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CONTENTS

PREPOSITIONS and PHRASAL VERBS PAGE

1- PREPOSITIONS WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS ................................ 2


1-1 AT, ON, IN ............................................................................................... 2
1-2 OTHER PREPOSITIONS USED WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS .......... 7
2- PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE ............................................................. 11
3- PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS ................................................... 16
3-1 NOUN + PREPOSITION ....................................................................... 16
3-2 PREPOSION + NOUN .......................................................................... 19
3-3 PREPOSITION + NOUN + PREPOSITION ........................................ 27
3-4 ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION ...............................................................28
3-5 VERB + PREPOSITION ........................................................................ 29
3-6 VERB + OBJECT + PREPOSITION ...................................................... 30
3-7 VERB + NOUN + PREPOSITION ..........................................................31
4- PHRASAL VERBS ................................................................................ 39
4-1 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "UP" ........................................................... 40
4-2 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "DOWN" .....................................................41
4-3 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "OUT" ......................................................... 42
4-4 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "OFF" .......................................................... 44
4-5 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "ON" .......................................................... 45
4-6 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "IN" AND "INTO" ..................................... 46
4-7 PHRASAL VERBS WITH OTHER PARTICLES ................................. 47
4-8 THREE-WORD VERBS ........................................................................ 48
EXAMPLES FROM OYS/YDS ................................................................... 52
APPENDIX 1 .............................................................................................. 54
APPENDIX 2 ................................................................................................. 61
APPENDIX 3 ................................................................................................. 63

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PREPOSITIONS and PHRASAL VERBS

PREPOSITIONS

İngilizce'de "preposition" çok geniş kapsamlı bir sözcük grubudur. Cümle içindeki başlıca işlevi,
cümlenin diğer öğeleri arasında, özellikle de isimler arasında bağlantı kurmaktır. Bir preposition' dan
sonra noun, pronoun, gerund ve noun clause gelebilir. Preposition' dan sonra gelen isimler yalın
haldedir: to James, on the table, with my parents, etc. Pronoun ise object pronoun biçiminde
kullanılır: to him, on it, with them, etc.

She is going to the cinema with the children. (prep. + noun)


They are very kind to us. (prep. + pronoun)
He is quite interested in reading. (prep. + gerund)
I don't approve of what you did. (prep + noun clause)

1- PREPOSITIONS WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS

1-1 AT, ON, IN

a) AT

Saatlerle at kullanılır.

Our classes start at 9 and finish at 12.


Yesterday, I left work at 6 o'clock sharp.

What time ........? ile sorulan sorularda ve bu sorulara verilen kısa yanıtlarda at genellikle
kulllanılmaz.

- At what time does the meeting start?


- At 9 o'clock in the morning.

- What time does the meeting start ?


- 9 o'clock in the morning

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Zamanda bir nokta belirten ifadelerle at kullanılır. Bu ifadeleri söyle gruplandırabiliriz:

Meal times : at tea time, at lunch time, at dinner time


Festivals : at Christmas, at Easter
Age : at 17, at the age of 17
Other points
of time : at dawn, at midday, at midnight, at night, at noon, at the weekend, at the
moment, at present, at the beginning of the year, at the end of the month

at + time : at that time, at the same time, at this time

We are planning to set off at dawn. (Şafakta ..... )


Most people were living in great poverty at that time. (O zamanlar .....)
He left home at the age of 15. (15 yaşında .....)
They are working on a new project at the moment/at present. (Şu anda .... )

At the end ile in the end arasındaki ayrıma dikkat ediniz. In the end, finally anlamındadır ve
kendinden sonra başka bir isim gelmez. At the end ise, bir şeyin sonunda anlamını verir: at the end of
the month, at the end of the week, at the end of the term, etc.

He had been out of work for months, but in the end, he found a good job.

I will be paid at the end of the month. Then I can pay you back.

Weekend ile British English at, American English on kullanır.

We usually go to the cinema at the weekend/on the weekend.

b) ON

Günlerle ve tarihlerle on kullanılır.

on Monday on (one's) birthday on Monday morning


on Sunday(s) on Christmas Day on that date
on weekdays on 12th October on (one's) wedding day

He plays football on Saturdays.


I last saw him on his birthday.
This booklet will come out on December the 21st.

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c) IN

Daha uzun zaman dilimleri bildiren ifadelerle in kullanılır.

Months : in January, in December


Years : in 1988, in 1923, in the 1960s
Seasons : in (the) summer, in (the) spring
Centuries
and Ages : in the 20th century, in the Middle Ages
Others : in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening
in the middle of the night

Morning, afternoon, evening ifadeleriyle normalde in kullanılır. Ancak bu ifadeleri bir gün ismiyle
birlikte kullandığımızda preposition on dur.

She usually does the shopping in the mornings.


She usually does the shopping on Monday mornings.

The meeting will be held in the evening.


The meeting will be held on Friday evening.

Aylar ve yıllarla in kullanılır. Ancak bir ifadede günü de belirtiyorsak on kullanılır.

He was born in 1988.


He was born in May.
He was born in May, 1988.
He was born on 8th May, 1988.
He was born on 8th May.

Birinin yaşını ifade ederken at the age of kullanılır. Ancak, kişinin yaşını kesin olarak bilmiyorsak, in
her/his thirties gibi ifadeler kullanırız. In her early thirties (otuzlu yaşların başlarında), in her mid-
thirties (otuzbeş yaşlarında), in her late thirties (otuzlu yaşların sonlarında) gibi ifadeler tahminimize
daha bir kesinlik kazandırır.

I don't think she is as old as she looks.


She must be in her mid-fifties.

Next, last ve this, zaman zarflarıyla kullanıldığında in, on, at kullanılmaz.

They moved to Ankara last year.


We are going on holiday next month.
We will meet again next Saturday.
She stayed in İzmir for two weeks last winter.
We haven't decided yet where to go on holiday this summer.

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d) IN + A PERIOD OF TIME

In two days, in a few hours, in three years, in a week, etc. gibi ifadeler gelecekte bir zaman belirtir. Bu
ifadeleri in two days' time, in three years' time, in a week's time biçiminde de kullanabiliriz.

We are moving into our new apartment in two weeks/in two weeks' time.
(İki hafta sonra ...... )
They are going to get married in three months/in three months' time.
(Üç ay sonra ...... )
I expect we'll have arrived in the town in an hour/in an hour's time.
(Bir saat sonra ..... )

In + a period of time ifadesini, bir işin ne kadar zamanda yapıldığını belirtirken de kullanabiliriz. Bu
anlamda in yerine within de kullanılabilir.

Normally, in the first grade of Elementary school, they teach children to read in
(within) two or three months. (...... iki-üç ayda/iki-üç ay içinde .....)

He usually does his homework in (within) an hour. (= Usually it takes him an


hour to do his homework.)

Most of the students finished the examination in (within) an hour and a half.
(= It took them an hour and a half to finish the examination.)

In + a period of time ifadesi bu anlamda " "apostrophe + time" biçiminde kullanılmaz. Şu iki örneği
karşılaştıralım:

You will have to eat lunch in (within) half an hour.


Yemeğini yarım saatte/yarım saat içinde yemek zorunda kalacaksın.

You will have to eat lunch in half an hour/in half an hour's time.
Yemeğini yarım saat sonra yemek zorunda kalacaksın.

EXERCISE 1 : Complete the sentences with at, on, in.

1- You should start to feel the effects of the medicine ............... a day or two.
2- It is hard to entertain the family ............... your birthday and relax ............... the same time.
3- So, I will see you ............... the 5th of November ............... lunch time, and then we will go
to the opera ................. the evening.
4- We had a big family meal ............... the day when my son got his university degree.
Everyone stayed until late ............... night.
5- I may be home a little later than usual ............... Saturday evening, but as soon as I arrive,
I'll be ready to join you for the play ............... less than a quarter of an hour.

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6- The flag sellers make a lot of money ............... Independence Day.
7- Jake should arrive ............... a few minutes because he has an appointment with a
client............... 2.00 p.m.
8- The World Baseball Series is broadcast live in the UK ............... the middle of the night
because of the lime difference. Who would want to watch sport ............... such a late hour?
9- We get a few sunny days around here ............... autumn, but hardly any ............... winter.
10- The sun is too strong ............... noon, so we will sunbathe later ............... the afternoon.
11- The hiking club meets ............... the second and last Sunday in the month ............... summer
and ............... the first Sunday .............. winter.
12- He is milking the cows ............... the moment, but he should be finished ...............half an
hour.
13- They serve breakfast............... 8 a.m. ............... weekdays and ............... 9 a.m................ the
weekends.
14- The film 'Autumn Milk' is about a girl who, ............... the age of eight, takes the
responsibility of cooking and sewing for her entire family — a responsibility she only gives
up ............... her wedding day.
15- More people come to the park ............... Sunday mornings than ............... the afternoons
during the week.
16- You won't be the oldest person on the Thai Chi course as some of the participants must be
............... their seventies.
17- The castle at Usk was built............... the 12th century and extended ............... the middle
ages.
18- The reduced fares apply to passengers flying out................ a weekday and returning
................ either a Saturday or a Sunday night.
19- I'm afraid we are fully booked ............... that date. It is better to call us well in advance for
tables ............... Friday evenings.
20- These bats feed ............... night and return to their cave ............... sunrise.
21- Her knee is still troubling her ............... present, but she is hoping to compete in the
final............... two weeks' time.
22- We usually go skiing ............... April because there is still lots of snow, but the weather is
warmer than .............. winter months.
23- We stayed up all night .......... Midsummer's Day.
24- The hotel was lovely and the food was delicious, but there wasn't much to do................the
evening or ..............days when it rained.
25- Their songs were popular ............... the 1980s.

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1-2 OTHER PREPOSITIONS USED WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS

for ( süreç bildirir) I'll be out of the country for a month on


business.
for two days,
for a few hours, Let's go to the cinema. I haven't seen a good
for centuries, etc. film for ages.

during (..... sırasında) He fell asleep during the lesson because it


was so boring.
during the film,
during the war, They heard a loud noise during the night.
during my stay there, etc.
from ...... to/till/until The shop is open every Sunday from half
past ten until one o'clock.
from Monday to Friday
from 1980 to 1985 The Second World War ran from 1939 to
from February to March 1945.
from 9 to/until/till 6
between ..... and ...... There are no buses between midnight and 5
o'clock in the morning..
between 1975 and 1980
between 9 and 6 Most people take their holidays sometime
between Monday and Friday between May and September.

toward(s) (.... e doğru) Towards the end of the day, she started to
feel very tired.
towards the end of the month
towards 7 o'clock The snowstorm started towards 9 o'clock.
towards midnight
throughout (...... boyunca) If you had studied more throughout the
term, you wouldn't be so worried about the
throughout the year exams now.
throughout the day
throughout the week I drink several cups of coffee throughout
the day.

after After today, our work should get easier.

after 1990 If you arrive after ten o'clock, call me


after 2 o'clock
after the weekend

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before Please bring the books back before the
weekend.
before 1996
before 2 o'clock If you arrive before ten o'clock, you'll be
before Friday able to get a bus to my house.

since
I haven't had anything to eat since 8 o'clock
since Monday this morning.
since 1980
since 5 o'clock He's worked there since 1991.

till/until (not before "....) The manager will be out of the office until 2
o'clock.
till/Until Friday
till/until 6 o'clock We won't be able to pay you until the end
till/until 1992 of the month.

by (...... at the latest)


Please be at the station by 11:20, the train
by Tuesday leaves at 11:25.
by 5 o'clock
by 1996 The delivery should have arrived by Friday.

NOTES :
During ile while aynı anlamı ifade edecek şekilde kullanılabilir. Ancak during' den sonra bir
isim, while' den sonra bir clause (subject +verb) gelir.

Suddenly, I began to feel unwell during the lesson.


Suddenly, I began to feel unwell while I was teaching.

I visited lots of places during my stay abroad.


I visited lots of places while I was abroad.

Until ve by, Türkçe'ye " ...... e kadar" biçiminde çevrildiği halde farklı anlamlar ifade ederler.

Until, eylemin sözü edilen zamana kadar devam ettiğini ve o noktada bittiğini ifade eder.

Last night, I studied until midnight.


(= Last night I stopped studying at midnight.)

By ise eylemin en geç sözü edilen zamanda gerçekleşecegini ya da sözü edilen zamana kadar
gerçekleşmiş olduğunu ifade eder. Yani eylem, belirtilen zamandan daha önce bitmiş olabilir.

l had finished all my work by midnight.


(= When midnight came, 1 had no work to do.)

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EXERCISE 2 : Complete the sentences with during or while.

1- We saw a blue kingfisher .................... our excursion.


2- We saw a blue kingfisher .................... we were walking along the river.
3- He didn't say one nice thing to me .................... the whole evening we were in a restaurant
together.
4- Our hotel was badly damaged ................... the flood, which caused a great deal of damage to
property in town.
5- I marked a couple of papers .................... the students read the passage.
6- They showed our village .................... the-news broadcast about rural communities.
7- The terrible earthquake happened .................... they were away on holiday.
8- Somebody stole his briefcase .................... he was at the box office buying a ticket.

EXERCISE 3 : Complete the sentences with until or by.

1- I'm not going to buy any Christmas presents .................... the end of November because I don't
like to start thinking about Christmas too early.
2- They didn't arrive .................... 8.15, so they missed the starters, which had been served at
8.00.
3- We must be there .................... 7.45 as the dinner will be served at 8.00 o'clock sharp.
4- If a room has not been taken .................... 5 o'clock, we reduce the price to £20.00.
5- We had four vacant rooms .................... 5 p.m., when a group of Australian tourists booked in.
6- If the pain hasn't eased .................... the morning, phone me again and I will prescribe some
additional medicine.
7- I'm afraid the pain is certain to stay with you .................... the morning.
8- This is quick-drying nail polish, so it should be dry .................... eight, when Peter is coming
to collect me.
9- You can buy now and you don't have to pay a penny ................... next January, when your Hire
Purchase payments will start.
10- If we haven't received any money .................... the 1st of next month, we will take further
action.

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EXERCISE 4 : Complete the sentences with the prepositions explained in parts 1-1 and 1-2. In
some sentences, more than one answer is possible.

1- After you have been working .................... four hours, you are entitled to a half hour break.
2- We should have a clearer idea about what caused the accident sometime .................... the end
of the afternoon. I would guess sometime .................... 4 p.m. and 6 p.m.
3- Our Christmas party is .................... a Friday evening this year.
4- The theatre will be closed .................... two weeks, .................... the first .................... the
fifteenth, for refurbishment.
5- I didn't sell anything .................... 3 p.m., so I thought it was going to be a quiet day, but I sold
quite a few things .................... that.
6- You won't feel any pain .................... the operation and you will be out of bed .................... a
couple of days' time.
7- Our flight leaves at 8.30 a.m., so they want us to be in the airport.................... 6.30 a.m.,
which is the latest time for checking-in.
8- I’ve been directing traffic .................... 10 a.m. this morning, so I need a break.
9- You can take the dishwasher home today and you don't have to pay anything ....................
after six months; furthermore, our installments are free from interest charges .................... the
first six months.
10- I'm coming to town .................... Monday, so we could meet for a coffee after my
appointment at the hairdresser's.
11- .................... 1923, when the Republic was founded, ....................... this day, Turkey has had
57 governments.
12- They don't normally serve breakfast.................... 10 a.m., so we should meet earlier if we are
to have breakfast there.
13- I feel safe walking around Manchester any time .................... the day, but I don't like walking
around there ..................... night.
14- He was very nervous the week .................... his wedding, but.................... the actual day, he
was so happy that he didn't feel nervous at all.
15- I find it strange that you have-been cycling and playing basketball.................... the vacation
and just.................... school starts tomorrow, you suddenly have a terrible stomach cramp.

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2- PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE and MOVEMENT

in in a city, in the east of Turkey,


(... de, ... da, içinde in a room, in a park, in the water,
anlamını verir.) in the sea, in a line, in a queue,
in a row. in a book, in a newspaper,
in the sky, in an armchair, in bed,
in the world, in the sun, in the rain, etc.

at at home, at school, at work (without "the")


(bir nokta ifade eder) at the cinema, at the theatre, at the party,
at the meeting, at the station, at the airport,
at the front, at the back, at sea (voyage)
at the beginning of the street,
at the end of the street, etc.

on on the floor, on the wall, on the ceiling,


(üzerinde, yüzeyinde on the chair, on the bed, on the table,
anlamını verir.) on the shelf, on the cover, on page (7),
on the front page of the newspaper,
on the back page of the newspaper,
on an island, on a river, on the ground,
on earth, on her face, on my nose,
on the West coast of Turkey, etc.

to to work, to school (without "the")


(yönelme bildirir.) to the station, to London, to the airport.
from work, from school (without "the")
from
from the station, from London, from the airport
(bir yerden ayrılma ifade eder.)

into walk into the cinema, get into the car, pour
(bir şeyin "içine doğru" (water) into the glass, etc.
hareket bildirir.)
come out of the cinema, get out of the car,
drink (tea) out of a cup, etc.
out of
(bir yerden "dışarı çıkma" anlamını verir.)
round/around live round the comer.
(çevresinde, köşede anlamını verir.) have a hedge round the garden

beyond beyond the river beyond the beach


(ötede, ilerisinde anlamlarını verir.)

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by by the sea, by the lake
(yanında anlamını verir.)

past past the post office, past the police station


(geçince anlamını verir.)
through through the tunnel, through customs,
(bir şeyin içinden geçerek anlamını verir.) through the woods, through the town.

throughout throughout the country (= all over the country)


(bütün bir alanı kaplama anlamını verir.)
throughout the world (= all over the world)

across across the river, across the street,


(bir uçtan diğer uca, bir taraftan diğer tarafa across the field, across the path
anlamını verir.)
along along the river, along the road,
(.... boyunca anlamını verir.) along the corridor, etc.

among among the crowd, among the trees,


(ikiden fazla öğeden oluşan bir grubun among the people, etc.
içinde)
between you and me
between
between the teacher and the students
(iki ya da daha fazla öğeden oluşan düzenli
a treaty between the European countries, etc.
bir grubun arasında anlamını verir.)

up up the hill, up the road, up the wall. etc.


(yukan doğru anlamım verir.)
down the hill, down the road, down the river.
down
etc.
(aşağı doğru anlamını verir.)

above (= higher) above sea level, above the clouds,


(düzey olarak üzerinde, daha yüksekte the people above us, above (the) average,
anlamını verir. Nesneler birbirine değmez.) above zero
below (= lower)
below the surface of the sea,
(düzey olarak altında, daha aşağıda
the people below us, below the clouds,
anlamını verir.)
below (the) average, below zero

over jump over, the wall,a plane flying over the


(bir nesnenin diğer bir nesnenin tam üzerinde town
olduğunu ifade eder. Bazen iki nesne a bridge over the river, over 50 years of age,
birbirine değebilir.) a plaster over his eye (covering it)
under
under the table, under the bridge,
(bir nesnenin diğer bir nesnenin tam altında
under the bed, under 50 years of age,

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olduğunu ifade eder. Bazen iki nesne under water etc.
birbirine değebilir.)

against put something against the wall,


(birşeye dayamak, dayanmak anlamını verir.) lean against the chair

opposite (facing) (karşısında anlamını verir.) the cinema opposite our house,
sit opposite me

in front of the people in front of us,


(bir nesnenin diğer bir nesnenin önünde in front of the cinema
olduğunu belirtir.) in front of the tree, etc.
behind the people behind us, behind the tree,
(bir nesnenin diğer bir nesnenin arkasında a garden behind the house
olduğunu ifade eder.)

beside (= next to) sit beside me,


(yanında, yanına anlamlarını verir.) the restaurant beside our house

inside inside the house, inside the cave,


(içinde, içeride anlamlarını verir.) inside the shop, etc.
outside outside the house, outside the cave,
(dışarıda, dışında anlamlarını verir.) outside the shop, etc.

NOTES :

Birinin hala yatakta olduğunu ifade etmek için in bed kullanılır. Ancak yatağın üzerindeki bir nesneyi
on (the) bed biçiminde ifade edebiliriz.

It's already past 10 o'clock but he is still in bed.


Don't put your jeans on my bed.

"Denizde olmak, yüzmek..." anlamlarında in the sea, "denizde yolculukta olmak", anlamında ise at
sea kullanılır.

I like swimming in the sea rather than in a pool.


The sailors were bored, because they had been at sea for months.

"Nehirde yüzmek" anlamında in the river kullanılır. Ancak nehirdeki sandal, gemi, vb. taşıtların
durumunu ve bir nehir üzerine kurulmuş yerleşim merkezinin konumunu on the river biçiminde ifade
edebiliriz.

It is not safe to swim in this river because of the currents.


Paris is on the river Seine.
There were a few boats on the river.

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"Ayrı ayrı iki nesnenin birbirlerinin önünde/arkasında olduğunu in front of/behind ile ifade
ederiz. Ancak aynı zemin üzerinde önde/arkada derken at the front/at the back kullanılır.
Örneğin sınıfın önünde (ön tarafında) demek için at the front of the classroom, sınıfın
arkasında (arka tarafında) demek için ise at the back of the classroom ifadelerini kullanmamız
gerekir.

We were sitting at the front of the cinema.


Some students prefer to sit at the back of the classroom.

Ancak, gazetenin ön sayfasında/ arka sayfasında derken on the front/on the back page of the
newspaper; ön sırada/arka sırada derken in the front row/in the back row kullanılır.

Go, get, fly, drive gibi fiiller yönelme bildiren preposition "to" ile kullanılır.

He is going/flying/driving to Ankara tomorrow.


When I got to work, I found everybody in a deep silence.

Arrive fiili, village, town, city, country gibi bir yerleşim merkezine varmak anlamındaysa in ; station,
school, work, meeting, etc. gibi bir noktaya varmak anlamındaysa at ile kullanılır.

We arrived in Ankara at dawn.


I arrived at my destination rather early.

Bu fiiller, home, abroad, here ve there ile kullanıldığında preposition almaz.

When will you come here again?


I've heard that you're going abroad next week.
When I got/arrived/went/came home, I was really tired.
Don't forget to call me as soon as you get there.

"Varmak, ulaşmak" anlamında reach fiili preposition almadan kullanılır.

When I reached the hotel, I went straight to bed.

EXERCISE 5 : Complete the sentences with the prepositions of place.


1- The hotel we stayed ............... when we were ............... Cairo was so pleasant that I would
have been quite content to stay there and sunbathe ............... the pool for the entire holiday.
2- The boy scouts sat............. the fire in a circle and sang songs.
3- Although he had far less money then, he was happier .............. university than he is
............... work now.

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4- We went............... 170 floors ........... the lift of the World Trade Centre ...............New York,
which is the tallest building ............... the world.
5- I used to enjoy my job as a gardener, but I got fed up with working ............... in all kinds of
Weather and decided to get a job in which 1 could work ............... .
6- Death Valley contains land which is 283 feet................ sea level, making it the lowest dry
land in the United States of America.
7- Sarah hid ............... a tree so that her friends couldn't see her.
8- Would you like to go ............... me in the queue, as you only have two items?
9- When I arrived ............... the hotel, I went straight............... my room, put my suitcase
............... the bed and unpacked.
10- I had to get some steps to stand ............... in order that I could reach the books............... the
top shelf.
11- Buldan fabric is well-known for its quality and durability not only in the surrounding area,
but.............. Turkey.
12- During the floods, there was only one bridge ............... the River Severn that was open as
all the others were ............... the water.
13- The two newsagents are directly ............... each other, and as it is difficult to cross ...............
one side of the road .............. the other at that point, their custom has a lot to do with which
side of the road a customer is on.
14- The Alpine train set fire while it was passing ............... a tunnel. The fire spread quickly
............... the train, destroying most of the carriages and killing most of the tourists who
were travelling ............... it.
15- The problem I have with dieting is that, every day on my way ............... and ...............work,
I walk ............... a shop which sells Belgium chocolates.
16- The woman who sat.............. me on the coach was so large that she took one and a half
seats up, leaving very little room for me.
17- We had dinner ................ a wonderful restaurant............... the ocean and then we drove to
Malaga ............... the coast road, which twists and turns with the magnificent blue ocean on
its left.
18- Be careful! Don't lean anything ................ that dividing wall. It's a temporary partition and
not very strong.
19- Victoria Falls, one of the world's mightiest waterfalls, is ............... east-central Africa,
.............. the Zambezi River, ............... the border ............... Zambia and Zimbabwe.
20- The cabin of the cable car was quite small, but about thirty holidaymakers clambered
............... it with our skis. Then, squashed together, we travelled ............... the mountain
side. Gosh! I was so glad to climb ............... the cabin and ............... the fresh mountain air.
21- Only relatively close stars can be seen with the unaided eye. To see the stars that lie
............. them, we must use devices such as telescopes.
22- Last week, I was so ill that I had to stay ............. bed for three whole days.
23- I had had previous dealings with very few people ............... the delegates.............. the
conference?

15
24- One of the smallest countries in the world, Maldives is a chain of nearly 1,200 small coral
islands ............... the Indian Ocean. Situated southwest of India, the islands extend more
than 764 kilometres ............... north .............. south and 130 kilometres ............., an east-
west direction. All of the islands are low-lying — none rises to more than 1.8 metres
............... sea level.
25- Million's of Hindus worship the River Ganges and believe that bathing ............... its water
washes away their sins.

3- PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS

3-1 NOUN + PREPOSITION

a cause of something

The cause of the air crash is believed to be engine failure.

a reason for something

Tonight's football match isn't a good reason for not doing your homework.

a cheque for (a sum of money )

After they'd repaired his car, he gave the garage a cheque for £ 50.

a demand/a need for something

The traffic problems clearly show the need for better roads.

an advantage/a disadvantage of something


there is an advantage/a disadvantage in doing something

Clean air is just one of the advantages of living in the country.


There is an advantage in living in the country; clean air.

a rise/an increase/a fall/a decrease/a reduction in something

There has been a sharp rise in inflation recently, but also a slight decrease in
unemployment.

a picture/a photograph of someone/something -

Would you like to see the photographs of my holiday?

a solution to a problem/an answer, to a question/a reply to â letter

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It seems that no one is able to find a solution to the problems in Bosnia.
I haven't had a reply to any of my letters of application yet.

a reaction to something

His reaction to my proposal took me completely by surprise.

damage to something

The strong winds did a lot of damage to the crops.

an invitation to a party/a wedding etc.

Have you sent David an invitation to the parry yet ?

an attitude to/towards someone/something

The Japanese's attitude towards teachers is different from many other nationalities'.

a relationship/a connection/contact with someone/something

You should try to have a good relationship with your friends.


Their names are the same but this company has no connection with the one in
Ankara.

a relationship/a connection/contact/a difference between two things

Their names are the same but there is no connection between this company and the one
in Ankara.

a novel/a painting/a play by someone

"Sunflowers" is one of the most famous paintings by Van Gogh.

a fight/struggle for/against something/someone

Eğer birşeyi kazanmak, elde etmek için savaşım veriliyorsa "for", birşeye karşı savaşım
veriliyorsa "against" kullanılır.

In the 1920s British women had a hard fight for the right to vote.
Nelson Mandela's struggle against apartheid in South Africa finally resulted in
his being elected president.

a noun + to infinitive

17
Pek çok isimden sonra "to + infinitive" kullanılır.

People, when arrested by the police, have the right to remain silent.
When she was very young, her ability to play the piano was soon noticed.

EXERCISE 6 : Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1- It was quite difficult to plan the party because I didn't get a reply ............... my invitation
from most of the guests until a few days before the event.
2- The bank charges 27 pence for processing a cheque, so we don't like to accept cheques
............... small amounts.
3- A photograph ............... my husband and son appeared in the paper last week.
4- His attitude ............... English teaching is very modern and forward thinking.
5- It will be some time before they establish the cause ............... the train crash.
6- The reason ............... the amount of flooding experienced in Britain this year is unclear, but
some scientists argue that it is all part of a process known as global warming.
7- There is a need ............... better flood defences to be built in towns and cities across Britain.
8- The popularity of e-mail has led to a reduction ............... the number of hand-written letters
sent.
9- The flood resulted in extensive damage ............... the houses down by the river.
10- The politician spoke for about five minutes, but he didn't provide an answer ............... the
interviewer's question.
11- The difference ............... PC World and Tiny Computers is that the former deals with large
companies and the latter with small businesses.
12- One disadvantage ............... working the night shift is that I never see my friends during the
week.
13- During the Industrial Revolution, the workers' struggle ............... humane working conditions
and an end to child labour took quite some time to attain any success.
14- The prize in the raffle is a painting ............... the famous wildlife artist, David Shepherd.
15- Our relationship ............... our customers is very important in this business.

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3-2 PREPOSITION + NOUN
a) PHRASES WITH "IN"

a) in cash g) in pain m) in person


b) in fashion h) in a moment n) in reality
c) in silence i) in order o) in time
d) in ink j) in tears p) in conclusion
e) in particular k) in captivity q) in pieces
f) in danger l) in short r) in error

EXERCISE 7: Complete each sentence with one of the phrases from the list above. Use each
phrase only once.

1- I thank you all for giving me the opportunity of expressing my feelings here, and,
......................... I'd like to say how much I have enjoyed working with you and wish you all
success in the future.
2- There are so many exclusions regarding earthquakes to his house insurance that,
....................., he is not covered at all in the event of another earthquake.
3- Today, thousands of animals, such as elephants and whales, are ........................ of extinction.
4- I don't mind you borrowing my encyclopedias as long as you put them back in the bookcase
........................ after you've finished with them.
5- I didn't speak to the director ......................... but I left a message with his secretary.
6- Affected by acute shock of the tragedy, the friends sat for a while ........................Jenny
arrived with a pot of tea and gave everyone a cup still without saying a word.
7- One by one, the friends broke down ......................... sobbing deeply over their loss.
8- Of course, ......................... they will recover from their grief and continue their lives.
9- Be quiet! They are going to announce the lottery numbers ........................ . So we could be
millionaires in less than a minute.
10- Many of the government's new policies have been unpopular. ....................... , their policy
towards retired persons and pensions.
11- The bank wrote to him and explained that they had credited a cheque to his account
........................ and that they would rectify this fault by deducting this amount from his next
statement.
12- The service at the hospital was so bad that our son was left in the waiting room sitting
........................ for over an hour.

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13- The manager said quite a lot of positive things about how he thought the new branch is
performing, which I don't have time to tell you, but......................... he is very pleased.
14- We prefer to be paid ........................ because the bank charges us a fee for cashing cheques.
15- I don't worry about what sort of clothes are ........................ . I just like to buy comfortable
ones.
16- Giant pandas are popular in zoos, but they rarely breed ..........................
17- Don't write the bookings in the hotel diary ........................ until the customer has confirmed
his or her booking in writing. Write them in pencil initially.
18- You had better move your antique vase in case the baby knocks it off the table. I would hate
to see it........................ after you have looked after it all these years.

EXERCISE 8: Complete the sentences with one of the phrases from the list below.
Use each phrase only once.

a) in trouble f) in vain k) in the circumstances


b) in advance g) in sight 1) in tune
c) in turn h) in common m) in public
d) in a hurry i) in demand n) in general
e) in the suburbs j) in debt o) in progress

1- Because of the floods, there were not as many customers in town as usual, but .........................
we did reasonably well. We had a few people in for lunch when we hadn't expected anyone at
all.
2- As soon as the boat was ......................... we gathered our possessions and got ready to board
the vessel.
3- My flatmate is always ........................ . He is always borrowing money from me in order to
pay his bills.
4- There is a couple of small things that I don't like about my new job, but ......................... I am
very happy there.
5- Josie's son is always ........................ at school. She has had three letters about his unacceptable
behaviour from the head teacher already this term.
6- Please be quiet outside the main hall this week as examinations are ........................ .
7- Many older areas of Birmingham which used to be ........................ have now been engulfed by
the ever expanding city.
8- She sings very well for a four year old and, surprisingly, she sang the entire song perfectly
........................ .
9- Steve supports Manchester United, while Geoff supports Manchester City. Steve voted for the
Conservative candidate, while Geoff voted for the Labour candidate. In fact, they have very
little ........................ considering that they are best friends.
10- I can't stop and chat as I'm ........................ . I want to get back to my car before I have to pay
for another hour's parking.

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11- Due to the progress made in electronic dictation machines, those skilled in stenography or
shorthand note-taking are not so much ........................ as they once were.
12- For ten years, they searched ........................ for their missing daughter. It appears that they will
never know exactly what happened to her.
13- Although it is three weeks from now, to secure the booking, we require a five-pound deposit
per person ......................... for Christmas day luncheon.
14- The eminent musician Eubie Blake last performed ......................... to a large audience, in 1982
at the age of 99.
15- When customers enter the bank, they take a number from the machine so that the cashiers can
serve everyone .................. .

b) PHRASES WITH "ON"

a) on average j) on the increase s) on loan


b) on board k) on (one's) own t) on purpose
c) on fire .1) on the phone u) on holiday
d) on foot m on the our v) on a trip
e) on guard )n) on television w on a tour
f) on sale o) on a diet )
x) on a cruise
g) on strike p) on (one's) way y) on an expedition
h) on occasions q) on the whole
i) on (that) date ci
r) on the outskirts

EXERCISE 9 : Complete the sentences with one of the phrases from the list above.
Use each phrase only once.

1- The owner of the hotel is a qualified chef, but he rarely cooks himself nowadays. However,
......................... he has been known to help the head chef in the kitchen if the restaurant is
exceedingly busy.
2- I have a few recommendations which should improve your presentation, but .........................
I think it is an excellent seminar.
3- We went........................ to Paris for the day on the train and saw the Eiffel Tower and Notre
Dame Cathedral.
4- She is supposed to be studying for her exams, but whenever I go to her room, she is
........................ chatting to her friends.
5- We bought a music centre that was ........................ because it was a model which had been
on display in the shop.
6- During the floods, all the roads into the town centre were closed and it was only possible to
reach the centre ........................ using the old iron footbridge across the river.
7- A healthy human heart beats 72 times per minute ........................ .
8- In 1513, ........................ of South American jungles, Vasco Nunez Balboa became the first
European ever to look at the Pacific Ocean from the shores of the New World.

21
9- The yeoman warders, who are ........................ at the Tower of London to protect its
collection of valuables, are familiarly known as beefeaters.
10- The film 'Marvin's Room' is being shown for the first time ........................ on Monday night
at 9 p.m. on Channel 4.
11- 150 passengers ........................ an Alpine train in Kaprun died when the train caught fire
inside a tunnel.
12- While we were .......................... our ship anchored at Istanbul, where we visited the Grand
Bazaar and Topkapı Palace.
13- Barcelona's centre is a maze of narrow streets and medieval buildings, in contrast to the
smart, modem apartment buildings to be found ........................ of the city.
14- I'm afraid the book 'Little House of the Prairie' is ........................ from the library at the
moment. Would you like to reserve it?
15- I won't see you for a while as I'm ........................ from work next week, which I'm looking
forward to.
16- Do you pass a newsagent........................ to work? If you do, would you mind picking me up
The Guardian?
17- I don't think that the baby dropped it Instead, I think she threw it to the ground
........................ in order to gain our attention.
18- A: How long have you been ........................?
B: For three weeks now, but I can't resist eating a little chocolate occasionally, so I don't
seem to be losing weight fast.
19- Two days after the bombing, we could see the flames from the buildings still ………………
20- In 1984, the British coal miners went......................... returning to their jobs almost a year
later.
21- We are fully booked on the 20th November, so we will need some extra staff …………….. .
22- The number of European or American companies building factories in underdeveloped
nations is .......................as they take advantage of lower wages.
23- Sherly Crow's opportunity to become a famous musician came when she was chosen to
accompany Michael Jackson ........................ of the world, his Bad World Tour.
24- Theard the clock in the bedroom playing the tune ........................ . Is it 1 or 2 p.m.?
25- My mother is moving to a block of flats specially designed for elderly people and, although
she will still be living ........................ she will have plenty of company and a warden on duty
around the clock in case she is taken ill.

ON TIME / IN TIME

"On time", "punctual" anlamındadır ve kararlaştırılmış bir saatten sözederken "vaktinde, dakik"
anlamını verir.

- She never comes to class late. She is always on time.


The meeting will start at 2 p.m. and I have to be there on time.

"In time" da Türkçe'ye "vaktinde" biçiminde çevrilir. Ancak kararlaştırılmış bir saat söz konusu
değildir. "Bir işi yapmak için uygun bir vakitte" anlamındadır. "In time for something/in time to do
something" biçiminde de kullanılabilir.

22
I got home in time for my favourite programme.
I got home in time to have dinner with my parents.
They are having the house painted for the wedding.
I hope the painters finish their job in time.
(Umarım boyacılar işlerini vaktinde bitirirler.)

Son örnekte, boya işinin bitmesi için kararlaştırılmış bir saat olamaz. Bu nedenle "vaktinde" sözü,
konuşmacının kendine göre "uygun bir zamanı" ifade etmektedir.

"Just in time" "tam zamanında" anlamını verir.

Someone had spilt coke on the chair, but Sue didn't notice it, and was going to sit
on the chair. Fortunately, I warned her just in time to prevent her from sitting
there. (Onu tam zamanında uyardım...)

EXERCISE 10: Complete the sentences with in or on.

1- We didn't arrive ............... time for the meal, so we missed that, but we did manage to see
the entertainment.
2- If the bus arrives ............... time, you will be in town by half past.
3- If we don't finish the job ............... time, that is, on the date agreed in the contract, we have
to pay a penalty to the customer.
4- If we don't finish the job ............... time for the official opening, it will be very
embarrassing for the customer.
5- We arrived at the book shop ............... time to see the author and even had a chance to ask
him to sign a copy of his book.
6- They never start these matches ............... time. The match is supposed to start at 3 p.m., but
it will probably be ten past before it gets underway.

ON HOLIDAY/FOR A HOLIDAY

"Be/go on holiday" ifadesi, eğer "holiday" in önünde the, a, my, your, etc. gibi bir sözcük
varsa "go for a/the/my holiday" biçiminde kullanılır.

Let's not talk about business now.


We are on holiday.

We usually go to Bodrum for our holidays.

23
EXERCISE 11: Complete the sentences with on or for.

1- I wonder where people who live in the Florida Keys go ............... their holidays?
2- They stay at their villa ............... most of their summer holiday.
3- Are you thinking of going abroad again ............... holiday this year?
4- He takes his caravan to Wales every year ............... his holidays.
5- He was struck by a tropical illness while ............... holiday last year.
6- The Smiths are ............... holiday in Canada at the moment

c) PHRASES WITH "OUT OF'

a) out of luck g) out of reach m) out of print


b) out of order h) out of tune n) out of season
c) out of practice i) out of work o) out of breath
d) out of the question j) out of sight p) out of control
e) out of danger k) out of fashion q) out of date
f) out of debt 1) out of place i) out of doors

EXERCISE 12 : Complete the sentences with a phrase from the list above.
Use each phrase only once.

1- His father lent him some money to pay all the money that he owed, so now he is
completely ........................ .
2- Put the chocolates ........................ of the children. If they see them, they will want to eat
them all, before dinner.
3- We wanted two extra tickets to the Christmas party, but we were ....................... as all the
tickets had already been sold.
4- The factory where he used to work closed down, but he wasn't........................ for long
and soon found a new job.
5- Don't you think these modern chairs look a little ........................ among all this antique
furniture?
6- Fur coats used to be very popular, but they are ........................ now because a lot of
people see the fur trade as cruel and unnecessary.
7- He found speaking French during his recent holiday quite difficult because, although he
took French at university, he is ........................ now.
8- I'm sorry, but my going rock-climbing with you is totally ........................ as I am afraid
of heights.
9- His gambling is now ......................... He spends his entire wages gambling on horses and
football matches or buying lottery tickets.

24
10- He likes farming because he loves working ........................ in the fields.
11- It took me quite a while to find the file on the Morrison case because, although the files
are supposed to be filed alphabetically, they were completely ........................ .
12- For security reasons, expensive perfumes are placed ........................ on high shelves. If
customers want to purchase one, they need to ask a sales assistant for help.
13- With the modern equipment available in recording studios these days, experts can even
make someone who sings completely ........................ sound all right.
14- I wouldn't eat that yoghurt if I were you. Look at the stamp on the lid. It is …………… .
15- I am so unlit that I am ........................ even when I only have to climb up a couple of
flights of stairs.
16- It is much less expensive to go to Bodrum ......................... but the weather is not as nice,
of course.
17- This book is now ....................... and the only copy kept at this library is very fragile, so
it is kept in our storeroom. You may look through the book in the reading room,
but we don't let It leave the building.
18- Because of the severe flood warning, the houses were evacuated so that the residents
were ......................... .

25
d) OTHER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

EXERCISE 13 : Complete each phrase below by using one of the following


prepositions

at for from by under without


for
a) …….….. .control f) ………. least k) …………. the influence
b) ………… far g) ……..... mistake 1) ................. time to time
c) ………… first h) ………. last m) ……........ length
d) ……….... guarantee i) ………. fail n) ……….… the time being
e) ………… delay j) ……….. the most o) ………… no means

EXERCISE 14 : Use each of the phrases above only once to complete the following sentences.

1- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whose output was enormous especially in view of his short life,
was ....................... the most productive composer of all time.
2- If you ever turn up for work ........................ of alcohol again, you will be dismissed instantly.
3- One reason, but ........................ the only reason, that Tony Blair has become so unpopular is
that he gave the pensioners such a small rise in their pensions.
4- It has taken the European Union a long time to agree on policy towards climate change. I'm
glad they have taken some positive action ........................ .
5- They have disinfected the farm from which the disease originated and destroyed all the
livestock. The authorities now claim that the situation is ........................ .
6- We only have seven hundred pounds ........................ to spend during the holiday, though it'll
be better if we don't spend all of it.
7- Julie doesn't work here any more, but she calls in ........................ to see how we are all doing.
8- She is a very dependable newspaper seller. She stands on the same comer ........................
every night of the week.
9- Please could you send a workman to inspect our drains ........................? They need urgent
attention.
10- ......................... I thought she was rude, but once I had got used to her direct manner, I grew
to like her.
11- He described ..................... how he was captured and tortured by the Japanese during the
Second World War, and I felt obliged to listen to him till the end in order not to appear rude.
12- It will cost.......................... one hundred pounds to repair your car and I must warn you that it
could be far more than that.
13- Fortunately, my computer was still..........................., so I didn't have to pay anything for the
repairs.
14- We'll use an extension lead ......................... although we should have an extra electric socket
fitted as soon as possible.
15- I bought the wrong printer cartridge ........................ . The shop refunded my money, though,
which was nice.

26
EXERCISE 15 : Complete each phrase below by using one of the following prepositions.

at for from by under without


for
a) …….….. . accident f) ………. times k) …………. the impression
b) ………… age g) ……..... any rate 1) ................. warning
c) ………… pressure h) ………. all means m) ……........ random
d) ……….... now on i) ………. doubt n) ……….… a change
e) ………… instance j) ……….. short o) ………… heart

EXERCISE 16 : Use each of the phrases above only once to complete the following sentences.

1- My son is so nervous at the moment because school is opening tomorrow and he is going to
say a thirty-line poem, which he has had to learn .......................... . He is afraid that he may
not remember all his lines.
2- I'm sorry. I've burnt an iron mark onto your shirt .........................
3- The candidates will be the first five names picked ........................ on the opening date of the
competition.
4- Being a chef can be stressful......................... but generally, he finds it an enjoyable
occupation.
5- The whole house, or......................... the living room and the kitchen need refurbishing.
6- The teaching staff are ........................ to improve the results from the school, or else the
school could be forced to close.
7- There have been a number of people thrown out of the bar for drinking ........................
recently — some of them were not more than fifteen years old.
8- It is ........................ the most stupid proposal he has suggested so far.
9- Some of her friends call her Judy ......................... although she prefers to be called Judith.
10- The bomb exploded ........................ in a busy shopping centre.
11- We usually go fishing on Sunday afternoons, but this week, we decided hire a film on Video
........................ .
12- We should do something towards helping the environment We could, ..................... take our
bottles and cans to the recycling centre.
13- The newspaper article was written in such a way that, many of their customers were …
…................ that the shop would be closed, until after Christmas.
14- Up until now, all car owners have had to pay the same amount of Road Tax, but
......................... owners of small cars will pay a reduced rate.

27
15- If you prefer to study the contract at home,........................ do so. We can hold the car for you
until tomorrow.

3-3 PREPOSITION + NOUN + PREPOSITION

a) on the tip of f) in danger of k) on the point of


b) in touch with g) on the strength of l) in love with
c) in charge of h) in return for m) on behalf of
d) in favour of i) at the age of n) in the habit of
e) on good terms with j) for the sake of o) in common with

EXERCISE 17 : Complete the sentences with one of the phrases from the list above.
Use each phrase only once.

1- George used to be a long-distance lorry driver, but now he is the transport manager. He is
....................... seventy drivers and fifty heavy goods vehicles.
2- The German romantic novel 'Effi Briest' by Theodore Fontane has a lot ........................ the
French romantic novel by Gustave Flaubert, 'Madame Bovary', which was written about the
same time. They are both about society marriages of couples who are not well-matched and
the disastrous consequences. However, there are a few striking differences between the two
works.
3- In the novel 'Madame Bovary', the main female character falls ........................ a nobleman
and becomes heavily in debt trying to dress elegantly.
4- Eubie Blake was still performing ....................... ninety-nine.
5- The young man was ........................ jumping off the bridge when a police officer persuaded
him that bad results in his final examinations didn't mean that his life was no longer worth
living.
6- ........................ my husband, who, unfortunately, cannot be here because of an illness, I
would like to thank everyone who voted for him to receive this award.
7- The customer's name is right........................ my tongue, but I'll have to look it up in the file.
8- He helps the old lady with her garden ........................ some of the free range eggs laid by her
chickens.
9- Don't alter the menu ....................... one customer's opinion. Nobody has ever asked for
cheese on toast before.
10- The newspapers are constantly alleging that the footballer and the manager argue all the
time, but the truth is that they have always been ........................ each other.
11- The traditional livestock farming methods of North America are ........................ dying out
and nowadays, with the exception of one or two huge ranches where cattle still graze on
open ranges, cowboys are more common on ranches set up for tourists.
12- We decided against electric central heating ........................ gas central heating as we thought
the latter would be more economical.
13- As the machine is no longer under guarantee, payment for the new motor is your
responsibility, but, ........................ our business relationship and in appreciation of your
custom we will, on this occasion, pay for the new parts only, and nothing for the
service.

28
14- I'm not........................ forbidding my son to go out and play in the evenings, but I have to
punish him for getting into trouble at school.
15- I have been trying to get ....................... Kat all week to tell her about the school reunion, but
I think she must be on holiday.

3-4 ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION


NOTE: Bu bölümdeki alıştırmaları yapmadan önce, sayfa 54’teki
Adjective+Prepositlon listesini inceleyiniz.

EXERCISE 18 : Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.


1- Julia is never ashamed ................ her poor upbringing, while her sister, Maggie, doesn't like
to mention it.
2- Pellagra is a disease caused by eating a diet deficient................ niacin, a "B' complex
vitamin.
3- She is committed ................ helping save elephants from extinction and regularly sells raffle
tickets in order to raise funds for this cause.
4- In 1894, Alfred Dreyfus, a French army captain of Jewish heritage was sent to the penal
colony. Devil's Island, by a French military court, but years later it was proved that he was
totally innocent................ the charges made against him.
5- My favourite dessert Is a rolled pancake filled ................ marinated black cherries and
cream.
6- The houses in the area are subject ................ subsidence because of the old mining shafts
underneath them.
7- I have listed a number of research articles which are relevant................ your essay subjects.
8- I was very sorry ................ disappointing her by not sending the contract in time for the
meeting.
9- There appears to be something wrong ................ my Internet connection.
10- He's tired ................ looking after his younger sister after school.
11- We were all very upset................ the damage to our relative's house because of the flood.
12- The receptionist is terrible ............... remembering to give people their messages.
13- Do you think these glasses will be suitable ................ Raki at our dinner party or shall I buy
some new ones?
14- Jones has been absent................ the basketball team for three matches because of a knee
injury.
15- I was astonished ................. how much he had paid for a meal for two people. Eighty pounds
would feed my entire family for a fortnight!
16- Few people are aware ................ the changes they can make to their lives which will reduce
the impact they have on climate change.
17- The festival of Kwanzaa, a celebration of African descent, is based ................ African
harvest celebrations.
18- Pat is afraid ................ using the computer at work. Perhaps she thinks it might explode.
19- I am hoping that my husband will be delighted ................ his Christmas present. I know he
has wanted some new golf clubs for a long time.
20- The Russian Air Force in World War II was inferior................ the German Luftwaffe.
21- I wish you had been honest................ me from the start, but at least, you have owned up now
to your mistake.

29
22- We are all indebted ................ those who fought for justice in this case.
23- In the opera Carman, Don Jose becomes jealous ................ Carman's love of a bullfighter
and, in a rage, he kills her.
24- During the nineteenth century, the question of slavery divided America, and the North
and the South became hostile ................ each other.
25- Recently, my uncle has become keen ...................... motorcycling, but his wife has no
interest at all in riding around the countryside on a motorbike.

3-5 VERB + PREPOSITION


NOTE: Bu bölümdeki alıştırmaları yapmadan önce, sayfa 61'deki
Verb+Preposition listesini inceleyiniz.
EXERCISE 19 : Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.
1- The paintings of the 15th-century Dutch painter Bosch were remarkable for his time. We can
marvel ................ the fantasy world created in his paintings, which feature weird animals,
monsters, witchcraft and demons.
2- I'm afraid he is out of his office at the moment. Would you like to wait..... ......... him in
reception?
3- After yet another rail disaster, the director of Railtrak has resigned ................ his post.
4- The newspapers wrote extensively about George Bush's drinking habit, but he has abstained
............... drinking alcohol for the last fourteen years.
5- Otolaryngologists are surgical specialists who operate ................ the ear, nose or throat.
6- At first, I would like you to listen ................ the recording without taking any notes.
7- Poorer pensioners in particular will benefit............... the new fuel rebates.
8- We have applied ................ an alcoholic drinks licence for the cafe.
9- My son didn't want to have his nightly bath, so he was hiding ................ us in the wardrobe.
10- Can you imagine the mess? A lorry carrying live chickens collided ................ a tanker
carrying black treacle.
11- Edgar Allan Poe, the inventor of the modem detective story, died ................ rabies in 1949.
12- We are searching ................ a flat that is quite close to the river but on high enough ground
not to be affected by flooding.
13- I'm staying behind after class because I want to speak ................ the teacher about our
assignment.
14- I can't think ................. an imaginative but tasty meal to cook for our guests. Do you have any
suggestions?
15- Exactly the same number of people voted ................ Greg as voted ................ him in the
elections for the chairmanship, so a recount was ordered.
16- Despite the recent reforms in South Africa, some white South Africans have persisted
................ resisting integration with other races.
17- Wheat shoots emerge ................ the soil in the spring.
18- He occasionally quarrels ................ his brother, but on the whole, they get on extremely well.
19- The Indians are fighting ................ their cultural survival and .............. recognition of their
land rights.
20- Chicken Kiev consists ................ chicken breast stuffed with garlic, butter and coated in bread
crumbs.
21- The basic mythology of Rome was borrowed ................ the Greeks, though later Romans also
adopted some ................ the Egyptians and some of the religions of Asia Minor and the
Middle East as the size of the Roman Empire increased.
22- This term, she has decided to participate ................ the German Students' Society.
23- If you don't have any duck fat available, you can use beef fat to substitute ................this
ingredient.

30
24- I'm so furious about the attitude of the insurance assessor that I am definitely going to
write................ the insurance company to complain.
25- He retired ................ his employment a little earlier than he had planned due to his wife's
illness.
26- It has been so dull lately that I am beginning to long ................ a little sunshine.
27- He apologised ............... the customer .................... the delay in supplying his timber.
28- This is the sort of disaster that one always expects to happen ................ other people.
29- Compared ................ Mandarin Chinese, Welsh is easy to learn.
30- The pronunciation of the English letter 'p' is difficult for some students to differentiate
................ 'b'.

3-6 VERB + OBJECT + PREPOSITION


NOTE : Bu bölümdeki alıştırmaları yapmadan önce, sayfa 63'teki
Verb+Object+Preposition listesini inceleyiniz.

EXERCISE 20 : Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.


1- The police officer managed to stop the young student................ committing suicide.
2- They initially charged the man ................ murder, but this was later reduced to manslaughter.
3- The rural landscape in the film reminded me ................ the village where I spent my
childhood.
4- I wonder if these floods will discourage people ................ building homes close to the river.
5- His best friend warned him ................ getting any deeper into the ocean, but he took no
notice, as usual.
6- William Tyndale first translated the Bible ................ English around 1525.
7- The middle and lower classes in England can spend more money ................ leisure activities
today than they could do in the past.
8- Rudyard Kipling's guardian often punished him ................ misbehaving by forbidding him to
read.
9- Lauro Cavazos was the first Hispanic to be appointed ................ a US Cabinet post.
10- She looked so grown-up in her new clothes that I mistook her ................ her elder sister.
11- They burnt down their own village to keep the rebels ................ Ending shelter record.
12- I felt a sense of achievement when the director complimented me ................ my sales record.
13- Do we have to involve a solicitor ................ this matter? Can't we settle it between
ourselves?
14- I wonder if you would mind helping me ................ my homework.
15- She soon forgave him ................ spending so much ................ the new furniture.
16- She was distinguished ................. the other students in her class by her extraordinary talent
in art.
17- The security guard won't let you ................ the building unless you have your official
identity card.
18- Being a pop singer, he was assigned ................ the entertainment unit during his military
service.
19- In general, people blame the government ................ the poor state of the railways.
20- How many pieces should I cut the cake ................?
21- Dwight Elsenhower got married on the same day as the army promoted him ................ first
lieutenant.
22- English has borrowed many words ................. other languages.
23- Fierce fighting and varied political loyalties divided Korea ............... two separate nations
after World War II.
24- It is very rude to point your finger ................ strangers, Johnny!

31
25- The opposition party suspected the ruling party ................ cheating in the elections.
26- The guests thanked the hostess ................. the wonderful meal, and some of them even asked
her ............... the recipe of the Indian curry.
27- I threw the ball ................ the wicket keeper, but he couldn't catch it.
28- A court in France sentenced Klaus Barbie .................. life imprisonment for the torture and
executions of Jews and Trench Resistance fighters.
29- The author dedicated his book ................ his loving wife.
30- He was dismissed ................ the government for incompetence and then he was arrested
................ corruption.

3-7 VERB + NOUN + PREPOSITION

EXERCISE 21: Match each phrase on the left below with its definition on the right.

1- take part in a) see suddenly or for a short time


2- make sense of b) benefit when you have the opportunity
3- play a trick on c) watch or listen carefully
4- put pressure on d) watch, check from time to time
5- take advantage of e) enjoy
6- pay attention to f) understand
7- take pleasure in g) participate in
8- take charge of h) urge, force
9- keep an eye on i) believe in someone's ability
10- have confidence in j) become responsible for
11- catch sight of k) deceive — often for a joke
12- lose count of l) forget how many or how much

EXERCISE 22 : Complete the following sentences using the phrases on the left above.
Use each only once with the correct form of the verb.

1. He wouldn't have promoted you to head chef if he didn't.............................. you and expect
you to improve the reputation of the restaurant.
2. I often .............................. the discount I am offered from my employers and buy clothes
from them.
3. She .............................. buying clothes and gifts for her grandchildren.
4. While at university, he .............................. student demonstrations, marching with his fellow
students to protest against civil rights abuses.
5. I've been so busy today that I .............................. how much money I've taken and will have
to wait until I cash up at the end of the day to find out.
6. When her daughter died, she .............................. her three grandchildren. She was
determined that they wouldn't have to go to a children's home.

32
7. During my recent trip to Australia, I was hoping to .............................. a koala bear in the
wild, but I only saw them in Melbourne Zoo.
8. I am just going to telephone my brother. Would you mind .............................. the soup? I
don't think it will boil over.
9. Listen to the recording and .............................. the words Judy uses to describe her holiday.
10. The sales manager ............................... us recently to increase sales of the new model. No
one can take any holiday until we have reached this year's target.
11. We .............................. Julie by putting salt In her coffee. .She wasn't amused at all.
12. Can you ............................. the government's new tax laws for company cars? I am looking
for someone to explain them to me.

EXERCISE 23: Match each phrase on the left below with its definition on the right.

1- take no notice of a) influence


2- make room for b) take time to see
3- have an effect on c) give praise to
4- pay a compliment to d) turn one's attention away from
5- take pride in e) be proud of
6- set fire to f) get over
7- catch a glimpse of g) look after
8- have a look at h) start something burning
9- take one's mind off i) get in touch with
10- take care of j) see briefly
11- make a recovery from k) allow or prepare space for
12- make contact with l) ignore

EXERCISE 24: Complete the following sentences using the phrases on the left above. Use each
only once with the correct form of the verb.

1. My mother .............................. the Queen when she visited Stafford in 1953. She went past
very quickly in her carriage.
2. During the Persian Gulf War, Iraqi forces .............................. more than 600 Kuwaiti oil
wells.
3. Can we .............................. two extra dinner guests this evening as Audrey has her mother
and father-in-law staying with her? We will fit them round the table, won't we?
4. You had better get a qualified mechanic .............................. it before you buy a second-hand
car.
5. Having been left with no living relatives after the death of her mother, Oksana Baiul
............................ by a skating coach. She later won a gold medal at the 1994 Winter
Olympics.

33
6. He was trying .............................. his wife when he remarked that her custard was almost as
good as his mother's, but she took it as an insult.
7. .............................. what he says. He is only jealous of your success.
8. I have finally .............................. the man who replaced Mr Smith at Morris & Co. I have an
appointment with him on Monday.
9. Although she was struck by a spinal injury that cut short her career, she ..................... this
and returned to competitive sport.
10. When painting, he becomes so absorbed in it that it.............................. everything happening
in his business.
11. What ever you decide to do as a career, remember to .............................. your work and
always To produce the best possible results.
12. She has recently read the Tao, the sacred text of the Taoists, and it really ........................ her.
EXERCISE 25: Choose the correct answer.

1- If we don't get there .......... time, we will have to wait......... the end of the first act to take
our seats.

A) at/by B) on/until
C) by/after D) for/before
E) in/since

2- Brain cancer treatment is complicated by several factors that distinguish it ........ the
treatment ........ other forms of cancer.

A) from/of B) with/in
C) as/on D) by/from
E) for/to

3- American citizens descending ......... African ancestry make ........ one of the largest racial
and ethnic groups in the USA.

A) with/out B) in/among
C) from/up D) for/from
E) out of/of

4- Although she had prepared very well......... it, Sandra was anxious………….. making a
presentation to the board of directors.

A) in/through B) to/with
C) with/for D) for/about
E) over/at

5- The Welfare System provides unemployed people .......... just enough money to live ......... .
A) through/at B) for/with

34
C) in/about D) about/from
E) with/on

6- I ran all the way ......... the station and missed my train by a hair's breadth. Frustrated
and ........ breath, I just looked at the train disappearing out of sight.

A) to/out of B) for/under
C) at/over D) about/without
E) into/with

7- Evidence of human origins can be traced back .......... least four million years, but the
ancestors of modern man, Neanderthals, appeared, sometime .......... 150,000 and 32,000
years ago.

A) on/about B) at/between
C) in/after D) for/until
E) by/with
8- I would like to order something from your catalogue as long as you assure me that it will
arrive ......... time .......... Christmas.

A) from/until B) on/from
C) in/for D) between/and
E) at/since

9- He has had toothache .......... yesterday, but he hasn't taken any medicine.......... it yet.
A) before/with B) during/against
C) at/about D) until/to
E) since/for

10- After experiencing two floods in two years, she is worried........... living .......... the river.
A) at/in B) over/on
C) with/along D) about/beside
E) from/by

11- It is no coincidence that the words citizenship and city are similar. Both are derived ........
the Latin word ........ "city."

A) with/as B) about/in
C) through/with D) from/for
E) up/from

12- The area is very popular .......... hikers and cyclists and people who are interested ..........
other outdoor activities.

A) about/for B) over/at
C) with/in D) as/to
E) to/of

35
13- We are grateful........... your company .......... sending a service engineer so promptly.
A) to/for B) of/with
C) about/in D) with/about
E) in/of

14- He is very fond .......... seafood............ particular shrimps and mussels.


A) of/in B) for/with
C) at/for D) to/about
E) out of/at

15- I'm sorry, but we don't have any of that model...........stock .......... the moment.
A) on/from B) in/at
C) among/for D) of/in
E) for/with

16- While they were stranded ........... the desert island, they lived ....... seafood and coconuts.
A) to/In B) for/for
C) of/with D) with/to
E) on/on

17- I prefer group projects to assignments that I carry out ........... my own. I take a lot of
pleasure from producing something ........ part of a team.

A) for/with B) to/for
C) on/as D) with/like
E) from/in

18- ......... a population of more than 150 million, Indonesia ranks ......... the world's fifth most
populous country.

A) Towards/on B) For/in
C) From/among D) With/as
E) In/above

19- The Great Depression started ......... 24th October, 1929, and lasted ........ 1940.

A) on/until B) in/during
C) at/for D) between/and
E) from/in

20- Feeling that life was filled ......... pain and sadness, Omar Khayyam wrote poems about
escaping the sorrow of life ......... the transitory pleasures of love and wine.

A) in/from B) about/with
C) with/through D) of/along

36
E) up/for

21- He was just going .......... the door when you rang. I shouted .......... him, but
unfortunately, he didn't hear me.

A) into/at B) out of/to


C) over/in D) through/from
E) to/over

22- As she is one of the few people who can translate documents .......... Korean ...........
English, she receives a rare skills payment from her employer, which is a Korean
electronics firm.

A) in/over B) with/towards
C) from/into D) for/as
E) between/and

23- .......... the members of the dance group, some people in the audience were also
dressed.......... traditional costumes.
A) Among/for B) Like/in
C) In/about D) For/with
E) With/from

24- I thanked him .......... all the help, ........... which I wouldn't have been able to finish the
project.
A) to/through B) on/about
C) with/during D) for/without
E) about/for

25- The bus drivers are .......... strike, so I'm afraid, I'll have to go to town .......... foot.
A) down/with B) of/of
C) at/for D) in/by
E) on/on

26- I'm quite good .......... running, .......... but not hills.
A) in/over B) of/down
C) at/up D) with/to
E) for/round

27- In general, the world is no better fed today than decades ago because the world's
population is growing .......... an alarming rate, and agriculture has just barely kept up
.......... it.
A) with/in B) in/to
C) at/with D) of/from
E) for/on

37
28- Despite overproduction in some nations, perhaps one ........ every six persons ......... the
world is undernourished.
A) from/into B) out of/throughout
C) among/on D) through/among
E) towards/around

29- Some studies show that as much as half ......... the world's population may be suffering
........ malnutrition or starvation.
A) around/of B) in/with
C) on/about D) of/from
E) from/for

30- There was a really sad film on television this evening and both my sister and I were ........
tears ........ the end.
A) in/by B) with/before
C) from/at D) to/after
E) at/until
31- ....... the mountainous areas of northern Greece, there are crosses ....... the roads to mark
the places where people have died in car accidents.
A) Throughout/along B) Between/under
C) Among/in D) Towards/beneath
E) Around/over

32- Myths developed slowly as an oral tradition that was handed down from generation to
generation among people who were trying to make sense ........ the world........ them.
A) in/towards B) of/around
C) for/along D) with/among
E) from/beyond

33- They moved to a safer area .......... the sake .......... the children's security.
A) from/with B) about/for
C) over/at D) for/of
E) with/to

34- As he knew it was impossible to escape .......... the prison, he could only dream ........
freedom.
A) for/on B) with/during
C) from/about D) about/over
E) around/in

35- The horse riders galloped ........... the forest .......... dawn.
A) beyond/over B) for/about
C) about/round D) with/until
E) through/at

38
36- Australia enjoys one of the world's highest standards ......... living, ranking sixteenth
......... the industrialised nations.
A) for/with B) from/about
C) towards/in D) in/between
E) of/among

37- He has done some awful jobs in his life, but he has never been ......... work .......... more
than a week.
A) out of/for B) without/as
C) over/of D) from/in
E) with/until

38- For a long time, she was .......... pain because of a neck injury, and she took so many
painkillers that she became addicted .......... them.
A) from/towards B) with/for
C) in/to D) about/with
E) through/of

39- Instead of complaining .......... the awful British weather, why don't you go .......... holiday
somewhere warmer?

A) of/for B) about/on
C) with/to D) over/of
E) for/with

40- There's no point.......... opening on Sundays unless they insist........ everyone in the
shopping centre participating.

A) for/to B) with/from
C) of/until D) in/on
E) about/for

41- Smith and Jones's Superstores are known ........... selling quality products
...........reasonable prices.

A) of/until B) as/down
C) about/on D) with/for
E) for/at

42- When he realised just how lonely and difficult life would be ......... her, he deeply
regretted getting divorced ........ his wife.

A) without/from B) about/to
C) for/of D) with/for
E) from/with

43- Her sofa was covered ......... a very attractive material. I wonder where I could find
something similar ......... it.

39
A) in/with B) among/of
C) for/into D) with/to
E) from/on

44- I'm very impressed ............ his knowledge of the subject, although I am not sure ..........
his commitment to this research.

A) about/for B) for/of
C) with/about D) to/from
E) at/in

45- Many beetles are capable ......... producing light and sound, primarily ......... the purposes
of attracting a mate or frightening enemies.

A) in/about B) of/for
C) with/in D) for/with
E) at/out of

4-PHRASAL VERBS

Phrasal verb, bir fiil köküyle bir preposition'dan oluşur ve türediği fiil kökünden farklı bir anlam
taşır. Örneğin "take" fiili "almak, götürmek" anlamındadır. Ancak "take off', "uçağın havalanması"
ya da "bir giysiyi çıkarmak" anlamlarını veren ayn bir sözcük durumundadır.

Parents should bring up their children properly, (raise)


Do you think this blouse will go with my checked skirt? (match/suit)

Prepositional verb de "verb+preposition" biçiminde oluşur. Ancak, preposition eklendiği zaman fiilin
anlamı değişmez. Preposition'ın buradaki görevi yönelme bildirmek ya da fiilden nesneye geçişi
sağlamaktır.

She is waiting for her boyfriend.


He listened to the news very carefully.

Prepositional verb'lerde, fiil ile preposition'ın araşma nesne giremez. Ancak, briefly, angrily,
suspiciously, etc. gibi durum bildiren zarflar girebilir.

I looked at the timetable.


I looked briefly at the timetable. OR
I looked at the timetable briefly.

Phrasal verb'leri geçişli (transitive) ve geçişsiz (intransitive) olarak iki grupta inceleyebiliriz. Geçişli
fiillerin bir bölümünde nesne iki şekilde yer alabilir: verb+preposition+object ya da
verb+object+preposition.

The expedition set off at dawn to reach the area before it got too hot. (intransitive)
By the time we arrived at the airport, the plane had taken off. (intransitive)

She turned off the television, (transitive)


She turned the television off.

They turned down my offer. (transitive)

40
They turned my offer down.

Bazı phrasal verb'lerde ise fiil köküyle preposition birbirinden ayrılamaz.

He got over his illness remarkably quickly.


I came across an old friend the other day.

Araya nesne alabilen phrasal verb'lerde nesne me, it, them, you, etc. gibi bir pronoun ise, bu nesne
preposition'dan sonra kullanılamaz. Mutlaka fiil ile preposition'ın arasında yer almalıdır.

She turned It off.


They turned it down.
I'll think them over.

Ancak, bölünemeyen phrasal verb'lerde, nesne bir pronoun da olsa, yeri değişmez. Yine
preposition'dan sonra gelir.

He got over It remarkably quickly.


I came across him the other day in a cafe.

4-1 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "UP1

blowup inflate make up = invent


=
= explode pickup = go to get someone
bring up = raise a child = take in one's hand
cheer up = make happier set up = establish
get up = arise from a bed show up = appear, be seen
give up = stop take up = adopt as a pastime
grow up = become an adult = occupy space/time
hold up = delay turn up = increase volume
look up = search for information = arrive

EXERCISE 26: Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb from the list above.
Use each meaning only once with the correct form of the verb.

1- Woody Alien won an award for his film, but he didn't .......................... at the award ceremony
to claim it.
2- Aunt Lily has been much happier since she .......................... American line dancing.
3- Would you mind if I .......................... the radio so that I can hear the football results?
4- The taxi is going to ................. us .................. at 7.30 p.m. this evening to take us to the
theatre.
5- We .......................... lots of balloons for Sarah's birthday, party.
6- Going out with her friends helped her .......................... after her exams.
7- It is important for children to have positive role models while they .......................... .
8- There were no delays coming back from Sydney to London, but we were .......................... in
the traffic around Heathrow airport.

41
9- After the death of her husband, she .......................... her five children on her own.
10- I had better go to bed early tonight as I have to .......................... at 5 a.m. tomorrow.
11- I'm putting on too much weight at the moment. I will have to .......................... eating between
meals.
12- The celebrities .......................... a charity to provide a telephone answer service for children
in distress.
13- I tried to .......................... Sri Lanka in my encyclopedia, but it is so old that it lists Sri Lanka
as Ceylon. Its previous name.
14- Yesterday morning Michael overslept, but he .......................... an elaborate story as an excuse
to his manager and, surprisingly, he was believed.
15- The commander ordered his soldiers to .............................. the bridge in order to stop the
enemy troops from crossing the river.
16- If my mother sees a penny on the floor, she always ................. it.................. as she believes
that it is good luck.
17- Simon told us not to wear formal clothes for the party and then he .......................... wearing a
dinner jacket and black tie.
18- We expect the basic training to .......................... about three hours.

4-2 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "DOWN"

break down = fail to work lay down = establish rules


bring down = cause to fall, lower let down = disappoint, not keep a promise
close down = stop all work, cease trading pour down = come down heavily (of rain)
cut down = do something less often settle down = live a quiet, routine life
get down = cause depression, make unhappy slow down = go less fast
knock someone down = strike to the turn down = decrease volume
ground or floor = refuse
knock something down = demolish

EXERCISE 27: Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb from the list above.
Use each meaning only once with the correct form of the verb.

1- There is nothing else I can do. I feel sorry for her, but she .......................... my offer of help.
2- When we decided to go out for a walk, it was brilliant sunshine, but now we are ready
to leave the house, it .......................... with rain.
3- I'm afraid I will have to write you a receipt, Madam, because our computer system
.......................... .
4- He didn't want to .......................... his little daughter, so he tried every toy shop in the city
trying to find a 'barbie stables', but he couldn't find one.
5- The results of the US elections .................. the value of the Euro ................ . It lost a
significant amount of its value against the dollar.

42
6- As a result of the loss of popularity which knitting has suffered, the knitting needle
factory.......................... at the end of the year.
7- We want to .......................... on the number of trips we make into town, so we are trying to
get into the habit of shopping for groceries just once, a week.
8- Since he took over, the new owner .......................... some new rules about staff holidays.
9- Shrewsbury Town Football Club want to ......................... their old stadium and build a new
one outside the town.
10- While the police were chasing a speeding car, they ......................... a little girl.
11- If you ........................ and took a little more time typing your essay, you would probably
make fewer mistakes.
12- I wish they would .......................... the speaker on the tram into Birmingham. It's so loud
that it gets on my nerves.
13- Living and working alone is beginning to .................. Michelle .................. . She will have
to make an effort to make new friends.
14- John Grisham moved very often throughout his youth, but eventually, he .......................... in
Mississippi.
4-3 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "OUT"

break out = appear, start suddenly make out = manage to see or hear with difficulty
(especially a war, fire, = try to understand
disease or rioting! pass out = lose consciousness
bring out = publish pick out = select
= introduce a new product point out = call attention to
carry out = perform or complete put out = extinguish
a task run out = be all used up
come out = appear, bloom set out = begin a journey
cross out = delete, erase sort out = separate into categories
find out = discover information stand out = be visible, more important
hand out = distribute wear someone out = exhaust tire out
keep out = not enter wear something out = cause to become old, useless
leave out = not include work out = plan, decide
let out = release = calculate (in AmE = figure out)
look out = take care , be careful

43
EXERCISE 28: Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb from the list
above. Use each meaning only once with the correct form of the verb.

1- The publishing company has recently .......................... a catalogue listing all the books they
sell.
2- The owners of the new Turkish restaurant.......................... two thousand leaflets advertising
their new business.
3- The influenza epidemic which ............................ in 1918, coming on the heels of World War
I, killed more than 20 million people worldwide.
4- So many people were shopping in panic during the fuel shortage that basic food items like
milk, bread, sugar, etc. .......................... at the supermarkets.
5- Several colleagues and I have been asked to .......................... an evaluation of the new
procedures. The project will probably take us about a week.
6- What she said was so obscure that I couldn't........................... what she really meant.
7- Could you .........................the cutlery drawer? Knives should go in the left-hand section,
forks in the right-hand section and spoons in the centre.
8- Recently, British Telecom .......................... a mobile telephone which can connect to the
Internet.
9- I feel so tired! Chasing the children around all day ................ me .................. .
10- Because of the dense fog, I could just.......................... the number of the bus approaching.
11- She was the only woman on the committee and, particularly as she was wearing a red suit,
she .......................... from the others, who were dressed in grey suits.
12- When Christopher Columbus ......................... on his famous voyage, he was looking for a
new route from Europe to Asia.
13- I have rewritten my essay. I have added a couple of points and .......................... some which
I thought were irrelevant.
14- I've used this rucksack so much that I .............. the straps .................. .
15- Boston is so beautiful when the cherry blossom .......................... .
16- When you are hiking in the mountains of New Jersey, you should .......................... for black
bears. If you see one, stay calm and don't run.
17- As we were driving to the historical site, our guide ............................ several smaller ruins
along the way.
18- Yesterday I.......................... and ordered a great present for Irene from the Smith's gift
catalogue.
19- If you can ......................... the quantities of ingredients we need for the meal we are going to
cook for our dinner guests, I will buy them on my-way home.

44
20- Once we .......................... the best way to resolve the situation with the information
available, we will write a plan.
21- If you can .......................... from his secretary when Dr Smith is available next week, I will
ring back later to arrange an appointment.
22- The fire had spread to the neighbouring house before the fire brigade managed to
.................it...................... .
23- The American government goes to extreme measures, such as razor wire and guard
dogs, to .......................... illegal immigrants.
24- Would you sign the contract if we .......................... this section clearly in pen and initial our
alteration?
25- She was so shocked to see her son back from the war that she .......................... .
26- The Halfway House is a residence for people who .......................... of prisons, mental
hospitals and drug rehabilitation centres, but who are not ready to fully integrate with
society.

4-4 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "OFF"

call off = cancel set off = begin a journey


drop off = leave a passenger somewhere show off = do things trying to impress people
get off = leave a bus. train, etc. take off = remove (clothing)
go off = explode = leave the ground
= go bad turn off = stop a machine, light
put off = postpone
= distract, dissuade
see off = say goodbye to someone going
on a journey

EXERCISE 29: Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb from the list above.
Use each meaning only once with the correct form of the verb.

1- The swan flapped its powerful wings and .......................... into the air.
2- You can keep the photocopier on during working hours, but if you find it too noisy,
just............... it.................. .
3- The lesson was .......................... due to the teacher's illness.
4- I can .................. you .................... at the Town Hall, which is within walking distance from
the station, if that would help you.

45
5- The train we were travelling on had a mechanical failure, so we had to .......................... it and
wait for a replacement to be sent.
6- If your cruise liner weren't leaving at 5 a.m., 1 would come to the harbour to ................... you
.................. .
7- Do you know why today's meeting .................... until tomorrow? I thought the points to be
discussed were urgent.
8- The recent floods .................. people .................. buying homes close to the river.
9- He can’t really afford to eat at the best restaurants. He .......................... tonight to impress his
girlfriend.
10- It is always better to wear a few layers of clothing than just one. After all, you can always
................. a layer .................. if you get too hot.
11- Chris's son ......................three days ago for India, so he is probably lying on a beach by the
Indian Ocean by now.
12- Modem technology has allowed us to estimate the date on which food, such as yoghurt and
milk,......................... This date is usually indicated on the packet of pre-packed food.
13- The hero of the 'Bond' movies usually escapes seconds before a bomb......................

4-5 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "ON"

carry on = continue put on = get dressed


count on = rely on
= increase (especially in
get on = enter a public vehicle weight)
hold on = wait
switch/turn on = start electrical equipment
live on = have (money or food) for try on = put or clothing to see if it fits
survival

EXERCISE 30: Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb from the list above.
Use each meaning only once with the correct form of the verb.

1- I .......................... the wrong train this morning and went to Cardiff by mistake.

2- When buying a suit or a dress, you should .................... it.................... first to make sure that
it fits well.

46
3- I filled the coffee machine with water and ground coffee but forgot to .................. it
.................. .

4- While I am out of the room, you can .......................... with the exercises on page 176.

5- You can .......................... lan to do a professional job at a reasonable price.

6- The boss asked him to clear all the rubbish from the back of the restaurant. Before starting
the job, he .......................... some old trousers and some gloves.

7- If you can .......................... a few minutes, I will be ready to leave with you.

8- I have spent too much money so far this month, and now I only have twenty pounds to
.......................... until I get paid.

9- She fasted all through Ramadan, expecting to lose weight, but she actually
.......................... two kilos.

4-6 PHRASAL VERBS WITH "IN" AND "INTO"

break in/into = enter by force bump/run into = meet by chance


check in = register at an airport or hotel = crash
flood in = come in large numbers look into = investigate
get in/into = enter a car or a taxi take in = make smaller
hand in = give something to someone = understand
in authority = deceive
join in = take part in an activity

EXERCISE 31: Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb from the list above.
Use each meaning only once with the correct form of the verb.

1- After the border between East and West Germany was opened, people .......................... from
the East to the West in large numbers.
2- My dress for the graduation ball was so long and frilly that it took me about five minutes to
.......................... the taxi.

47
3- I will expect your essays to be .......................... on time unless you have arranged an
extension with me already.
4- The problem with living and working in the same village is that every time I walk down the
street, I .......................... someone I know.
5- When he returned to his car, he found that someone .......................... it arid stolen the radio.
6- When I reversed my car out of my driveway this morning, I ...............I.......... the rubbish
bin, which the rubbish collectors had foolishly left at the end of our driveway.
7- The government has promised to .......................... the reasons behind the recent flooding
and then start to do what is necessary to prevent another one.
8- As soon as we ............................... at the hotel, we went to our room, put on our swimming
costumes and dashed to the pool.
9- The bride lost a little weight the week before her wedding and had to have her wedding
dress ......................... a little at the waist.
10- The staff at the music school were completely .......................... by the man who had
pretended to be the mayor and borrowed one thousand dollars from the school.
11- Mark is so boring. He never wants to .......................... any of our games.
12- We did too much grammar today. I found it far too much to .......................... all of it in one
lesson.

4-7 PHRASAL VERBS WITH OTHER PARTICLES

come across = find or meet by chance look after = take care of


come round = visit pass away = die
= regain consciousness put aside = save (especially money)
cut across = take a short cut put away = tidy, store
do over = do again put through = connect
get away = leave, escape take after = resemble
get back = regain possession take over = take control of
get over = recover from think over = consider carefully
go over/through = examine throw away = discard, get rid of
go with = match, suit

EXERCISE 32: Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb from the list above.
Use each meaning only once with the correct form of the verb.

1- Ray asked his mother not to .......................... any egg boxes as he wanted to use them in a
model he was making.

48
2- Before he opened his second hotel, he ................... it ................... for a long time.
3- The telephone operator couldn't..................... me .................... to his room because of a fault
with their switchboard, so I left a message with the receptionist.
4- You don't have to walk all the way around Church Road to get to the bridge. You can
.......................... the school playing fields. It takes half the time and is a public footpath.
5- She .......................... her grandson every Wednesday afternoon, when her daughter goes to
art school.
6- I only ever lent something to Sonia once and I never ..................... it......................
7- The Chinese .......................... Tibet in 1956 and have controlled the country ever since.
8- Everybody hopes to .......................... peacefully in his or her sleep at a ripe old age.
9- I was raking the leaves off the lawn when I .......................... your gold chain. I don't know
why we couldn't find it yesterday afternoon when we searched for it all around there.
10- The more money you .......................... now from your monthly wages, the better retirement
you will have.
11- I made a presentation to the sales manager and to the marketing manager, but now the
managing director wants to see it, so I will have to .................... it ................... .
12- Do you think this blue handbag .......................... my navy blue shoes?
13- Don't leave the classroom until you .......................... all the materials you have been using.
14- A: I'm worried about handing the report in. Could you read it and. let me know your opinion
of it?
B: If you have time, we can .......................... it together.
15- Do you want to .......................... on Saturday and watch the match live on our wide-screen
television?
16- She stayed by his hospital bed day and night so that the first thing he would see when
he.......................was her face.
17- It is going to take at least three weeks for you to .......................... your illness.
18- I wanted to .......................... from work early today and three customers came just as I was
leaving, so I actually left later than usual.
19- William looks so much like Princess Diana. He really .......................... her.
4-8 THREE - WORD VERBS

catch/keep up with = reach the same position or level


come up against = be faced with
come up with = produce
cut down on = reduce
get on with = work, live in a sociable way
get out of = leave a car or taxi
= avoid work on an unpleasant activity
go down with = become ill
go in for = enter an exam/competition
grow out of = get too big for
look down on = consider someone inferior
look forward to = anticipate with pleasure
make up for = compensate for
put up with = tolerate
run out of = finish a supply of something

EXERCISE 33: Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb + preposition
combination. Use each only once with the correct form of the verb.

49
1- Cliff isn't liked at all in the company because he .......................... people who haven't got a
university education.
2- We are ahead in sales for the company at the moment, but the Bradford branch
.......................... our turnover quickly, so we shouldn't get complacent.
3- The shops .......................... a lot of things during the war and, although the pubs were open,
they didn't always have beer.
4- Her older sister persuaded her to .......................... the beauty contest.
5- I .......................... my friend's wedding next Saturday. I am going to be a bridesmaid for the
first time, which is quite exciting.
6- You ought to .......................... the number of hours you spend in front of the television. Do
you know how many hours you waste watching those stupid game shows?
7- I won't.......................... your cleaning motorcycle spare pans in the kitchen sink any longer.
8- If they win this match, they will go through to the second round in which they
.......................... some teams which are hard to beat.
9- When Sarah called off her engagement to Alistair, he .......................... an elaborate plan to
win her back.
10- The holiday company sent the family a one-hundred-pound holiday voucher to
.......................... the inconvenience they had suffered while on holiday in Spain.
11- I think Lucy .......................... that bicycle. We need to buy her a full-size adult one now.
12- Half the employees in our office ........................:. the flu, so the rest of us are really stressed.
13- He offered to drive his mother to the supermarket in order to .......................... helping his
father pick up the leaves in the garden.
14- He would feel less isolated if he ......................:... the other members of the team better.
15- It was such a high class restaurant that the doorman opened the car door for her and helped
her to .......................... the limousine.

EXERCISE 34: Choose the correct answer.

1- No sooner had we .......... than the pilot announced that we would have to keep our seat
belts fastened for the entire flight as a lot of air turbulence was expected.

A) set up B) taken off


C) broken into D) sorted out
E) poured down

2- For fifteen years, she .......... her husband's brutality, but when he was violent towards
their daughter, she left him.

A) put up with B) came up with


C) ran out of D) got out of
E) went in for

50
3- When the last shop in the village ........... the villagers had no choice but to travel fifteen
miles to the nearest town for then- groceries.

A) got over B) took in


C) closed down D) cut across
E) pointed out

4- If you .......... the church yard, you can get to the Post Office in about ten minutes from
here.

A) cut across B) get over


C) get in D) show up
E) hold up

5- Delivering all the leaflets and putting up the posters about our meeting has .......... me
.......

A) brought/up B) worn/out
C) sorted/out D) taken/in
E) called/off

6- He tried to .......... his sons to be honest and trustworthy.

A) work out B) bring up


C) see off D) try on
E) look after

7- A trip to the theatre or cinema with friends can .......... you .......... if you are depressed.

A) blow/out B) see/off
C) bring/down D) cheer/up
E) check/in

8- Everyone says she .......... Sonia, but I think she looks more like her father with each day.

A) carries on B) brings out


C) takes after D) looks for
E) gets off

9- Our English teacher read out the dictation exercise so quickly that I couldn't ......... it.

A) look forward to B) come up with


C) grow out of D) run out of
E) catch up with

51
10- We came to Spain for the nice weather, but since we arrived at our hotel two days ago, it
has been ...........

A) doing over B) carrying out


C) taking in D) checking in
E) pouring down

11- I need a hat for my daughter's wedding, but I'm finding it difficult to find one that
........... ray suit.

A) puts on B) tries on
C) goes with D) takes after
E) wears out

12- When the council decided to pull down the cattle market, they .......... fierce opposition
from farmers.

A) looked down on B) came up against


C) came up with D) went down with
E) cut down on

13- Aunt Alice and Uncle Fred have made a lot of money and now they are avoiding their
old friends because they ........ them.

A) come up with B) go down with


C) get on with D) look down on
E) come up against

14- The first boxing rules were .......... in 1745 and referred to bare knuckle fights.

A) tried on B) looked alter


C) bumped into D) pulled down
E) laid down

15- Tony Blair .......... the leadership of the British government on May 1, 1997.

A) saw off B) took in


C) got up D) took over
E) brought up

16- Sarah is not sure whether to .......... teaching or change her job completely.

A) carry on B) switch off


C) leave out D) set up
E) make up

52
EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS / YDS
17- By using this map so much, we ........ it ........ in the folds, which, unfortunately, is exactly
the part we really need now.

A) have turned/off B) have worn/out


C) have seen/off D) have left/out
E) have looked/up

18- Between 1685 and 1823, Spanish Roman Catholic missionaries .......... 62 missions in
America.

A) let down B) set up


C) passed out D) sorted out
E) took in

19- The missions were not very successful because many Native Americans …….. European
diseases, such as smallpox and measles.

A) went down with B) came up with


C) cut down on D) grew out of
E) got out of

20- He is forty-two, but he goes out every night of the week, travels extensively on business
and goes hiking or skiing in the mountains whenever he can. I don't think he will ever
......... .

A) grow up B) cut across


C) look after D) settle down
E) get over

1- As I don't know any French, I couldn't 4- They blew ......... the tunnel just as the
understand what he was talking ...... . enemy was about to pass ..... it.
A) off B) to A) off/for B) down/over
C) about D)by C) in/away D) above/outside
E) from E) up/through
(ÖYS 1988) (ÖYS 1989)
2- The surgeon who is going to operate 5- Clara looked up ..... him ..... wonder in her
............. my grandfather is one of the best. eyes.
A) in B) about A) to/by B) at/with
C) on D) of C) upon/in D) for/on
E)at E) after/through
(ÖYS 1988) (ÖYS 1990)
3- If you don't hurry up, the boat will sail 6- Since the new technician is not very
...... us . familiar ....... the machine, he is not good
A) off B) without ...... using it.
C) instead D) through A) on/to B) to/with
E) from C) or/for D) from/in
(ÖYS 1989) E) with/at
(ÖVS 1990)

53
7- My daughter is not a bit like me. She 15- Over 40 million people pass ...........
seems to ............ her father. Heathrow airport each year and at least
A) look on B) take after 900 aircraft land and take off every day.
C) put out D) look after A) away B) in
E) set out C) before D) through
(ÖYS 1992) E) along
8- One of the important effects ....... the (ÖYS 1995)
traffic ....... the environment is air 16- ............ my great surprise, almost everyone
pollution. agreed ............ him.
A) in/of B) at/in A) For/to B) To/with
C) for/at D) on/for C) At/from D) In/of
E) of/on E) With/by
(ÖYS1992) (ÖYS 1995)
9- The Yorkshire Chemicals Company has 17- Few young people can start up a business
recently been .......... by a rival firm. .......... first having to borrow money.
A) taken over B) cut down A) indeed B) through
C) kept away D) settled down C) about D) without
E) crossed out E) over
(ÖYS 1993) (ÖYS 1996)
10- Mr. Brooks said he would he hack in the
18- Make sure you turn ......... the television
office ........... 4 o'clock.
before you go out, hut leave one of the
A) since B) for lights ........ .
C) until D) by
A) down/out B) off/on
E) during
C) up/in D) out/over
(ÖYS 1993)
E) on/back
11- Industrial development partly (ÖYS 1996)
depends ................... an efficient
transport system. 19- The view ........... our window must be one
of the best anywhere .......the town.
A) for B)of
C) to D) in A) in/over B) through/of
E) upon C) from/in D) down/outside
(ÖYS 1993) E) by/above
(ÖYS 1996)
12- I am afraid there is something wrong
................ my ear. I can't hear you 20- I'm extremely fond .......... her, too; but
properly. even so I'm afraid we Can't rely .......... her.
A) from B) of A) about/to B) of/on
C) with D) at C) for/in D) to/with
E) besides E) with/over
(ÖYS 1994) (ÖYS 1997)
13- Kenya spends a quarter ............ its income 21- If it's not on the table, look ...... the table;
every year ....... oil imports. it may have fallen ...... .
A) on/for B) about/through A) below/through B) at/down
C) in/over D) within/above C) within/away D) under/off
E) of/on E) after/back
(ÖYS 1994) (ÖYS 1997)
14- Two hundred years ago most people grew 22- While I was looking .......... some
......... some of their own food. magazines, I happened to find this article
A) so far B) all at once .......... butterflies.
C) at least D) by the way A) over/from B) in/over
E) at a glance C) through/on D) up/of
(OYS 1994) E) at/for

54
(ÖYS 1998) C) to/at D) about/in front of
23- It took me a long time to translateAPPENDIX
his 1 E) through/above
business letter as I had to .... so many (YDS 2000)
words in the dictionary. 28- The film "Brave Heart" is ....... long. It
A) make up B) turn over lasts ....... three hours.
C) look up D) get off A) rather/for B) too/on
E) take up C) quite/in D) very/at
(YDS 1999) E) so/into
24- They had to call in troops to ...... the forest (YDS 2000)
fire which was spreading rapidly. 29- For years the people ....... my hometown
A) get out C) hold up depended ...... steel, coal and fishing for
B) put out D) break down their livelihood.
E) hand put A) at/for B) from/to
(YDS 1999) C) of/by D) in/on
25- The explosion was caused ... a bomb which E) out of/on
went .... when the shop was very crowded. (YDS 2001)
A) by/off B) with/out 30- Because Susan was looking very sad, John
C) from/up D) through/into tried to cheer her ..... by reading her â
E) over/forward story.
(YDS 1999) A) up B) through
26- I couldn't....... why they were shouting so C)in D) over
loudly. E) on
(YDS 2001)
A) set up B) keep up
C) rely on D) make out 31- There's a photograph here ...... you taken
E) put off ..... your first birthday.
(YDS 2000) A) from/by B) by/to
27- A woman from Denmark has recently C) of/on D) to/over
moved .... the flat .... mine. E) on/near
(YDS 2001)
A) up/in B) into/next to

ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS

addicted to
A So many youths are addicted to drugs.
absent from
He has been absent from school for three
afraid of
days.
She is afraid of going out after dark.
accustomed to
allergic to
I'm not accustomed to very cold climates.
My son is allergic to penicillin.
acquainted with
amazed at/by
She is acquainted with our customs quite
well. We were all amazed at/by her unusual
behaviour.

55
angry at/about beneficial to
We were angry at her selfish behaviour. Taking regular exercise is beneficial to
your health.
angry with someone for something
We were angry with him for his boastful of
selfishness. She is boastful of her son's achievements.

annoyed at/about bored with


I was annoyed at not being invited to the I didn't finish reading the book, for I was
party. bored with the plot.
brilliant at
annoyed with someone for something He is really brilliant at calculating.
They were annoyed with me for not
inviting (hem to the party. busy with
She can't come with us because she is
anxious about busy with her term paper.
We were anxious about his constantly
capable of
high temperature.
appropriate for You are capable of doing better work than
this.
Do you think this book is appropriate for
our aim?
careful about
Be careful about your words even when
ashamed of
you are annoyed.
I felt ashamed of my shabby clothes.
You must be ashamed of yourself for careful with
treating her so rudely. You must be careful with money in these
economic conditions.
associated with
Steven Spielberg is associated with careless about (not paying attention to)
special effects in film. She is often careless about her clothes;
especially when she is depressed.
astonished at/by
They were rather astonished at losing the careless of (unconcerned)
game. Some drivers, enjoying the speed, are
careless of the dangers of driving fast.
aware of
clever at
Most people are still not aware of the
She is quite clever at working out the
extent of environmental pollution.
most difficult problems.
B committed to
bad at He is committed to honest work.
He is bad at repairing things.
composed of
bad for End of term parties are usually composed
of students, teachers and parents.
Eating too much candy is bad for your
teeth.
concerned about
People are concerned about the increasing
based on
air pollution in Istanbul.
Educational principles should be based on
the requirements of our age. connected with/to

56
Good mood is usually connected with devoid of
good health. She seems to be devoid of the skills
I think she is distantly connected with/to required for this job.
that family.
devoted to
conscious of She is devoted to her children.
A good many parents are not conscious of
different from
the importance of reading for their
children. Your likes and dislikes are quite different
from mine.
content with
disappointed with
The teacher seemed content with our
exam results. She seemed really disappointed with her
exam results.
convinced of
I'm convinced of his innocence. discriminated against
coordinated with People should not be discriminated
against because of the colour of their skin.
When you are swimming, the movements
of your legs should be coordinated with
your divorced from
According to the statistics, the number of
covered with/in women divorced from their husbands is
When I in looked out of the window, I increasing.
noticed that everywhere was covered with
snow. dressed in
crowded with She was dressed in a skirt, which was
The city center is always crowded with unusual for her.
people. E
curious about eager for
I'm curious about which party will win He seems eager for a quick recovery, so
the election. he is doing whatever the doctor says.
D
efficient in
dedicated to
She loves her job; in fact, she is dedicated The production manager is really efficient
to it. in his job.

deficient in engaged to
You should eat vegetables and fruit She is still engaged to Johnathan, but is
regularly so that your diet is not deficient thinking of getting married soon.
in vitamins.
delighted with/at enthusiastic about
The child was delighted with his new toy. Jenny is very enthusiastic about coming
to the concert with us.
dependent on/upon
Because he hasn't got a proper job, he is envious of
still dependent on his parents financially.
I'm envious of people who can speak
derived from three or more languages fluently.
Most words in English are derived from
Latin. equipped with

57
Big offices are usually equipped with a full of
burglar alarm. Your composition is full of grammatical
mistakes.
excellent in/at
She is excellent in music. furious about
She was furious about the news that she
excited about wasn't promoted.
The children seem quite excited about
furious with someone for something
going on holiday.
She was furious with the manager for not
exposed to promoting her.
If hands and face are exposed to extreme
furnished with
cold, they may get frostbite.
The agents have been furnished with all
the necessary information.
F
faithful to G
Dogs are known to be faithful to their generous about/with
owners. The host was a bit too generous with the
raki, so we all became drunk.
familiar with
If you start to study English at university,
good at
you'll become familiar with English or
American literature. I'm not so good at playing cards.

familiar to good for


The man in the corner seems familiar to Taking regular walks is good for your
me. heart.
famous for
grateful to someone for something
Turkish people are famous for their
hospitality. I'm grateful to you for your kind support.

filled with guilty of


The room was filled with excited people. He was found guilty of the robbery.
fond of
I'm very fond of children. H
happy about
free of
I'm very happy about your getting this
Children under seven can travel free of job.
charge.

free from happy with


You will be free from pain soon after I purchased my dishwasher two years
you've taken two of these tablets. ago, and I'm still happy with it

friendly to/with honest with


She was quite friendly to me last night You should be honest with your clients.

58
hopeful of/about
J
She is hopeful of passing the university
entrance exam this year. jealous of
She has always been jealous of her
hopeless at brother's success.
She is hopeless at cooking. She can't even
cook the simplest dishes properly.
K
hostile to keen on
Since the scandal, the two families have He is very keen on football.
been hostile to each other.
kind to
She has always been kind to the people
I around her.
identical with/to
known for (famous for)
What a coincidence! Your dress is almost Mr. Eames is known for his honesty.
identical with mine.
known as
ignorant of Mr. Eames is known as an honest man.
She is ignorant of the warnings made
against her bad behaviour. L
late for
impressed with/by You've been late for work twice this
We were greatly impressed with her week.
diligence.
limited to
The time given for the university entrance
inferior to exam is limited to three and a half hours.
I don't think your work is inferior to
anybody else's in the office. lucky at
He is usually lucky at cards.
indebted to M
I'm indebted to my friends for the
mad at (angry with)
encouragement they gave me for this job.
Don't be mad at me! I was just trying to
help you.
indifferent to
She seems quite indifferent to what is mad about (very fond of)
happening around her. She is mad about pop music.

innocent of made of
Tables and chairs are usually made of
She was found innocent of the charge.
wood, (if there is only physical change in
the raw material)
interested in
I've always been interested in folk music. made from
Paper is made from wood. (The raw
material changes chemically as well as
involved in physically.)
He has recently been involved in a
bribery case.

59
made out of She is very popular with her students.
It's difficult to believe that this lovely
vase was made out of a bottle, (if you prepared for
alter an item, and use it with a different I'm buying these boots so that I'm
aim) prepared for the snow this winter.

married to proud of
She is married to an American. She is rightly proud of her success.
mindful of provided with
You should be mindful of your The young should be provided with jobs
responsibilities. after graduation.
mistaken about R
You are mistaken about the extent of her ready for
capacities.
Everybody seems ready for the journey.
N
related to
nervous of/about
Are you related to the headmaster? I'm
She is nervous about the job interview she asking just because your surnames are the
will have in a few minutes. same.

notorious for relevant to


She became notorious for her Your question must be relevant to the
extravagance. subject we are discussing; otherwise 1
O won't let you speak.

obliged to responsible for


I'm obliged to you for being beside me I think air pollution in big cities is
during all that trouble. responsible for most of the respiratory
diseases.
opposed to
rich in
I'm opposed to giving so many
responsibilities to a small child. Vegetables and fruit are rich in vitamins.

right about
patient with
I was right about her chance of getting the
A teacher should be patient with his/her
job.
students.

pleased about S
She seems very pleased about being put
in charge. sad about
She was sad about losing the chance of
pleased with giving a party, having failed the exam.
I'm pleased with the progress you've
made. satisfied with
Are you satisfied with your present job?
polite to
You should be polite to the customers. scared of
She was scared of the growling dog.
popular with

60
shocked at/by If you are not sure of your facts, don't
He was such a good driver we were all make them public.
shocked at the news that he'd had an
accident. sure about
I'm not sure about the time of the train.
short of
surprised at/by
I'm a bit short of money these days, so I
can't come with you to dine out. . I was really surprised at her treating us so
strangely.
sick of
suspicious of
I'm sick of this ceaseless rain.
The guard became suspicious of the youth
standing on the comer.
similar to
This scheme is quite similar to the one I
prepared. T
terrible at
skilful at
She is terrible at cooking.
Eskimos are known to be skilful at using
their harpoons. terrified of
slow at The little girl was terrified of the huge
dog.
The new secretary is quite slow at typing.
thankful to someone for something
sorry for someone
I'm thankful to them for taking the time to
I feel sorry for Sue, because she hasn't help me.
been able to find a job yet.
thrilled with
sorry about something
The employees were thrilled with the
I'm sorry about my rude remarks promise given, by the boss about a high
yesterday. pay rise.
sorry for doing something tired of
I'm sorry for hurting you with my rude I'm tired of your complaints.
remarks yesterday.
troubled with
subject to
He was deeply troubled with the situation
The South-East of Turkey is subject to in the office.
extreme weather conditions.
typical of
successful in
Do you like eating food typical of the
He was successful in marketing the region in which you are travelling?
product to a wide area.
U
suitable for
I don't think jeans will be suitable for upset with/about
such a formal party. She was upset about the trouble she had
caused.
superior to
Do you think this job will be superior to used to
your current one? She is not used to staying at home alone.

sure of W

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worried about Many people were wrong about their
APPENDIX predictions
I'm worried about his being so withdrawn. 2 for the results of the election.

wrong about wrong with


I think something is wrong with Sue. She
keeps crying in the next room.

VERB + PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS


A B
abstain from believe in
adjust to belong to
agree with benefit from
apologize for something
apologize to someone
apply to somewhere/someone
C
apply for something care about/for
approve of collide with
argue about something comment on
argue with someone compare with/to
arrive in/at complain to someone
complain about something/someone

62
concentrate on
consist of
M
contribute to marvel at
count on/upon
cover with/in
crash into O
object to
operate on
D
decide on/upon/against
depend on/upon P
die of participate in
differ from pay for
differentiate between perish with
distinguish between persist in
dream of/about pray for
drive into

E Q
emerge from quarrel with someone
escape from quarrel about something

F R
feel like recover from
fight for/against rely on/upon
forget about resign from
respond to
retire from
H S
happen to someone/something speak to/with
hear about/ of/from specialise in
hide from subscribe to
hope for substitute for
succeed in
suffer from
I
insist on T
interfere with/in talk with/to someone
talk about something
think of/ about
L V
laugh at vote for
listen to vote against
live on (money /food)
long for W
look at wait for
look for write to someone

NOTES:

care about "önemsemek" anlamını verir.

63
She doesn't care about her lessons. She is more interested in having a good time.
APPENDIX 3
care for iki anlama gelir.

1- look after, take care of

We need someone to care for our son while we are at work.

2- like, would like

Would you care for something to drink? (Would you like .....?)
I don't care for tea, except for at breakfast. (1 don't like ......)

Birşeyi elde etmek için mücadele ediyorsak fight for, birşeyden kurtulmak için mücadele ediyorsak
fight against kullanılır. Aynı kullanım struggle, vote, go on strike gibi yapılar için de
geçerlidir.

The government should fight harder against inflation.


The workers are going on strike for higher wages.

hear from, telefon, mektup vb. yoluyla birinden "haber almak" anlamındadır.

I haven't heard from him since he left here.

hear about, bir olayı "duymak" anlamındadır.

Have you heard about the accident that happened on the highway late last night?

hear of, "birşeyi duymak, öyle birşeyin varlığından haberdar olmak" anlamında kullanılır.

I hadn't heard of a singer by that name until you mentioned him.

VERB + OBJECT + PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS

Bu gruptaki fiiller, kendilerinden sonra bir nesne (object) ile birlikte kullanılırlar.

They accused him of stealing the money.


She spent all her money on clothes.

A B
accuse of blame for
appoint to borrow from
arrest for
assign to
ask for
C
charge with

64
compliment on
congratulate on
M
cut into mistake someone for someone else

D P
deter from point at
dedicate to prevent from
devote to promote to
differentiate from protect from/against
discourage from provide with/for
distinguish from divide into punish for

E R
excuse for regard as
explain to remind of/about
rescue from

F S
forgive for
sentence to
shout at/to
H spend on
help with stop from
suspect of
I
invite to T
involve in thank for
K throw at/to
translate from /into
keep from

L W
warn about/of
leave for
let into
NOTES:

Provide, iki nesne alan bir fiildir. Bu nesnelerin cümle içindeki yerine göre with ya da for kullanılır.
"Kimin için sağlandığını" belirtiyorsak provide something for someone, "ne sağlandığını"
belirtiyorsak provide someone with something yapısı kullanılır.

They provided useful information for me.


They provided me with useful information.

remind about, bir konuda hatırlatma yapmak anlamını,verir.

Don't forget to remind me about the meeting.

remind of, "birşeyi, birini çağrıştırmak" anlamında kullandır.

Her voice reminded me of my closest friend in high school.

shout to, birine sesimizi duyurmak için "bağırmak" anlamındadır.

When I spotted Alice ahead, I shouted to her.

65
shout at, birine öfkeyle "bağırmak" anlamındadır.

Sorry for my shouting at you last night, but I couldn't stop myself.

throw something to someone, birine birşeyi "tutması için atmak" anlamında; throw something at
someone, birine "vurmak" için birşey atmak anlamında kullanılır.

He threw the ball to me, but I couldn't catch it.


Don't throw stones at birds! It's cruel.

differentiate ve distinguish, from ve between ile kullanılır. Kullanılan preposition 'a göre cümlenin
sözcük dizimi şöyledir :

As he is colour-blind, he finds it difficult to distinguish between green and blue.


As he is colour-blind, he finds it difficult to distinguish green from blue.

ELS 2001/15 ANSWER KEY

Ex. 1 (pg.5) 1. in 2. on/at 3.on/at/in 4.on/at 5.on/in 6.on 7.in/at 8.in/at 9.in/in 10.at/in a 11.on/in/on/in
12.at/in 13.at/on/at/at 14.at/on 15.on/in 16.in 17.in/in 18.on/on 19.on/on 20.at/at 21.at/in 22.in/in
23.on 24.in/on 25.in
Ex. 2 (pg.9) 1.during 2.while 3.during 4.during 5.while 6.during 7.while 8.while
Ex. 3(pg.9) 1.until 2.until 3.by 4.by 5.until 6.by 7.until 8.by 9.until 10.by
Ex. 4(pg.10) 1.for 2.towards/between 3.on 4.for/between...and (from...to/from...until) 5.until/after
6.during/in 7.by (at/before) 8.since 9.until/for 10.on 11.From/to 12.after 13.during/at 14.before/on
15.during/before
Ex. 5(pg.l4) 1. at/in/by 2. around 3. at/at 4.up/in/in/in 5.outside/inside 6.below 7.behind (in) 8.in front of
9.at/to/on 10.on/on 11.throughout 12.over/under 13. opposite/from/to 14.through/through/on(in)
15.to/from/past 16.beside (next to) 17.at/by/along 18.against(on) 19.in/on/on/between
20.into/up/out of/into 21.beyond 22.in 23.among/at 24.in/from/to/in/above 25.in
Ex.6(pg.l8) 1.to 2.for 3.of 4.towards 5.of 6.for 7.for 8.in 9.to 10.to 11.between 12.of 13.for 14.by
15.with
Ex. 7(pg.l9) 1.p 2.n 3.f 4.i 5.m 6.c 7.j 8.o 9.h 10.e 11.r 12.g 13.l 14.a 15.b 16.k 17.d 18.q

66
Ex.8(pg.20) 1.k 2.g 3.j 4.n 5.a 6.o 7.e 8.l 9.h 10.d 11.i 12.f 13.b 14.m 15.c
Ex.9(pg.21) 1.h 2.q 3.v 4.l 5.f 6.d 7.a 8.y 9.e 10.n 11.b 12.x 13.r 14.s 15.u 16.p 17.t 18.o 19.c
20.g 21.i. 22.j 23.w 24.m 25.k
Ex. 10 (pg.23) 1.in 2.on 3.on 4.in 5.in 6.on
Ex. 11 (pg,23) 1.for 2.for 3.on 4.for 5.on 6.on
Ex. 12 (pg.24) 1.f 2.j 3.a 4.i 5.l 6.k 7.c 8.d 9.p10lO.r 11.b 12.g 13.h 14.q 15.o 16.n 17.m 18.e
Ex. 13 (pg.25) a) under b) by c) at d) under e) without f) at g) by h) at i) without j) at k) under l) from m) at
n) for o) by
Ex. 14 (pg.25) 1.by far 2.under the influence 3.by no means 4.at last 5.under control 6.at the most 7.from time
to time 8.without fail 9.without delay 10.At first 11.at length 12.at least 13.under guarantee 14.for the
time being 15.by mistake
Ex. 15 (pg.26) a) by b) under c) under d) from e) for f) at g) at h) by i) without j) for k) under l) without m) at
n) for o) by
Ex. 16 (pg.26) 1.by heart 2.by accident 3.at random 4.at times 5.at any rate 6.under pressure 7.under age
8. without doubt 9.for short 10.without warning 11.for a change 12.for instance 13.under the
impression 14.from now on 15.by all means
Ex. 17 (pg.27) 1.in charge of 2.in common with 3.in love with 4.at the age of 5.on the point of 6.On behalf of
7.on the tip of 8.in return for 9.on the strength of 10.on good terms with 11.in danger of 12.in
favour of 13.for the sake of 14.in the habit of 15.in touch with
Ex. 18 (pg.28) 1.of 2.in 3.to 4.of 5.with 6.to 7.to 8.for 9.with 10.of 11.about 12.at 13.for 14.from 15.at 16.of
17.on 18.of 19.with 20.to 21.with 22.to 23.of 24 to 25.on
Ex. 19(page.29) 1.at 2.for 3.from 4.from 5.on 6.to 7.from 8.for 9.from 10.with 11.of 12.for 13.to(with) 14.of
15.for/against 16.in 17.from 18.with 19.for/for 20.of 21.from/from 22.in 23.for 24.to 25.from 26.for
27.to/for 28.to 29.with(to) 30.from
Ex.20(pg.30) 1.from 2.with 3.of 4.from 5.about 6.into 7.on 8.for 9.to 10.for 11. from 12.on 13.in 14.with
15.for/on 16.from 17.into 18.to 19.for 20.into 21.to 22.from 23.into 24.at 25.of 26.for/for 27.to
28.to 29.to 30.from/for
Ex. 21 (pg.31) 1.g 2.f 3.k 4.h 5.b 6.c 7.e 8.j 9.d 10.i 11.a 12.l
Ex. 22 (pg.31) 1.have confidence in 2.take advantage of 3.takes pleasure in 4.took part in 5.have lost count of
6.took charge of 7.catch sight of 8.keeping an eye on 9.pay attention to 10.has put pressure on
11.played a trick on 12.make sense of
Ex. 23 (pg.32) 1.l 2.k 3.a 4.c 5.e 6.h 7.j 8.b 9.d 10.g 11.f 12.i
Ex. 24 (pg.32) 1.caught a glimpse of 2.set fire to 3.make room for 4.to have a look at 5.was taken care of 6.to
pay a compliment to 7.Take no notice of 8.made contact with 9.made a recovery from 10.takes his
mind off 11.take pride in 12.has had an effect on
Ex. 25 (pg.33) 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.D 5.E. 6.A 7.B 8.C 9.E 10.D 11.D 12.C 13.A 14.A
15.B 16.E 17.C 18.D 19.A 20.C 21.B 22.C 23.B 24.D 25.E 26.C 27.C 28.B 29.D 30.A
31.A 32.B 33.D 34.C 35.E 36.E 37.A 38.C 39.B 40.D 41.E 42.A 43.D 44.C 45.B
Ex. 26 (pg.40) 1.show up 2.took up 3.turned up 4.pick/up 5.blew up 6.cheer up 7.are growing up 8.held up
9.brought up 10.get up 11.give up 12.set up 13.look up 14.made up 15.blowup 16.picks/up
17.turned up 18.take up
Ex. 27 (pg.41) 1.turned down 2.is pouring down 3.has broken down 4.1et down 5.brought/down 6.will be
closing down 7.cut down 8.has laid down 9.pull down 10.toocked down 11.slowed down 12.turn
down 13.get/down 14.settled down
Ex. 28 (pg.42) 1.brought out 2.handed out 3.broke out 4.ran out 5.carry out 6.make out 7.sort out 8.has brought
out 9.has worn/out 10.make out 11.stood out 12.set out 13.left out 14.have worn/out 15.comes out
16.1ook out 17.pointed out 18.picked out 19.workout 20.have worked out 21.find out 22.put/out
23.keep out 24.cross out 25.passed out 26.have been let out
Ex. 29 (pg.44) 1.took off 2.turn/off 3.called off 4.drop/off 5.get off 6.see/off 7.has been put off 8.have put/off

67
9.is showing off 10.take/off 11.set off 12.will go off 13.goes off
Ex. 30 (pg.45) 1.got on 2.try/on 3.turn/on 4.carry on 5.count on 6.put on 7.hold on 8.live on 9.put on
Ex. 31 (pg.46) 1.flooded in 2. get into 3.handed in 4.bump into 5.had broken into 6.bumped into 7.1ook into
8.checked in 9.taken in 10.taken in 11.joinin 12.take in
Ex. 32 (pg.47) 1.throw away 2.thought/over 3.put/through 4.cut across 5.looks after 6.got/back 7.took over
8.pass away 9.came across 10.put aside 11.do/over 12.goes with 13.put away 14.go over 15.come
round 16.came round 17.get over 18.get away 19.takes after
Ex. 33 (pg.48) 1.looks down on 2.are catching up with 3.ran out of 4.go in for 5.am looking forward to 6.cut
down on 7.put up with 8.will come up against 9.came up with 10.makeup for 11.has grown out of
12.have gone down with 13.get out of 14.got on with 15. get out of
Ex. 34(pg.49) 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.A 5.B 6.B 7.D 8.C 9.E 10.E 11.C 12.B 13 D 14.E
15.D 16.A 17.B 18.B 19.A 20.D

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS ANSWER KEY


1.C 2.C 3.B 4.E 5.B 6.E 7.B 8.E 9.A 10.D 11.E 12.C 13.E
14.C 15.D 16.B 17.D 18.B 19.C 20.B 21.D 22.C 23.C 24.B 25.A 26.D
27.B 29.A 29.D 30.A 31.C

68