready to dig it up. Another group (who I know the GM of as well) who had gone through 7 years of prep, building local infrastructure, getting screwed by local forms and extorted by the local security orgs was finally ready to begin extraction when the Chinese gave them some BS reason and kicked them out of the project. The Chinese are now of course removing that gold from the ground themselves. Local mining interests have pressured the government to block foreign mining investment because the locals cannot compete with foreign technology. Another chap at the BBQ, a foreigner who seems to be pretty with it here and runs a pretty profitable marketing/PR firm tells me that he has been in the "war
room" of CIC and says that it was breathe taking. He says that divided up in to industries are all the companies that export to China and there are internal departments that collect share holder info for each company and who's task it is to buy up ownership of said exporters to China. Will be chatting to these guys more down the track. Cxxx Fxxx Watch Officer/Beijing Correspondent, STRATFOR
2nd July 2010: Australians plan mineral tax (with future energy hegemony in mind?)
Re: INSIGHT - AUSTRALIA - Tax – CN65 Email-ID: 1769113 The big miners have signed an MOU with the government on the Mineral Resources Rent tax, which is a substantial climbdown by the government, but which removes one of three obstacles to Gillard as she prepares to call a general election at the end of August. Gillard will now tackle her other two immediate problems - the big increase in the number of asylum seekers arriving by boat, which is a hot political issue, and the reintroduction of some kind of move to reduce carbon emissions. Rudd's decision to drop the emissions trading scheme after championing climate change as “the most urgent issue facing the planet” were, along with the mining tax, the reason Labor dumped him as leader 8 days ago. Gillard is likely to deal with these two issues in the next fortnight in order to enable her to call this early election. The asylum seekers issue will probably be resolved by Australia and a number of other SE Asian nations, including Indonesia, supporting a proposal to process asylum seekers to the region on East Timor. At present those seeking asylum in Australia are detained on Christmas Island, which is full to overflowing. The Mineral Resources Rent Tax, with its lower rate of 30 per cent, will only cover iron ore and coal, not all resources. On shore oil and gas, including coal seam gas, will now come under the Petroleum Resources rent tax, where the rate is 40 per cent. Other big minerals like gold, uranium (Australia is the world's biggest producer) and
copper are not covered, but discussions will go on about them. There is to be a task force, chaired by Don Argus, former chairman of the world's biggest miner, Australia-based BHP Billiton, to work through these and other outstanding issues, and to join in the drafting of the legislation. [...] The Government intends to pay for its concessions to the miners by dropping plans to cut company tax by one per cent for the time being. Incidentally, while it is true that Australia always needs foreign capital, that argument can be exaggerated. First, as Matt indicated, it has not inconsiderable capital of its own, largely due to a very high savings ratio and investment in the nation's super funds rose by $30 billion last quarter to over $1 trillion. It also has several multinationals with substantial overseas assets like BHP Billiton (mining), Westfield (property and retailing), Boral (building materials) Leighton Holdings (construction) Santos (oil), Macquarie (Banking) etc etc. It also has had no problem in attracting capital in the past 50 years, and while some of the miners were threatening to withdraw future projects, they continued to invest even during the dispute, as the numbers show. It will still require more capital as it moves towards challenging Saudi Arabia as the world's leading energy producer in 15 years' time. The most unexploited mineral here is uranium, because the government limits mining to three mines and has not embraced nuclear power. Colin On 02/07/2010, at 11:29 AM, Jxxx Rxxx wrote: ATTRIBUTION: Australian contact connected with the government and natural resources SOURCE DESCRIPTION: Former Australian Senator. Source is well-connected politically, militarily and economically. He has become a private businessman helping foreign companies with M&As SOURCE RELIABILITY: A ITEM CREDIBILITY: 1/2 [...] * the government will claim that the small miners chasing
other resources such as moly, nickel, manganese, gold, uranium, etc won't be affected [...] Jxxx Rxxx China Director, Stratfor
2nd September 2011: Arms and resource trade is linked
Re: [alpha] INSIGHT - CZECH REPUBLIC - BMD, US, Russia, military & more - CZ103 & CZ104 Email-ID: 117802 ATTRIBUTION: Stratfor sources in Prague/Washington SOURCE DESCRIPTION: 103 - Deputy to the Czech Ambassador; moving in Oct to be deputy FM, 104 - Czech security attache, (Ambassador stopped in for a few min) SOURCE RELIABILITY: B ITEM CREDIBILITY: 3 […] Also, other countries who sell military equipment to CzR and the CEs do it within other deals, so it isn't just an expensive military deal. For example, the French sell things to CzR, but then purchase agricultural equipment from CzR in trade-all part of one deal (LG: I pointed out how the Russians do this all the time. Military trade for gold deals, etc). This creates a relationship more than just around one sector. The US hasn't done this. So the plan that CzR is now presenting is for 5 or 6 Central European countries to go in together and do a mass order of the F-16s in exchange for a discount by the US. It would be Romania, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and maybe more for Poland - for 85 or so F-16s. It would be interesting because then all of them could train together in one country and then set up a repair factory in another country. The countries would be tied together - and tied to the US. The US would need to have military on the ground to train the CEs. This is the best sort of security alliance between US and CEs.
16th September 2011: Gold is expensive
Fwd: [alpha] INSIGHT - INDONESIA - Freeport – CN65
Email-ID: 3373596 [...] From: Axxx Vxxx As of June reporting - Freeport had 55 million pounds of copper sold forward, most of which was due for delivery by end August. Uncertain if they would roll these contracts, but maybe they did, but that is only about $200mn impact. Meanwhile back in July the Indonesia workers went on strike for 8 days and this cost Freeport 35 million pounds of lost copper production and 60,000 oz of lost gold. Hence, I think we can see that if this strike goes on for a long while it can quickly add up in terms of lost production [...] From: Bxxx Pxxx About 8,000 employees at Grasberg, excluding workers from contractors, joined the strike that started at midnight to demand wage increases, Juli Parorrongan, a labor union spokesman, said today. Freeport miners are also striking in Peru. […] Grasberg has the worlds largest recoverable reserves of copper and the biggest single gold reserve, according to the Freeport website. Workers in Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Indonesia have gone on strike at copper, gold and zinc mines this year, seeking improved conditions and a bigger slice of record profits after metal prices more than doubled since the end of 2008.
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