# Everyday Maths Skills Shape and space

Name: Date:

Cecilia Nicoleta Trasca
22.09.2011

Shape and space

All objects in the world are 3-D. They have three dimensions: height, width and depth. However, when we look at a picture, a diagram or even a photograph of an object, what we see is not 3-D. These are 2-D (twodimensional) representations of 3-D objects. In this topic you will learn about 2-D and 3-D and how to read and use 2-D representations of 3-D objects. What you will learn about
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how 2-D drawings represent 3-D objects view from above (plan view) view from the side (front, rear, left side, right side) combining views nets how to solve problems involving 2-D drawings and parallel lines.

You will find suggestions and answers for the Activities, Practices and Mini-test in the Answer pages.

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Learning
How 2-D drawings represent 3-D objects
We often see two-dimensional drawings of three-dimensional objects. Although we visualise them as ‘solid’ objects, they are in fact drawn on a flat piece of paper, so they only have two dimensions – height and width. What we see is a representation of an object from a particular angle. This angle can give us the illusion of depth, but if we touch the object in the drawing, it is flat.

Whatever angle it is taken from, a single drawing cannot show the whole of a 3-D object. For example, the back and underneath of each of these objects could be different colours to the front and top. The left sides of objects 1 and 4 could be different colours to the right sides. A single drawing cannot show this information. Three or more views are often necessary to provide all the details about a 3-D object. Over the next pages we will learn about some of these different views.

1 4 3 2

A

Activity 1

a. All drawings are 2-D (two-dimensional) because they have two dimensions – height and width. Real-life objects are 3-D (three-dimensional) because they have three dimensions. What are the three dimensions?

height, width and depth

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3/20 . 2. Imagine a real die. All information correct at time of publication.Learning b. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. 1. 4. All rights reserved. 3. cube cylinder sphere light c. back and left side © Ufi Ltd February 2010. Name the four 3-D solids that the drawings above are based on. Which parts of it are not shown the drawing above? the underneath.

you see horizontal surfaces. All information correct at time of publication. All rights reserved. 4/20 . though the drawing may indicate that there are variations in height/depth (see example d). It is as though you are seeing a ‘bird’s-eye’ view of the object. You cannot tell if part of a surface is closer or further away. From this view.Learning View from above (plan view) One viewpoint that is frequently used in drawings is ‘plan view’. This is a view from directly above. Match each drawing to the object it depicts. Plan view a b c d a b c d A Activity 2 Drawings 1 to 6 each depict a 3-D object in plan view. Plan view 1b 2d 3f 4e 5c 6a a b c d e f © Ufi Ltd February 2010. Type the corresponding letter in the box next to each number. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd.

a b a b Front view Right side view  © Ufi Ltd February 2010. a house with windows and doors). All information correct at time of publication. as in the example below) then just two side views are given. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. the left side and the right side. Check this out in the example below. you can gather information about depth. You cannot tell if part of a vertical surface is closer or further away. rear. the drawing will give a view of each side – the front. but by piecing the drawings together.g.g.Learning Side view (front. Side views show vertical surfaces. the front and rear are the same. left side or right side view) Side views look directly at one side of a 3-D object. If the object has different details on each side (e. 5/20 . If opposite sides of the object are exactly the same (e. and the left and right side are the same. All rights reserved. the rear.

6/20 . Enter the letters in the boxes below. All rights reserved. Drawing 1 2 3 4 5 6 Object c Side front a b c b a front right side right side front right side © Ufi Ltd February 2010. 1 2 3 4 5 6 a b c Match each drawing to the correct object and the correct side. The first one is done for you. All information correct at time of publication. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd.Learning A Activity 3 Drawings 1 to 6 each depict a front view or a right side view of the 3-D objects below.

then opposite sides are the same imagine cutting out and piecing the different views together – this may involve placing some views at right angles to other views. several drawings are made – each from a different viewpoint. are you looking from the top. All information correct at time of publication.g. It takes practice to develop the visual skills required to do this. Try out these tips on the example below. if only two side views are shown in the drawing. By combining the different views together. All rights reserved. right side and left side) – remember. front or side?) think about the appearance of opposite sides (front and rear. a Plan view a b Front view c Right side view c  b Hints and tips: Remember. 7/20 . learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. you cannot tell if part of a surface is closer or further away using just one view. Here are some tips to get you started:    look at each view in turn. © Ufi Ltd February 2010.Learning Combining views Because it is impossible to give every detail of a 3-D shape in a single drawing. You gather information about depth by piecing the drawings together. thinking carefully about the position it is drawn from (e. it is possible to visualise a single 3-D object. Use your visualisation skills to piece together the three drawings so that they make the 3-D object.

learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. 8/20 . Which 3-D object is depicted in this drawing? object 4 Plan view Object 1 Object 2 Front view Right side view Object 3 Object 4 © Ufi Ltd February 2010. All information correct at time of publication. Which 3-D object is depicted in this drawing? object 2 Plan view Object 1 Object 2 Front view Right side view Object 3 Object 4 b. All rights reserved.Learning A Activity 4 a.

plan view side view b. All information correct at time of publication.Learning A Activity 5 What would this 3-D object look like from the top (plan view) and from the right side? Insert a tick in the box beside the set that correctly represents the object. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. 9/20 . a. All rights reserved. plan view side view © Ufi Ltd February 2010. plan view side view c.

Use your visualisation skills to piece together the net so that it makes the 3-D object. Try this out using the example below. 1 2 3 a 2 b 3 c 1 © Ufi Ltd February 2010. All information correct at time of publication. All rights reserved. A net is a drawing of all the faces of the 3-D object arranged in such a way that when folded. you have to:  look carefully at the sizes and shapes of the faces that make up the net  imagine folding a cut-out version of the net along the edges of the faces. To visualise a 3-D object from its net. Net 3-D object A Activity 6 Drawings 1 to 3 are nets of the 3-D objects below. Match each net to the 3-D object it depicts by typing the corresponding number in the box under each 3-D object. Use your visualisation skills to piece together each net so that it makes a 3-D object.Learning Nets Another way of representing 3-D objects in 2-D is by drawing the net. 10/20 . they become the faces of a solid 3-D object. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd.

75 m.25 m. If two sets of parallel lines join together at right angles (as in the example below). In this example:  side A represents a length of 5. a measurement is not shown against every single line. In most practical contexts. You will have come across parallel lines in many everyday situations. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd.Learning Solving problems involving 2-D drawings and parallel lines So far we have looked at different ways that 2-D drawings represent 3-D objects. They’re a bit like railway lines without the points – they always keep the same distance apart from each other. Parallel lines are lines that never cross each other. All rights reserved.25 m A 2. as does side B which is parallel to A  side C represents a length of 2. Measurements are shown by a doubleheaded arrow against the side which it relates to. To save space on the drawing. Plan of garden 5. it is only necessary to show two measurements on the drawing. because the line that is parallel is exactly the same length. 11/20 . Wallpaper strips are parallel to each other so they fit neatly together and the join can’t be seen. All information correct at time of publication.75 m C B D Hints and tips: Every square and rectangle has two sets of parallel lines that join together at right angles. such as when laying carpet tiles or putting up wallpaper. © Ufi Ltd February 2010. measurements are also shown on these drawings to give a complete understanding of the object depicted. as does side D which is parallel to C.

2 m b. What are the length and width of the conference room? Length 6. All information correct at time of publication.7 metres wide. The main office is 3. All rights reserved. The store room is 6.5 m Reception 6.7 m Main office Conference room Now try the practice questions.Learning A Activity 7 Use the ground floor plan below to answer the following questions: a. © Ufi Ltd February 2010. What is the length of the main office? 8. How wide is the store room? 2. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd.1 m Width 3. 12/20 .7 m Ground floor plan 2.1 m Store room 3.5 m c.2 m 8.1 metres long.

but he has not labelled them. All information correct at time of publication. 13/20 . Here is a picture of it. Type your labels into the boxes below. All rights reserved. There is a board at the rear of the nesting box that is used for attaching it to a wall. a plan view of base b front c left hand side d plan view of top e right hand side f rear © Ufi Ltd February 2010.Practice P Practice 1 Zak wants to make a nesting box for birds and has found a design that he likes in a magazine. Label each drawing to show which view point it is taken from. Zak has made some drawings of the bird box. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. The nesting box has an entrance at the front and a perch where the birds can land.

14/20 . All rights reserved. and she has marked the nets out on some squared paper. 3 2 1 5 3 4 6 5 1 © Ufi Ltd February 2010. Can you help her figure out how many dots will go on all the remaining sides? Type in the number of dots on each remaining side. Hints and tips: Imagine folding a cut-out version of each net along the edges of the faces. to see how it makes a 3-D object. She has worked out where she will place some of the numbers. All information correct at time of publication. Sara has found out that opposite sides of dice always add up to 7.Practice P Practice 2 Sara is making some furry dice for the children at playgroup. She has found three different ways to make a 3-D cube. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd.

© Ufi Ltd February 2010. What is the area of the right side of the compost bin? 1. All information correct at time of publication. Open-topped compost bin 2m 2m 1m 1m 1. What is the area of the base of the compost bin? 2 m2 m2 m2 m3 b. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. What is the area of the front of the compost bin? 3 d. All rights reserved. This is his design. Go on to the Skills review checklist on the next page.5 m Plan view Front view Right side view a.5 m 1. What volume of compost will the bin hold when filled to the top? 3 Hints and tips: area of a rectangle = length × width volume of a cuboid = length × width × height.Practice P Practice 3 Troy is making an open-topped compost bin for his garden.5 c. 15/20 .

learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. have a go at the Mini-test questions. 16/20 . If you feel you need more help. Topic: Shape and space I’m OK Using 2-D representations of 3-D objects Interpreting views from above (plan view) Interpreting views from the side I’d like more practice I need some help Combining views Using nets How did you get on? If you feel confident. If you need more practice. © Ufi Ltd February 2010. All rights reserved. how do you feel about the skills you have learnt? Insert a tick in the box that is true for you. All information correct at time of publication. work through the learning activities again. speak to your tutor.Skills review Now you have completed the topic.

decimetres d.Mini-test M Mini-test Insert a tick in the box next to the right answer to these questions. all of the above. b. d. dimensional. 2. how something will look when it is finished b. The ‘D’ in 2-D and 3-D stands for: a. c. d. directions c. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. 1. c. A ‘plan view’ shows you: a. Which of the following is the net of this triangular prism? a. All information correct at time of publication. how a 3-D object looks from the front or rear d. 3. © Ufi Ltd February 2010. 17/20 . All rights reserved. how a 3-D object would appear if you looked at it directly from above c. b. difficult b. a.

5 m 4m Computer suite Library Please tell your tutor that you have completed this workbook. 5.5 m Archives 8m Reception 2. d. d. All information correct at time of publication. All rights reserved. 16. What is the area of the computer suite? a. 20 m2 c. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. 32 m2 6. a. b. Which of the following is the plan view of this 3-D object? a. b.25 m2 b. © Ufi Ltd February 2010. c. c.Mini-test 4. 18/20 . 26 m2 d.

All information correct at time of publication.5 m 3=b c. Activity 2 (page 4) 1= b 2=d 3=f 4=e 5=c 6=a 3 = side view of b 6 = side view of a 4. cylinder 3. sphere c.Answers Topic activities: Activity 1 (pages 2 and 3) a. triangular prism Activity 3 (page 6) 1 = front view of c 2 = front view of a 4 = side view of c 5 = front view of b Activity 4 (page 8) a. Plan view Side view Activity 6 (page 10) 2=a 1=c Activity 7 (page 12) a. width = 3. Object 4 Activity 5 (page 9) c.2 m b. length = 6. All rights reserved. 19/20 . b.7 m © Ufi Ltd February 2010.1 m. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. left side and back. 1. 8. Height. Object 2 b. The underneath. cube (or cuboid) 2. width and depth. 2.

ou.09. All rights reserved. b 5. learndirect is a registered trademark of Ufi Ltd. d 2. 3 m3 Cecili a Trasca Digitally signed by Cecilia Trasca DN: cn=Cecilia Trasca. a 4.caline scucecilia@yahoo . 2 m2 Mini-test 1.5 m2 c.Answers Practice activities: Practice 1 a = plan view of base e = right-hand side Practice 2 b = front f = rear c = left-hand side d = plan view of top 3 5 3 2 1 6 4 5 1 Practice 3 a. 1. b 3.com. c b. email=prof. 3 m2 d. o.22 15:35:30 +01'00' © Ufi Ltd February 2010. 20/20 . c=RO Date: 2011. All information correct at time of publication.